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Steel I-Girder Design

with special attention to Eurocode provisions


Vidish A. Iyer
Structural Engineer and CAE consultant at Midas IT

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About Midas IT About Midas Civil Modeling Philosophy Design Philosophy and Eurocode specifications BS vs EC design for Composite structures.

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Click to edit Master IT subtitle style ABOUT MIDAS CONTENTS


MIDAS Programs were being developed since 1989 and have been used commercially since 1996. With our headquarters in South Korea , we currently have corporate offices in Beijing, Shanghai, Detroit, Dallas, Europe, India and Japan and are ever expanding . One of the Largest civil analysis software developers Proven Reliability with over 5,000 project applications Intensive quality control system Analyses verified by various institutions

We shall soon be opening a new branch in Singapore

midas Civil

midas Civil

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Bridging Your Innovations to Realities Integrated Solution System for Bridge and Civil Engineering

Click tomidas edit Master subtitle CONTENTS WHAT IS MIDAS CIVIL style ? What is Civil?

FEM

FBM

BEM

2-D

3-D

Structural Engineer
General Purpose Geotechnical Engineer

Special Purpose
Bridge Plant Underground Structure Tunnel Building Dam

midas Civil

midas Civil

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Bridging Your Innovations to Realities Integrated Solution System for Bridge and Civil Engineering

Click to edit Master subtitle CONTENTS WHAT TYPES OF BRIDGES IT HANDLE ? What kind of bridge typestyle canCAN midas Civil handle?
Conventional Bridge

Staged Segmental Bridge

Cable-stayed Bridge & Suspension Bridge

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MODELING PHILOSOPHY

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MODELING

Three main modeling methods


2D Grillage models 3D Grillage models Meshed Finite Element model

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2D MODELING

Most common modeling method Modeled as orthogonal or skewed grillage depending on site requirements

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2D MODELING
Usual grillage modeling principles apply For multi-girder bridges , shear lag is unlikely to reduce the effective slab width below the slab actual width . Usually models for bare steel condition , short term composite condition and long term composite condition are required. Section properties for the composite main beams should use the full composite second moment of inertia. Intermediate longitudinal elements should be given properties of slab only. Torsional stiffness of the slab should be divided equally between transverse and longitudinal beams. ( bt3/6 in each direction ) Intermediate bracings should be modeled
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3D GRILLAGE MODELING

3D Grillages are quite useful when dealing with ladder deck bridges

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3D GRILLAGE MODELING
Vertical Bending is assigned wholly to the upper members while bottom flange elements represent only the plan bending of these flanges. Although this model captures the local effects in a better fashion , it is still not possible to separate the global and local effects .

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FINITE ELEMENT MODELING More realistic structural response. Accurate representation of local and global responses. Models can be built using combination of plate and beam elements .

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Construction Stage Analysis

There are several actions on any structure that are not normally accounted for without construction stage analysis . These include :

Creep , Shrinkage and Time dependent strength variation effects Locked in stresses arising from staged construction , material defects etc. Prestress Losses Accounting for the pouring sequence of the deck slab. Accurate deflections these directly affect the erection process and camber

For composite structures in particular the pouring sequence, creep , shrinkage , strength variation and locked in stresses are of great import since these factors can significantly affect the overall design.

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DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

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DESIGN CODES

Required Codes :
1) EN 1990 Load combinations 2) EN 1991-2 Moving loads 3) EN 1991-1-1 Densities of materials 4) EN 1991-1-4 Wind Actions 5) EN 1991-1-5 Temperature actions 6) EN 1993-1-1 Design of steel structures 7) EN 1993-1-5 Plated Structural Elements ( for LTB ) 8) EN 1993-1-9 - Fatigue 9) EN 1994-2 Design of composite structures ( bridges ) 10) EN 1997 Geotechnical Design 11) EN 1998 Seismic Design 12) National Annexes to above codes
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DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Ultimate Limit State :


Bending Resistance Shear Resistance Lateral Torsional Buckling Fatigue Resistance

Serviceability Limit State :


Deformation Crack Control Stress Checks
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DESIGN PROCEDURE OVERVIEW

Classification of Sections 4 classes as per EC3 -1-1


1) Class 1- can form plastic hinge with rotation capacity

2) Class 2 can form plastic hinge but limited rotation capacity 3) Class 3 can fully develop elastic resistance across section 4) Class 4- buckles before elastic limit is reached

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BENDING RESISTANCE

Plastic bending resistance for Classes 1&2 Resistance is for Effective Cross Section ( allowances for Shear lag & local buckling for class 4)

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ELASTIC MOMENT OF RESISTANCE The elastic resistance for classes 3&4 can be calculated from the equation :

Where Ma,Ed is design moment in steel section alone (during constn. Stage) Mc,Ed is design moment in composite section (after construction) k is an amplifying factor that causes the stress limit to be reached in steel or reinforcement (whichever is first )

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SHEAR RESISTANCE IN BEAM WEBS

In composite beam sections, shear resistance is simply taken as that of the steel section.

There are two basic components : Vertical shear resistance and buckling shear resistance ( Both taken from EC3) For shear buckling , contributions from web and flange are dealt separately ( refer EC 3-1-1 , cl. 5.1,2,3,8) For contribution from the flange , in case of composite beams the bottom flange should be used for shear resistance calculation even if it is larger .
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BENDING AND SHEAR INTERACTION

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BUCKLING RESISTANCE For composite beams , buckling usually happens in the bottom flanges when they are in compression . Here buckling is not true lateral torsional buckling but rather a distortional buckling Nevertheless , EC 3 & 4 prescribe rules for LTB based on non dimensional slenderness

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BUCKLING RESISTANCE

The following sets of equations are used :

The relationship between LT and LT can be seen from EC3-1-1

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BUCKLING RESISTANCE

A simplified method , as outlined in EN 1993-1-1 is often used for calculating the buckling resistance .

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OTHER EFFECTS IN MAIN GIRDERS Restraint effect in Integral Bridges

Beams curved in plan presence of radial force necessitates provision of lateral restraints at intervals Flange curved in elevation presence of vertical radial force which results in transverse plan bending of flange and vertical stresses in web.

Plan bending from interaction with cross girders of special concern in ladder decks where vehicle loading may induce lateral actions.

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Fatigue Analysis

Fatigue is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading For road bridges , the Eurocode advises the use of EN 1992-2 and EN 1992-3 by using fatigue load model LM 3 (basically its a moving load analysis) EN 1993-2 and EN 1993-1-9 should be referred to for detailed provisions regarding fatigue Per these codes : a) Determine the stress range p due to the passage of the fatigue load model 3 vehicle b) Determine damage equivalence factor . c) Determine the design value of the stress range

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Fatigue Analysis

Basic Check for fatigue :

c is the reference value of fatigue strength at 2 x 106 cycles, which is numerically the same as the relevant detail category according to BS EN 19931-9 Tables 8.1 to 8.10.

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Serviceability Limit State Load Combinations

Three categories of combinations of actions are proposed in EN:


characteristic (normally used for irreversible limit states,
e.g. for exceeding of some cracking limits in concrete)

frequent (is normally used for reversible limit states) and quasi-permanent (is normally used for assessment of longterm effects)

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Serviceability Limit State - Stress

Stress checks are done as per SLS combinations for unfactored values of characteristic actions. Basically there should be no inelastic behavior. Stress limits in Concrete , steel , reinforcement and studs are reduced by certain values ( k factors )

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Serviceability Limit State - Deflection

EC 4 refers us to EC 3-2 for deflection limits. Basically deformations are calculated from the Frequent load combinations EC 3 is silent on any actual limits for deformation . Normal practices for deflection limits can apply . National annexes should also be referred to .

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Serviceability Limit State Crack Control

The Eurocode advises section 7.4.2 of EC4-2 which prescribes minimum reinforcement in lieu of more accurate method and describes this as a conservative approach.

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Serviceability Limit State Crack Control

For direct loading, limitation of crack widths can be achieved by limiting bar spacing /bar diameter as per the following tables

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DESIGN PROCEDURE BS VS EC

Although it would seem that the Eurocodes represent a significant departure from the earlier BS code practices , the two are closer than they appear .

The differences are not that numerous and most of the design practices and methods are quite similar in both codes.
The next few slides highlight some major points of difference between EC4 and BS-5950-3 provisions for composite design.
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CONCRETE STRENGTH

EC 4 concrete strength is taken from cylinder BS concrete strength is taken from Cube Sample : C20/25 ( cube str = 25 , cyl str =20 )

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SHEAR CONNECTION BS 5950-3: characteristic resistance of studs in solid slabs is given for various combinations of height, diameter and concrete strength.

EC4 calculates the resistance as the minimum of two equations one for failure of concrete by crushing and one for shearing of the stud

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SHEAR CONNECTION

The graph below shows a comparison for stud resistance between EC4 and BS 5950-3.

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SHEAR CONNECTION Minimum Shear Connection Requirements BS code simply states these as a function of span length but Eurocodes consider asymmetry of the section as well.

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EFFECTIVE WIDTH

As per British code , Eff. Width = Span/8 subject to conditions For Eurocodes it varies along the length of the beam

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VERTICAL SHEAR

Different Shear Areas for BS and EC ( slightly larger for EC than for BS )

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THANK YOU

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http://en.midasuser.com

Contact : vidish@midasit.com edward.kim@midasit.com

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