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IESO 2013

Mass of Planet

Radius of Planet

Geothermal Activity

Rotation Period

Water Vapour Percentage

Eccentricity of Orbit

Magnetic Field Strength

Inclination of Rotation Axis with respect to its Orbital Plane

Green House Effect

Density of Atmosphere

Length of Semi-major axis of the orbit

Total Mass of Satellites

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

Statement

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Statement The yearly mean temperatures of planets do not

The yearly mean temperatures of planets do not match with their expected black body temperature.

Absolute variation in the temperature during the course of one day differs significantly from one planet to another.

Absolute variation in the temperature during the course of one year at the equator of the planet differs significantly from one planet to another.

On some planets, there is a large latitudinal percentage variation in temperatures.

Mean temperature (averaged over a day) on different days.

Earth is different on

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Student Code:

(Theory Test - Astronomy)

Geothermal Activity

Rotation Period

Water Vapour Percentage

Eccentricity of Orbit

Magnetic Field Strength

Green House Effect

Radius ofPlanet

Length of Semi-major axis of the orbit

Density of Atmosphere

MassofPlanet

its Orbital Plane Rotation Axis

Total Mass of Satellites

Inclination of

with respect to

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

Statement

to 7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Statement The yearly mean temperatures of planets do

The yearly mean temperatures of planets do not match with their expected black body temperature.

Absolute variation in the temperature during the course of one day differs significantly from one planet to another.

Absolute variation in the temperature during the course of one year at the equator of the planet differs significantly from one planet to another.

On some planets, there is a large latitudinal percentage variation in temperatures.

Mean temperature (averaged over a day) on different days.

Earth is different on

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Student Code:

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

(Theory Test - Astronomy)

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Theoretical Test Astronomy Time: 45 Minutes Instructions: Student Code:

Theoretical Test Astronomy

Time: 45 Minutes

Instructions:

Student Code:

Maximum Marks: 28.5

1. Please write your student code on the cover page as well as on the top right of every page of answer sheet / calculations sheets.

2. Please write your answers legibly. Illegible answers will be counted as incorrect.

3. Please write your final answers in appropriate boxes in the main answer sheet. For numerical questions, show the calculations on blank calculation sheets provided.

4. For numerical questions, you may attempt part of the answer even if you don't know the final result. There will be stepwise marking.

5. You can get as many calculations sheets as you want. Just raise your hand to ask for extra sheets. The volunteers will bring extra sheets to your table.

6. Write question number clearly at the top of the calculations sheet.

7. Read the entire question group carefully before starting to answer. Each question has a point value assigned and indicated on the right hand side of the question.

8. Any inappropriate examination behaviour will result in your withdrawal from the IESO.

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

(Theory Test - Astronomy)

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: A1. We list a few facts below

Student Code:

A1. We list a few facts below about temperatures at the surface of Venus, Earth and Mars.

(a)

The yearly mean temperatures of planets do not match with their expected black body temperature.

(b)

Absolute variation in the temperature during the course of one day differs significantly from one planet to another.

(c)

Absolute variation in the temperature during the course of one year at the equator of the planet differs significantly from one planet to another.

(d)

On some planets, there is a large latitudinal percentage variation in temperatures.

(e)

Mean temperature (averaged over a day) on Earth is different on different days.

In the table given in your answer sheet, we list a number of physical properties related to a planet and its various motions, which may or may not be relevant in explaining the facts above. In the table, tick in appropriate rows those properties which are relevant for each of the facts above. Number of relevant parameters for each row can be none, one or more than one. Total 10 points for correct tick-marks. Warning: Every wrong tick mark has penalty of -0.2 points.

A2. The maximum altitude of the Sun as seen from Mysore on summer solstice day and winter solstice day are 78 o 51' and 54 o 17' respectively. Using this information, obtain the

inclination of the Earth's axis ( ) and find the latitude of Mysore ( ).

(6 points)

A3. The mass ratio of Pluto and Charon is 8:1. The period of revolution of Charon around Pluto is about 6.387 days. You are given that

G = 6.672 x 10 -11 N m 2 kg -2

M Pluto = 1.31 x 10 22 kg,

R Pluto = 1195 km,

the Minimum and maximum distance of Pluto from Earth are 4284.7 x 10 6 km and

7528 x 10 6 km respectively.

(a)

Find the length of the semi-major axis of Charon's orbit of revolution about Pluto. (3 points)

(b)

Find the ratio a:R Pluto , where 'a' is the distance of the Centre of Mass of the

Pluto-Charon system from the center of Pluto .

(2 points)

(c)

Theoretically, what is the minimum diameter of the optical telescope which can resolve the system from Earth? Ignore effects of Earth's atmosphere.(2 points)

A4. The diagram on the next page shows the Hertzprung-Russell diagram (H-R diagram)

with six positions (A – F) indicated. The y-axis is given in terms of Solar Luminosity (L ) and x-axis gives effective surface temperature (T) of stars in Kelvin.

(a)

Which letters indicate the position of stars that have the largest and the smallest

diameters respectively?

(2 points)

(b)

Which letters indicate the stars with the same spectral class but with different

luminosities?

(1 points)

(c)

Which letters indicate the stars that are primarily burning Hydrogen? (1.5 points)

(d)

Which letter would indicate position of a white dwarf in this diagram? (1 point)

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

(Theory Test - Astronomy)

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Student Code:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

(Theory Test - Astronomy)

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Theoretical Test Astronomy Answer Sheet Student Code: A1. Please

Theoretical Test Astronomy Answer Sheet

Student Code:

A1.

Please see next page

A2.

Inclination of the Earth's axis is

Latitude of Mysore is

A3.

Pluto and Charon:

(a)

(b)

Semi-major axis =

a:R Pluto =

Charon: (a) (b) Semi-major axis = a:R P l u t o = (c) Diameter =
Charon: (a) (b) Semi-major axis = a:R P l u t o = (c) Diameter =
Charon: (a) (b) Semi-major axis = a:R P l u t o = (c) Diameter =
Charon: (a) (b) Semi-major axis = a:R P l u t o = (c) Diameter =

(c)

Diameter =

 

A4.

H-R diagram

(a)

Star of Largest Diameter

Star of Smallest Diameter

(b)

Give letters of stars

 

(c)

Give letters of stars

 

(d)

White Dwarf letter

 

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

(Theory Test - Astronomy)

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Sheet for numerical calculations (write question number

Student Code:

Sheet for numerical calculations (write question number clearly)

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

(Theory Test - Astronomy)

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Theoretical Test Astronomy Model Answers A1. Atmosphere of Planets

Theoretical Test Astronomy Model Answers

A1.

Atmosphere of Planets See table: + 0.5 points for each correct marking, -0.2 for each wrong marking.

A2.

For winter solstice,

a w = 90 –

For summer solstice (in northern tropical region),

a s = 180 – (90 –

+ )

 

= 90 +

 

Using these, Inclination of the Earth's axis,

= 23 o 26'

Latitude of Mysore, (1.5 points for each of the four steps)

= 12 o 17'

A3.

Pluto and charon:

(a) By Kepler's Third Law,

a

3 = G ( M pl + M ch ) T 2 = 9 G M pl T 2

0

4 π 2

32 π 2

(1.5 points)

Hence a 0 = 1.96 × 10 7 m

(b) The distance of barycentre from Pluto will be a 0 /9.

(c)

a = 1.965 × 10 7 b

9 × 1.195 × 10 6 = 1.83

(1.5 points)

(1 point)

(1 points)

By comparing, a:b =

One should try to resolve the Pluto-charon system, when the Pluto is closest to the Earth as

thats when the angular separation will be highest.

Let us say we are using optical wavelengths around 550nm (a slightly better approximation will be to use blue end of visible light around 400 nm)

(0.5 point)

D = 1.22 λ

θ

= 1.22 λ d pl

a 0

15 cm

(1.5 points)

A4.

H-R diagram

(a)

Star of Largest Diameter

B

Star of Smallest Diameter C

(2 points)

(b)

D and

F

(1 point)

(c)

A, E and

F

(1.5 points)

(d) C

 

(1 point)

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

(Theory Test - Astronomy)

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Practical Test Astronomy Questions Time: 90 Minutes Instructions: Student

Practical Test Astronomy Questions

Time: 90 Minutes

Instructions:

Student Code:

Maximum Marks: 34

1. Please write your student code on the cover page as well as on the top right of every page of answer sheet / calculations sheets.
2. Please write your answers legibly. Illegible answers will be counted as incorrect. Please write your final answers in appropriate boxes in the main answer sheet. For numerical questions, show the calculations on blank calculation sheets provided.

3.

4. For numerical questions, you may attempt part of the answer even if you don't know the final result. There will be stepwise marking.

5. You can get as many calculations sheets as you want. Just raise your hand to ask for extra sheets. The volunteers will bring extra sheets to your table.

6. Write question number clearly at the top of the calculations sheet.

7. Read the entire question group carefully before starting to answer. Each question has a point value assigned and indicated on the right hand side of the question.

8. Any inappropriate examination behaviour will result in your withdrawal from the IESO.

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Practical Test - Astronomy

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: 1. Construct a Sundial for Mysore (Latitude

Student Code:

1. Construct a Sundial for Mysore (Latitude = +12 o 16' N, Longitude = 77 o 33'E). You can ignore corrections due to equation of time. Materials given: a square plastic board of size of 40 cm x 40 cm, a 1 metre long metal rod, 2 nut bolts, a 30 cm scale and marker pens to make Sundial markings on the plasticboard. Use the following procedure.

To make a simple Sundial, you should make the shadow of the rod fall in the equatorial

plane. For this, push the rod through the hole at the centre of the board. Now put this device on a flat surface such that it rests on a board edge and one end of the rod. The board should be exactly perpendicular to the rod. For this, fix the nut bolts on the rod on both the sides of the board. The other end of rod should be pointing towards the north celestial pole. Write your student code on the plastic board. Show this

arrangement to the examiner.

(1 point)

(a)

Measure length of the rod from the end towards the North Celestial Pole to the board

and write on the answer sheet. Mark North facing and South facing sides of the board with letters N and S respectively. (3 points)

(b)

Mark lines showing the direction of the shadow of the rod on the board for the

winter solstice day. Make markings for every 2 hours.

(4 points)

(c)

Mark the similar lines for summer solstice day.

(3 points)

(d)

Where do you expect the shadow of the rod will be seen on the equinox days? Write answer as N (North side) / S (South side) / B (both sides) / X (neither side).(1 point)

2. You are given a sky map which shows sky for 24 hours x 120 degrees. You are also given

a list of all constellations with their IAU designations. Assume that today is the date of closing ceremony i.e. 19 th September 2013 and you are told that it is a full moon day. (2 points each)

(a)

Mark the Celestial Equator on the map at appropriate place. Denote it with letter 'Q'.

(b)

Mark the Ecliptic (apparent path of the Sun over one year) on the map at appropriate place. Denote it with letter 'E'.

(c)

Mark the Sun's position on the map for the noon of given day. Denote it with letter 'S'.

(d)

Mark the Moon's position on the map for the noon of given day. Denote it with letter 'M'.

(e)

Write the three letter IAU code of the constellation you will observe on the zenith at the time of Moonrise. Mark the position of the zenith on the map as 'Z'.

(f)

Write the three letter IAU code of the constellation you will observe on the nadir at the time of Moonrise. Mark the position of the nadir on the map as 'N'.

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Practical Test - Astronomy

7

th International Earth Science Olympiad

Student Code:

3. Picture 1 shows star trails captured by an Astronomy Olympiad student.

(a)

Identify constellation(s) in the picture. Write the three letter IAU code of the constellation(s) in your answer sheet. There are more than one constellations / parts

of constellations visible in the picture. Identify as many as you can.

(4 points)

(b)

Write the letters from the following table, corresponding to the stars, if they are

present in the picture.

(2 points)

A. Deneb

D. Dubhe

G. Denebola

B. Rigel

E. Algol

H. Mizar

C. Spica

F. Regulus

I. Betelgeuse

(c)

Let us assume that stars numbered as 1 and 2 have nearly the same Right Ascension (R.A.) Find exposure time of the photograph. (4 points)

Picture 1: Photo Credit: Mr. Chiraag Juwekar. Taken on 25/03/2012
Picture 1: Photo Credit: Mr. Chiraag Juwekar. Taken on 25/03/2012

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Practical Test - Astronomy

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: List of Constellations with IAU Codes No.

Student Code:

List of Constellations with IAU Codes

No.

Constellation

Code

No.

Constellation

Code

No.

Constellation

Code

1

Andromeda

And

31

Cygnus

Cyg

60

Orion

Ori

2

Antlia

Ant

32

Delphinus

Del

61

Pavo

Pav

3

Apus

Aps

33

Dorado

Dor

62

Pegasus

Peg

4

Aquarius

Aqr

34

Draco

Dra

63

Perseus

Per

5

Aquila

Aql

35

Equuleus

Equ

64

Phoenix

Phe

6

Ara

Ara

36

Eridanus

Eri

65

Pictor

Pic

7

Aries

Ari

37

Fornax

For

66

Pisces

Psc

8

Auriga

Aur

38

Gemini

Gem

67

Pisces Austrinus

PsA

9

Bootes

Boo

39

Grus

Gru

68

Puppis

Pup

10

Caelum

Cae

40

Hercules

Her

69

Pyxis

Pyx

11

Camelopardalis

Cam

41

Horologium

Hor

70

Reticulum

Ret

12

Cancer

Cnc

42

Hydra

Hya

71

Sagitta

Sge

13

Canes Venatici

CVn

43

Hydrus

Hyi

72

Sagittarius

Sgr

14

Canis Major

CMa

44

Indus

Ind

73

Scorpius

Sco

15

Canis Minor

CMi

45

Lacerta

Lac

74

Sculptor

Scl

16

Capricornus

Cap

46

Leo

Leo

75

Scutum

Sct

17

Carina

Car

47

Leo Minor

LMi

76

Serpens

Ser

18

Cassiopeia

Cas

48

Lepus

Lep

77

Sextans

Sex

19

Centaurus

Cen

49

Libra

Lib

78

Taurus

Tau

20

Cepheus

Cep

50

Lupus

Lup

79

Telescopium

Tel

21

Cetus

Cet

51

Lynx

Lyn

80

Triangulum

Tri

22

Chamaleon

Cha

52

Lyra

Lyr

81

Triangulum Australe

TrA

23

Circinus

Cir

53

Mensa

Men

82

Tucana

Tuc

24

Columba

Col

54

Microscopium

Mic

83

Ursa Major

UMa

25

Coma Berenices

Com

55

Monoceros

Mon

84

Ursa Minor

UMi

26

Corona Australis

CrA

56

Musca

Mus

85

Vela

Vel

27

Corona Borealis

CrB

57

Norma

Nor

86

Virgo

Vir

28

Corvus

Crv

58

Octans

Oct

87

Volans

Vol

29

Crater

Crt

59

Ophiucus

Oph

88

Vulpecula

Vul

30

Crux

Cru

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Practical Test - Astronomy

7 th International

Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: This is colour inverted copy of the

Student Code:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: This is colour inverted copy of the

This is colour inverted copy of the central part of the picture in the question paper.

Practical Test Astronomy Answer Sheet

1. Sundial

(a)

Length of the rod =

(d)

2.

(e)

IAU code =

(f)

IAU code =

3. Star Trails

(a)

Constellation Names

(b)

Star Letters

(c)

Exposure time =

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Practical Test - Astronomy

7

th International Earth Science Olympiad

Student Code:

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Practical Test - Astronomy

7

th International Earth Science Olympiad

Student Code:

Sheet for numerical calculations (write question number clearly)

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Practical Test - Astronomy

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Practical Test Astronomy Model Answers 1. Sundial Length of

Practical Test Astronomy Model Answers

1. Sundial Length of the rod from end to the board = 8.0 cm (7.5 cm)

2. IAU code – Oph (We will also accept Her - 0.75)

(e)

(f)

IAU code – Lup (We will also accept Ori - 0.75)

3. Star Trails

(a)

UMa (1.5 points), CVn (1 point), Leo, LMi, Dra (0.5 point each)

(b)

Star Letters D, H

(c)

Exposure time = 30 minutes

Numerical Calculations

Question 1:

(a) As the rod should point to NCP, length of the rod on the ground side should be

where is the latitude.

Thus, the length on the other side is 8.0 cm. (may be 7.5 cm, given plastic board is 0.5 cm thick)

x = 20 / tan ( ) = 92 cm,

(2 points) (1 point) (1 point) (0.6 points) (0.4 points each)

Marking N and S

(b) winter solstice markings should be on side marked by S

Marking local noon shadow line Symmetric markings for other lines at 30 degrees

(c) Realising that Summer Solstice markings will be on the other side of the board (1.5 points)

Actual markings for Summer Solstice

(1.5 points)

(d) B

(1 point)

Question 3 (c)

Connecting start and end points for trails of a few stars (at least 3) and drawing their perpendicular

bisectors to find NCP

Measuring the angle subtended by these trails at the NCP as 7.5 degrees (6-9 degrees accepted) (1 point)

Estimating exposure time as 30 minutes

(1.5 points)

(1.5 point)

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Practical Test - Astronomy

7

th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013 Practical Test

Mysore, India, September 11 – 19, 2013

Practical Test - Astronomy

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Student’s Name and Code: Mysuru, India, 11

Student Code:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Student’s Name and Code: Mysuru, India, 11

Student’s Name and Code:

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

Instructions:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Instructions: Student Code: 1. Please write your name and

Student Code:

1. Please write your name and nationality in English on the cover page.

2. The time allocated for this examination is 75 minutes.

3. Please write your answer legibly, illegible answer will be counted as incorrect.

4. Please write your answer only on this test booklet (English version only). For countries needing translation, additional question paper in their mother tongue is provided for reference only.

5. Please circle the most appropriate answer/answers among the given options.

6. Read the entire question group carefully before starting to answer. Marks for each sub-question are indicated on the right.

7. Some questions need the correct answer/s to be picked, some are true/false type, some are fill in blanks, and some expect short answers. Answer appropriately.

8. Any inappropriate examination behavior will result in disqualification.

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Time allotted: 75 minutes Total Marks: 61

Student Code:

Time allotted: 75 minutes

Total Marks: 61

1. The figure below shows global freshwater withdrawal as a percentage of total available (see legend for color code) in the year 1995 and a model projection for the year 2025CE.

in the year 1995 and a model projection for the year 2025CE. Answer the following questions
in the year 1995 and a model projection for the year 2025CE. Answer the following questions

Answer the following questions by choosing the correct option:

(5 min)

(i) One of the countries in which there is no significant change in water stress between 1995 and 2025 CE is

A. Egypt.

1 mark

B. USA.

C. India.

D. China.

(ii) The reason for the answer of (i) above is

2 marks

A. This country is located near the equator.

B. This country has already limited water resources.

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: C. This country has the largest population

Student Code:

C. This country has the largest population in the world.

D. This country has a relatively higher growth rate of population.

(iii) Out of the three continents in the southern hemisphere, the most affected is Africa, the

reason being, the continent as a whole

2 marks

A. has the largest fraction of desert area among the three.

B. receives the least rainfall among the three.

C. has the highest population among the three.

D. has more runoff through rivers such as Nile and Congo.

2. Weathering of rocks increases with temperature when more CO 2 is added to the Earth's atmosphere. What would happen when there is no volcanic eruption on the Earth for millions

of years:

5 min

(i) In addition to the long term climate change caused by changes in the Earth's orbital

parameters,

2 marks

A. the Earth would gradually become warmer because of CO 2 accumulation.

B. the Earth would gradually cool because of consumption of CO 2 for weathering of rocks.

C. there would be no additional change in the Earth's temperature.

(ii) Water is able to weather rocks because

2 marks

A. it is present in all the three states of matter (i.e., solid ice, liquid water and water

vapour) on the Earth.

B. it is the most abundant compound on the Earth’s surface.

C. it can dissolve silicates, when it is pure.

D. it is a polar molecule, and in addition, dissolved carbon dioxide makes it acidic.

(iii) In the past (Neoproterozoic times), the whole Earth is believed to have cooled into a

'snowball'. A possible reason could be that

1 mark

A. there were more frequent solar eclipses reducing incoming solar radiation.

B. there were frequent volcanic eruptions throwing aerosols into Earth's atmosphere,

cooling the Earth.

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: C . changes in the orbital parameters

Student Code:

C. changes in the orbital parameters of the Earth were more severe.

D. there were no volcanic eruptions for a long time, while weathering continued to

consume the atmospheric carbon dioxide.

3. At present the Earth's surface is 70% oceans and 30 % land. If it were 100% oceans and no

land, mark the following sentences as True (T) or False (F)

4 x 1.25 = 5 marks; 5 min

(i) There will be no land breeze and sea breeze ( T / F )

(ii) There will be sea breeze, but no land breeze

( T

/

F

)

(iii)

There will be seasonal rainfall in the tropics, but much weaker than at present

( T

/

F

)

(iv)

Both hemispheres will have the same season (e.g. summer) at the same time

( T

/

F

)

4. Nansen observed that ice floating in the Arctic Ocean moves at an angle of 45° to the right

of the wind and not along the direction of the wind. Which forces in balance govern the

movement of ice?

2 marks ;2 min

A. attraction of sun, moon and earth

B. wind force, friction and Coriolis force

C. pressure gradient, gravity and Coriolis force

D. winds, molecular friction and gravity

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: 5. The figure below shows the variation

Student Code:

5. The figure below shows the variation of temperature with height. 6 x 1 = 6 marks; 5 min

140 130 120 A 110 100 90 80 B 70 60 50 C 40 D
140
130
120
A
110
100
90
80
B
70
60
50
C
40
D
30
20
E
10
F
0
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
height (km)

Temperature (deg. C)

Write the names of the various layers (as marked A to F in the figure above and Column I in Table in the next page) such as troposphere, stratosphere, ionosphere, mesosphere, stratopause and tropopause, in Column II. Fill each row in column III with one or more of the following (you can leave it blank if there is

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: no appropriate option given): Cumulus clouds, cirrus

Student Code:

no appropriate option given): Cumulus clouds, cirrus clouds, top of cumulonimbus clouds, noctilucent clouds, aurorae, and UV absorption by ozone.

I

II

III

A

   

B

   

C

   

D

   

E

   

F

   

6. (i) The graph below shows a schematic of the evolution of gases H 2 , O 2 , N 2 and CO 2 in the Earth’s atmosphere. Match the curves against the gases in the Table in the next page. 4 x 1 = 4 marks; 7 min

7 Theory Test – Atmosphere & Hydrosphere
7
Theory Test – Atmosphere & Hydrosphere

.

Mysuru, India, 11 19 September 2013

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: A B C D (ii) Fill in

Student Code:

A

B

C

D

(ii) Fill in the blank:

According to this, banded iron formation (deposition of iron oxide in the form of bands) in

the Earth’s History started after around

million years ago

1 mark

7. The mean temperature of the Earth is governed by the overall radiation energy balance, i.e., net solar radiation absorbed equals the radiation back to space. If S o is the solar constant, T the mean temperature, the albedo, and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, then, which of the following is

the correct representation of this?

2 marks; 3 min

A. (1) S o = T 4

B. S o = 4 (1)T 4

C. (1) S o = 2 T 4

D. (1) S o = 4 T 4

8. The Rainfall distribution in two regions P and Q is shown in the Table. 4 min

Monthly Rainfall (mm)

Region

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

P 2

0

1

0

0

125

300

450

250

75

10

7

Q 98

99

102

101

100

115

100

95

105

99

101

105

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

Pick out the correct statement/s.

Earth Science Olympiad Pick out the correct statement/s . Student Code: 2 marks A . The

Student Code:

2 marks

A. The interannual variability of rainfall is more at P than at Q.

B. The intra-annual variability of rainfall is more at P than at Q.

C. The average monthly rainfall is about 120 mm at Q.

D. The averages of monthly rainfall over one year at P and Q are the same.

9. Earth is warming due to CO 2 increase. In the tropical belt 30 o S to 30 o N, which among the

following statements are true?

2 x 2 = 4 marks;

5 min

A. Largest warming occurs in the atmospheric layer 10-14 km above the surface.

B. Largest warming occurs in the stratosphere.

C. The entire atmospheric column from surface to 50 km height warms.

D. Lower troposphere warms and stratosphere cools.

E. Warming is at the surface and rest of the atmosphere is unaffected.

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: 10 . Write the name the clouds

Student Code:

10. Write the name the clouds shown below in the Table below

4 x 0.5 = 2 marks; 2 min

A B D C
A
B
D
C

A

B

C

D

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: 11 . The figure below shows the

Student Code:

11. The figure below shows the sea level pressure chart and the figure in the next page, the geopotential height of 500 hPa level (arbitrary units). Indicate the wind directions by marking arrows at locations A, B, C, D, and E in the figure below, and G and H in figure in the next page. 8 x 0.5 = 4 marks; 7 min

G and H in figure in the next page. 8 x 0.5 = 4 marks; 7

Sea level pressure (hPa)

D E C B F A
D
E
C
B
F
A

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: 500 hPa geopotential G H 12 .

Student Code:

500 hPa geopotential

G H
G
H

12. If the rise in global mean sea level is 55 m due to the melting of Antarctic ice, estimate the approximate volume of ice. Take the radius of Earth to be ~6720 km. (Assume that the area of the oceans does not change with sea level and ignore the small difference in densities of ice and

water)

5 marks 10 min

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: 13 . In an ocean where the

Student Code:

13. In an ocean where the temperature of the water column increases only by solar radiation, by what amount the temperature of a uniformly mixed column of water of depth 100 m would increase for 50 W m -2 of radiation incident for a period of 10 hours? The specific heat of water is

4200 J/kg and density is 1025 kg/m 3

2 marks; 3 min

14. Cricket or baseball players are not concerned about Coriolis force deflecting the ball. But an ocean current flowing from the equator to mid-latitude is deflected by the Coriolis force because:

2 marks; 2 min

A. the cricket ball or baseball is smaller than the Earth.

B. the time of flight of the ball is much shorter than the period of Earth’s rotation.

C. the Earth is attracted by the sun and the moon, but the cricket ball or baseball is not.

D. the shape of the Earth is not exactly spherical, but the ball is almost spherical.

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: 15 . A tropical cyclone, when moving

Student Code:

15. A tropical cyclone, when moving over tropical ocean becomes more intense, whereas when it

moves over land, it becomes weaker mainly because:

1 min

1 mark;

A. trees and buildings obstruct cyclone movement.

B. evaporation from the sea surface is higher.

C. of higher wind speed over land.

D. of higher precipitation over land.

16. Consider an ocean current that is 200 km wide and 200 m deep flowing with a uniform speed of

2 marks; 3 min

1 m s -1 . How much water is carried by this current in one year?

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: 17 . Given below two zonal distributions

Student Code:

17. Given below two zonal distributions of

(figures on left and right). Identify which figure corresponds to an El Nino and which is a non-El

Nino year.

vertical thermal structure of the equatorial Pacific.

2 marks;, 2 min

thermal structure of the equatorial Pacific. 2 marks;, 2 min Left Panel Right panel Mysuru, India,
thermal structure of the equatorial Pacific. 2 marks;, 2 min Left Panel Right panel Mysuru, India,

Left Panel

Right panel

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: 18 . Interactions of the atmosphere, cryosphere,

Student Code:

18. Interactions of the atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and the biosphere among them lead to many positive and negative feedbacks in the climate system. A positive

feedback is one which helps the agent which caused it to increase and a negative feedback is one which works against the agent which caused it. Identify the following observations into

positive (+), negative () feedback and no feedback (0).

3 x 1 = 3 marks; 3 min

(i) Higher temperature leading to higher evaporation and so more water vapour in the

troposphere ( + /

/

0

)

(ii) Additional ice formation in the polar regions, increasing Earth's albedo. ( + /

/

0 )

(iii) Addition of CO 2 to the Earth's atmosphere (e.g., by volcanism), and increasing the

temperature and weathering rate of rocks.

( +

/

/

0

)

19.

The CO 2 that reaches deep parts of the ocean takes about /

/ to return to atmosphere

because\

\

2 marks; 2 min

 

A.

/10 years/, \of El Nino and La Nina\

B.

/6 months to one year/, \of monsoons\

C.

/10000 years/, \there are no currents in the deep ocean\

D.

/1000 years/, \deep ocean circulation is slow\

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Mysuru, India, 11 – 19 September 2013

Student Code:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Mysuru, India, 11 – 19 September 2013

ISEO 2013 Hydrosphere and Atmosphere Theory, Mysuru, India, Correct Answers and marks

Question

Subquestion

Correct

Marks

number

number

answer

1

(i)

A

1

1

(ii)

B

2

1

(iii)

C

2

2

(i)

B

2

2

(ii)

D

2

2

(iii)

D

1

3

(i)

T

1.25

3

(ii)

F

1.25

3

(iii)

T

1.25

3

(iv)

F

1.25

4

-

B

2

Question

Subquestion

Answer

Answer

Answer

marks

No.

No.

5

-

A

Ionosphere

Aurorae

0.5+0.5

5

-

B

Mesosphere

Noctilucent

0.5+0.5

clouds

5

-

C

Stratopause

---

0.5+0.5

5

-

D

Stratosphere

UV absorption by ozone

0.5+0.5

5

-

E

Tropopause

Top of

0.5+0.5

cumulonimbus

clouds

5

-

F

Troposphere

Cirrus clouds,

0.5+0.5

cumulus

clouds

6

(i)

A

-

N

2

1

6

(i)

B

-

CO 2

1

6

(i)

C

-

H

2

1

6

(i)

D

-

O

2

1

6

(ii)

-

-

2000

1

Question

Subquestion

answer

marks

No

No.

7

-

D

2

8

-

B

and D

1

+1

9

-

A

and D

2+2

10

A

Cumulus congestus

0.5

10

B

Cumulonimbus

0.5

10

C

Cirrus

0.5

10

D

Altostratus,

0.5

altocumulus

11

 

See figures below

8

X 0.5

(For

each

correct

arrow

0.5)

12

-

2.18x 10 16 m 3

Correct

Area 2

Multiply

by70%

2

mark

Volume

1marks

13

-

0.004 °C

2

14

-

B

2

15

-

B

1

Question no.

Subquestion No

Answer

Marks

16

-

1.26 x 10 15 m 3

2

17

-

Left El Nino Right non-El

1 + 1

Nino

18

(i)

+

1

18

(ii)

+

1

18

(iii)

1

19

 

D

2

Total marks

Nino 18 (i) + 1 18 (ii) + 1 18 (iii) – 1 19   D
At G wind is zero, so no direction

At G wind is zero, so no direction

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Student’s Name and Code: Mysuru, India, 11

Student Code:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Student’s Name and Code: Mysuru, India, 11

Student’s Name and Code:

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

Instructions:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Instructions: Student Code: 1. Please write your name and

Student Code:

1. Please write your name and nationality in English on the cover page.

2. The time allocated for this examination is 30 minutes.

3. Please write your answer legibly, illegible answer will be counted as incorrect.

4. Please write your answer only on this test booklet.

5. You may respond to questions in English. For objective type questions, circle the

most appropriate answer.

6. Read the entire question carefully before starting to answer. Marks for each question are indicated on the right.

7. Any inappropriate examination behavior will result in disqualification.

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Instruction to participants about field measurement :

Student Code:

Instruction to participants about field measurement:

1. Students will be taken to the meteorological observatory located in the Agricultural farm station at Naganahalli.

2. All participants should wear cap, non-skid shoes, T-shirt and trousers suitable for carrying out the field experiment.

3. All participants must strictly follow the instruction of the instructor.

4. Care should be taken while climbing the ladder not to slip and also mind your head not to get hurt while take the reading for wind speed

5. Initial reading for serial number 3 will be announced on the day of the test.

Measurement of the meteorological parameters

The following observations were carried out by the student:

a) Dry bulb temperature

b) Wet bulb temperature

c) Wind speed

d) Wind direction

e) Cloud types

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad DATA SHEET Student Code: 1. Name of the Student

DATA SHEET

Student Code:

1.

Name of the Student

 

2.

Student Code

Serial

Parameter

Unit

Reading

Number

1

Dry bulb temperature

Degree Centigrade

 

2

Wet bulb temperature

Degree Centigrade

 

3

Wind speed

Initial Reading=

 

4

Wind direction

Degrees

 

5

Cloud type

   

1. Using the above data/observation answer the following questions:

Questions:

a) The wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures differ because

(2 marks)

A. They are of different types one is mercury thermometer, the other, resistance thermometer.

B. Water has a higher specific heat than air.

C. Air has a higher specific heat than water.

D. Water loses energy due to evaporation.

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

b) Circle the correct option:

Earth Science Olympiad b) Circle the correct option: Student Code: (2 marks) A. Evaporation increases with

Student Code:

(2 marks)

A. Evaporation increases with decreasing temperature, and also with increasing humidity.

B. Evaporation decreases with increasing temperature and humidity.

C. Evaporation decreases with increasing wind speed and temperature.

D. Evaporation increases with increasing wind speed and temperature.

c) What is the wind speed (m/s) and direction measured by you at the met

station you visited?

3 marks

d) Circle the types of cloud that were observed by you at the met station

you visited?

A. Cumulus

B. Cirrus

C. Stratus

D. Nimbus

E. Altocumulus

F. Altostratus

2 marks

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: e) The water level in the evaporimeter

Student Code:

e) The water level in the evaporimeter on 5 September 2013 was 14 cm at 09:00 Hrs. There were two episodes of rain on 7 th September and 10 th September with rainfall of 3 cm and 5 cm respectively. If the water level in the evaporimeter was 19 cm on 11 th September 2013 , 09:00 Hrs. what is the average rate of evaporation during the entire period of observation

in mm/hr?

5 marks

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Instruction to participants about field measurement :

Student Code:

Instruction to participants about field measurement:

1. Students will be taken to the meteorological observatory located in the Agricultural farm station at Naganahalli.

2. All participants should wear cap, non-skid shoes, T-shirt and trousers suitable for carrying out the field experiment.

3. All participants must strictly follow the instruction of the instructor.

4. Care should be taken while climbing the ladder not to slip and also mind your head not to get hurt while take the reading for wind speed

Measurement of the meteorological parameters

The following observations would be carried out by the student:

a) Dry bulb temperature

b) Wet bulb temperature

c) Wind speed

d) Wind direction

e) Cloud types

 

DATA SHEET

 

3.

Name of the Student

 

4.

Student Code

Serial

Parameter

Unit

Reading

Number

1

Dry bulb temperature

Degree Centigrade

 

2

Wet bulb temperature

Degree Centigrade

 

3

Wind speed

Initial Reading=

 

4

Wind direction

Degrees

 

5

Cloud type

   

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Mysuru, India, 11 – 19 September 2013

Student Code:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Mysuru, India, 11 – 19 September 2013

ISEO 2013 Atmosphere Practical,Mysuru, India, Correct Answers and marks

Question

Subquestion

Correct answer

Marks

number

number

1

(a)

D

2

1

(b)

D

2

1

(c)

Final Reading-

3

Initial

Reading/Duration

1

(d)

Answer to be

2

decided

1

(e)

0.2 mm/hr

5

(30/144)

Total marks

14

1

2

2

2

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Student’s Name and Code: ` Mysuru, India,

Student Code:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Student’s Name and Code: ` Mysuru, India,

Student’s Name and Code:

`

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

Instructions:

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Instructions: Student Code: 1. Please write your name and

Student Code:

1. Please write your name and nationality in English on the cover page.

2. The time allocated for this examination is 30 minutes.

3. Please write your answer legibly, illegible answer will be counted as incorrect.

4. Please write your answer only on this test booklet.

5. You may respond to questions in English.

6. Read the entire question carefully before starting to answer. Marks for each question are indicated on the right.

7. Any inappropriate examination behavior will result in disqualification.

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

7 t h International Earth Science Olympiad Student Code: Two sets of data pertaining to profiles

Student Code:

Two sets of data pertaining to profiles of temperature, salinity and (density-1000) from two locations on from the north Indian Ocean are given below. Draw the vertical distribution of temperature and salinity. Use one graph sheet each to draw the Data SET-1 and Data SET-2 and answer the following questions.

Data SET-1

Depth

Temperature

Salinity

Density-1000

(m)

(°C)

(PSU)

(kg m -3 )

(also parts

per mil)

0

29.03

31.04

19.09

-10

28.99

31.05

19.10

-20

28.98

31.06

19.11

-30

28.96

32.56

20.35

-40

28.97

33.41

21.80

-50

28.96

34.38

22.98

-75

23.54

34.69

23.94

-90

23.21

34.73

24.56

-100

19.79

34.79

24.98

-125

17.85

34.86

25.57

-150

15.87

34.91

25.71

-200

13.43

34.99

26.30

7 th International Earth Science Olympiad

Data SET-2

h International Earth Science Olympiad Data – SET-2 Student Code: Depth Temperature Salinity

Student Code:

Depth

Temperature

Salinity

Density-1000 (kg m -3 )

(m)

(°C)

(PSU)

(also parts

per mil)

0

26.00

36.54

24.20

-10

25.98

36.53

24.20

-20

25.95

36.53

24.21

-30