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Mar 14, 2014

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Piezo Harvesting Review

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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56 Aufrufe

Piezo Harvesting Review

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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1007/s12541-011-0151-3

Heung Soo Kim1, Joo-Hyong Kim2 and Jaehwan Kim3,#

1 Department of Mechanical, Robotics and Energy Engineering, Dongguk University-Seoul, 26 Pil-dong 3-Ga, Jung-gu, Seoul, South Korea, 100-715 2 Department of Electronic Engineering, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju, South Korea, 501-759 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-ku, Incheon, South Korea, 402-751 # Corresponding Author / E-mail: jaehwan@inha.ac.kr, TEL: +82-32-860-7326, FAX: +82-32-832-7325 KEYWORDS: Energy Harvesting, Piezoelectric, Vibration, Energy generation, Micro Power

This paper reviews energy harvesting technology from mechanical vibration. Recent advances on ultralow power portable electronic devices and wireless sensor network require limitless battery life for better performance. People searched for permanent portable power sources for advanced electronic devices. Energy is everywhere around us and the most important part in energy harvesting is energy transducer. Piezoelectric materials have high energy conversion ability from mechanical vibration. A great amount of researches have been conducted to develop simple and efficient energy harvesting devices from vibration by using piezoelectric materials. Representative piezoelectric materials can be categorized into piezoceramics and piezopolymers. This paper reviews key ideas and performances of the reported piezoelectric energy harvesting from vibration. Various types of vibration devices, piezoelectric materials and mathematical modeling of vibrational energy harvestings are reviewed.

Manuscript received: October 25, 2011 / Accepted: November 8, 2011

1. Introduction

Energy harvesting is defined as capturing minute amounts of energy from one or more of the surrounding energy sources, accumulating them and storing them for later use. Energy harvesting is also called as power harvesting or energy scavenging. With recent advances on wireless and MEMS technology, energy harvesting is highlighted as the alternatives of the conventional battery. Ultra low power portable electronics and wireless sensors use the conventional batteries as their power sources, but the life of the battery is limited and very short compared to the working life of the devices. The replacement or recharging of the battery is inefficient and sometimes impossible. Therefore, a great amount of researches have been conducted about the energy harvesting technology as a self-power source of portable devices or wireless sensor network system. In the view point of energy conversion, human beings have already used energy harvesting technology in the form of windmill, watermill, geothermal and solar energy. The energy came from natural sources, called renewable energy, is emerged as future power source due to limited fossil fuel and nuclear power instability such as Fukusima nuclear crisis. Since the renewable energy

harvesting plants generate kW or MW level power, it is called macro energy harvesting technology. On the contrast, micro energy harvesting technology is focused on the alternatives of the conventional battery. Micro energy harvesting technology is based on mechanical vibration, mechanical stress and strain, thermal energy from furnace, heaters and friction sources, sun light or room light, human body, chemical or biological sources, which can generate mW or W level power. In this paper, the energy harvesting is limited to micro energy harvesting. Since piezoelectric material can convert mechanical vibration into electrical energy with very simple structure, piezoelectric energy harvesting is highlighted as a self-power source of wireless sensor network system.1 Piezoelectricity represents pressure electricity and is a property of certain crystalline materials such as quartz, Rochelle salt, tourmaline, and barium titanate that develop electricity when pressure is applied.2 This is called the direct effect. On the other hand, these crystals undergo deformation when an electric field is applied, which is termed as the converse effect. Converse effect can be used as an actuator and direct effect can be used as a sensor or energy transducer. The coupled electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric materials can be modeled by two linearized constitutive equations.2

Fig. 1 Comparison of the energy density for the three types of mechanical to electrical energy converters9

d Di = eij E j + dim m

E k = d c jk E j + S km m

where vector D is the dielectric displacement in N/mV or C/m2, k is the strain vector, E is the applied electric field vector in volts/meter, and m is stress vector in N/m2. The piezoelectric d constants are the piezoelectric coefficients d im and d c jk in m/V or 2 E is the C/N, the dielectric permittivity e in N/V or F/m, and S km 2 elastic compliance matrix in m /N. The superscripts c and d refer to the converse and direct effects, respectively, and the superscript and E indicate that the quantity is measured at constant stress and constant electric field, respectively. Representative piezoelectric materials can be categorized into piezoceramics and piezopolymers. Piezoceramics have large electro-mechanical coupling constants and provide high energy conversion rate, but they are too brittle to use general shape energy transducer. On the other hand, piezopolymers have smaller electromechanical coupling constants compared to the piezoceramics, but they are very flexible. Table 1 shows material characteristics of representative piezoceramics (PZT-5H, PZT-8) and piezopolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF). Based on direct piezoelectricity, many research works have been conducted for piezoelectric energy harvesting from mechanical vibration.3-8 This paper reviews piezoelectric energy harvesting technology from mechanical vibration.

i

j ij

(a) 31-Mode

(b) 33-Mode

(c) Compression strain along 3-axis Fig. 3 Conventional axis definition for a PZT material11

In this section, vibrational energy harvesting with piezoceramics are reviewed. Various types of vibration devices, single crystal piezoelectric materials and mathematical modeling of vibrational energy harvestings are described in the followings. Priya9 provided a review of a comprehensive coverage of the

piezoelectric energy harvesting using low profile transducers and the results for various energy harvesting prototype devices. He also gave a brief discussion on selection of piezoelectric materials for on and off resonance applications. According to his theoretical calculation, the energy density of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices is 3-5 times higher than electrostatic and electromagnetic devices (Fig. 1).

Paradiso et al.10 proposed parasitic power harvesting from piezoelectric shoes using unimorph strip made from piezoceramic composite material and a stave made from a multilayer laminate of PVDF foil that periodically broadcasts a digital RFID as the bearer walks (Fig. 2). They further explored the harnessing of parasitic energy from piezoelectric shoes and used simple mechanical structures and flexible piezoelectric materials which results a comfortable piezoelectric shoe design (Fig. 3).11

A cantilever type vibration energy harvesting has very simple structure and can produce a large deformation under vibration. Flynn and Sander12 imposed fundamental limitations on PZT (lead zirconate titanate) material and indicated that mechanical stress limit is the effective constraint in typical PZT materials. They reported that a mechanical stress-limited work cycle was 330W/cm3 at 100 kHz for PZT-5H. Elvin et al.13 proposed a theoretical model by using a beam element and performed experiment to harvest power from PZT material. They showed that a simple beam bending can provide the self-power source of the strain energy sensor. Wright et al. presented series of vibrational energy harvesting devices.14-17 First, they indicated low-level vibrations occurring in common household and office environments as a potential power source and investigated both capacitive MEMS and piezoelectric converters.14 The simulated results showed that power harvesting using piezoelectric conversion is significantly higher. They optimized a two-layer cantilever piezoelectric generator and validated by theoretical analysis (Fig. 4).15 They also modeled a small cantilever based devices using piezoelectric materials that can scavenge power from low-level ambient vibration sources and presented new design configuration to enhance the power harvesting capacity.16 It used axially compressed piezoelectric bimorph in order to decrease resonance frequency up to 24%. They found that power output to be 6590% of the nominal value at frequencies 1924% below the unloaded resonance frequency.17 Inmans group presented more than 10 papers related to vibrational energy harvesting using PZT, bimorph Quick Pack (QP) actuator and micro fiber composite (MFC). Sodano et al.18 investigated monolithic piezoelectric (PZT) and MFC and estimated the efficiency of both the materials. They also investigated three types of piezoelectric devices experimentally, a monolithic PZT, bimorph QP and MFC energy harvesting devices to determine their capacity to recharge a discharged battery.19 Shen et al.20 proposed a PZT piezoelectric cantilever with a micromachined Si proof mass for a low frequency vibration energy harvesting application. The average power and power density were 0.32 W and 416 W/cm3. Liu et al.21 developed an array of power generator based on thick-film piezoelectric cantilevers in order to improve frequency flexibility and power output. They reported an improved performance of 3.98 mW effective electrical power and 3.93 DC output voltage to resistance load. Choi et al.22 developed an energy harvesting MEMS device using thin film PZT to enable self-supportive sensors. Resonating at specific frequencies of an

(b) Cymbal type24 Fig. 5 Conventional piezoelectric energy harvesters external vibrational energy source can create electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. The effect of proof mass, beam shape and damping on the power generating performance were modeled to provide guideline for maximum power harvesting from environmentally available low frequency vibrations.

Cymbal structure can produce a large in-plane strain under a transverse external force, which is beneficial for the micro energy harvesting. Kim et al.23 reported that piezoelectric energy harvesting showed a promising results under pre-stress cyclic conditions and validated the experimental results with finite element analysis. Li et al.24 presented a two ring-type piezoelectric stacks, one pair of bow-shaped elastic plates, and one shaft that precompresses them (Fig. 5). The reported that flex-compressive mode piezoelectric transducer has the ability to generate more electric voltage output and power output as compared to conventional flextensional mode.

Stack type piezoelectric transducer can produce a large electrical energy since it uses d33 mode of piezoelectric materials and has a large capacitance because of multi-stacking of piezoelectric material layers. Adhikari et al.25 proposed a stochastic approach using stack configuration rather than cantilever beam harmonic excitation at resonance and analyzed two cases, with inductor in the electrical circuit and without inductor. Lefeuvre et

Fig. 7 Curved PZT unimorph excited in d31-mode by a normal distributed force27 al.26 proposed a synchronized switch damping (SSD) in vibrational piezoelectric energy harvesting (Fig. 6). They claimed that SSD increases the electrically converted energy resulting from the piezoelectric mechanical loading cycle. This stack type can be weak under mechanical shocks.

Since shell structure can generate larger strain than flat plate, it can improve the efficiency of piezoelectric energy harvesting. Yoon et al.27 employed a curved piezoceramic to increase the charge because of mechanical strain (Fig. 7). They optimized the analytical model using shell theory and linear piezoelectric constitutive equations to develop a charge generation expression. Yoon et al.28 investigated a ring-shaped PZT-5A element exposed to gunfire shock experimentally using pneumatic shock machine. They found dependence of piezoelectric constant on load-rate, the shock-aging of piezoelectric effect, and the dependence of energy-transfer efficiency on the change in normalized impulse. Chen et al.29 analyzed circular piezoelectric shell of polarized ceramics under torsional vibration to harvest electric output. The proposed structure harvested electrical energy from torsional vibration.

Theoretical modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices should include not only its structure but also piezoelectric coupling effect as well as electrical behavior. Erturk and Inman30 proposed an improved mathematical model and made an attempt to correct the oversimplified issues related to mathematical formulation like piezoelectric coupling, physical modeling, low fidelity models and base motion modeling. They also proposed correction factors for

single degree of freedom base excitation model and examined that the single degree of freedom harmonic base excitation relations which are commonly used by a number of researcher for harvesting energy using mechanical vibration.31 They also reported a closedform analytical solutions of bimorph cantilever configurations with series and parallel connections of piezoceramic layers.32 Marqui et al.33 presented a electromechanically coupled finite element (FE) plate model based on Kirchhoff plate assumptions that also account the effect of conductive electrodes to predict the electrical power output of piezoelectric energy harvester plates. The FEA simulation results are validated with the experimental and analytical solution for a unimorph cantilever beam. Renno et al.34 optimized the piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester by using an inductor and a resistive load and it is concluded that the addition of a inductor in the circuit enhances the power harvesting capacity. Pouline et al.35 compared an electromagnetic system made of a magnet in translation within a coil and piezoelectric system which is a PZT ceramic bar embedded at one end and constrained at the other end. They predicted a strong similarity and duality in signal level. Ajitsaria et al.36 anticipated analytical approach based on Euler Bernoulli beam theory and Timoshenko beam equations for the generation of voltage and power. They showed that the comparison between the experimental results and simulation were satisfactory. Hu et al.37 proposed a modeling of a piezoelectric harvester as an integrated electro-mechanical system, by characterizing the interaction between the harvesting structure and the storage circuit with a nonlinear rectifier. They showed that the power density can be maximized by varying the non-dimensional inductance for a fixed non-dimensional aspect ratio together with a fixed nondimensional end mass. Shu and Lien38 calculated the energy conversion efficiency under steady state condition for a rectified piezoelectric power harvester. They found that optimization criteria depend upon the relative strength of the electromechanical coupling. Marzencki et al.39 proposed a passive, wideband adaptive system by employing mechanical nonlinear strain stiffening. They reported experimentally verified frequency adaptability of over 36% for a clampedclamped beam device at 2 g input acceleration. They claimed that the proposed solution was perfectly suited for autonomous industrial machinery surveillance systems, where high amplitude vibrations are abundant. Dietl et al.40 proposed a Timoshenko model of transverse piezoelectric beam to overcome the over predicted parameter values in EulerBernoulli beam models. They reported the exact expressions for the voltage, current, power, and tip deflection of the piezoelectric beam. They also optimized the shapes of beam for harvesting power using heuristic optimization code and the attributes of this optimal beam was validated with the experimental results.41 Gammaitoni et al.42 modeled piezoelectric harvesting oscillator dynamics with nonlinear stochastic differential equation and highlighted the benefit of noise and non-linearity.

Gao et al.43 analyzed a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths for vibration energy harvesting theoretically. They found that for a fixed vibration frequency, the maximum open circuit induced voltage occurred when nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio is greater than unity while the maximum power occurred when nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio is unity. Knight et al.44 presented a guideline to extract an optimal energy harvesting for interdigitated piezoelectric MEMS unimorph cantilever beams. They showed that poling behavior was the key factor to investigate the real losses associated with non-uniform poling. A parametric study in terms of electrode patterns, piezoelectric layer dimensions, and electrode dimensions was carried out to examine their effect on the percent poling factor. They proposed design guidelines to help ensure that piezoelectric MEMS devices are developed to obtain optimum energy harvesting or tuning performance. Ly et al.45 developed a piezoelectric cantilever bending model of 31-effect under the assumption of the EulerBernoulli Beam Theory. The equations of motion for the global system were established by using Hamiltons principle and solved by using the modal decomposition method. They provided the mathematical model to enhance the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy by using direct piezoelectric effect. They showed that second mode of resonant frequency provided the voltage and the bandwidth much larger than the first mode. Richards et al.46 emphasized on the efficiency of power conversion and developed a formula to predict the power conversion efficiency of different piezo generators.

Fig. 8 Geometry and position of the neutral axis of PCGE-A55 conventional piezoceramic processing methods corresponding to high energy density piezoelectric composition 0.9Pb(Zr0.56 Ti0.44)O30.1Pb[(Zn0.8/3 Ni0.2/3)Nb2/3]O3 + 2 mol% MnO2 (PZTZNN) and 0.8[Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3]0.2[Pb(Zn1/3 Nb2/3)O3] (PZTPZN). They concluded that power harvesting largely depended upon piezoelectric strain constant and the piezoelectric voltage constant. Ren et al.51 presented a multilayer structure used as the resonance-based vibration energy-harvesting device based on 0.71Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O30.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystal. They found a high output power of 4.94 mW and a corresponding peak voltage of 3.14 V measured at 1.4 kHz which highlighted the potential of the material for energy harvesting. Moon et al.52 presented the piezoelectric energy harvesting performance of a Zr-doped PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PZT) single crystal beam. The energy harvesting capability of a PMNPZT beam cantilever structure under a state of vibration was calculated and compared with experimental result of frequency response of cantilever device.

Erturk et al.47 analyzed single crystal piezoelectric ceramic lead magnesium niobatelead zirconate titanate (PMN-PZT) power generation and shunt damping performance with the help of experiment and validated the results analytically. Karami et al.48 examined different configuration of three types of piezoelectrics (single crystal PMN-PZT, polycrystalline PZT-5A, and PZT-5H-type monolithic ceramics) in a unimorph cantilevered beam to find the best design configuration for lightweight energy harvesting devices for low-power applications. They concluded that single-crystal energy harvesters produced superior power compared with polycrystalline devices. Rakbamrung et al.49 attempted performance comparison between two common piezoelectric compositions, PZT + 1 mol% Mn and PMN25PT, obtained from sintering piezoelectric powders. The PMNPT showed higher coupling coefficient than the PZTbased sample, making such a composition a better choice for energy harvesting purposes at a first glance. Although PMNPT-based harvester effectively allowed harvesting approximately twice the power of PZT-based device when using a classical electrical interface, the use of a nonlinear approach for enhancing the conversion abilities of piezoelectric elements dramatically reduced the difference between the considered micro-generators. Bedekar et al.50 fabricated piezoelectric bimorph samples using

Jeong et al.53 investigated piezoelectric ceramics with microstructure texture experimentally prepared by tape casting of slurries containing a template SrTiO3 (STO), under external mechanical stress. They concluded that STO-added specimens showed excellent power over the STO-free specimen when a high stress was applied to the specimen. Elfrink et al.54 analyzed aluminum nitride (AlN) as a piezoelectric material for piezoelectric energy harvesters because of their high resulting voltage level. They reported a maximum output power of 60 W for an unpackaged device at an acceleration of 2.0 g and at a resonance frequency of 572 Hz. Tien and Goo55 analyzed a piezocomposite composed of layers of carbon/epoxy, PZT ceramic and glass/epoxy to harvest energy (Fig. 8). They reported that piezocomposite have potential to harvest energy subjected to vibration after numerical and experimental validation.

2.8 Others

Fang et al.56 proposed micro piezoelectric power generator containing a composite cantilever with nickel metal mass. They fabricated the proposed device by RIE dry etching, wet chemical etching and UV-LIGA. The proposed generator produced about 0.89V AC peakpeak voltage output to overcome germanium diode rectifier toward energy storage, and its power output was in microwatt level of 2.16 mW. Twiefel et al.57 investigated the piezoelectric flexural transducers for harvesting power experimentally. They employed working frequency and electrical load as boundary conditions for the development of the generator in analytical model. Isarakorn et al.58 focused on the fabrication and evaluation of vibration energy harvesting devices by utilizing an epitaxial PZT thin film. The experimentally investigation and analytical calculations were compared and the epitaxial PZT harvester exhibited high power and current with usable voltage. These results indicated the potential of epitaxial PZT thin films for the improvement of the performances of energy harvesting devices. In summary, many configurations of energy harvesting devices made with piezoceramics have been developed to improve the efficiency and power generation. Modeling of the piezoceramic energy harvesting devices is well established. Single crystal piezoelectric materials are promising for energy harvesting since it has high coupling coefficients.

Mateu and Moll59 analyzed several bending beam structures using piezo films suitable for shoe inserts and walking-type excitation, and obtained the resulting strain for each type in function of geometrical parameters and material properties. By comparing the energy harvested, the optimum configuration can be determined. They developed piezoelectric film inserts inside a shoe based on their first work (Fig. 9).60 In this paper, they analyzed different factors, such as piezoelectric type, magnitude of excitation, required energy and voltage, and magnitude of the capacitor, to find an appropriate choice of storage capacitor and voltage intervals. Farinholt et al.61 developed a novel energy harvesting backpack that can generate electrical energy from the differential forces between the wearer and the backpack by using PVDF (Fig. 10). They also proposed an energy harvesting comparison of PVDF and the ionically conductive ionic polymer transducer to examine the effectiveness of electro-mechanical conversion properties.62 Analytical models using spring-mass-damper for each material assuming axial loading and simulation results were compared with experimental results. Kuwano et al.63 used AlN thin films on Si substrates with diverse bottom electrode materials of Pt/Ti, Au/Cr, Al, and Ti to fabricate microgenerators by the micromachining process for converting environmental vibration energy into electric energy (Fig. 11). They also studied the effect of the air damping on the vibration of energy harvesting PVDF generators in three measurement

Fig. 11 (a) Schematic view, (b) general FE-SEM image, and (c) lateral FE-SEM image of A1N microgenerator63 conditions.64 They found that the output power of generators unpackaged in vacuum was almost twice that of generators packaged in air at 0.5g acceleration. And also with the increase in vibration acceleration, the output power of generators unpackaged in vacuum rapidly increased in a quadratic relationship with the acceleration at low acceleration level, and then the increasing ratio decreased at high acceleration. Lallart et al.65 evaluated the energy scavenging abilities of electrostrictive terpolymer composite filled with 1 vol% carbon black poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene chlorofluoroethylene). They also demonstrated that the carbonfilled terpolymer outperformed other investigated compositions, exhibiting a figure of merit as high as 2000 times higher than pure polyurethane. They extended their work to the ac-dc conversion for

energy harvesting using electrostrictive polymer P(VDF-TrFECFE) to make the practical application of such material for selfpowerd devices more realistic.66 Their theoretical and experimental analysis showed that an energy harvesting module with ac-to-dc conversion using a bias electric field of 10V/m and a transverse strain of 0.2% is much more efficient than most of piezo-based harvesters. Shah et al.67 compared micropower obtained by harvesting generators using piezoelectric ceramic (PZT), PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) membrane and PP (polypropylene) foam polymer. They also evaluated the voltage response of ceramic based piezoelectric fiber composite structures (PFCs) and polymer based piezoelectric strips, PVDF, when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices.68 They showed that piezoelectric polymer materials can generate higher voltage/power than ceramic based piezoelectric materials and it was possible to produce energy from renewable sources such as rain drops and wind by using piezoelectric polymer materials. Sohn et al.69 adopted FEM to evaluate the power harvesting capacity of piezofilm that were under the action of a blood pressure and analyzed theoretically for square and circular configuration. Hu et al.70 proposed a corrugated PVDF bimorph power harvester with the harvesting structure fixed at the two edges in the corrugation direction and free at the other edges. In order to keep the harvester operating at the optimal state, they adjusted the resonant frequency by changing the geometrical configuration or the span length. They reported that the adaptability of a harvester to the operating system could be improved greatly by designing the harvesting structure with adjustable resonant. Liu71 presented an active energy harvesting approach which used switch-mode power electronics to control the voltage and/or charge on a piezoelectric device relative to the mechanical input for optimized energy conversion. In these experiments, the active energy harvesting approach increased the harvested energy by a factor of five for the same mechanical displacement compared to an optimized diode rectifier-based circuit. Chang et al.72 used near-field electrospinnings to direct-write PVDF nanofibers with in situ mechanical stretch and electrical poling characteristics to produce piezoelectric properties (Fig. 12). They found that under mechanical stretching, nanogenerators showed repeatable and consistent electrical outputs with energy conversion efficiency, an order of magnitude higher than those made of PVDF thin films. Hansen et al.73 developed hybrid energy scavenging device consisted of a piezoelectric PVDF nanofiber generator for harvesting biomechanical and biochemical energy. They found that two type of energy harvesting worked simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and life time. Miyabuchi et al.74 modeled the piezoelectric vibration energy harvester and found that the figure of merit was proportional to the square of the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31. They measured e31 coefficient by using the substrate bending method and

Fig. 13 A prototype tree-shaped wind power system77 found that it increased with increasing strain, which was favorable for vibration energy harvesting. Chang75 modeled and analyzed Piezo-elastica energy harvester in computer hard disk drives. Numerical finite element simulations and laboratory measurements showed that about 25% of the power consumed by disk drives voice coil motor could be harvested by the proposed design. He suggested the possibility of scavenging and converting flex cables mechanical vibrations and dynamics into electrical form for power conservation inside computer hard disk drives. Liu et al.76 proposed a miniature energy harvesting device for medical microrobot devised working in blood vessel, specifically focusing on fabrication of co-axial nanofibers as converting components from a high efficient piezoelectric material PVDF. Oh77 demonstrated an experimental investigation of a treeshaped wind power system using piezoelectric material (Fig. 13). PVDF was used to make the leaf element, whereas PZT was applied to the trunk portion of the tree requiring rather strong winds to generate any power. Koyama and Nakamura78 studied electric power generation using vibration of a polyurea thin film. The conversion efficiency

(b) Fig. 16 (a) Full wave-bridge type rectifying circuit for vibrational piezoelectric energy harvester, (b) Synchronous charge extraction circuit with an inductor L and a switch S26 alternating current (AC) from the piezoelectric elements. Early attempt to utilize the piezoelectric energy harvester, power production must be designed with a rectifier. Many different rectifiers have been suggested and studied: e.g. vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, silicon based switches and solid state diodes. However, the simplest way to rectify the alternating input is to connect the piezoelectric harvester with a P-N junction diode which can work only in half input wave.83 To obtain full-wave rectification of vibrating piezoelectric device, a bridge-type with 4 diodes is required. In order to improve power harvesting circuit efficiency, there are many attempts to modify the rectifying circuit. Using a buck-boost DC-DC converter which can track the power generators dependence with acceleration and vibration frequency of piezoelectric device, the high efficiency of 84% was reported.84 Also, to improve the conversion efficiency of the bridge-type rectifying circuit, the synchronized charge extraction technique with inductor was introduced,26 resulting the increase of the harvested power by factor 4 (Fig. 16).

Fig. 15 A schematic diagram of the piezoelectric generator in a flow field and the concept of placing an elastic beam into the vortex street to induce vibration80 from mechanical to electrical energy was calculated by using finite element analysis of the cantilever configuration. Higher conversion efficiency was obtained using a thinner and shorter cantilever configuration with increased resonance frequency. Li79 proposed a bioinspired piezo-leaf architecture which was in dangling cross-flow stalk that converted wind energy into electrical energy by wind-induced fluttering motion (Fig. 14). This kind of architecture amplified the vibration by an order of magnitude compared with conventional flow- parallel fluttering devices. Akaydin et al.80 investigated flexible piezoelectric cantilever beams placed inside turbulent boundary layers and wakes of circular cylinders at high Reynolds numbers and developed threeway coupled interaction simulation to validate the experimental results (Fig. 15). In summary, the use of piezopolymers for vibrational energy harvesting is advantageous since piezopolymers are ductile, resilient to shock, deformable and lightweight. The applications of piezopolymer based energy harvesters for wind, backpack and flower demonstrate its possibility in real life. Recently developed piezopaper based on cellulose may be another possibility for energy harvesting.81,82

Guyomer et al.85 analyzed the real energy flow that lay behind several energy conversion techniques like parallel Synchronized Switch Harvesting on Inductor (SSHI) and series SSHI for piezoelectric vibration energy scavenging and introduced pyroelectric effect which extracts energy due to temperature variation (Fig. 17). Minazara et al.86 proposed energy generation using a mechanically excited unimorph piezoelectric membrane transducer under dynamic conditions and envisaged a new SSHI to enhance the power harvested by the piezoelectric transducer up to 1.7 mW which was sufficient to supply a large range of low consumption sensors.

The optimized method of vibrational energy harvesting with piezoelectric materials is very essential to develop a scavenging energy device. In nature, vibrational piezoelectric energy harvesting devices is based on the induced power from mechanical vibrations with varying amplitude, resulting induce output voltage with

(b) Spring-mass damper model85 Fig. 17 Electromechanical structure and model Fig. 19 Two stage rectifying circuit for ultra low input piezoelectric voltage91 than built-in voltage of diode to scavenge the vibrational based piezoelectric input. To minimize the built-in voltage and improve the efficiency in rectifying circuit, Schottky diode with low turn-on voltage - e. g. HSMS 2822 (VF=0.34V) and Villard voltage doubler were suggested.93 The application of piezoelectric materials in energy harvesting devices contains many parameters which can be optimized to improve the efficiency such that wireless sensors and electronics can be self-powered. Development of low power consumed electronic circuitry is necessary.

Ayers et al.87 conducted experiments on PZT ceramics to collect electrical energy and summarized governing equations for piezoelectric. The energy storage using both capacitor and rechargeable batteries was also investigated and findings were made for feasibility and efficiency of battery recharging. Guan and Liao88 investigated leakage resistances of the energy storage devices which are the most dominant factor that influences the charging or discharging phenomena. They proposed a quick test method to experimentally study the charge/discharge efficiencies of the energy storage devices using super capacitors which were suitable and more desirable than the rechargeable batteries. Wickenheiser et al.89 investigated the effects of varying degrees of electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric power harvesting systems undergoing base excitation on the dynamics of charging a storage capacitor. They predicted the charging behavior of the system with nonlinear simulation. Recently, a rectifier free piezoelectric energy harvesting circuit has been suggested by Kim et al. (Fig. 18).90 The suggested circuit was a simple and scalable, which could reach 71% of high conversion efficiency. Very recently, for ultralow input piezoelectric voltage, Peters et al.91 suggested two stage concept including passive stage and only one active diode, resulting in successful rectification of tens of mV with very high efficiency over 90% (Fig. 19). Other approach using a bias-flip rectifier with an inductor was presented in the range of W, which is greater than 4X power extraction compared to conventional full bridge rectifier.92 However, due to the fundamental limitation of diode type rectification, built-in voltage in diode, to minimize the voltage drop to diminish the rectified output voltage from rectifying circuit in diode is the critical issue. At room temperature, the built-in voltage of Si and Ge based P-N junction diodes are about 0.7 V and 0.4 V,93 respectively. Therefore the induced vibrational input must be larger

Piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies from vibration were reviewed in this paper. Principles of piezoelectric energy harvesting, various types of piezoelectric harvesting devices and piezoelectric materials were investigated. Vibrational energy harvesting technology is highlighted as a permanent power source of portable electronic devices and wireless sensor network. There have been many novel ideas for vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters. Device ideas in conjunction with design technology are likely matured. However, real applications of the vibration-based energy harvesters are still limited. There are three issues that limit the broad technological impact of the vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters. Firstly, development of high coupling coefficient piezoelectric materials is essential to improve the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters. Once the coupling coefficient is twice increased, then the energy conversion efficiency can be four times improved. Thus, the advent of new piezoelectric materials with high coupling coefficient will bring a new era of piezoelectric energy harvesters. Secondly, the energy harvesters should be able to sustain under

harsh vibrations and shocks. Fatigue and crack of the energy harvesting devices are crucial for real application. Thus, development of flexible and resilient piezoelectric materials is necessary. Thirdly, development of efficient electronic circuitry for energy harvesters is necessary. Since the obtained electrical energy from vibration is small, rectification and energy storing circuits should be able to activate in such a low power condition. Vibration is everywhere, and vibration-based energy harvesters will come to our real life.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant founded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea (no. 2010201010094A) and Creative Research Initiatives (EAPap Actuator) of NRF/MEST.

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