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By:Prof. Neha M.

Srivastava

Introduction
An internet is made of a combination of physical networks connected together by internetworking devices such as routers and gateways. A packet starting from a source host may pass through several different physical networks before finally reaching the destination host. ' The hosts and routers are recognized at the network level by their logical addresses. A logical address is an internetwork address. Its jurisdiction is universal. A logical address is unique univer5ally. It is called a logical address because it is usually implemented in software. Every protocol that deals with interconnecting networks requires logical addresses. The logical addresses in the TCP/IP protocol suite are called IP addresses and are 32 bits long.
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Introduction

However, packets pass through physical networks to reach these hosts and routers. At the physical level, the hosts an routers are recognized by their physical addresses. A physical address is a local address. Its jurisdiction is a local network. It should be unique locally, but not necessarily universally. It is called a physical address because it is usually (but not always) implemented in hardware. Examples of physical addresses are 48-bit MAC addresses in Ethernet and Token Ring protocols, which are imprinted on the NIC installed in the host or router. The physical address and the logical address are tw0 different identifiers. We need both of them because, a physical network, such as Ethernet can have two different protocols at the network layer such as I P and IPX (Novell) at the same time. Likewise, a packet at a network layer such as IP may pass through different physical networks such as Ethernet and LocalTalk .
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Static & Dynamic Mapping


This means that delivery of a packet to a host or a router requires two levels of addressing: logical and physical. We need to be able to map a logical address to its corresponding physical address and vice versa. These can be done using either static or dynamic mapping. Static mapping means creating a table that associates a logical address with a physical address. This table is stored in each machine on the network. Each machine that knows, for example, the IP address of another machine but not its physical address can look it up in the table. This has some limitations because physical addresses may change in the following ways: 1) A machine could change its NIC resulting in a new physical address. 2) In some LANs, such as LocalTalk, the physical address changes every time the computer is turned on. 3) A mobile computer can move from one physical network to another, resulting in a change in its physical address.
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Static & Dynamic Mapping

To implement these changes, a static mapping table must be updated periodically. This overhead could affect the network performance. In dynamic mapping each time a machine knows one of the two addresses (logical or physical), it can use a protocol to find the other one. Two protocols have been designed to perform dynamic mapping: address resolution protocol (ARP) and reverse address resolution protocol (RARP). The first maps a logical address to a physical address; The second maps a physical address to a logical address. Fig. shows the idea.

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Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Addresses


ARP and RARP use unicast and broadcast physical addresses. Communication on the Internet can be achieved using unicast, multicast, or broadcast addresses. Unicast Addresses: Unicast communication is one-to-one. When a packet is sent from an individual source to an individual destination, a unicast communication takes place. All systems on the internet have at least one unique unicast address. Unicast addresses belong to classes A, B, or C. Multicast Addresses: Multicast communication is one-to-many. When a packet is sent from an individual source to a group of destinations, a multicast communication takes place.

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Multicast
A multicast address is a class D address. The entire address, defines a groupid. A system on internet can have one or more class D multicast addresses (in addition to its unicast address or addresses). If a system (usually a host) has seven multicast addresses, it means that it belongs to seven different groups. Note that a class D address can be used only as a destination address, not as a source address. Multicasting on the Internet can be at the local level or at the global level. At the local level, hosts on a LAN can form a group and be assigned a multicast address. At the global level, hosts on different networks can form a group and be assigned a multicast address. Assigned Multicast Addresses: The Internet authorities have designated some multicast addresses to specific groups.
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Multicast
Category: Some multicast addresses are assigned for some special use. These multicast addresses start with a 224.0.0 prefix. Table shows some of these addresses.
Address 224.0.0.0 224.0.0.1 224.0.0.2 224.0.0.4 224.0.0.5 224.0.0.6 224.0.0.7 224.0.0.8 224.0.0.9 224.0.0.10 224.0.0.11 Group Reserved All SYSTEMS on this SUBNET All ROUTERS on this SUBNET DVMRP ROUTERS OSPFBGP All ROUTERS OSPFBGP Designated ROUTERS ST Routers ST Hosts RIP2 Routers IGRP Routers Mobile-Agents

Conferencing: Some multicast addresses are for conferencing & teleconferencing. These multicast addresses start with a 224.0.1 prefix. Table shows some of these addresses.
Address 224.0.1.7 224.0.1.10 224.0.1.11 224.0.1.1 224.0.1.13 224.0.1.14 224.0.1.15 224.0.1.16 224.0.1.17 224.0.1.18 Group AUDIONEWS IETF-1-LOW-AUDIO IETF-1-AUDIO IETF-1-VIDEO IETF-2-LOW-AUDIO IETF-2-AUDIO IETF-2-VIDEO MUSIC-SERVICE SEANET-TELEMETRY SEANET-IMAGE
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Broadcast Addresses
Broadcast communication is one-to-all. The Internet allows broadcasting only at the local level. We have discussed two broadcast addresses used at the local level: The limited broadcast address (all 1 s) and the direct broadcast address (netid: specific hostid: all 1 s). No broadcasting is allowed at the global level. This means that a system (host or router) cannot send a message t0 all hosts and routers in the Internet. You can imagine the traffic that would result without this restriction. For example, Ethernet uses the all 1 s address (FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF16) as the broadcast address. Figure shows the position of ARP and RARP protocols in the TCP/IP protocol suite.

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ARP Address Resolution Protocol

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ARP Address Resolution Protocol


Anytime a host or a router has an IP datagram to send to another host or router, it has the logical (IP) address of the receiver. But the IP datagram must be encapsulated in a frame to be able t0 pass through the physical network. This means that the sender needs the physical address of the receiver. A mapping corresponds a logical address to a physical address. This can be done either statically or dynamically. The association between logical and physical addresses can be statically stored in a table. The sender can look in the table and find the physical address corresponding to a logical address. But this is not a good solution. Every time a physical address is changed, the table must be updated. Updating tables on all machines at frequent intervals, is a very demanding task. The mapping, however, can be done dynamically, which means that the sender asks the receiver to announce its physical address when needed. ARP is designed for this purpose.
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ARP associates an IP address with its physical address. On a typical physical network, such as a LAN, each device on a link is identified by a physical or station address that is usually imprinted on the N IC. Anytime a host, or a router, needs to find the physical address of another host or router on its network, it sends an ARP query packet. The packet includes the physical and IP addresses of the sender and the IP address of the receiver. Because the sender does not know the physical address of the receiver, the query is broadcast over the network (see Figure). Every host or router on the network receives and processes the ARP query packet, but only the intended recipient recognizes its IP address and sends back an ARP response packet. The response packet contains the recipient's IP and-physical addresses. The packet is unicast directly to the inquirer using the physical address received in the query packet. In Fig. a, the system on the left (A) has a packet that needs to be delivered to another system (B) ,with IP address 141.23.56.23. System A needs to pass the packet to its data link layer for the actual delivery, but it does not know the physical address of the recipient.
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It uses the services of ARP by asking the ARP protocol to send a broadcast ARP request packet to ask for the physical address of a system with an IP address of 141.23.56.23. This packet is received by every system on the physical network, but only system B will answer it, as shown in Fig. b. System B sends an ARP reply packet that includes its physical address. Now system A can send all the packets it has for this destination using the physical address it received.

Fig: ARP Operation

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Packet Format

The fields are as follows: HTYPE (Hardware type): This is a 16-bit field defining the type of the network: on which ARP is running. Each LAN has been assigned an integer based on its type: For example, Ethernet is given the type 1. ARP can be used on any physical network.
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PTYPE (Protocol type): This is a 16-bit field defining the protocol. For example, the value of this field for the lPv4 protocol is 0800 K,. ARP can be used with any higher-level protocol. HLEN (Hardware length): This is an 8-bit field defining the length of the physical address in bytes. For example, for Ethernet the value is 6. PLEN (protocol length): This is an 8-bit field defining the length of the logical address in bytes. For example, for the lPv4 protocol the value is 4. OPER (Operation): This is a 16-bit field defining the type of packet. Two packet types are defined: ARP request (1), ARP reply (2). SHA (Sender hardware address):This is a variable-length field defining the physical address of the sender. For example, for Ethernet this field is 6 bytes long. SPA (Sender protocol address): This is a variable-length field defining the logical (for example, IP) address of the sender. For the IP protocol, this field is 4 bytes long. THA (Target hardware address): This is a variable-length field defining the physical address of the target. For example, for Ethernet this field is 6 bytes long. For an ARP request message, this field is all 0s because the sender does not know the physical address of the target. TPA (Target protocol address): This is a variable-length field defining the logical (for example, IP) address of the target. For the IPv4 protocol. this field is 4 bytes long.
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Encapsulation
An ARP packet is encapsulated directly into a data link frame. For example, in Figure below an ARP packet is encapsulated in an Ethernet frame. Note that the type field indicates that the data carried by the frame is an ARP packet.

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Operation
1) 2) 3)

4)

5) 6) 7)

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Let us see how ARP functions on a typical internet. First we describe the steps involved, then we discuss the four cases in which a host or router needs to use ARP. Steps Involved: These are the steps involved in an ARP process: The sender knows the IP address of the target. IP asks ARP to create an ARP request message, filling in the sender physical address, the sender IP address, and the target IP address. The target physical address field is tilled with 0s. The message is passed to the data link layer where it is encapsulated in a frame using the physical address of the sender as the source address and the physical broadcast address as the destination address. Every host or router receives the frame. Because the frame contains a broadcast destination address, all stations remove the message and pass it to ARP. All machines except the one targeted drop the packet. The target machine recognizes the IP address. The target machine replies with an ARP reply message that contains its physical address. The message is unicast. The sender receives the reply message. It now knows the physical address of the target machine. The IP datagram, which carries data for the target machine, is now encapsulated in a frame and is unicast to the destination.
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Four Different Cases


1) 2)

3)

4)

The following are four different cases in which the services of ARP can be used (see figure below). The sender is a host and wants to send a packet to an0ther host on the same network. In this case, the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address is the destination IP address in the datagram header. The sender is a host and wants to send a packet to another host on another network. In this case, the host looks at its routing table and finds the IP address of the next hop (router) for this destination. If it does not have a routing table, it looks for the IP address of the default router. The IP address of the router becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address. The sender is a router that has received a datagram destined for a host on another network. It checks its routing table and finds the IP address of the next router. The IP address of the next router becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address. The sender is a router that has received a datagram destined for a host in the same network The destination IP address of the datagram becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address.
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T.Y.B.Sc.-(I.T.) - Internet Technologies - ARP & RARP

An ARP request is broadcast; an reply is unicast.


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Example 1
A host with IP address 130.23.3.20 and physical address OxB23455102210 has a packet to send to another host with IP address 130.23.43.25 and physical address OxA46EF45983AB. The two hosts are on the same Ethernet network. Show the ARP request and reply packets encapsulated in Ethernet frames. Solution: Figure shows the ARP request and reply packets. Note that the ARP data field in this case is 28 bytes, and that the individual addresses do not fit in the 4-byte boundary. That is why we do not show the regular 4-byte boundaries for these addresses. Note that we use hexadecimal for every field except the IP addresses.
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Proxy ARP
A technique called proxy (promiscuous) ARP is used to create a sub-netting effect. A proxy ARP is an ARP that acts on behalf of a set of hosts. Whenever a router running a proxy ARP receives an ARP request looking for the IP address of one of these hosts, the router sends an ARP reply announcing its own hardware (physical) address. After the router receives the actual IP packet, it sends the packet to the appropriate host or router. Let us give an example, in Figure the ARP installed on the right-hand host will answer only to an ARP request with a target IP address of 141.23.56.23. We call this behavior honest. The other hosts or routers on the network rely on its honesty. However, the administrator may need to create a subnet without changing the whole system to recognize sub-netted addresses. One solution is to add a router running a proxy ARP. In this case, the router acts on behalf of all of the hosts installed on the subnet.
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When it receives an ARP request with a target IP address that matches the address of one of its proteges (141.23.56.21, 141.23.56.22, and 141.23.56.23), it sends an ARP reply and announces its hardware address as the target hardware address. When the router receives the IP packet, it sends the packet to the appropriate host.

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ARP Package

An example of a simplified ARP software package is given, to show the components and the relationships between the components. This ARP package involves five modules: a cache table, queues, an output module, an input module, and a cachecontrol module. Figure shows these five components and their interactions. The package receives an IP datagram that needs to be encapsulated in a frame that needs the destination physical (hardware) address. If the ARP package finds this address, it delivers the IP packet and the physical address to the data link layer for transmission.
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Cache Table
A sender usually has more than one IP datagram to send to the same destination. It is inefficient to use the ARP protocol for each datagram destined for the same host or router. The solution is the cache table. When a host or router receives the corresponding physical address for an IP datagram, the address can be saved in the cache table. This address can be used for the datagrams destined for the same receiver within the next few minutes. However, as space in the cache table is very limited, mappings in the cache are not retained for an unlimited time. The cache table is implemented as an array of entries. In our package, each entry contains the following fields:
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1)

2) 6)

7) 8) 9) 10) 11)

State: This column shows the state of the entry. It can have one of the three values: FREE, PENDING, or RESOLVED. i. The FREE state means that the time-to-live for this entry has expired. The space can be used for a new entry. ii. The PENDING state means a request for this entry has been sent, but the reply has not yet been received. iii. The RESOLVED state means that the entry is complete. The entry now has the physical (hardware) addre5S of the destination. The packets waiting to be sent to this destination can use information in this entry. Hardware type, Protocol type, Hardware Length, Protocol Length: This field is the same as the corresponding field in the ARP packet. Interface number: A router (or a multihomed host) can be connected to different networks, each with a different interface number. Each network can have different hardware and protocol types. Queue number: ARP uses numbered queues to enqueue the packets waiting for address resolution. Packets for the same destination are usually enqueued in the same queue. Attempts: This column shows the number of times an ARP request is sent out for this entry. Time-out: This column shows the lifetime of an entry in seconds. Hardware address: This column shows the destination hardware address. It remains empty until resolved by an ARP reply. Protocol address: This column shows the destination IP address.
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Queues
Our ARP package maintains a set of queues, one for each destination, to hold the IP packets while ARP tries to resolve the hardware address. The output module sends unresolved packets into the corresponding queue. The input module removes a packet from a queue and sends it, with the resolved physical address, to the data link layer for transmission.

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Output Module
The output module waits for an IP packet from the IP software. The output module checks the cache table to find an entry corresponding to the destination IP address of this packet. The destination IP address of the IP packet must match the protocol address of the entry. If the entry is found and the state of the entry is RESOLVED, the packet along with the destination hardware address is passed to the data link layer for transmission. If the entry is found and the state of the entry is PENDING, the packet waits until the destination hardware address is found. Because the state is PENDING, there is a queue already created for this destination. The module sends the packet to this queue. If no entry is found, the module creates a queue and enqueues the packet. A new entry with the state of PENDING is creatcd for this destination and the value of the ATTEMPTS field is set to 1. An ARP request packet is then broadcast.
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Output module
1. 2. 3.

Sleep until an IP packet is received from IP software. Check the cache table to find an entry corresponding to the destination of this IP packet. If (found) 1. If (the state is RESOLVED) 1. Extract the value of the hardware address from the entry. 2. Send the packet and the hardware address to data link layer. 3. Return. 2. If (the state is PENDING) 1. Enqueue the packet to the corresponding queue. 2. Return. If (not found) 1. Create a cache entry with state set to PENDING and ATTEMPS set to 1 2. Create a queue 3. Enqueue the packet 4. Send an ARP request Return
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4.

5.

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Input Module
The input module waits until an ARP packet (request or reply) arrives. The input module checks the cache table to find an entry corresponding to this ARP packet. The target protocol address should match the protocol address of the entry. If the entry is found and the state of the entry is PENDING, the module updates the entry by copying the target hardware address in the packet to the hardware address field of the entry and changing the state to RESOLVED. The module also sets the value of the TIME-OUT, for this entry. It then dequeues the packets from the corresponding queue, one by one, and delivers them along with the hardware address to the data link layer for transmission. If the entry is found and the state is RESOLVED, the module still updates the entry. This is because the target hardware address could have been changed. The value of the TIME-OUT field is also reset. If the entry is not found, the module creates a new entry and adds it to the table). The protocol requires that any information received is added to the table for future use. The state is set to RESOLVED and TIME-OUT is set. Now the module checks to see if the arrived ARP packet is a request. If it is, the module immediately creates an ARP reply message and sends it to the sender. The ARP reply packet is created by changing the value of the operation field from request to reply and filling in the target hardware address.
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Input Module
1. 2. 3.

Sleep until an ARP packet (request or reply) arrives. Check the cache to find an entry corresponding to the this ARP packet. If (found) 1. Update the entry 2. If (the state is PENDING) 1. While the queue is not empty 1. Dequeue one packet 2. Send the packet and the hardware address to data link 3. If (the state is RESOLVED) 1. Update the entry If (not found) 1. Create an entry 2. Add the entry to the table If (the packet is a request) 1. Send an ARP reply Return
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4.

5. 6.

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Cache-control module
The cache-control module is responsible for maintaining the cache table. It periodically (for e.g. ,every 5 sec) checks the cache table, entry by entry. If the state of the entry is FREE, it continues to the next entry. If the state is PENDING, the module increments the value of the attempts field by 1. It then checks the value of the attempts field. If this value is greater than the maximum number of attempts allowed, the state is changed to FREE and the corresponding queue is destroyed. However, if the number of attempts is less than the maximum, the module creates and sends another ARP request. If the state of the entry is RESOLVED, the module decrements the value of the time-out field by the amount of time elapsed since the last check. If this value is less than or equal to zero, the state is changed t0 FREE and the queue is destroyed.
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Cache-control module
1. 2.

Sleep until the periodic timer matures. For every entry in the cache table 1. If(the state is Free) 1. Continue. 2. If(the state is PENDING) 1. Increment the value of attempts by 1. 2. If(attempts greater than maximum) 1. Change the state to FREE 2. Destroy the corresponding queue. 3. Else 1. Send and ARP request. 4. Continue. 3. If(the state is RESOLVED) 1. Decrement the value of time-out by the value of elapsed time. 2. If(time-out less than or equal to zero) 1. Change the state to FREE. 2. Destroy the corresponding queue Return.
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3.

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RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

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Introduction
RARP finds the logical address for a machine that only knows its physical address. Each host or router is assigned one or more logical (IP) addresses, which are unique and independent of the physical (hardware) address of the machine. To create an IP datagram, a host or a router needs to know its own IP address or addresses. The IP address of a machine is usually read from its configuration file stored on a disk file. However, a diskless machine is usually booted from ROM, which has minimum booting information. The ROM is installed by the manufacturer. It cannot include the IP address because the IP addresses on a network are assigned by the network administrator.
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The machine can get its physical address (by reading its NIC, for example). which is unique locally. It can then use the physir.al address to get the logical address using the RARP protocol. A RARP request is created and broadcast or. the local network. Another machine on the local network that knows all the IP addresses will respond with a RARP reply. The requesting machine must be running a RARP client program; the responding machine must be running a RARP server program (see next Fig.). The RARP request packets are broadcast; the RARP reply packets are unicast. In Fig. a, the diskless host on the left is booted. To get its IP address, it broadcasts a RARP request to all systems on the network. This packet is received by every host (or router) on the physical network, but only the RARP server on the right will answer it as shown in Fig. b. The server sends a RARP reply packet that includes the IP address of the requestor.
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Fig: RARP Operation


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RARP Packet Format


The format of the RARP packet is exactly the same as the ARP packet except that the operation field is either three (RARP request) or four (RARP reply).

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Encapsulation
A RARP packet is encapsulated directly into a data link frame. For example, Figure shows a RARP packet encapsulated in an Ethernet frame. Note that the type field shows that the data carried by the frame is a RARP packet.

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Alternative Solutions to RARP


When a diskless computer is booted, it needs more information in addition to its IP address. It needs to know its subnet mask, the IP address of a router, and the IP address of a name server. RARP cannot provide this extra information. New protocols have been developed to provide this information.

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Thank You

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