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By: Pratik Shashank Rishish Walid Wu Sajan

Systematic Botany March 2014

Basic Info
! Monocots are members of the phylum, Anthophyta, also known as angiosperms. ! Monocots emerged in the Mesozoic Era during the early Cretaceous period.
! With many different types of biomes, monocots are capable of growth in various types of soil.

Changes in Structure and Reproduction

! Angiosperms have flowers, which are a unique reproductive structure that facilitates pollination and seed formation. ! Pollinators are insects, birds, bats etc. that withdraw pollen or nectar and transfer it to the flowers female reproductive parts.

Origin and Characteristics

! Monophyletic ! Somewhere among Magnoliids and Palaeherbs ! Characteristics
! Parallel venation (some have reticulate venation, ? reversals) ! Single cotyledon ! Scattered vascular bundles (also in Nymphaeaceae, Piperaceae) ! Sieve cell plastids with several cuneate protein crystals (also in paleoherbs) ! Adventitious roots ! Leaves from basal primordium ! Monosulcate pollen

Lineages within monocots

! Alismatales
! Wetland and aquatic habitats

! Commelinanae
! Arecales (Palms) ! Bromeliales (Pineapples) ! Juncales ! Typhales ! Commelinales ! Phylidrales ! Zingiberales (Ginger)

! Lilianae
! Liliales ! Asparagales

! Liliales
! Nectaries at base of tepals or filaments ! Extrorse anthers ! Spots on tepals ! Lack of phytomelanin

! Asparagales
! Nectaries in septa of ovaries ! Unspotted petals ! Phytomelanin ! Sometimes anomalous secondary growth

! Liliaceae NEW
! Bulbs or corms, contractile roots ! Inflorescence terminal, determinate ! Flowers conspicuous ! Tepals often lined or spotted ! Nectaries at base of tepals ! Loculidal capsules ! T6,A6,G(3) capsule or berry ! Fritillaria, Erythronium, Lilium

! Melianthaceae (Death Camas)

! Bulblike rhizomes ! Toxic alkaloids ! Inflorescence terminal, indeterminate ! Flowers small ! Anther sacs confluent, opening by single slit ! Ventricidal capsules ! Seeds winged or appendaged ! T6,A6,G(3) capsules (T sometimes connate at base)

Liliales (cont).
! Calochortaceae
! Bulbs/corms present ! Flowers large ! Capsules septicidal

! Uvulariaceae
! Rhizomes ! Leaves sheathing at base ! Inflorescence indeterminate ! Tepals sometimes spotted ! Nectaries at base of tepals ! Filaments sometimes connate ! Stigmas elongate ! Capsules septicidal or loculicidal or berry

! Other families
! Trilliaceae ! Colchicaceae

! Prosartes [=Disporum],

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Convallariaceae New Asphodelaceae New Agavaceae Alliaceae New Hyacinthaceae New Asparagaceae New Hemerocallidaceae New Amaryllidaceae Iridaceae Orchidaceae ! Convallariaceae

Alternation of Generations
Dominant Life Cycle Stage (sporophyte)




Orchid Morphology

Morphology Cont.
Features Number of Floral Parts Number of Pollen Grains Leaf Venation Monocots 3 1 Parallel

Arrangement of Vascular Scattered thru Ground Bundles Tissue Number of Cotyledons 1 Roots Adventitious

! Double fertilization
1.! one sperm nucleus fuses with a egg nucleus to form a diploid zygote 2.! Another sperm nucleus fuses with both nuclei of the endosperm. 3.! The resulting nucleus is triploid nutritive tissue.

Gametophyte Dependency
! The male gametophyte consists of the pollen tube and two sperm. ! The female gametophyte consists of seven cells, one of which is the egg. The endosperm will form from another cell. ! Once a seed is formed, it is released and a new sporophyte grows.

Representative Species

Lilium bulbiferum

Cocos nucifera Saccharum arundinaceum

! Monocots are found in all environments where vegetation is possible.

Level of Diversity
! Monocots are found worldwide. ! There are between 50,000 and 60,000 monocot species worldwide.

! Various species of monocots have been used in medicine.
! Alocasia macrorrhizos

! Many monocots are edible and consumed by humans daily.

! Pineapples

! Some species are used to make clothing, roofing, and other items.
! Cordyline fruticosa

Works Cited
Conrad, Jim. "Monocots & Dicots." . September 5, 2007. Blossom Basics. 7 April 2009. monodico.htm. Doritaenopsis orchid. November 2, 2008. Orchids of Wickford. 7 April 2009. "Monocotyledon." . April 2, 2009. 7 April 2009. http:// Monocot Life Cycle. 10 April 2009. https:// Orchid Morphology. c. . . . . 14 April 2009. fig_08%20copy.gif.