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General Elections 2014

PRESS INFORMATION BUREAU GOVERNMENT OF INDIA *******

New Delhi: 14th March, 2014

PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS OF INDIA


INTRODUCTION
Elections to the Lower House or House of the People (Lok Sabha) of the Indian Parliament Party or coalition that secures majority in Lok Sabha forms Government at the Centre.

When Elections Take Place


Every five years, unless House is dissolved earlier Called earlier by the President upon dissolution of Lok Sabha, if Government loses confidence of majority of members and if there is no alternative Government to take over 2014 Elections shall be the 16th ; the 1st General Election was in 1951 - 1952.

ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA


Independent constitutional authority For holding regular, free and fair elections Three member body Headquartered at New Delhi with organs at state and district levels

ELECTORS
Population

Who can vote Electors Enrolled Electors Voters


Any Indian citizen over the age of 18 on 1st January of the year and who is ordinarily resident in the constituency concerned Based on universal adult suffrage Eligible elector to register in respective constituency Indian citizens living abroad also can be enrolled at the address given in their passports

KEY STAKEHOLDERS

POLITICAL PARTIES
Conduct of elections largely dependent on their behaviour Should be registered with ECI

CANDIDATES
Contestants in the 2009 General Elections

Who can contest


Any Indian citizen who is registered as a voter & is over 25 years of age May be either belonging to a party or independent Every candidate is required to make a security deposit Deposit is Rs. 25,000/- for General Candidates, Rs. 12,500/- for SCs and STs Candidates to file affidavit about their assets, liabilities, criminal background and educational qualifications.

Political Parties that participated in the 2009 General Elections 34


National Parties

1623
State Parties
322

3829

759 1859

Members of National Parties Members of State Parties Members of Registered Unrecognized Parties Independents

Registered (Unrecognised) Parties

THE ELECTORAL PROCESS


Division into Parliamentary Constituencies

First-past-the-post Electoral System


Each elector can vote for one candidate Candidate with maximum votes wins

BETWEEN CONTESTANTS & ELECTORS


Manifestos
Issued by parties and candidates on the eve of election Detail programmes they wish to implement if elected, highlighting ones own strengths and failures of opponents

DECIDING THE BATTLEFIELDS

Whole of India divided into 543 constituencies. Based on number of seats allocated to each of the 28 states and 7 union territories on the basis of their population. Size and shape determined by Delimitation Commission of India. One member elected to Lok Sabha from each constituency, filling 543 of 545 seats. Two members nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian community.
79 41 423

Scheduling the Elections


Done by Election Commission of India Considering weather, festivals, school exams, etc. Seeking to maximize electoral participation Generally held in phases to ensure effective security arrangements for peaceful poll

Election Symbols
An election symbol is allotted to each candidate and to each political party Enable illiterate voters to identify the party and candidate they wish to vote for Candidates of recognized parties are allotted the party symbol

Reserved for SC Reserved for ST General

ELECTORAL PARTICIPATION
Electoral Rolls
Lists of registered electors in each constituency Revised annually All rolls computerized & include photos of each elector.

REGULATORY MECHANISMS
SVEEP Supervising Elections
Done by Observers appointed by ECI In order to: Ensure fair conduct of campaigns Ensure free and ethical voting Keep a check on election expenditure Types of Observers: General Observers Police Observers Expenditure Observers Awareness Observers Micro Observers

EPIC

Electors Photo Identity Card Provided upon registration to each individual elector Provided free of cost

Systematic Voter Education and Electoral Participation To improve electoral participation & to build up a culture of participative democracy Integral part of election management in India

Model Code of Conduct


For political parties and contestants Broad guidelines on conduct during campaign Evolved by ECI on the basis of consensus among political parties To maintain campaign on healthy lines & to ensure a level playing field

WHATS NEW
None of the Above (NOTA)
Introduced in 2013 in State Assembly Elections Shall be the last button on the EVM Voter can press this button if he/she does not wish to vote for any of the candidates

Limit on Poll Expenses


Tight legal limits on poll expenditure by candidates Varies between Rs.54 lakhs and Rs.70 lakhs

Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)


Prints a ballot slip showing the name and symbol of candidate to whom vote has been given To improve voter satisfaction

POLLING MANAGEMENT
Proxy Voting Electronic Voting Machines
Voting by secret ballot Used exclusively since 2004 General Elections Option to vote through proxy or through postal ballot is available to service voters belonging to the Armed Forces or to members belonging to a force to which the Army Act applies

Timeline of Poll Events

Indelible Ink

Polling Stations
Usually set up in public institutions Within 2 km of every voter No polling station to deal with more than 1,500 voters

Applied to voters left fore-finger before permitting him/her to vote Used to control fake voting Dries up in 60 seconds and remains for a few months Cannot be removed by chemicals, detergents or oil

Counting of Votes Postal Ballot


Certain sections of voters entitled to vote by post Includes those on election duty, service voters & certain others Done after completion of all phases of polling Under the supervision of Returning Officers and Election Observers Counting for all 543 constituencies done on a single day Results declared within a few hours

INTERESTING FACTS OF GENERAL ELECTIONS 2009


Highest Polling station: Auleyphu in Leh (15,300 m) Maximum number of votes polled by a candidate: 8,32,224 Minimum number of votes polled by a candidate: 118 Maximum number of candidates in a constituency: 43 Minimum number of candidates in a constituency: 3 Maximum voter turnout in a constituency: 90.32% Minimum voter turnout in a constituency: 25.55% Largest constituency (by area): Ladakh (J&K) 1,73,266.37 sq. km Smallest constituency (by area):Chandni Chowk (Delhi) - 10.59 sq. km Largest constituency (by size of electorate): Outer Delhi (NCT of Delhi) 31,03,525 electors Smallest constituency (by size of electorate):Lakshadweep - 37,619 electors A polling station was set up in Junagadh district in Gir Forests of Gujarat for just one elector.
RM

WORLDS LARGEST DEMOCRATIC EXERCISE


2009 ELECTIONS 8,070 Candidates 363 Registered Political Parties 10 Million Personnel on poll duty (including police personnel) 834,919 Polling Stations 717 Million Registered Electors 2,046 Observers 1,39,284 Micro Observers 46,90,575 Polling Staff 2014 ELECTIONS 9,19,452 Polling Stations Nine Poll days
EVMs: 9,08,643 control units

11,83,543 ballot units 74,729 Videographers 40,599 Digital Cameras Election Expenditure by Central Government - 8,466 million rupees 1080 Counting Centres Five Phases Spread over one month 814 Million Registered Electors EVMs: 17,20,080 control units 18,78,306 ballot units
* Source : Election Commission of India