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How To Have A Healthy Dog

----------------------------------------------------------------------DISCLAIMER: This information is not presented by a medical practitioner and is for educational and informational purposes only The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical ad!ice" dia#nosis" or treatment Al$ays see% the ad!ice of your physician or other &ualified health pro!ider $ith any &uestions you may ha!e re#ardin# a medical condition 'e!er disre#ard professional medical ad!ice or delay in see%in# it because of somethin# you ha!e read Since natural and(or dietary supplements are not )DA appro!ed they must be accompanied by a t$o-part disclaimer on the product label: that the statement has not been e!aluated by )DA and that the product is not intended to *dia#nose" treat" cure or pre!ent any disease * -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Table of Contents

Introduction 1. 2. 3. ". $. &. *. +. -. Does Your Dog Have Allergies? What is Canine Distemper? Selecting a roper Diet !or Your Dog What is #ennel Cough? Dental H%giene !or Your Dog Should %ou 'ive Your Dog Heart(orm )edicine? Intestinal arasites in Your Dog What ,reeds Are rone to Hip D%sphasia? Ho( to Control .leas

1/. arvovirus Is Deadl% 11. Ho( to 'ive Your et C 0 12. Do Dogs 'et Hepatitis? 13. rotect Your Dog !rom 1eptospirosis 1". 0egular 2accinations and Your Dog 1$. 3he ,est 3o%s .or Your Dogs


A!ter our !amil%4 nothing comes closer to stro5ing our heartstrings than our pets. ,oth !elines and canines are the !avorites !or most

!ol5s. ,ut !or our discussion toda%4 (e are going to help %ou determine (hether %ou have a health% dog.

6.ido7 can8t spea5 !or himsel! and relies on %ou to 9e his e%es and ears !or ever%thing in his or her (orld. 3hat means ever%thing !rom (hat is the 9est diet to reading the signs o! illness. In How to Have a Healthy Dog %ou (ill !ind ans(ers to the :uestions that %our pet isn8t a9le to as5. Hope!ull% our input (ill create a long and health% li!e !or %our revered pet. 1et8s get started;

Chapter 1.

Does Your Dog Have Allergies?

Constant scratching4 tail<chasing4 coughing and (hee=ing4 e%e and nose discharges > i! these s%mptoms can 9e o9served on %our pet dog4 chances are ver% li5el% that he?she is su!!ering !rom allergies.

Yes4 dogs4 @ust li5e their masters can su!!er !rom allergies. 0oughl% a9out 2/ percent o! the dogs living in our homes su!!er !rom some allerg% t%pe. )a@or classi!ications o! canine allergies are atopic dermatitis4 !lea allerg%4 !ood allerg% and inhalant allerg%.

Atopic Der


Atopic dermatitis is s5in allerg% disease caused 9% h%persensitivit% developed 9% %our dogAs immune s%stem to several and ver% common su9stances li5e molds and dust mites.

I! %our dog scratches and lic5s himsel! ver% o!ten Bparticularl% lic5ing and che(ing the pa(s4 a9domen and legsC4 and his?her ears are hot to the touch4 he?she ma% 9e su!!ering !rom atopic dermatitis.

Chec5 to see i! %our dog8s saliva causes stains. A red to 9ro(n stain is another indicator that %our dog is atopic. In persistent cases4 the s5in on the a9domen changes color !rom pin54 to a 9right red then to 9lac5.

!lea Allergy .lea allerg% is the most common !orm o! canine allerg%. Ho(ever4 it is not the !lea 9ut the !lea8s saliva that %our dog ma% 9e allergic to.

3o !ind out i! %our dog has !lea allergies4 a s5in allerg% test is pre!ormed. I! it he?she is tested positive4 a strict control regimen can reduce s%mptoms. Consult %ou8re %our vet as to (hat t%pe o! treatment is 9est !or %our pet. 3here is a (ide arra% o! choices ranging !rom pills to spra%s to shampoos

Inhalant Allergy Dust li5e their masters4 dogs are suscepti9le to allergens inhaled !rom the air. ollen !rom trees4 grass4 and !lo(ers4 dust mites and molds are @ust some o! the common culprits.

Ho(ever4 unli5e their masters (ho eEhi9it inhalant allergies through snee=ing and coughing4 dogs sho( their reactions through scratching

and 9iting as (ell as che(ing o! !eet and lic5ing constantl%. A less common reaction is recurrent in!ections in %our dog8s ears.

You can help alleviate the allerg% 9% vacuuming !re:uentl% and dusting the areas %our dog spends much time in Bli5e his sleeping areaC.

!ood Allergy Dogs also eEhi9it allergies to the !ood the% eat. And this is perhaps the most tedious to diagnose 9ecause !ood allergies can mimic an% o! the other allergies mentioned in this article.

.irst thing to do is to remove all possi9le allerg% causing ingredients !rom %our pet8s diet. You can do this 9% using a homemade meal o! a protein and starch source %our dog has not had 9e!ore. Add graduall% Bone at a time !or a9out a (ee5C4 more ingredients into it. I! s%mptoms return a!ter adding a particular ingredient4 then the possi9le allergen could 9e identi!ied.

Ho(ever4 allergic reactions ma% not appear !or a9out a (ee5 a!ter consuming the allergen so 9e sure to con!irm %our !indings (ith %our vet. Fnce it has 9een veri!ied4 avoid the ingredient in the dog !oods %ou8ll su9se:uentl% !eed %our pet (ith.

Fther s%mptoms o! !ood allergies are vomiting4 diarrhea4 (hee=ing and sometimes4 even changes in 9ehavior.

"elief You can help %our pet and alleviate his allerg% (oes 9% 9athing and conditioning %our dog regularl%. Contrar% to (hat most people (ill tell %ou4 %ou can never 9athe %our dog too o!ten. Water helps to relieve %our dogAs s5in and 5eeps it health%. It also rinses o!! allergens !rom their 9od%. Di!!erent 5inds o! shampoos are availa9le to treat allergies4 depending4 o! course4 on %our pet8s particular condition.



Corticosteroids are also a use!ul !or controlling allergies 9% reducing the in!lammation in %our dog8s s5in. Although it (ill (ea5en the immune s%stem a 9it4 it is o!ten necessar% in order to treat the allerg%. Some side e!!ects are increased appetite and drin5ing4 and higher chances o! developing in!ections. It is there!ore not recommended !or long<term use. I! a longer duration o! use is necessar%4 %our pet has to have regular chec5 up on his?her 9lood and urine.

rednisone4 a short<acting steroid4 can 9e used orall% and is sa!er than the long<acting steroids. 3a5en (ith antihistamines and Fmega !att% acids and !re:uent 9athing4 these short<acting steroids can 9e used e!!ectivel% in the least amount used.

An allerg% in@ection4 also called immunotherap%4 is a series o! treatments meant to produce immunit% to su9stances %our dog is currentl% allergic to. S5in and 9lood testing is per!ormed to !ind out (hat su9stances causes %our pet8s allergies. 3hese su9stances then are given to %our dog in small 9ut increasing amounts via in@ections. Fver a period o! time4 the dog 9ecomes desensiti=ed to the su9stances and no longer eEhi9its allergic reactions to them.

.inding out (hat allergies %our pets are su!!ering !rom and the allergens that cause them ma% 9e a tedious4 pain<sta5ing process. ,ut it is (orth the e!!ort especiall% as %ou see the relie! %ou give %our dog translate to a pet that8s in a 9etter disposition and mood4 perhaps in gratitude !or the time %ou8ve spent to understand and ta5e care o! their ailments.

Chapter #.

$hat is Canine Diste


Canine distemper is a serious disease caused 9% a highl% contagious virus that attac5s the respirator%4 gastrointestinal4 and nervous s%stems o! dogs. 3he virus also in!ects !oEes4 (olves4 co%otes4 raccoons and other (ild animals in the canine !amil%. Duvenile dogs are most prone to in!ection. Flder dogs can also 9e in!ected although (ith much less !re:uenc%.

)ore than $/G o! dogs that ac:uire the disease die !rom canine distemper. An even lo(er 2/G survival rate is present !or puppies. And even i! the dog survives the disease4 it is ver% li5el% that its health (ill 9e permanentl% damaged.

A case o! canine distemper leaves the nervous s%stem impaired (ith little to no hope !or total recover. artial or complete paral%sis is common as (ell as other e!!ects on sense o! smell4 and hearing and sight acuit%. In!ected dogs are more prone to other diseases such as pneumonia. 3he canine distemper virus BCD2C is not transmissi9le to man.

Canine distemper virus is transmitted most o!ten through getting in contact (ith mucous and discharges !rom the in!ected dogsA e%es and noses. HEposure to the urine and !eces o! dogs (ith this in!ection can also cause it.

Hven (ithout coming in contact (ith in!ected dogs4 a health% one can still contract the disease through eEposure to 5ennels and other areas (here in!ected dogs have 9een in. 3hese areas can still har9or the virus since it is air9orne and can sta% alive outside a host !or long periods o! time.

It is almost impossi9le to prevent %our pet !rom eEposure to the virus. Some scientists predict that ever% dog living !or 12 months has had contact (ith the virus at one point in time.

3he s%mptoms o! canine distemper are not necessaril% easil% detected. And it is 9ecause o! this that immediate treatment is rarel% given. 3he disease is commonl% disguised as something li5e a 9ad cold (ith most o! the dogs (ith the in!ection running a !ever and a stu!!% head. Complications such as pneumonia4 9ronchitis and severe in!lammation o! the stomach and intestines can also develop !rom the disease.

What an o(ner should 9e on the loo5 out !or in (atching !or signs o! distemper such as s:uinting and?or a discharge !rom the e%es. I! this occurs in tandem to loss o! (eight4 vomiting4 coughing4 nasal drips4 and diarrhea4 there is more cause !or concern.

3he virus then a!!ects the nervous s%stem in more advanced stages o! the disease4 (hich can cause nervous tic5s and t(itches as (ell as partial to complete paral%sis. In!ected dogs ma% also displa% listless 9ehavior and have poor to no appetites. 3here have 9een cases (hen the virus causes sudden gro(th o! the !ootpadAs tough 5eratin cells4 (hich results in a hardened pad.

%revention Canine distemper is so (ell<spread and the s%mptoms so var%ing that i! %our pet displa%s an% signs such as those mentioned a9ove4 a visit to a veterinarian !or a diagnosis should 9e made promptl%.

Similar to some viral diseases4 surviving an in!ection usuall% develops the su!!icient immunit% needed to protect the dog !rom distemper in!ection !or the rest o! their lives. Ho(ever4 lots o! dogs Bespeciall% pupsC do not survive in!ection.

2accination is still the sa!est and surest protection. And until scientists develop a distemper vaccine that guarantees li!e<long immunit% (ith a single series o! inoculations4 veterinarians recommend vaccinations !or %our dog ever% %ear.

uppies (ho have 9een 9orn to dogs that have survived the disease ac:uire a certain amount o! natural immunit% !rom the colostral mil5 produced 9% their mother during the !irst !e( da%s a!ter 9irth. 3he amount o! immunit% a pupp% ac:uires di!!ers (ith the amount o! anti9odies its mother has. Ievertheless4 it is never complete and (ill diminish :uic5l% to a9out hal! 9% + da%s old and then nearl% three< !ourths 9% 2 (ee5s8 time.

It is impossi9le !or a pet o(ner to 5no( (hen his pet should 9e vaccinated since the proper time !or vaccination varies !rom one animal to the other. 3he veterinarian can determine the most proper time to 9egin vaccination 9asing this decision upon his eEperience and %our dog8s general health.

3o maintain and assure this general good health and condition4 regular care and close o9servation o! hints o! ill health are re:uired. HEperts

suggest consulting immediatel% (ith %our veterinarian i! %our pet sho(s signs o!J < A9normal e%e and?or nose discharge < 1oss o! appetite < .luctuating (eight losses and gains < HEcessive (ater consumption < A9normal and uncontrolled stool production < A9normal viciousness or letharg% < A9normal limping < Di!!icult% getting up or l%ing do(n < Constant head sha5ing4 scratching4 lic5ing or 9iting o! 9od% < 1oss o! hair4 open sores4 ragged or dull coat < .oul 9reath < HEcessive tarter deposits on teeth

It is possi9le that even (ith these s%mptoms4 CD2 in!ection ma% not 9e the case. ,ut it is still 9etter to 9e sure to 9ring these concerns to an eEpert so that the pro9lem can 9e addressed right a(a%. Hven (ith a disease this serious4 %ou can turn the tide o! canine distemper to %our pet8s !avor (ith prudence !or %our pet8s health4 ta5ing the correct actions to s%mptoms o9served and 9eing in constant consultation (ith %our vet.

Chapter &. 'electing a %roper Diet for Your Dog

Ho( and (hat (e !eed our dog has a 9ig e!!ect on our pet8s health and over<all 9ehavior. 3here are so man% commerciall% availa9le dog !oods to choose !rom that ma5ing the right decision can 9e some(hat impossi9le. ,ut let8s tac5le the pro9lem nonetheless.

.or a change4 loo5 9e%ond the la9els and advertisements and loo5 into (hat eEactl% %our dog !ood contains. What !ollo(s is a partial list to help %ou !ind out i! %our dog is getting (hat he needs in the right amounts.

I! %our pet dog has large4 smell% stool4 is gaseous4 9urps o!ten4 sheds constantl%4 is prone to ear and s5in in!ections4 has either no energ% or is h%peractive and i! his immune s%stem is (ea54 something ma% 9e (rong (ith %our pet8s diet. Although an% or a com9ination o! these s%mptoms ma% occur occasionall%4 having them recur o!ten is a cause !or concern and revie(ing %our pet8s diet is one o! the !irst things %ou should loo5 into.

.irst o! all4 %our dog needs "$ nutrients to !unction properl%. )a@or groups !or these nutrients are protein4 car9oh%drates4 !at4 vitamins

and minerals4 as (ell as (ater. 3hese nutrients have to 9e in the right amounts so that the% are properl% digested and a9sor9ed 9% the 9od%.

%rotein 0emem9er that %our dog4 or an% dog !or that matter4 is a carnivore4 meaning his 9od% mainl% uses meat. 3hat also means that vegeta9les and grains are not supposed to have a ma@or contri9ution to %our pet8s diet.

Fn dog !ood pac5ages ho( much protein is in the !ood is indicated. ,ut !inding out ho( much protein is in the !ood is not as important as 5no(ing (hat source the protein came !rom.

Dog !ood ma5ers have a (ide choice o! protein sources to choose !rom. Aside !rom meats B9ee!4 chic5en4 lam94 etc.C4 plants and grains li5e corn4 (heat and so% are used as sources.

3o !ind out (hat sources have 9een used most in the pac5age %ou8re 9u%ing4 loo5 at the ingredients list. ,% la(4 the largest amount o! ingredient used is listed !irst and others !ollo( in decreasing amounts. You should see 3 meat sources on the !irst $ items mentioned. An%

less than that and %ou ma% not 9e giving %our dog the proper protein !or his diet.

Carbohydrates Your dog (ill also need car9oh%drates primaril% !or energ%. ,ut unli5e their masters4 dogs do not need a lot o! car9oh%drates to 9e health%. A diet high in protein and lo( in car9oh%drates is ideal !or %our pet.

Since dogs are meat<eaters4 diets high in car9oh%drates (ill ta5e a long time !or %our pet to digest4 not to mention resulting to large and smell% stool and gas. 3he gums can also gro( sore due to eEcessive che(ing and his 9reath can develop a 9ad smell. So onl% use a small amount o! a car9oh%drate source Bsuch as grainsC in %our pet8s diet.

!ats 3(o 5inds o! !at eEist. Fne is saturated Banimal !atC and the other is pol%unsaturated Bvegeta9le !atC. Your dog (ill need 9oth and ta5en together suppl% essential !att% acids BH.AC needed to maintain good health.

Iot enough !at in the diet can cause lo( energ% levels4 heart pro9lems and dr% s5in. Ho(ever4 too much !at can cause o9esit%. 3umors and

cancers can also develop. In reading the la9el4 loo5 !or a product that has a good 9alance 9et(een animal and vegeta9le !at in it.



2itamins are necessar% to release nutrients !rom the !ood that the 9od% can use. 3here are t(o t%pes o! vitaminsJ (ater<solu9le vitamins and !at<solu9le vitamins. ,oth t%pes are needed 9% %our dog.

2itamins , and C are (ater<solu9le. 3oo much o! these (ill not harm the 9od% much since it is urinated out in " to + hours. 3his is the reason the% need to 9e in each meal. 2itamins A4 D4 H and # are !at< solu9le. 3he% are stored in !att% tissues o! the 9od% and the liver.

It is important to remem9er that vitamins are easil% lost in the ma5ing o! manu!actured dog !ood. And the% 9rea5 do(n as soon as %ou open the pac5age and eEpose the !ood to light and air. 2itamins , and C are particularl% sensitive.

2itamin C is needed !or health% teeth and gums as (ell as !or a strong immune s%stem to !ight diseases. While dogs can produce their o(n vitamin C4 it is not enough and there!ore needs to 9e part o! the diet.

2itamin , is needed !or energ% and to 9rea5 do(n protein and car9oh%drates.

)inerals )inerals are a critical component o! a diet 9ut the% ma5e up less than 2G o! most !ormulated dog !ood products. Since more than hal! o! the necessar% minerals are lost in manu!acturing processes4 adding mineral supplements to %our pet8s !ood is recommended.

$ater 0ead% access to !resh and clean is necessar% !or %our dog to maintain proper 9od% !unctions as (ell as to aid the 9od% to 9rea5 do(n hard< to<digest !ood li5e meats.

Whether %ou ma5e %our o(n dog !ood or 9u% them o!! the shel!4 it is necessar% to ma5e sure the proper nutrients in the right amounts are given to %our dog. Dust a little e!!ort goes a long (a% in helping our pets lead a health% li!e as %our companion.

Chapter *.

$hat is +ennel Cough?

#ennel cough or in!ectious tracheo9ronchitis is a common and highl% communica9le respirator% disease in dogs. 3he disease is characteri=ed 9% a dr%4 hac5ing cough that sounds as i! something is lodged in the dogAs throat4 and can 9e :uite !orce!ul that its leads to retching or heaving.

Health% dogs can easil% ac:uire the disease in vaccination clinics4 animal shelters4 veterinar% hospitals4 local par5s4 5ennels4 dog sho(s4 grooming parlors or animal 9oarding places (ith in!ected dogs. Cro(ded situations (here the air is ver% (arm and ventilation is poor are a potential source o! 5ennel cough.

#ennel cough can 9e caused 9% one or a com9ination o! the !ollo(ing air9orne agents Beither as the causative or secondar% agentCJ canine distemper virus4 canine adenovirus 24 canine parain!luen=a virus4 the 9ordetella 9ronchiseptica or other gram negative 9acteria. 3he condition is triggered (hen t(o or more o! these pathogens attac5 the dog at the same time4 leading to 9ronchial and tracheal in!lammation. Fther signs o! 5ennel cough include thic5 %ello( or green nasal discharge4 rhinitis and con@unctivitis in some dogs.

A dog (ill eEhi9it clinical signs o! 5ennel cough 9et(een !ive to 1/ da%s !ollo(ing in!ection !rom carriers. Although the condition sounds serious4 the sel!<limiting nature o! the disease ma5es it generall% harmless4 (ith dogs recovering (ithout an% ma@or e!!ect a (ee5 or t(o a!ter. #ennel cough s%mptoms can persist !or up to 2/ da%s. F(ners should note that eEtremel% %oung and old dogs ma% develop serious respirator% complications !rom the disease.

3he disease is usuall% diagnosed 9% a veterinarian 9% chec5ing on the dogAs histor% and a ph%sical eEam. 3he trademar5 cough can 9e triggered 9% simpl% massaging the animalAs trachea or lar%nE.

In cases (here dogs have !ever4 depression or unusual lung sounds4 veterinarians ma% re:uire a chest E<ra%4 complete 9lood count and a la9orator% anal%sis to chec5 !or microorganisms in the air(a%s. 3hese diagnostic tests (ill help esta9lish i! pneumonia is alread% developed or canine distemper and other in!ections have alread% set in.

A!!ected dogs usuall% remain active and maintain appetite levels despite 5ennel cough. Ho(ever4 since the trachea 9ecomes highl% sensitive4 o(ners should loosen or avoid leashes and collars to

minimi=e the possi9ilit% o! tracheal damage4 particularl% (hen their pets have a coughing spasm.

Since dogs o!ten recover !rom the disease 9% themselves shortl% a!ter contraction4 treatment usuall% !ocuses on cough control. ,utorphanol and h%drocodone are t(o common control drugs given !or 5ennel cough4 although pet o(ners should !irst consult their veterinarians !or advice on the 9est treatment !or their dogs4 particularl% !or anti9iotics in more severe cases. 3hese cases < some o! (hich could lead to pneumonia < t%picall% call !or isolation o! the in!ected pet to prevent the disease !rom spreading.

2accinations are another preventive step. 3here is a su9cutaneous vaccine o! modi!ied live parain!luen=a4 distemper and adenovirus 2 and an intranasal , 9ronchochiseptica vaccination. Similar to human patients4 vaccination schedule and dosage varies across dogs in terms o! age4 (ith activities also considered 9% veterinarians.

Aggressive dogs are the ideal patient !or in@ecta9le vaccination4 particularl% i! the% are the t%pe that 9ites (hen their mu==le is handled. F(ners should remem9er that this treatment (ill not prevent 5ennel cough 1//G4 9ut (ill ma5e in!ection less severe.

3(o<(ee5 old puppies can alread% receive intranasal vaccination4 (hich gives 1/<12 months immunit% and !ollo(ed (ith annual 9ooster shots. 3his !orm o!!ers !aster immunit% compared to in@ecta9les4 as it stimulates local immunit% 9% targeting the site (here the in!ection naturall% occurs.

3he DH11 vaccine is the standard vaccine !or 5ennel cough4 (ith the treatment !or adenovirus 2 applica9le also to adenovirus 1 < the canine hepatitis agent. F(ners must remem9er that vaccination (ill no longer 9e e!!ective i! their dogs are alread% incu9ating 5ennel cough.

Some veterinarians prescri9e a cough suppressant<anti9iotic com9inations !ollo(ing diagnosis. Fne recentl% developed anti9iotic4 a=ithrom%cin4 has 9een !ound highl% e!!ective4 particularl% !or m%coplasmal tracheo9ronchitis. Another option is the sul!a or trimethoprim com9ination.

Since multiple organisms cause 5ennel cough4 immuni=ation ma% not eliminate totall% eliminate the pro9lem. F(ners should also consider preventive measures to limit eEposure4 including re!raining other dogs

< 9oth !amiliar and un!amiliar < !rom sharing !ood and to%s (ith their pets.

In addition4 a good num9er o! veterinarians !eel that no treatment ma% actuall% 9e the 9est course o! action4 as anti9iotics could later (ea5en a dogAs resistance and increase eEposure to pneumonia and other more serious complications.

Chapter ,.

Dental Hygiene for Dogs

Dental h%giene is important 9e%ond having healthier teeth !or dogs. 'um and teeth in!ection4 9ro5en teeth or tooth loss4 and related periodontal pro9lems involving connective tissue in the dogAs mouth can lead to 9acteria ma5ing its (a% into the petAs 9loodstream. 3his can lead to in!ection o! the heart4 lungs4 liver4 intestinal tract4 5idne% and other internal organs and other side e!!ects.

Dental pet care eEperts sa% that up to +/G o! dogs mani!est signs o! dental diseases 9% three %ears in the a9sence o! proper oral h%giene. 'etting dogs accustomed to dental care as earl% as possi9le is crucial to ensuring their long<term health. With regular chec5<ups4 cases such

as 9ad 9ite or malocclusion4 gingival irritation4 deciduous teeth and tartar !ormation can 9e spotted earlier. 3his (ill prevent the situation !rom (orsening and help save the dogAs teeth.

In some cases4 veterinarians ma% advise pre<anesthesia 9lood (or54 or an overall health chec5 to determine i! the dogAs 5idne%s and other internal organs are !unctioning properl% and i! 9lood count is normal. 3he process (ill also help esta9lish an% potential ris5 9e!ore anesthesia is applied.

An anti9iotic ma% 9e administered to dogs (ith 9ad teeth 9e!ore the dental to eliminate the in!ection and minimi=e complications. .asting (ill also 9e re:uired the night 9e!ore anesthesia application. 3he chec5<up itsel! (ill involve loo5ing !or cavities4 gum poc5ets4 loose teeth4 tartar and unusual palate or gum gro(th.

It should 9e noted that pets seldom eEperience tooth deca%4 due in part to their non<acidic saliva4 cone<shaped teeth and natural cleaning !rom their ha9it o! che(ing and gna(ing. Ho(ever4 an o(ner (ho notices that his pet has 9ad 9reath must recogni=e this as a sign that in!ection is alread% present and that tartar has alread% 9uilt up.

3artar can 9e !ound 9elo( the gums and 9reeds 9acterial gro(th4 leading to in!lammation. F(ners (ho 5no( ho( dog teeth develop (ould 9e 9etter e:uipped in handling such a situation.

A!ter 9eing 9orn (ithout an% teeth4 dogs gro( them !rom the second or third (ee5 a!ter 9irth. At a9out eight (ee5s4 puppies generall% have 2+ temporar% teeth4 including incisors4 pre<molars and canines4 that the% start losing (hen the% reach 12 (ee5s.

Adult dogs gro( a9out "2 permanent teeth that start appearing at siE months. When this happens4 some dogs can 9ecome uncom!orta9le4 che(ing activel% and mouthing an%thing to ease the discom!ort and pain.

Dogs develop incisors < 12 small !ront teeth < that the% use !or grooming themselves and !or pic5ing up small o9@ects. .or larger pieces4 including !ood4 dogs use !our canine or cuspid teeth that are long and pointed.

Slicing action on small !ood 9its is done using 1& premolars4 (hile grinding and crushing support comes !rom 1/ molars at the 9ac5 o! the dogAs mouth.

3here are 9asic steps dog o(ners can ta5e to 5eep their petAs teeth health%. 3oothpastes and tooth9rushes designed speciall% !or dogs are alread% availa9le in the mar5et. 3he !inger 9rush < similar to that !or the human in!ant < is a ru99er hood (orn 9% the o(ner over his !inger. 3he product has so!t ru99er 9ristles on one side and is used 9% the o(ner to clean the teeth and massage the gums o! his pet. 3he !inger 9rush can later 9e replaced 9% a regular dog tooth9rush a!ter the pet 9ecomes accustomed to the cleaning process.

,rushing a dogAs teeth should 9e done at a "$<degree angle4 at the @unction (here the% meet the gums. Small circular motions are ideal4 !ollo(ed 9% vertical stro5es. 3his t(o<step process (ill help pull out and discourage the !ormation o! pla:ue. 3he o(ner should 9rush his petAs teeth several times a (ee54 ma5ing sure that all teeth are covered.

.or a!!luent o(ners4 9ringing their dogs to a veterinarian !or scaling and polishing ever% t(o or three %ears (ill also help. Since the goal is to ma5e these chec5<ups regular4 ma5ing the dog used to 9eing handled as earl% as possi9le (ill ma5e it com!orta9le even (hen its

mouth and teeth are 9eing held and prevent it !rom 9ecoming angr% or 9iting.

F(ners should 9e a(are o! the things their pets eat and pla% (ith. 0a(hide che(s4 5no99% plastic to%s and some other items are also part o! dental h%giene4 as the% are not hard enough to damage teeth and help in the cleaning process. Ho(ever4 small to%s and real 9ones should 9e monitored4 as the% (ould pose pro9lems i! the% 9rea5 into pieces and are s(allo(ed.

Chapter -.


inating Heartwor

Studies sho( that all $/ KS states have reported cases o! heart(orm in!ection4 a condition that can a!!ect all dogs regardless o! seE4 age or ha9itat. 3he highest incidence !or dogs not ta5ing preventive medicine rises to a high o! "$G4 including areas !rom the 'ul! o! )eEico to Ie( Derse%4 (hile some areas record rates o! $G and 9elo( !or the canine heart(orm disease.

3he di!!erence is due mainl% to mos:uito4 environmental and dog population !actors4 although all dogs in a!!ected regions are still seen

as at<ris5 animals that need to 9e monitored regularl% 9% veterinarians and covered 9% prevention programs.

Dogs 9ecome in!ected (hen the% are 9itten 9% mos:uitoes (ith in!ective heart(orm larvae. 3he in!ection is transmitted4 (ith the larvae eventuall% gro(ing into adult !emale and male (orms that live not onl% in the heart4 9ut also in the lungs and related 9lood vessels. 3he o!!spring4 called micro!ilariae4 are released 9% the !emale heart(orm into the 9loodstream. racticall% all eEperimentall% in!ected dogs (ere !ound to have adult (orms4 (ith up to 2$/ (orms possi9le !or one dog.

)ore adverse changes to the lungs and heart are o9served !or dogs (ith a higher num9er o! the (orms. 3he in!ections later lead to in!lammation that a!!ects the lungs and surrounding arteries. 3he heart is thus pressured 9% the increased (or5load4 9ecoming enlarged and (ea5ening and eventuall%4 congestive heart !ailure 5ills the dog. 3he heart(orms can also 9e !ound in the caudal vena cava < the main vein 9et(een the liver and the heart < (here the% can cause liver !ailure s%ndrome.

3he main purpose o! treating in!ected dogs is to 5ill 9oth o!!spring and adult (orms using a micro!ilaricide and adulticide respectivel%. A crucial condition o! treatmentJ minimi=ing an% adverse side e!!ect due to the drugs used and a tolera9le level o! complications due to the d%ing heart(orms.

Dogs (ithout or (ith mild signs have sho(n signi!icant success !ollo(ing treatment4 (hile those eEhi9iting more severe signs also have success!ul treatment4 9ut are more prone to complications and death.

3he KS .ood and Drug Administration has alread% approved an organic arsenical compound4 melarsomine dih%drochloride4 to 5ill adult heart(orms. Dogs that (ill use this therap% are re:uired to undergo an eEtensive pretreatment evaluation and must remain in the hospital during treatment.

3his .DA<approved drug4 (hich has proven to 9e less toEic and more sa!e and e!!ective than its predecessors4 is given through intramuscular in@ection into a dogAs lum9er muscles. Ho(ever4 a 5e% post<treatment concern is severe pulmonar% throm9oem9olism4 in

(hich lesions in the lung arteries and capillaries and dead heart(orms o9struct 9lood !lo(ing through the pulmonar% arteries.

)ore severe lesions and a higher num9er o! dead (orms cause greater o9struction4 (ith cough4 !ever and hemopt%sis appearing as s%mptoms. Dogs sho(ing these clinical signs (ill have to 9e strictl% limited in terms o! treatment and eEercise and given corticosteroids to reduce in!lammation.

Although total elimination o! adult heart(orms ma% not 9e possi9le4 dogs have sho(n clinical improvement !ollo(ing adulticide therap%. A common !ollo(<up to the therap% is heart(orm antigen testingJ the antigen (ill not 9e detected !our months a!ter adulticide treatment i! all or a ver% small num9er o! the parasites survived.

Dogs !ound to 9e antigen<positive post<adulticide ma% have the treatment repeated4 9ut onl% !ollo(ing an eEtensive case revie(. Fne option is to resume arsenical use (ith ivermectin or other preventive4 a com9ination eEpected to eventuall% 5ill all surviving (orms.

)ean(hile4 selamectin4 ivermectin4 and moEidectin are availa9le as treatments !or micro!ilariae. 3hese macroc%clic lactone anthelmintics

are present in regular heart(orm preventives as active ingredients4 although the% do not have .DA approval as micro!ilaricides.

Although these drugs do not have regulator% clearance4 the% are still popular as treatments 9ecause o! the a9sence o! approved drugs to eliminate micro!ilariae. 3hus4 dogs using these )1 anthelmintics must remain in the hospital a!ter treatment to 9e monitored !or an% potential side e!!ect due to the rapid death o! the o!!spring (orms. Kse o! )1 preventives is eEpected to eventuall% eliminate all micro!ilariae in siE to nine monthsA time.

3hus4 dog o(ners should thoroughl% (eigh the ris5 9et(een heart(orm treatment and the partial or !ull recover% o! their pets. Whatever decision is made4 the o(ners should al(a%s 9e pro<active in ensuring the 9est health care !or their dogs.

Chapter /.

Intestinal %arasites in Your Dog

Statistics sho( that one in three dogs at some time can 9e in!ected (ith intestinal parasites such as round(orms4 hoo5(orms4 (hip(orms4 and tape(orms. 3a5ing care o! our canine !riends not onl% stop at

grooming4 9ut also chec5ing !or parasites (hich can 9e detrimental to their health. 3he !ollo(ing is a list o! the common intestinal parasites that in!ect %our dog4 (hat the% are4 ho( %our dog can possi9l% ac:uire them4 its harm!ul e!!ects to %our dog and to %ou4 and o! course4 ho( to get rid o! it.

"012D$0")' B3oEocara canis4 3oEascaris leonineC

Description )ost common to in!ect the animal 5ingdom4 round(orms gro( 2 > " inches long4 tan or (hite creatures (ith tapered ends that loo5 li5e spaghetti.

How they are ac3uired uppies are usuall% 9orn (ith them. 3hose in!ected (ith round(orms have a pot9ell% or a 9loated loo5 and dr%4 scal% coat. When %our pets are in unsanitar% conditions4 don8t 9e surprised i! %our dog 9ecomes in!ested. Knli5e hoo5(orm eggs4 round(orm eggs are ver% resistant to dr%ing4 sunlight or antiseptics. 3he% can last !or %ears in soil and still 9e in!ectious.


ful .ffects to your Dog

I! in huge num9ers4 a dog ma% vomit these (orms or discharge them all as a (hole in the !ecal matter. 0ound(orms can cause diarrhea > the in!estation8s e!!ect is evident on %our pet8s general appearance. 3he% can also cause intestinal 9loc5age and stool cannot pass i! the% 9ecome too man%.


ful .ffects to )an

Since round(orms are =oonotic4 the% can 9e trans!erred to humans. 3he% cause an in!ection 5no(n as 62isceral 1arva )igrans74 (hich result in in!lammation o! muscle tissue. Young children are suscepti9le to trans!er and can eEperience e%e in!lammations leading to 9lindness.



Ksuall% used to treat round(orms are p%rantel pamoate4 !en9enda=ole and pipera=ine4 9oth classi!ied as Anthelmintics or de(ormers.

TA%.$0")' BDip%lidium caninumC Description 3ape(orms can 9e seen unli5e other parasites. 3ape(orm segments4 usuall% (hite in color4 can 9e seen a!ter in the dog8s !eces or rectum a!ter elimination that 9ro5e o!! !rom the adult.

How they are ac3uired .leas can carr% tape(orm eggs4 so the ingestion o! parasite eggs is the onl% (a% to in!ection.


ful .ffects to your Dog

Although the% don8t cause much harm to our canine !riends4 tape(orms cause pet o(ners to s:uirm at their ghastl% sight. Dogs eEperience cramping and sometimes gas.


ful .ffects to )an

Children can accidentall% s(allo( !leas that have eggs4 causing intense discom!ort. .ish can also 9e an intermediate host > so 9e care!ul in eating ra( !ish.



Antiparasitic agents4 pra=i:uantel and epsiprantel are 9oth used 9oth 9% oral medication or in@ection.

H00+$0")' BAnc%lostoma caniniumC Description Hoo5(orms are 9lood<suc5ing intestinal parasites and are invisi9le to the na5ed e%e.

How they are ac3uired uppies can ac:uire hoo5(orm eggs !rom their mother and unh%gienic surroundings or soil. Heat and dr%ness 5ills hoo5(orm eggs :uic5l%.


ful .ffects to your Dog

I! %our dog is in!ected4 their !eces loo5 a9normall% 9lac5ish and loose. In the !irst (ee5 o! in!ection4 the% ma% loo5 health%4 9ut eEtreme in!ections in in@ured or %oung dogs can 9e lethal. 3he% can cause intestinal 9leeding leading to anemia and 9lood% diarrhea.


ful .ffects to )an

In humans4 hoo5(orms can also cause intestinal 9leeding especiall% to children. In adults4 the% can cause an in!ection 5no(n as 6Cutaneous 1arva )igrans7 or 6creeping eruption7. 1esions that can 9e reall% itch% are caused 9% hoo5(orm larvae nestling into the s5in usuall% in the

!eet. )ore so4 (hen severe4 the% can cause a9dominal pains and e%e pro9lems.



Hoo5(orms can 9e diagnosed 9% the eEamination o! the pet8s !ecal matter. De(ormers include p%rantel pamoate and !en9enda=ole. An eEample o! a product is Heartgard.

$HI%$0")' B3richuris vulpisC

Description Another unseen !reeloader is the (hip(orm4 (hich is the most di!!icult to eEterminate. 3he% do not need to leave the intestines to complete a li!e c%cle.

Hggs are passed in the dog8s stool and a!ter 2<" (ee5s in a (arm4 moist environment4 the% 9ecome in!ective to another dog. 3he eggs hatch and the (orms mature in the cecal area o! the intestine (here the% can cause chronic 9o(el in!lammation.

How they are ac3uired )ost common in adult animals especiall% those housed in groups or 5ennels 9ecause the% can 9ecome in!ectious to other dogs a!ter a !e( (ee5s in a (arm environment.


ful .ffects to your Dog

3he s%mptoms ma% include severe diarrhea4 !latulence4 loss o! (eight and general overall condition. Whip(orms can cause chronic 9o(el in!lammation.


ful .ffects to )an

1uc5il%4 these parasites onl% adhere to our canine !riends.



.en9enda=ole B anacurC is usuall% prescri9ed a!ter diagnosis. 3o regulate these parasites4 give doses o! mil9em%cin oEime ever% month4 a heart(orm preventive medication.

Chapter 4.

$hat breeds are prone Hip Displasia?

Ksuall%4 large 9reeds o! dogs are more prone to hip d%sphasia. 1a9radors4 'reat %renees4 'reat Danes4 0etrievers4 'erman Shepherds4 Saint ,ernards4 0ott(eilers and Sporting Dog ,reeds are eEamples. Ho(ever4 small dogs can also ac:uire this. I! %our dogs 9elong to an% o! the mentioned 9reeds4 the !ollo(ing in!ormation might help %ou.

$hat is Hip Displasia? Hip Displasia4 a degenerative condition4 is an a9normalit% in the eEpansion o! the hip @oint4 (here the 9all @oint o! the dogs hips are misshapen4 caused 9% too much laEit% in the @oint. 3his in turn results to (ear and tear o! the a9normal arthritic 9ones causing eEtreme pain. Iot onl% can this cause pain4 the @oint can also come right out o! the soc5et.

How did

y dog ac3uire this?

Hip displasia is a genetic disease4 meaning the pup can inherit it !rom its parents. Iote that not all dogs inclined to get this disease (ill ac:uire it. Fther !actors also contri9ute4 li5e environmental !actors4

rapid (eight changes and other genetic !actors as (ell. 3racing %our pet8s !amil% lineage (ill help %ou determine i! %our dog is prone to this disease. I! there is no incidence o! hip displasia in %our pet8s !amil%4 then %our dog (ill not get it.

$hat are its sy



It is di!!icult to diagnose 9ecause it ma% or ma% not sho( clinical signs. Common signs eEhi9ited are lameness on one or 9oth rear lim9s4 di!!icult% in standing or (al5ing4 hopping li5e a 9unn%4 and decrease in mo9ilit%. A!ter the @oint8s gro(th period4 man% pups displa% pain sporadicall% even 9e!ore arthritis 9egins to eEhi9it. It can lead to severe arthritis4 in (hich %our pet can 9e in eEtreme pain. 0arel%4 puppies as %oung as $ or & months can sho( these s%mptoms.

$hat is the treat


I! %ou suspect %our dog has hip displasia4 9ring to the clinic and have %our pet L<ra%ed. 3here are t(o methods to see i! %our dog has hip displasia > the Frthopedic .oundation !or Animals BF.AC testing uses a standard vie( and another developed 9% the Kniversit% o! enns%lvania Hip Improvement rogram B ennHipC4 (hich sho(s to 9e more e!!ective in detecting Hip Disphasia in puppies.

3here are t(o treatment plans 9ased on the time the disease has occurred > 9e!ore and a!ter the gro(th o! the hip @oint. 3riple elvic Fsteotom%4 the surgical reconstruction o! the hip @oint4 is recommended !or puppies less than a %ear o! age. ,e care!ul though > clinical s%mptoms related to hip d%spasia can 9e caused 9% other illnesses such as osteochondrosis4 strain or sprain in one o! the @oints4 or 9ac5 and pelvis in@ur%.

Ho(ever4 dogs that sho( s%mptoms a!ter the gro(th4 it is 9est to !irst !ind out o! it can 9e treated through medication or surger%. )edical treatment includes aspirin4 phen%l9uta=one or gl%cosaminogl%cosans. Iarcotics can 9e used to eliminate pain. 3here is a strong connection 9et(een the administration o! gl%cosaminogl%cans and a considera9le decrease in the dog8s arthritis.

Although non<steroidal anti<in!lammator% BISAIDC medications can 9e used4 di!!erent dogs have var%ing reactions to medicines. 3hat8s (h% it is 9est to consult %our veterinarian on (hich medicine (or5s (ell !or %our dog. I! this proves to 9e unsatis!actor%4 %ou ma% resort to surger%.

3otal Hip 0eplacement is most eEcellent4 especiall% !or severe hip displasia. 3his is ver% e!!ective 9ecause the hip @oint is replaced (ith arti!icial parts to eradicate pain. .emoral Head Fstectom% or .emoral head and nec5 eEcision is also an option (herein @ust the !emoral head is removed4 (hich can 9e per!ormed at an% age. It eliminates most o! the pain associated (ith hip arthritis 9ecause there is a reduced contact 9et(een the 9ones4 9ut not all dogs are cut out !or this method. Surger% is more costl% primaril%4 9ut in the long run4 it (ill save the dog o(ner on pain relievers. Fnce the surger% has completed4 a recuperation period o! a9out 3<& months (ill 9e commended 9% the doctor.


ore advice?

3his illness is ver% pain!ul !or %our pet. 3hus4 measures should 9e ta5en to alleviate pain such as medication and giving them a (arm and com!orta9le place to rest in4 especiall% !or older dogs. 0egular (al5s and ph%sical eEercises can reduce (eight4 (hich can decrease the dog8s discom!ort. .or %oung pups4 gradual introduction o! adult dog !ood is recommended !or gradual gain (eight.

Chapter 5.

How to Control !leas

.leas are parasites that !eed o!! %our dog8s 9lood. .lea eggs can 9e !ound almost ever%(here > in %our couch4 carpet4 etc. so the li5elihood o! in!ection is ver% high. 3o 5no( i! %our dog has !leas4 loo5 !or !lea eEcrement > small4 dar54 curl% dots that are also 5no(n as 6!lea dirt.7

3o do this4 9rush %our pet8s coat (ith a (hite cloth or sheet and loo5 !or these 9lac5 spec5s4 (hich contains digested 9lood that loo5s reddish 9ro(n (hen (et. I! %our dog has a dar5er coat4 eggs that resem9le dandru!! is visi9le (hen a magni!%ing glass is used.

Dangers of !leas ,esides reall% anno%ing %our dog4 !leas can also cause an allergic reaction called !lea allerg% dermatitis B.ADC (hich leads to hair loss4 s5in in!lammation and irritation. .or severe cases4 %our pet can eEperience anemia due to 9lood loss. 3his can 9e !atal i! %our pet is %oung or de9ilitated. Also4 !leas are carriers o! common tape(orms4 (hich can cause cramping and gas.

%reventing Infection utting !lea po(der on %our vacuum cleaner (ill eEterminate all the !leas inside the 9ag. )onthl% topicals is an eas% and ineEpensive approach to protect %our house !rom !leas. ,io Spot or .rontline lus are recommended topical 9rands availa9le. You might also (ant to 9uild a doghouse or spot !or %our dog that is elevated since !leas can8t @ump higher than a !oot. Water is a !lea8s top enem%4 so (ash the areas that a dog might run around > li5e %our 9ac5%ard. )inimal contact (ith grasses and (oods (ill lessen the possi9ilit% o! in!ection. I! %ou have a garden4 trim leaves and clear 9rushes4 as (ell as grass% and 5ennel areas.

I! %ou have a home grooming 5it !or %our dog4 it is 9est to include a !lea com9. Kse it regularl% on %our pet. Its so!t4 !ine 9ristles4 it (ill catch the !lea. Start com9ing around the hind:uarters and the pet8s head4 (here !lea dirt can also 9e seen. When %ou trap a !lea4 immediatel% put it in soap<(ater solution. .leas thrive in (arm conditions4 that8s (h% in (armer climates4 it is 9est to give %our dog !lea products the (hole %ear. Although pupa stages can 9ecome dormant in cold climates4 increasing the length o! its li!espan composed o! egg4 larva4 pupa and adult.



A !lea 9ath is the !irst step to a parasite<!ree pet. ,e care!ul in using a !lea shampoo 9ecause most products are too harsh on puppies. Consult %our veterinarian on (hat to use i! %our pupp% has !leas. It can also relieve irritation and itching. Don8t stop at shampooing 9ecause it doesn8t reall% protect %our dog a!ter getting a 9ath.

Fne alternative is using !lea dips that 5eep !leas at 9a% !or some time a!ter dipping4 9ut it is not recommended 9% most veterinarians. 3he do(nside is that %our dog might eat or s(allo( these parasites a!ter lic5ing4 since a !lea dip sta%s on the dog8s hair coat. Another option is a !lea collar. It (ill onl% 5ill all the !leas in the dog8s nec5 and !ace > not the (hole 9od%. Some also dogs develop a rash (hen using !lea collars. While !lea medallions can contaminate the dog8s drin5ing (ater4 since it hangs loose !rom the collar.

A good choice is the use o! !lea spra%s and po(ders > 9oth !or %our dog and %our house4 so 9e care!ul in reading the instructions to 5no( (hich is (hich. roducts intended !or %our home is too strong to use on %our pet. Ksing t(o or three di!!erent !lea products at the same time can 9e toEic !or %our dog.

I! there are numerous !leas that in!ested %our dog4 it is recommended that %ou treat %our home too. )ethoprene and !enoE%car94 t(o active ingredients contained in !lea spra%s are e!!icient and sa!e. It stops the gro(th o! eggs into adult !leas. As mentioned4 spra%s are too strong !or dogs4 so ta5e them outside !or a (al5 (hen %ou treat %our home. Some products are designed to destro% adult !leas > one product is Insect 'ro(th 0egulators BI'0C can help 5ill !lea eggs and larvae. ,e!ore appl%ing such products4 vacuum %our carpet or !urniture !irst to rouse eggs and larvae !rom their cocoons.

2eterinarians recommend these products to !or !lea controlJ %riproE%!en BI%lor4 ArcherC4 Imidacloprid BAdvantageC4 1u!enuron B rogramC4 .ipronil B.rontline 3op SpotC4 C%thioate B ro9anC4 and .enthion B ro<SpotC.

Chapter 16. %arvovirus Is Deadly

arvovirus is a (ord that is not to 9e ta5en lightl%. .or most dog o(ners4 this (ord is the most dreaded thing to come out o! the veterinarian8s mouth. 3his virus causes the most common in!ectious

disease among dogs in the Knited States. Aside !rom 9eing common4 it also is ver% deadl%. Ignoring the s%mptoms o! such (ill certainl% result in death among canines.

Dog o(ners have to remain vigilant to signs and s%mptoms that point to the disease. arvovirus is a highl% contagious disease that mani!ests itsel! through diarrhea and 9lood% stool. It is caused 9% the canine parvovirus BC 2<2C.

'igns and 'y


Signs and s%mptoms o! parvovirus di!!er among dogs in!ected 9% such. Kn!ortunatel%4 some dogs sho( ver% !e( s%mptoms. Some do not sho( an% at all. 3%picall%4 parvovirus causes severe enteritis4 or an in!lammation o! the intestines. 3his !urther leads to vomiting4 diarrhea < (hich ma% 9e 9lood%4 dar5 !eces4 deh%dration4 and letharg%. 3his virus (ill a!!ect an% 9reed4 seE and age o! dog. 3he virus mani!ests itsel! more severel% among %ounger puppies.

3here are a !e( 9reeds that are more suscepti9le to parvovirus than others. Among them are 0ott(eilers4 1a9radors4 and Do9erman inschers. uppies siE months and 9elo( usuall% mani!est a more serious !orm o! the disease.

A!ter the onset o! this disease4 the dog could die in as little as t(o da%s i! not given immediate and proper treatment. 3he virus t%picall% ta5es * to 1" da%s to incu9ate. Active eEcretion o! this virus through !eces could 9egin as earl% as 3 da%s.

How the (irus 'preads. arvovirus can survive even on inanimate o9@ects !or up to !ive months. 3he% particularl% thrive on animals such as rats and insects. 3o prevent dogs !rom 9eing in!ected4 o(ners must 5eep 5ennels and surroundings clean. 3he virus can 9e spread through in!ected items such as clothing4 !ood pans4 cages4 etc.

3o disin!ect such4 cleaning the a9ove mentioned articles (ith a 1J32 dilution o! 9leach or MN cup per gallon is necessar%. Fne ma% also eEpose the articles to Kltraviolet ra%s. 1ots o! sunlight can help eliminate the presence o! these viruses.

It (ould do (ell to ma5e sure that ever%thing the dog (ill come in contact (ith is clean. 3r% avoiding having %our dog come into contact (ith in!ected dogs and articles.

Diagnosis and Treat


Although not all vomiting and 9lood% diarrhea is caused 9% parvovirus4 it (ould still pa% to ta5e a trip to the veterinarian !or a chec5 up. 3he onl% (a% to veri!% (hether a dog has parvovirus or not is clinical and la9orator% diagnosis. It (ould 9e 9etter to err on the side o! sa!et% on this matter. I! %ou thin5 %our dog has the parvovirus4 a :uic5 trip to the veterinarian (on8t 9e in vain. 3o treat the disease4 a veterinarian (ill most li5el% recommend supportive therap%. 3his (ill involve replacing the !luids lost due to diarrhea and vomiting. 3his (ill pro9a9l% 9e an electrol%te solution administered intravenousl%. In less severe cases4 oral solutions (ill su!!ice. Anti9iotics ma% 9e given to control secondar% in!ections. )edicines to control vomiting ma% also 9e given.

When the parvovirus s%mptoms su9side4 a de<(orming agent ma% 9e used. Your veterinarian (ill also pro9a9l% restrict the !ood the dog ma% ta5e.

.ortunatel%4 dogs that have recovered !rom the virus are immune !rom re<in!ection !or the neEt t(ent% months. 3here is also a good chance that %our dog (ill 9e immune !or the rest o! its li!e.

You ma% also (ant to consider vaccines !or %our puppies. You (ill (ant to consult %our veterinarian on the right circumstances and e!!ects o! a vaccination !or %ou dog. 2accination ma% prove to 9e the 9est line o! de!ense against parvovirus.

In the .nd arvovirus is not one disease to 9e ta5en lightl%. It is a disease (ith a high rate o! mortalit%4 especiall% among puppies. Although one should not panic at the !irst hint o! the disease4 it should4 at least4 9e ta5en seriousl%. .ortunatel%4 through proper care and medication4 the chances !or survival a!ter an in!ection are relativel% high. ,ut 9e (arned that some cases4 even (ith the 9est care and attention availa9le4 prove to 9e !atal. 3he 9est chance !or preventing this disease is good in!ormation and vigilant h%giene.

Chapter 11. How to 7ive Your %et C%"

3here (ill 9e instances (here %ou might have to per!orm a C 0 on %our pet. What? A C 0 on %our pet? Are %ou serious? Yes4 it is serious < serious enough that it ma% save %our pet8s li!e.

3here are some instances (here a pet ma% accidentall% get something stuc5 in its air(a%. 3his (ill cause cho5ing and ultimatel%4 death. Also4 pet C 0 (ill prove vital in cases (here the pet has lost 9reathing or pulse. 3his is the case o! most pets that go into arrest. I! this happens4 it is urgent that the pet8s air(a%4 9reathing4 and circulation is maintained.

3o per!orm such4 o(ners must 9e a(are o! the proper procedure o! per!orming a C 0. )ost trained veterinarians (ill 9e 5no(ledgea9le in this procedure. You ma% (ant to consult (ith them !or proper advice on the procedures outlined here.

A. Airway A!ter determining that the animal is non<responsive4 step one in per!orming animal C 0 is o9taining a patent air(a%. 3his is a ver% important step. Fne should see5 to achieve this !irst 9e!ore continuing on. 0emem9er that ma5ing sure %our pet has a clear air(a% is the most important aspect o! C 0. Without oE%gen %our pet could die (ithin minutes.

ull out the tongue o! %our pet care!ull%. 3he emphasis here is on care!ull%. ets4 even (hen unconscious can 9ite 9% instinct. #eep the pet8s nec5 straight4 and line up the nec5 and the 9ac5. In case there is nec5 trauma4 do not h%pereEtend the nec5.

A!ter(ards4 tr% giving the animal t(o rescue 9reaths. er!orm this 9% putting %our mouth to its nose4 and 5eeping the animals mouth closed. I! %our 9reaths go in then %ou can continue. Ho(ever4 i! the% do not go in4 it means that there is an o9struction in the animals air(a%.

In this case4 inspect the animals air(a%4 and tr% to eEtract the o9structing o9@ects. I! %ou cannot4 tr% doing a modi!ied Heimlich maneuver. 3urn the animal over (ith its 9ac5 against %our chest and its head to(ards the ground in a 9ear hug. Deliver !ive thrusts to the a9domenO imagine ma5ing each thrust dislodge the o9@ect. ,e care!ul that %ou do not deliver too much pressure as it ma% cause damage i! overdone.

Do not stop until %ou are a9le to clear the air(a%. Hven i! the animal goes into arrest4 the primar% concern !or %ou is to 5eep the air(a% clear.

8. 8reathing With the air(a% is cleared4 determine i! the animal is 9reathing on its o(n. ull out its tongue again Bagain ver% care!ull%C so that the tongue does not itsel! o9struct the air(a%4 and per!orm mouth to nose respiration. Do this t(ent% times a minute. I! the animal 9egins to 9reathe on its o(n4 use a high<!lo( 9lo(9%.

C. Circulation 3he last step o! animal C 0 should onl% 9e done i! the air(a% and 9reathing are sta9ili=ed. .irst o! all ma5e sure there are no pools o! 9lood or spurting. I! there is4 control these as necessar%.

1a% the animal on its right side4 no( put %our hands on the part (here the animals le!t el9o( touches its chest. 3his is the mar5er !or the middle o! the animals ri9 cage. Compress this part !i!teen times then administer t(o rescue 9reaths per minute. 3his rate ma% have to change according to the si=e o! the animal. I! the pet is small use compressions that are hal! an inch deep4 !or medium dogs one inch4 and !or large dogs4 one and a hal! inches. 0epeat this as necessar% until emergenc% assistance arrives.

When administering animal C 04 %ou must ma5e a deli9erate decision to 9e calm and collected. Doing such in panic (ill onl% result in (rong decisions that ma% !urther imperil the li!e o! the animal. Your pet ma% not have a strong carotid pulse4 so %ou might have to rel% on its !emoral pulse (hen assessing circulation.

0emem9er that %our C 0 actions are !irst<at<the scene maneuvers4 and that %our pet (ill still need eEpert medical attention. )a5e sure that the veterinarian has alread% 9een alerted as soon as the pro9lem arises.

et C 0 is a ver% important s5ill !or those (ho deal (ith emergenc% medical cases concerning dogs. Although not ever%one learns it4 those (ho do are a vital !actor in saving the lives o! man% 9eloved pets.

Chapter 1#.

Do Dogs 7et Hepatitis?

Do dogs get hepatitis? eople o9viousl% do. ,ut do dogs get this disease? And ho( does this a!!ect them?

Hepatitis is actuall% a ver% 9road term. It (ill signi!% an in!lammation o! the liver4 although the causes ma% actuall% di!!er. Since the liver is

a ver% compleE and vital organ a disease that incapacitates it (ill prove to 9e !atal. 3he livers primar% !unctions are the detoEi!ication4 meta9olism4 the storage o! gl%cogen and the s%nthesis o! plasma protein. It also produces the 9ile that aids in digestion. 3he good ne(s is4 the liver is a large organ (ith plent% o! reserves. 3he 9ad ne(s is4 since it has a large reserve4 it (on8t sho( apparent s%mptoms unless the liver is seriousl% damaged.

Although dogs do get hepatitis4 it ma% 9e di!!erent in cause and e!!ect !rom human hepatitis. 3here is (hat is called In!ectious Canine Hepatitis. 3his disease is caused 9% a virus4 and ma% prove to 9e a !atal disease in some dogs.

$hat is It? 3his disease is caused 9% the CA2<1 an adenovirus. Dogs t%picall% ac:uire this virus !rom contact4 either through inhalation or ingestion o! urine4 e%e secretions4 and nasal secretions o! in!ected dogs. 3his t%pe o! virus does not a!!ect humans or other animals4 onl% dogs.

3he virus (ill attac5 the liver4 e%e4 5idne%4 and 9lood vessel cells upon entr% into the s%stem o! the dog. .ortunatel%4 not all o! these in!ections are !atal. Some dogs4 a!ter ac:uiring this virus4 (ill mani!est

a cough4 letharg%4 loss o! appetite4 moodiness and lo( grade !evers. In some cases4 the% do not sho( an% s%mptoms at all.

Some (ill develop 9lue e%e. ,lue e%e is a 9luish discoloration o! the cornea o! the pets e%e. Dogs that go through these 9ecome immune to re<in!ection !rom the disease. 3his (ill usuall% 9e the case in health%4 mature dogs (ith a health% immune s%stem.

Ho(ever4 there are some dogs especiall% puppies that (ill 9ecome ver% ill due to the virus. 3hese dogs (ill develop internal 9leeding4 liver disease4 tonsillitis4 and general in!lammation o! the e%es and mouth. I! le!t untreated4 this condition could :uic5l% deteriorate to shoc5 and death.

3he virus is also 5no(n to attac5 the dog8s spinal cord and 9rain.

A!ter in!ection the virus (ill ta5e a9out !ive da%s to a (ee5 9e!ore mani!esting openl%. ,% this time the dog (ill 9e secreting the virus through its stool4 urine4 saliva4 and nasal secretions. In t(o (ee5s time4 the dog either succum9s to the illness or develops chronic hepatitis coupled (ith cirrhosis o! the liver. 3his (ill seriousl% impair the dog8s capacit% !or converting glucose4 and a9sor9ing toEins.

3his condition (ill reduce the liver8s capa9ilit% to per!orm !unctions necessar% !or li!e. 3hese !unctions include !iltering harm!ul and toEic elements !rom the 9lood4 storing 9lood sugar !or conversion into usa9le energ%4 and creating man% proteins that are necessar% in the s%stem.

Kn!ortunatel%4 there is no (a% to destro% the virus a!ter it has entered the dog8s s%stem. 2eterinarians (ill treat the disease 9% good supportive therap% intravenous !luids4 good diet4 rest4 medicines to lighten the liver8s (or5load4 and good care all aimed to strengthen the dog8s a9ilit% to recuperate. 3he% (ill also give anti9iotics to treat secondar% in!ections.

3here is a vaccine !or this disease. It is a routine part o! a pupp%8s vaccination plan. And partl% due to its e!!icienc%4 the cases o! canine hepatitis in the Knited States are lo(. 3here!ore4 the 9est (a% to 5eep %our dogs !ree !rom this disease is a proper vaccination plan4 and prompt and periodic visits (ith the veterinarian.

Canine hepatitis can prove to 9e a trou9lesome disease that4 i! unattended4 (ill surel% result in a dog8s death. With proper in!ormation

a9out this disease dog o(ners (ill 9e a9le to ta5e preemptive steps to assure themselves that their pets are sa!e !rom this de9ilitating diseases.

Chronic Active Hepatitis9 As opposed to the previous disease4 this !orm o! hepatitis is harder to treat and the prognoses are not ver% promising. 3his usuall% occurs in dogs o! advanced age. 3he disease is caused 9% other !actors such as toEins and molds in the dog8s diet. In!ectious Canine Hepatitis can also cause this.

3he s%mptoms o! this disease are hard to pinpoint4 9ut generall% the% (ill include letharg%4 diarrhea4 loss o! appetite4 s(ollen a9domen4 @aundice Bor %ello(ing e%es4 gums4 and s5inC. 3his disease could advance into the nervous s%stem and render the dog 9lind. Sei=ures4 coma and death usuall% !ollo(.

3o avoid this disease4 good health ha9its including a good diet that emphasi=es !oods screened !or toEins and molds should 9e eEercised.

Chapter 1&.

%rotect Your Dog !ro


1eptospirosis is a contagious disease that a!!ects animals as (ell as humans. Caused 9% a group o! organisms called lepterospira interrogans B(ithin such species there are di!!erent strainsC4 the disease can lead to chronic liver and 5idne% disease and even death in dogs. Hight o! the di!!erent strains give o!! di!!erent t%pes and levels o! disease (hich depends upon the animal that the% in!ect. 3he disease causes more pro9lems in dogs. Iot until recentl%4 the vaccines that (ere availa9le are onl% !or t(o t%pes o! 9acteria namel%4 1eptospirosis canicola and 1. icterhaemorrhagiae4 has virtuall% (iped out the clinical ailment associated (ith these strains 9et(een the immuni=ed dog population. 2accines !or t(o other additional t%pes o! 9acteria4 1. grippot%phosa and 1. omona are no( readil% availa9le.

3he leptospira organism

1eptospires gro( (ell in (ater4 appearing in a spiral shaped long 9od% (ith hoo5s on 9oth ends. 3he% are called 6a:uatic spirochetes7. 3he% are o! t(o species4 1eptospira 9i!leEa and 1eptospira interogans (hich cause disease in animals and humans. 1eptospira interogans is divided into strains 9ased upon antigen Bstimulates the production o!

anti9odiesC t%pes4 providing ver% little cross immunit% opposed to one serovar and the host4 (hich is the dog that has developed resistance to one strain either 9% vaccination or through !ormer in!ection4 (ill not 9e capa9le in repelling an in!ection 9rought a9out 9% a di!!erent strain.

'ources of infection ,acteria carriers are generall% rats and other rodents4 though an in!ected dog can also 9e a source o! in!ection. 3he most signi!icant means o! transmitting the disease is through urine ingestion and other !orms o! 9acteria (ill penetrate ver% thin s5in.

:eptospirosis trans


3he disease is transmitted (hen the animal comes in contact (ith the urine o! other in!ected animals4 through 9ite (ounds and a9sorption o! an in!ected tissue.

Indirect transmission happens (hen dogs (ade in or drin5 contaminated (ater or !ood. Since stagnant (ater provides a ver% appropriate environment !or the leptospira4 dogs that (ade in it get in!ected.

In!ections are common in the !all and in summer 9ecause the survival o! the organism is highl% reduced 9% !ree=ing.



During the !irst !our to t(elve da%s !ollo(ing the in!ection4 the dog (ill have !ever and eEperience shivering4 vomiting4 appetite loss4 depression4 con@unctivitis and pain.

In severe cases4 the in!ected dog ma% develop h%pothermia Ba9normall% lo( 9od% temperatureC eventuall% 9ecome depressed and die even 9e!ore a 5idne% or liver 9rea5do(n.

Diagnosis A microscopic agglutination test is per!ormed on a 9lood sample o! a suspected animal !rom a la9orator%. 3his can test !or individual strains and the animal8s level o! anti9od% BtiterC to com9at these strains.

Depending on the titer8s level4 a positive diagnosis to the precise and speci!ic strain can then 9e made. It (ill 9e help!ul i! man% samples are dra(n and tested as titers ma% have negative results in the !irst ten da%s a!ter the in!ection4 and

!ormer immuni=ation shots ma% give an elevated titer and should 9e ta5en into consideration during the interpretation o! the titers.

In dogs that are severel% in!ected4 the% are eEpected to shed the leptospira organism in their urine4 thus (hen a urine sample is ta5en and cultured4 it can give a positive diagnosis. 3his is not the 9est (a% ho(ever4 9ecause the individual getting the sample ma% 9e at ris5.



3reatment usuall% (ill consist o! anti9iotics4 !luid replacement !or reh%dration through intravenous as (ell as controlling the dog8s vomiting through antiemetics and other pro9lems related to liver or 5idne% in!ections. Iote that deh%dration must 9e correct (ithin siE to t(elve hours.

enicillin or one o! its 9%product is the anti9iotic that is given to treat earl% in!ection4 a!ter (hich4 doE%c%cline is used !or cure and prevention o! possi9le continuing carrier state.

%revention through vaccination

Currentl%4 there are man% vaccines availa9le !or a large variet% o! species. Chemicall% inactivated B5illed speciesC vaccines are availa9le !or dogs and (hole culture vaccine (hich causes the dog vaccine reactions. ,e!ore4 leptospiral vaccines onl% protect against 1. canicola and 1. icterohaemorrhagiae. Fnl% in the %ear 2/// that a ne( vaccine (as developed to also protect dogs !rom 1. grippot%phosa and 1. pomona.

%revention through other for 1. 2.


Solve %our rodent pro9lem in the home4 5eep it (ell under control. #eep a(a% stagnant (ater. )a5e sure to clean and ta5e stagnant

(ater out ever% corner o! %our %ard4 so %our dog (ill not 9e tempted to drin5 and to pla% in it. 3. ". $. )o( %our la(n regularl%. Al(a%s provide clean drin5ing (ater !or %our dog. Al(a%s 9e sensitive to %our pet8s condition. I! he sho(s an%

a9normal signs4 ta5e him to the veterinarian immediatel%.

Chapter 1*. "egular (accinations And Your Dog

2accination is a sure (a% to protect %our dog against viral diseases and ensure a longer happ% li!e.

A mother dog protects her pupp% around siE to t(elve (ee5s a!ter 9irth. She has passed on her immunit% mechanism to her puppies 9% providing disease<!ighting anti9odies in her !irst mil5. 3his is called the )aternall% Derived Anti9od% B)DAC or 5no(n as Ppassive immunit%.P A!ter those (ee5s o! immunit%4 )DA !ades and the pupp% is le!t to protect itsel! and soon4 vaccination ta5es over the mother8s role in providing protection.

Immunit% means that there is little or no ris5 o! !alling ill to a certain disease. In adult dogs immunit% can result !rom either vaccination or the dog su!!ering and survived the disease.

2accination stimulates the dog8s immune s%stem to produce its disease<!ighting cells and proteins or (hat is 5no(n as anti9odies to protect against diseases. 0egular and repeated vaccinations are re:uired. 3here are vaccination schedules !or certain t%pes o! diseases !or puppies and adult dogs.

.or the !irst vaccination4 a course o! t(o vaccinations are usuall% given as a primar% course. 3his ma% 9e administered starting !rom the siEth (ee5 o! %our dog.

3he vaccination histor% o! %our dog is an important document. I! %ou happen to not 5no( the histor%4 %ou ma% (ant to consult %our veterinar% surgeon regarding vaccination right a(a%. A general chec5 up (ill also 9e help!ul to see i! %our pupp% is in good health condition 9e!ore giving the vaccines. Having a good health is an important !actor to ma5e the vaccines (or5 !or %our dog or pupp%.

0e<vaccination is also necessar% as immunit% loses its e!!ectiveness a!ter a time4 leaving %our dogs at ris5. 0egular 9oosters are availa9le to maintain the immunit% %our dog needs. A certi!icate (ill 9e given to %ou a!ter completing %our entire vaccination program. In the certi!ication4 the record o! vaccinations and the advice !or the neEt 9ooster are indicated. 3hings %ou have to remem9er areJ

Q that regular 9ooster is necessar% to maintain %our dog8s vaccinationO Q record o! vaccination has to 9e 5ept in a sa!e place !or re!erenceO Q consult %our veterinar% doctor i! %our dog appears to 9e un(ell.

2accinations are made !or the protection o! %our dog !rom certain t%pes o! diseases. ,e guided and 5eep an e%e on the earl% s%mptomsJ

CA2I2. %A"(0(I"1' DI'.A'.. 3his is cause 9% an eEtremel% hard% virus that can last !or long periods o! time in an environment. 3he main source o! this in!ection is the !eces o! in!ected dogs. Highl% contagious and (ea5ening. S%mptoms o! this disease are as !ollo(sJ high !ever4 severe vomiting4 listlessness4 re!usal o! !ood and (ater and pro!use smell%4 9lood% diarrhea. Common among %oung puppies and elderl% dogs. Com9ination vaccines are due on the !i!th to ninth (ee5 o! %our dog.

CA2I2. DI'T.)%.". 3his hard<to<treat disease is highl% contagious and the main source o! in!ection is 9% inhalation during close dog to dog contact. 3he !irst signs areJ !ever4 coughing4 diarrhea4 and vomiting !ollo(ed 9% unusual tiredness and lac5 o! appetite. Ksuall% dogs under one %ear o! age su!!er !rom this disease. Survivors o!ten develop nervous s%stem 9rea5do(n later in li!e.

CA2I2. T"ACH.08"02CHITI' ;Canine<+ennel Cough=. Caused 9% various air9orne 9acteria and viruses4 this in!ectious 9ronchitis is a contagious upper respirator% disease (hich occurs (hen dogs are in

close contact. Signs are a distressing dr% cough4 tiredness and loss o! appetite and moderatel% raised temperature. 3his disease ma% lead to pneumonia.

"A8I.'. An incura9le4 viral disease that attac5s the central nervous s%stem o! almost all mammals including humans. 3his disease can 9e transmitted through 9ites4 (hile the saliva is in contact (ith the s5in. Fnce %ou have this disease4 there is no cure and (ould alread% lead to death. 2accine during the t(el!th (ee5 is a great ounce o! prevention.

I2!.CTI01' CA2I2. H.%ATITI'. 3his is caused 9% Canine Adenovirus 3%pe I. 1iver is the attac5ed organ and can 9e rapidl% !atal. 3ransmission is through secretions li5e saliva4 in!ected urine or !eces. Harl% s%mptoms are general discom!ort and lac5 o! appetite4 high temperature4 pale gums4 vomiting4 diarrhea and a9dominal pain. 3his can cause also liver !ailure4 clouding o! cornea 5no(n as 69lue e%e7 and 9reathing pro9lems.

Fther vaccinations that need 9ooster recommendations !rom %our veterinarian are as !ollo(sJ

:.%T0'%I"0'I'4 a 9acterial disease (hich attac5s the 5idne%s and the liverO vaccines are due on the t(el!th to !i!teenth (ee5 o! %our dogO

CA2I2. C0"02A(I"1'4 (hich attac5s the intestinal s%stemO and4 1%me Disease4 transmitted 9% tic5s to 9oth dogs and humans (hich results in chronic arthritis and4 sometimes4 death.

It is important to consult %our veterinarian to determine the appropriate vaccination and schedule !or %our dog. 0ecommendations on (hat vaccines to give ma% var% on the age4 9reed and health condition o! the dog4 suscepti9ilit% and ris54 t%pe o! vaccine and the geographical setting.

Issues on vaccines having side e!!ects are lur5ing 9ut the 9ene!its out(eigh tremendousl% the danger o! having it. H!!ectivit% ma% not 9e guaranteed 1//G 9ut (ith the com9ination o! proper nutrition and eating ha9its4 a good and saniti=ed environment4 vaccination is a great (a% to protect %our dog and other o! %our pets as (ell.

Chapter 1,.

The 8est Toys !or Your Dogs

Dogs is a ma@or status s%m9ol in American pet<5eeping. Hver% %ear4 over 12 9illion dollars have 9een spent on dog !ood and veterinar% care alone. According to the American et roducts )anu!acturers Association8s 2//3<2//" et F(ners8 Surve%4 more than hal! o! dog o(ners purchase to%s !or their dogs.

la%ing (ith to%s is not the monopol% o! little 5ids 9ut also pets o! di!!erent 5ind. Dogs have their o(n sets o! to%s to en@o% during their pla%ing time.

Dogs 9ene!it !rom these to%s4 health and training (ise. 3here are dog to%s that can strengthen their teeth or 9uild their intelligence especiall% i! the% also attend a series o! training classes (ith the eEperts. 1i5e man4 dogs are ver% socia9le. Interaction (ith their companion or a si9ling dog is ver% important in avoiding 9ehavioral pro9lems in the !uture.

When 9u%ing to%s4 %ou ma% (ant to match them (ith %our dog8s needs4 demands and even personalit%. Is %our dog the t%pe that en@o%s chasing and retrieving games4 or che(ing4 sitting and

spra(ling? You ma% (ant to tr% eEperimenting !irst to !ind out (hich to%s ma5e %our dogs the happiest.

,e!ore going on a to% hunt4 ta5e a loo5 at this list o! to%s that ma% help %ou identi!% the right 5ind o! to% !or %our dog.

CH.$ T0Y'. 3hese are per!ect !or the dog that li5es to che( a lot. Instead o! %our dog che(ing %our !urniture4 (h% not 9u% these 3FK'H little 9a9ies !or them. 3hese t%pes o! dog to% are usuall% made o! n%lon or lateE ru99er. 3he P#ing #ong 3o%sP are among the popular 9rands o! che( to%s. You can eEperiment 9% stu!!ing these to%s (ith peanut 9utter or cheese spread4 !ree=e them and give them to %our dog !or hours o! lic5ing and che(ing !un.

Doggie 6potato chips7 is also a !avorite. 3hese Pedi9le chipsP can last to a minimum o! an hour to a couple o! da%s. 3he% are availa9le in di!!erent shapes li5e pig ears4 snouts4 co( 5nuc5les4 !emurs4 hooves and 9ull% stic5s. Fthers are 9one<shaped made !rom a variet% o! vegeta9les such as carrots.

Another good to% !or %our dog8s che(ing pleasure is the ra(hide. 3hese are non< consuma9le4 mummi!ied s5in<li5e to% that %ou have to

thro( a(a% (hen the% get sogg%4 and give %our dog a ne( one. Some ra(hides are 9asted (ith a variet% o! !lavorings. ,e sure to get the 6KSA ra(hide7 (ith a little !lag stic5er on the la9el 9ecause these do not contain preservative !lavorings that are harm!ul !or %our dogs.

'>1.A+Y T0Y'. .or these to%s4 choose the ru99er over the stu!!ed to%s !or dura9ilit% and to avoid s%nthetic materials. 3hese little noisema5ers are good !or training %our dog8s hunting s5ills.

".T"I.(I27 T0Y'. 3hese are per!ect !or the chase<and<retrieve t%pes o! dogs. Dogs en@o% these to%s 9ecause the% get to pla% (ith %ou. .ris9ees and 9alls made speci!icall% !or this activit%4 are the 9est to 9e used. Your dog (ill get a good (or5out and so is %our arm.

T17 T0Y'. 3hese to%s are 9est !or dogs that li5e to gra9 hold and never let go. Availa9le in rope<li5e designs.

8"AI2 T.A'."'. ,est !or dogs that is le!t alone a lot. 6,iscuit 9alls7 and 6!ood cu9es7 are great eEamples. 3hese to%s re:uire the dog to solve t%pes o! pu==le in order to get a treat.

2arious to%s o! these !orms are availa9le in the mar5et.

1. !or Chewers of all 'i?es '>1I"".: D1D. > tough4 dura9le and !un tooO this hollo( ru99er che( to% ta5es on a ne( level in innovationO this helps to eEercise %our dog8s @a( a little more (ith the !our little ru99er prongs 9loc5ing the hole slightl% that the dog has to (or5 a little harder to get the goodies out.

#. 8all :aunchers and Throwers ;"etrieve Toys= !"I'8..' > is an all<time !avorite dog to% especiall% the so!t versionO !old to !it in a poc5etO comes in 9lue and orange colors4 si=e siE to nine inches4 prices at eleven to siEteen dollars.

TH. "012D 0"8.. < a tough 9all hallo(ed (ith R inch thic5 mem9rane% sur!ace and it8s so!tishO it is !leEi9le4 dura9le4 gripp%4 9ounc%4 and 9uo%ant and has a peppermint scentO good !or sni!!ing< and<getting<the< 9all gameO prices at !ive to t(elve dollars depending on the si=e and !orm %ou choose

&. '3uea@y Toys '>1.A+."' > availa9le in pac5ages o! ten eachO dogs that love to silence s:uea5ers are the 9est !or this to%O eEcellent as attention and poc5et s:uea5er as (ellO prices go lo(er i! %ou 9u% in pac5ages4 !rom !ive to three dollars each 9oE?pac5age.

*. Tug Toys :.ATH." T17' > great !or tug<o!<(ar games (ith %our dogO made o! high grade leather4 3?+ inches thic54 tanned and not<treatedO dogs li5e them a lot especiall% those (ith active li!est%le.

TH. )0270 !.TCH T0Y > a che( and tug to% com9ined in oneO the natural ru99er 9ar is vanilla scentedO rope running through the center gives %ou a grip !or tug games and the so!t tasseled ends are made !or eEciting action (ith %our dogsO seven dollars each. medium to large in si=e4 !rom !ive to

,. 8rain Teasers I C18. < this is a to% that challenges and develops %our dogAs intelligence and pu==le solving s5illsO 9e sure %ou are there !or supervisionO availa9le in @unior and @um9o si=es4 siE to eleven dollars.

D1C+ .77 8A8Y < egg ,a9ies are a plush to% (ith three s:uea5er eggs insideO there is an opening on the 9ottom o! the to% so %our dog can get the hidden treasures insideO this is a to% that challenges and develops %our dogAs intelligence and pu==le solving s5ills too.

3o%s are a !un (a% to en@o% (ith %our dog in a sunn% da% at the par5. ,ut 9e sure to appl% proper sa!et% measures especiall% (hen pla%ing (ith 9alls4 stic5s and stones. You do not (ant to harm them in an% (a%. 0emem9er4 this is a dog<eat<dog (orld. Hven as harmless as pla%ing can cause indestructi9le damage to %our dog.