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The 39 Melachos

In the Mishkan Animal hides were required for the Mishkan and were taken from two animals, Ailim (rams) and an animal called the Tachash. The Tachash was a species of animal that appeared miraculously at the time of the Mishkan but is now extinct. The Tachash possessed exceptionally beautiful fur which was used as the top covering of the Mishkan. The seven steps required to produce these hides are known as the order of hides. The first of these seven steps was obviously to trap the animal and this is the Melacha of Tzod. However, some hold that Tzod was actually required for trapping the Chilazon, a rare species of sea creature from which the dye Techeiles was produced for Tzitzis. The Basic Premise of Tzod Tzod is defined as the forcible confinement of any animal or living creature which includes any method of confining the animal, conventional or otherwise. The Melacha of Tzod depends on two primary principles, the principle of confinement and the principle of species. Tzod is only transgressed Mdeoraysa when both these principles are satisfied. The Principle of Confinement Firstly, Tzod is very unique in that it can be violated Mdeoraysa without any direct act (i.e. through Grama, indirect action) as professional trapping is often performed in an indirect manner. For example, to chase or frighten an animal into a corner or confined area, even without touching the animal, is considered Tzod. Hunting with animals is also Tzod as this is a technique of professional trapping. Furthermore, Chazal condemn hunting with animals and say that one who hunts with dogs is not destined to rejoice in the future Simchas Livyoson. Next, there are two main levels of confinement, loose confinement (forbidden Mderabanan) and narrow confinement (forbidden Medoraysa). Loose confinement means that the animal is restricted from its natural freedom of movement but still cannot be grabbed or retrieved without being chased and outmanoeuvred. For example, closing a garden gate and therefore trapping a dog or cat in a large garden is considered loose confinement and

is forbidden Mderabanan. There are four terms used by the Gemara to describe narrow confinement and in summary, narrow confinement can be between two walls with a small enough distance between them that a trap isnt needed, where there are no corners, crevices or hiding holes and the animal can be grabbed with one swoop. The Principle of Species The Principle of Species, Mino Nitzod (hunted species) is a rule that states that only species that are usually trapped for some purpose or use are subject to Tzod Mdeoraysa. Therefore, it would be forbidden to trap a rabbit Mdeoraysa as they are normally hunted whereas it is forbidden to trap an insect Mderabanan. However, stinging insects such as wasps and hornets that can inflict substantial pain may be trapped by covering with a cup. Some Poskim hold that since honey bees are usually cultivated for their honey, they are Mino Nitzod so it is forbidden Mdeoraysa to trap a honey bee on Shabbos. However, the majority of Poskim say that honey bees are Ain BMino Nitzod, not a usualy trapped species, so trapping them is Tzod Mderabanan. Therefore, in a Sukkah where wasps and bees are often a nuisance, most Poskim say it is permitted to trap them if you fear that they could sting and inflict substantial pain. Pets and Other Cases Pets are Muktza just like all animals and may not be carried or handled. However, one is permitted to feed his pet on Shabbos and may in fact not eat until his pet is fed whereas wild animals and birds, except for stray dogs, may not be fed. If necessary, it is permitted to walk a dog on Shabbos, even with a lead since holding the lead is not considered Hotzoa, carrying, as the lead is an accessory needed for the dogs wellbeing and is comparable to grabbing someones shirt. However, in a Reshus Harabim, the leash may not sag within a Tefach of the ground and at least a Tefach of the free end of the lead must protrude from ones hand. Interestingly, some Poskim hold that capturing a loose mental patient or someone who has escaped from prison is considered Tzod and locking up an unruly child is not Tzod in any case.

15th March 2014

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It says in this weeks Parsha (8:3), satisfaction of the poor man offering his Korban. - Gather the entire assembly to the Tent of Chazal suggests that Hashems unique relationship with Meeting. Klal Yisrael, expressed in the Birkas Kohanim through the The purpose of this miracle was not necessarily for blessing of Hashem will turn his Countenance towards Hashem to demonstrate his ability to gather a tremendous you (he will favor Klal Yisroel), results from the custom of crowd into a small area, but rather to teach Klal Yisrael a reciting Bircas HaMazon on a piece of bread as small as powerful lesson; to be satisfied with ones lot. Just as the size of an olive. Though the Deoraysa requirement for everyone found his place in the overcrowded courtyard of bentching is only when one is satiated, Klal Yisrael demonthe Mishkan, so too, everyone can find his nice in life. To strates its capacity to be content with very little by reciting reinforce this theme, Moshe addressed the crowd Birkas Hamazon on minuscule amounts of bread and immediately after the gathering of the Jewish people in consequently earns a special relationship with Hashem. such a narrow confined space saying (8:5), This is the thing that Hashem commanded to be done. The symbolic This can be related to our deadliest foe Haman, who ultiimportance of being crowded into the Mishkans courtyard mately appreciated Klal Yisraels ability to be satisfied should not be lost into future generations of Jews. This is comparatively with very little and attributed his downful to what Hashem commands you- to be content with your that trait. As the Gemara relates, Haman begrudgingly portion no matter how meager it may seem, just as you told Mordechai, your closed first (i.e. your ability to feel were all comfortable despite being crowded together in satisfied with small morsels of materialism), superseded front of the Mishkan at the time of the consecration of the my ten thousand silver talents pledged to Achashveirosh for the right to eliminate Klal Yisrael. With this fundaKohanim. mental tenet in mind, we can appreciate why Moshe This scene evokes memories of the famous Mishna in didnt feel constrained to remind Klal Yisrael that all the Pirkei Avos (5:7), Nor did any man say to his fellow, the honor he and Aharon were about to attain was not at their space is inefficient for me to stay overnight in Jerusalem. own behest, but rather in response to Hashems Those who live simply and are satisfied with their lot will command. Whereas previously, no one would have envied always have enough room. In practical terms the Torah the Kohanim or accused Moshe of having allotted prize here, and in many other instances, is appealing to us to positions to his brother and relatives, simply because shun luxuries, whether it be gourmet food, unnecessarily these positions offered no financial inducement. But now opulent homes, or needlessly elegant clothing, or even the that Moshe had effectively demonstrated to Klal Yisrael latest Apple product. We can now contemplate some that Hashems servant can support himself on very little, it other role models of this austere yet beautiful became more like that Klal Yisrael would suspect Moshe lifestyle- Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai who survived for of providing prestigious positions to his immediate family, thirteen years on a kav of a carob is one example. Think of due to their greater understanding. the special distinction that Hashem reserves for the Korban of the poor man, even though he may offer the A strong message can be learned from here, that amongst simplest Korban, a tenth of an ephah of flour- his sacrifice the more wealthy and those who struggle to maintain a is accepted with the same love as if he had offered his own living, we are all united in one way, through serving G -d in soul. In fact the Korban Mincha is offered as a Kometz, a the best possible way, and materialism is merely a part of closed fist, containing a scoopful of flour to symbolize the our lives which is nothing more than a means to an end.

Rishonim Story

Dvar Torah

Blois is a city in France which has the distinction of being one of the very few cities in Europe where there has been no Jewish community for the past 800 years. It has been shunned by Jews over the centuries due to the false ritual murder accusation in 1171, which was a tragic demonstration of the anti-Semitism which has hounded Jews worldwide for so long. One of the most common false accusations against the Jews over the years has been that Jews require Christian blood for Matzos on Pesach. The first such accusation was made in Norwich in 1144 and was repeated many times in numerous British cities in later years. It then spread to continental Europe, where it incited immense hatred of Jews amongst Christians which stayed for generations. The story of the massacre in Blois was recorded by Rabbi Ephraim of Bonn, one of the Baalei Tosafos who wrote many Piyutim and his account is what is used to piece together the story of what occurred in Blois. In the year 1171, a very minimal gathering of around 40 Jews lived in Blois. One of the Jews, named Yitzchak ben Eliezer, rode up to the river one Thursday evening shortly before Pesach. At the same

time, a stable servant rode the horse of his master up to water. The Jew bore on his chest a white hide sticking out of his coat and in the evening gloom, the servants horse took affright and sprang back. The Christian servant had heard the Priest preach tales of Jews using Christian blood for their Pesach Matzos. He fled to his master and declared, Hear, my lord, what a certain Jew did. As I rode behind him toward the river in order to give your horse a drink, I saw him throw a little Christian child, whom the Jews have killed, into the water. When I saw this I was horrified and hastened back quickly for fear he might kill me too. Even the horse under me was so frightened by the splash of water, when he threw the child in it, that it would not drink! The master replied, Now I can have my vengeance on that woman and the rest of the Jews. The next morning the master rode to the ruler of the city, Theobald the Count of Blois a heartless shallow man, and after hearing the accusation he became enraged and seized the Jews of Blois, casting them into prison. The only exception was Dame Pulcelina, a Jewish woman whom the count admired greatly for her wisdom and beauty. (To be continued next week)

This weeks Parsha seems to be a repetition of Parshas Vayikra as it repeats the korbanos and their halachos. However, the big difference between Tzav and Vayikra is the order of korbanos. In Parshas Vayikra the order reads as follows- olah, mincha, shlamim, chatas, asham. In Parshas Tzav the placement of the korban shlamim moves from third to last so that the order now reads- olah, mincha, chatas, asham, and shlamim.

one is obligated to bring (chatas and asham). This is essential information for the baal hakorban in order for him to know when to bring various korbanos. The list in Parshas Tzav is first kodshei kodoshim (olah, mincha, chatas, and asham), the higher level of korbanos, followed by kodshei kalim (shlamim), the lower level of korbanos. This is essential information to the Kohen and is therefore written in Parshas Tzav and not in Parshas Vayikra.

The question is asked, why does the torah re-list the Rav Grossman points out that the reason why the korbanos and why does it change the order? korbanos are written from the perspective of both the baal hakorban (the person offering the korban, The Ramban suggests that the apparent redundancy i.e. Bnei Yisrael) and the Kohen, is to remind us that and change in the order hints at the subject being the Kohen is merely the vessel through which Bnei addressed in the two sections. Parshas Vayikra Yisrael can achieve closeness to Hashem. Furtheraddresses the Bnei Yisrael, the people, while Parshas more, the perspective of the baal hakorban is preTzav is directed toward the Kohanim. This is seen sented first to remind the people that they are the from the opening pasukim of each parsha as Parshas ones who are the key characters when offering a Vayikra opens with Moshe addressing the People. korban , not the Kohen, who is a mere messenger Speak to Bnei Yisrael and tell them, if an individual on behalf of the people. among you wishes to offer a korban to G-d, Finally, perhaps one can answer as the Malbim does then... (Vayikra 1:2) regarding problematic repetition in Sefer Yishayahu. Parshas Tzav, however, opens with an address to the He writes that the repetition is in order to stress that one persons nevuah is not more important than Kohanim. another. Maybe this answer can be applied to the Command Aharon and his sons saying, this is the korbanos as each korban is just as important to procedure for bringing the olah... (Vayikra 6:2) Hashem as the next, regardless of the particular The order in the two parshiyos expresses this very circumstances surrounding it. This is possibly why concept. In Parshas Vayikra the order is first korban each korban has very specific and detailed halachos, nedavos, voluntary korbanos (olah, mincha, and different from that of other korbanos. shlamim), followed by korbanos chovos, korbanos
Riddle:
Apart from Chanukah and Chol Hamoed, when is the Torah read 5 days in a row? Answer in next weeks Living Torah Last weeks riddle: On one Yom Kippur in history the Bnei Yisroel ate and drank and were praised by Hashem for doing so. When was this? Answer: When King Shlomo built the Beis Hamikdash, Yom Kippur occurred during its seven days of inauguration . The Sanhedrin declared that people must cook, eat and drink on Yom Kippur in order not to compromise the happiness of the inauguration.

Q) What is the source for the obligation of Shenayim obligation and can be completed also with Rashi. Mikrah? However though it does not provide a source from Tanach, many infer it from the first pasuk in Sefer SheAnonymous mos. A) The Gemara in Berachos (8a) brings the Hasmonean Beis Rabbi requirement for one to make himself part of the Tzibur by completing the Parshah each week with Targum. If you have a question on any topic you would like The Gemara does not mention learning the Parshash to have answered, just email us at and therefore reading would be sufficient. Hasmolivingtorah@gmail.com or send a text to The Shulchan Aruch (Siman 285:2) states that this is an 07779579188