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America

IN CLOSE-UP

America
IN CLOSE-UP
ECKHARD FIEDLER REIMER JANSEN MIL NORMAN-RISCH

Pearson Education Limited


Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2]E, England and Associated Companies throughout the world.

www.longman-elt.com Longman Group UK Limited 1990


All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, expect in those cases explicity allowed by local law, without the prior written permission of the Publishers.

ISBN 0582 74929 8 First published 1990 Tenth impression 2001 British Library Cataloging in Publication Data Fiedler, Eckhard America in close-up. 1. United States. Social life I. Title II. Jansen, Reimer III. Norman-Risch, Mill 973.927 Set in 10/12 pt. Palatino Printed in China EPC/10

Contents
UNIT 1 UNIT UNIT UNIT UNI UNIT UNIT UNI T UNI 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15

UNI UNI UNI T UNIT 13 UNI T UNI

Index of Part Texts Introduction The Making of a Nation American Beliefs and Values Regionalism vs. Americanization The U.S. Economy The Urbanization of America Law, Crime, and Justice Minorities The Changing Role of Women The Political System America's Global Role Education Religion The Arts Sports The Media Some Facts about the States Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the United States Index

10 13 25 43 59 81 97 112 127 142 170 188 205 225 245 261 278 279 280

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PART

Texts
5. Economics vs. Ecology: Problems with Solutions to Pollution by Robert W. Haseltine. From USA Today.

UNIT 1 The Making of a Nation


1. "America". Lyrics from the musical West Side Story by Stephen Sondheim and Leonard Bernstein 2. New York - A Melting Pot. The text is taken from the back cover of MAYOR by Edward Koch. 3. Immigration Today: A Case Study. From Newsweek. 4. A Newsweek Poll on Immigration.

UNIT 5 The Urbanization of America


1. Small Town Life by Berton Roueche. From Special Places, In Search of Small Town America. 2. Revival of a City's Virtues Why a young single woman moves to the city by Mildred Norman-Risch. 3. Neighborhoods. From A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. 4. Children of Poverty - Crisis in New York by Andrew Stein. From The New York Times magazine. 5. Pittsburgh - A New City. From Dialogue.

UNIT 2 American Beliefs and Values


1. The American Idea by Theodore H. White. From The New York Times magazine. 2. American Dreams: Arnold Schwarzenegger and Florence Scala. From American Dreams: Lost and Found by Studs Terkel. 3. A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values. An interview with four young Americans. 4. Put Out No Flags by Matthew Rothschild. From The Progressive.

UNIT 6 Law, Crime, and Justice


1. A Brother's Murder by Brent Staples. From The New York Times magazine. 2. Arming Citizens to Fight Crime by Frank Borzellieri. From USA Today. 3. The Death Penalty: Legal Cruelty? by Donald B. Walker. From USA Today. 4. Thoughts on the Supreme Court excerpts from an interview with Tom Clark. From Perspectives. 5. How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court. From Perspectives.

UNIT 3 Regionalism vs. Americanization


1. The Cooling of the South by Raymond Arsenault. From the Wilson Quarterly. 2. Southern Women - Still Ladies? by Cora McKinney 3. The Nation's Most Strongly Defined Region. From "New England's Regionalism and Recovery" by W. Street and H. Gimlin in American Regionalism edited by Hoyt Gimlin. 4. What is a Middle Westerner? From "The Middle West" by John Fraser Hart in Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 5. "Just Like the Rest of Us, Only More So." From "California: Living Out the Golden Dream" by R. Kipling and W. Thomas in American Regionalism edited by Hoyt Gimlin.

UNIT 7 Minorities
1. I Am the Redman/My Lodge by Duke Redbird. 2. Brothers by Sylvester Monroe. From Newsweek 3. Jessie de la Cruz. From American Dreams: Lost and Found by Studs Terkel. 4. Lucky Sundowners by Peter Black. From The Observer. 5. Where There's Smoke. From Time.

UNIT 4 The U.S. Economy


1. Peter Drucker on Entrepreneurs. From U.S. News & World Report. 2. Inside Bell Labs by Gene Bylinsky. From Dialogue. 3. A French Fry Diary: From Idaho Furrow to Golden Arches by Meg Cox. From American Character: Views of America from the Wall Street journal. 4. The Forgotten Farmer by Danny Collum. From Sojourners.

UNIT 8 The Changing Role of Women


1. Second Thoughts on Having It All by Tony Schwartz. From New York. 2. The Choices That Brought Me Here by Amanda Spake. From Ms. 3. How to Have a Successful Christian Family by Jerry Falwell. From a Moral Majority Publication

INDEX OF PART TEXTS 9

4. Families. Statistics from the National Education Association. 5. Husband's Hazard - For Middle-Aged Man, A Wife's New Career Upsets Old Balances by Mary Bralove. From American Character: Views of America from the Wall Street Journal.

6. Universities in Transition by David Riesman. From the Wilson Quarterly.

UNIT 12 Religion
1. Sunday in Hope by Berton Roueche. From Special Places In Search of Small Town America. 2. I Have a Dream - an extract from Martin Luther King's speech at the Lincoln Memorial on August 28 1963. 3. Breaking New Ground on War and Peace by Paul Bock. From USA Today. 4. Power, Glory - And Politics. From Time. 5. School Prayer - excerpts from President Reagan's remarks to the Annual Convention of National Religious Broadcasters. UNIT 13 The Arts 1. Toward a National Theater by Howard Stein. From Dialogue. 2. A Dozen Outstanding Plays of the Past Quarter Century. From Dialogue. 3. An Interview with Jack Nicholson by Beverly Walker, From Film Comment. 4. Literary Hollywood by Stanley Kauffman. From The New Republic. 5. The Chairman and the Boss by Jay Cocks. From Time. UNIT 14 Sports 1. Interview: High School Sports - Steve Peter, an American exchange student who spent a year in a German school, talks about high school sports. 2. Sports in America: Colleges and Universities. From Sports in America by James A. Michener. 3. Baseball. From The Oxford Companion to Sports and Games. 4. Running for Your Life by Matt Clark and Karen Springen. From Newsweek. 5. Lousy at Sports by Mark Goodson. From The New York Times magazine. UNIT 15 The Media 1. The Case for Television Journalism by Eric Sevareid. From Saturday Review. 2. The Nature of TV in America by Richard Burke. 3. Television. The text is the television column from The Herald-Telephone. 4. This Is Not Your Life: Television as the Third Parent by Benjamin Stein. From Public Opinion. 5. The Likability Sweepstakes by Richard Stengel. From Time. 6. Dilemmas. From Public Opinion.

UNIT 9 The Political System


1. Perspective of a Public Man - excerpts from an interview with Hubert Humphrey. From Perspectives. 2. A President's Mission extracts from George Bush's nomination acceptance speech. 3. The Human Side of Congress Representative Jim Wright. From Perspectives. 4. Lobbyists and Their Issues a) American Israel Public Affairs Committee by Thomas Dine b) The Wilderness Society by Rebecca Leet. From Perspectives. 5. "If Conservatives Cannot Do it Now . . . " an interview with Irving Kristol. From U.S. News & World Report. 6. Reagan/Bush '84. The text is taken from the Reagan/Bush campaign leaflet for the 1984 presidential election. 7. Keynote Address by Governor Cuomo to the Democratic National Convention July 1984 (excerpts). 8. Americans Vote for Divided Government. From the Washington Post.

UNIT 10 America's Global Role


1. America and the World: Principle and Pragmatism by Henry Kissinger. From Time. 2. American Policy in Vietnam; Peace Without Conquest. From a speech by Lyndon B. Johnson. 3. Top Dogs and Underdogs by J. William Fulbright. From /. William Fulbright. 4. Exporting American Culture. From Public Opinion. UNIT 11 Education 1. American Educational Philosophies by Diane Ravitch. From "American Education: Has the Pendulum Swung Once Too Often?" in Humanities. 2. What Makes Great Schools Great? From US News & World Report. 3. An American Senior High School an American student talks about his high school. 4. Attendance Policy and Procedures - Quincy Senior High Attendance Policy for 1984 to 1985. 5. What Students Think About Their Schools.

Introduction
Aims
America in Close-up is a refreshingly different type of book for use by advanced students of English in the upper grades of secondary schools and on the more basic courses in colleges and universities. By combining the two functions of reader and reference book it aims to offer students the most complete possible introduction to American life and institutions, and because of its design is unusually flexible both in the classroom and as a self-study aid.

Content and Organization


Each unit of America in Close-up is divided into three sections: Part A: factual background information Part B: authentic texts Part C: exercises The texts in Part form the reader and the focus is on contemporary America. Taken from individual writers with lively and divergent views, the texts explore a wide range of issues and accumulatively paint an authentic picture of current trends and debates. It is the factual information in the Part A sections which provides the historical and cultural context necessary for the students to understand these issues. Taken together, these build into a comprehensive work of reference that covers almost all major areas of American life. The Part exerciseslinked to the texts in Part B are designed to provoke discussion and to develop language skills such as comprehension and text analysis. Some exercises reflect explicitly the important cross-cultural objective which underlies this book. It is our belief that by studying American life, students will become not only more sensitive to their own environment but also better able to understand and accept cultural differences wherever they meet them.

How to Use the Book


America in Close-up can be used in a number of different ways. Some of these are listed below. Because of the breadth of historical and contemporary information that it contains, America in Close-up is the ideal basic coursebook for an American Studies program. It is suitable both for classroom use and for self-study and individual research.

INTRODUCTION 11

The authentic reading material and the wide variety of exercises in America in Close-up make it a stimulating textbook for use in advanced English language classes where the U.S. is the topic under consideration. Teachers will decide for themselves how much of the background information in the Part A sections to draw in; indeed, some may prefer to concentrate on these for a more systematic and factual approach. America in Close-up can be used equally well as a general companion to the study of other fictional (and non-fictional) texts for example, to provide the socio-economic background to a poem, drama, short story or complete novel. Again the option is there for classroom use or individual study. Used selectively, America in Close-up offers teachers and students information and reading material on a given aspect of America as and when this is appropriate.

The Making of a Nation


PART A Background Information
NATION OF IMMIGRANTS

FIRST IMMIGRANTS

The United States is a society of immigrants. Since its early days, the country has admitted more than 50 million newcomers, a larger number of immigrants than any country in history. Most people came, and still come today, for wealth, land, and freedom. Stories of the New World's gold attracted the first Spanish explorers, who in the 1500s established outposts in what is now Florida. Prospects of wealth also motivated French fur traders, who set up trading posts from the St. Lawrence River to the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River. The British, who were the first to colonize on a large scale, came for profit and also for religious freedom. The first successful English colony founded at Jamestown, Virginia, was financed by a London company that expected to make money from the settlement. English Puritans, Protestants who disagreed with the teachings of the Church of England, established settlements in the northeastern region. In the New World they could worship as they pleased. Throughout the 1600s and 1700s permanent settlements were rapidly established all along the east coast. Most of the early settlers were British. These early immigrants were soon joined by people of other nationalities. German farmers settled in Pennsylvania, Swedes founded the colony of Delaware, and the Dutch settled in New York. Africans, America's unwilling immigrants, provided slave labor in the southern colonies. Immigrants also came from France, Spain, and Switzerland. When they settled in the New World, many immigrants tried to preserve the traditions, religion, and language of their particular culture. The language and culture of the more numerous English colonists, however, had the overriding influence. American society was predominantly Englishwhite AngloSaxon Protestant (WASP). Those immigrants who did not want to feel separate from the dominant WASP culture learned English and adopted English customs.
Puritan: a member of an English sect of Protestants, who, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, advocated simplification of the creeds and ceremonies of the Church of England and demanded strict religious discipline. WASP: W(hite) A(nglo)-S(axon) P(rotestant); an American of British or northern European ancestry who is a member of the Protestant church. WASPs are frequently considered to form the most privileged and influential group which formerly dominated U.S. society.

14 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

AMERICAN INDIANS

OLD IMMIGRATION

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPEANS

European settlement changed the fate of America's only non-immigrants, the Native American Indians. Europeans arrived in great numbers and needed land and game for their survival. They seized Indian lands through war, threats, and treaties, and they hunted game, cut forests, and built big cities. To the Indians the white men were unwanted trespassers. They did not want the "white man's civilization." They had their own which had been successful for centuries. The clash of cultures led to many battles, among them General Custer's famous Last Stand at Little Bighorn in 1876. By the end of the nineteenth century disease and warfare had almost wiped out the Indian population. Those that remained tried to resist the U.S. government's efforts to confine them to reservations. The Plains Indians' final defeat in 1890 at the Battle of Wounded Knee symbolized the end of the Indians' traditional way of life. From the Indians' perspective, the story of European immigration is a story of struggle and displacement. Between 1840 and 1860, the United States received the greatest influx of immigrants ever. During this period, 10 million people came to America. By the middle of the century the United States, with over 23 million inhabitants, had a larger population than any single European country. The proportion of newcomers increased rapidly so that by 1860 about 13 of every 100 persons in the U.S. were recent immigrants. In the mid-1800s, thousands of Chinese emigrated to California, where most of them worked on the railroad. Up until 1880, the overwhelming majority of immigrants, however, came from northern or western Europe. Many left Europe to escape poor harvests, famines or political unrest. Between 1845 and 1860, a serious blight on the potato crop in Ireland sent hundreds of thousands of Irish people to the U.S. to escape starvation. In one year alone1847 118,120 Irish people settled in the U.S. German immigration was especially heavy. During the peak years of German immigration, from 1852 to 1854, over 500,000 Germans came to live in the U.S. The northern and western Europeans who arrived between 1840 and 1880 are often referred to as the "old immigration." A new wave of immigration began in the late 1800s. Northern and western Europe were no longer providing the majority of the immigrants. The new immigrants were Latin, Slavic, and Jewish peoples from southern and eastern Europe. Among these new arrivals were Italians, Hungarians, Poles, Russians, Rumanians, and Greeks, all people whose languages, customs, and appearance
Custer, George A.: (1839-76), U.S. general who fought the Indians, and was killed in the battle of the Little Bighorn. Little Bighorn: a river flowing northward from Wyoming to join the Bighorn in southern Montana where Custer and his men were massacred by Indians in 1876. Plains Indian: a member of the mostly nomadic tribes of Indians who once inhabited the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. They were also called Buffalo Indians. Wounded Knee: the battle at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota on December 29, 1890, marked the final act in the tragedy of the Indian wars. Shortly after the famous Indian leader Chief Sitting Bull (1834-90) had been killed, soldiers opened fire upon unarmed Indian men, women, and children leaving more than 200 dead. railroad: the building of railroads played an important role in the opening up of the American West. Private companies supported by both state and private funds competed in this enterprise and hired vast numbers of laborers, especially during the great wave of railroad building in the 1850s.

THE MAKING OF A NATION 15

NATIVIST SENTIMENT

ASSIMILATION PROCESS

RECENT IMMIGRATION

set them apart conspicuously from the earlier immigrants of Celtic or Teutonic origin. This new wave of immigration was so great that in the peak years of unlimited immigration between 1900 and 1920 the number of immigrants sometimes rose to as many as a million a year. The flood of immigration affected American cities. Immigrants were crowding into the largest cities, particularly New York and Chicago, often forming ethnic neighborhoods"Little Italys" or "Chinatowns"where they preserved their language and customs. These ethnic enclaves grew at an astonishing rate. In 1890 New York was a city of foreigners: eight out of ten of its residents were foreign-born. In 1893 Chicago had the largest Czech population in the world and almost as many Poles as Warsaw. The assimilation of these new southern and eastern peoples was a source of conflict. Many Americans treated them with prejudice and hostility, claiming racial superiority of the Nordic peoples of the old immigration over the Slavic and Latin peoples of the new immigration. Religious prejudice against Catholics and Jews was another factor underlying much of the resentment towards immigrants. Many old stock Americans observed with alarm that the ethnic composition of the country was changing and feared that America was losing its established character and identity. Growing industrialization in the late nineteenth century led industries to favor an "open door" immigration policy to expand the labor force. Many American workers resented new immigrant laborers who were willing to work for lower wages. Americans feared the immigrants were taking away their jobs. The government responded to the prejudices of an older wave of immigrants. In the 1920s Congress passed quota restrictions which favored immigration from northern and western Europe and drastically limited the number of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. Chinese immigration to the Pacific coast had already been halted in 1882. The descendents of these turn-of-the-century arrivals were gradually assimilated into American society. The first generation typically faced obstacles to assimilation on both sides: society's discrimination and their own reluctance to give up their language and culture. Their children, however, were better able to identify themselves as Americans. By the second generation, these families spoke mostly English and they practiced fewer ethnic traditions. Members of the third generation, usually no longer able to speak the language of their grandparents, often became nostalgic about family heritage, desiring to regain the ethnic identity before it was lost. By the fourth or fifth generation, intermarriage between ethnic groups usually worked against any yearnings towards reestablishing the ethnic identity. Although immigration dropped after the 1920s, the numbers have again risen dramatically, so that recent statistics indicate an increase to perhaps 600,000 or even 700,000 per year, when refugees are included. America is again faced with an assimilation problem. The majority of the newest immigrants come from Mexico, Latin America, or Asia. Among these newcomers, the Asians seem most willing to assimilate. Many are Cambodian and Vietnam refugees who fled the destruction and upheaval of the Vietnam War. Cambodians and Vietnamese have usually shown a drive to succeed as Americans. They encourage their children to speak accentless English and play American games.
Vietnam War: a conflict (195475) between South Vietnam, aided by the United States, and the Vietcong (a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam) and North Vietnam, receiving military aid mainly from Communist China.

16 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

REFUGEES

ILLEGAL ALIENS

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION

Cubans, many of whom were wealthy property owners before Castro's regime, often show a similar drive to fit in and become prosperous. Mexican-Americans, now comprising about one-fifth of California's total population, are not so easily assimilated. They generally have a strong sense of their own culture and often marry among themselves Under the 1980 Refugee Act the United States has admitted some 50,000 refugees per year who, as defined by this act, are fleeing their country because of persecution on the basis of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion. Some Americans, most notably activists in the church sanctuary movement, would like to broaden the concept "refugee" to include economic refugees, i.e. persons suffering from severe poverty. American society, they point out, has always given people the opportunity to help themselves. The argument against recognizing and admitting economic refugees is that the nation's resources could not accommodate a sudden influx of the world's poor and provide them with jobs and assistance. In the years between 1980 and 1985, about 600,000 immigrants were legally admitted each year. In addition, hundreds of thousands of persons entered the country illegally, most of them fleeing poverty or war in Mexico or Latin America. Many illegal aliens supply cheap labor as farm workers at harvest time or work at menial tasks which Americans shun. Up to 1986 the law forbade illegal immigrants to work in the United States but did not penalize employers for hiring them. These circumstances encouraged many people to risk illegal employment in the U.S. However, an immigration law passed on October 17, 1986 attempted to stamp out the incentive for aliens to enter the country illegally by imposing strict penalties on businesses hiring illegal aliens. In addition, this law provided the opportunity for aliens who had lived and worked in the U.S. since 1981 to apply for status as permanent residents. As many as half the nation's estimated 3 to 5 million illegal immigrants became able to apply for legal status. In the 1980s immigration, both legal and illegal, had a substantial impact on U.S. population growth. When both legal and illegal entries were counted, close to one half of all growth was attributable to immigration. America's future ethnic composition and population growth will clearly be affected by the immigration and population policies the government pursues. Americans continue to debate the issue of immigration. Some groups in favour of tightening immigration restrictions argue that overpopulation is a threat. Based on current rates, U.S. population could double in only 40 years. Restricting immigration would curb the rate of growth. Other arguments for restricting immigration are rooted in the same fears that aroused nativist sentiment at the turn of the century. Many Americans fear that immigrants may lower the quality of life in America by taking away Americans' jobs and by importing the same social and economic ills that exist in the countries they left. Furthermore, they argue that tightening restrictions is a necessary measure to preserve America's national identity. On the other hand, many Americans more optimistically emphasize the cultural wealth and diversity which immigrants have been bringing to the nation since its conception.
Castro, Fidel: born 1927, Cuban revolutionary and prime minister since 1959. church sanctuary movement: a movement of American churches helping refugees and illegal immigrants by giving them shelter and protection from eviction. nativist: protecting the interests of natives against those of immigrants.

THE MAKING OF A NATION

17

\ IDENTITY \CRISIS V

The debate over immigration comes at a time when Americans are wrestling with the problem of identity. In the past, the majority of Americans considered themselves WASPs. Many groups, for example blacks, whose ancestors were brought over as slaves, were not regarded by the majority as true Americans. Newcomers were expected to assimilate and live on the majority's terms. The mass migration at the turn of the century brought a new heterogeneity to American society which challenged WASPs to acknowledge that Americans could be Catholic or Jewish, almond-eyed or olive-skinned. Still, in the early 1900s, America's policy towards Americanizing immigrants stressed assimilation into WASP culture, and, still, the country's leaders were old stock American Protestants. Before John F. Kennedy became the first Catholic to be elected President of the United States in 1960, all other presidents were Protestant. Since the 1960s, as the ethnic composition changed even more, with fewer and fewer people able to claim WASP status, Americans' attitudes towards ethnic and religious differences have altered. Pressure on immigrants to Americanize and altogether forget their background has relaxed. High political offices are held by non-whites and non-Protestants. Americans are aware that the national ethnic, religious identityWASP which once unified the country under certain shared assumptions and values, has disappeared. In a country where currently 6 percent of the population is foreign-born, where more than 10 percent speaks a language other than English at home, and where newcomers are crossing the borders daily in droves, diversity is a major characteristic. The well-known picture of America as a melting pot where all groups come together, creating a new, distinct American type, is not an adequate metaphor. On the whole, a more accurate picture of American society today, one that conveys its astonishing variety of cultures, each preserving its own distinctiveness, is vegetable soup.
MILLIONS

How Many Came? (Immigration by decade, 1821 -1980)

1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1830 -1841 -1850-1860-1870 -1880-1890 -1900-1910-1920-1930-1940 -1950-1960-1970-1980 Who WereThey? (Immigrants by Region, 1821-1980) 100%-

71

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VZ-

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'

'

1821-60

1861-1900

1901-30

1931-60

1961-70

M i l l .......... I

...............
1971-80

Asia

Latin America

II

II

Southern and Northern and Canada Eastern Europe Western Europe

Other( including Africa)

18

PART Texts

"AMERICA"
In the musical West Side Story lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and music by Leonard Bernstein Puerto Ricans express their experiences as a minority in the U.S.A.
UNLIKE OTHER MUSICALS 'WEST SIDE STORY' GROWS YOUNGER:

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'BEST PICTURE' Winner of 10 Academy Awards "WEST SIDE STORY;1 ^ \ in... * NATALIE WOOD . RICHARD RUSS TAMBLYN RITA MORENO GEORGE CHAKIRIS

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I like to be in America, Okay by me in America. Ev'rything free in America. For a small fee in America. Buying on credit is so nice. One look at us and they charge twice. I'd have my own washing-machine. What will you have though to keep clean? Skyscrapers bloom in America. Have a lot soon in America. Industry boom in America. Twelve in a room in America. Lots of new housing with more space. Lots of doors slamming in our face. I'll get a terraced apartment. Better get rid of your accent!

Life can be bright in America If you can fight in America. Life is all right in America If you're white in America. Here you are free and you have pride Long as you stay on your own side. Free to be anything you choose -Free to wipe tables and shine shoes. Everywhere grime in America. Organized crime in America. Terrible time in America. You forget I'm in America. / think I'll go back to San Juan. I know a boat you can get on. Everyone there will give big cheer! Everyone there will have moved here.

THE MAKING OF A NATION 19

New York A Melting Pot?.

BM,

/, Edward: born 12.12.1924, mayor of the "City of New York from 1978 to 1989. He was succeeded by David Dinkins, the first black mayor of New York City.

20 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Immigration Today: A Case Study


For those fleeing political, religious or racial repression, immigration to America can be a life-anddeath matter. The United States formally recognizes this by allowing the persecuted to circumvent the normal system. They can apply either for asylum, if they are already here or at a port of entry, or refugee status, if they are outside the country. At least 120,000 Cambodians were accepted into the United States under this system by the early 1980s. But recently the number of refugees admitted to the United States has dropped sharply. Although each case is theoretically considered on its own merits, federal officials today keep a sharp eye out for those who seem to be "economic migrants" running from poverty, not persecution. refugee Savuth Sath, 32, of Cambodia, Former expresses a somewhat cynical view of what it

takes to succeed in America. "It's an acting exercise," he says. 'You need only to make yourself look as decent as you can, get to where you have to be on time, do what you're required to do, and you'll be fine." So then why do Sath and his wife, Mom Chhay, 25, hold down one part-time and two fulltime jobs even as they serve as landlords in their multifamily house in Chelsea, Mass.? "Money is a necessary tool for real estate," says Sath. "I'm still working for a living now." Besides, "nothing's ever completely over. We could run out of food here next," Sath's penchant for security is easy to understand. One of five children of a poor Cambodian noodle vendor, he was separated from his family in 1975, when A Cambodian immigrant working in the U.S. the Khmer Rouge drafted the young, unmarried men and women of his country into forced-labor camps. For the next four years he lived surrounded by death and on from 3 P.M. till 11 P.M. or later at $8,05 an hour - and the edge of starvation. "Boys and girls dried up like 50 percent more for overtime, Mom Chhay, meanair," he says. "Girls especially would just lie down in while, works a 45-hour week on the production line the water to die." In 1979 he was reunited with one of a medical-diagnostic lab in Newton. brother and a cousin, and the three made their way to a That leaves Sath with a few hours at home, and refugee camp in Thailand; there he met and married he is "looking for something to do." Sometimes he Mom Chhay. The two arrived in America, without carves miniature wooden ox carts, replicas of the luggage or money, in 1981. His first impression: the ones found m Cambodia, while watching game squirrels. "They play so close to the house. In my country shows on TV. Often he peruses the real-estate ads. He bought his 80-year-old house for $107,000 and we had millions of rats." But Sath has little time today for reflecting on nature. rents the upstairs apartment to another Cambodian His workday starts at noon, with a two-hour stint as a family for $800 a month. He would like to increase caseworker at the Jewish Vocational Training Center his real-estate holdings, but he feels that each loan one of several jobs counseling Cambodians he's held means giving back a piece of his newfound freesince arriving in the United States, Then he drives to a dom. "I'm almost free," he says. "When I pay off my food-processing plant in Watertown, Mass., where he loans I'll really be on my own." works as a supervisor From Newsweek magazine, July 14, 1986
Khmer Rouge: red, or Communist, Cambodians, a militant force receiving military support from North Vietnam, opposing the right-wing nationalist regime of General Lon Nol.

THE MAKING OFANATION

21

A NEWSWEEK POLL ON IMMIGRATION


Americans surveyed by NEWSWEEK were divided in their views on immigrants several proposals to stem a rising tide of illegal immigration into this country. and on

I Do you think the number of immigrants now entering the U.S. from each of the following areas is too many, too few or about Too Many Too Few right? About Right 26% 11% 50% 53% 5% European Countries Latin America 30% 31% 12% African Countries Asian Countries 37% 49% 6% . Do you feel that English only should 33% be used in all public schools, public signs, government forms and official messages in the United States. Or do you support the use of a second language in some areas to help immigrants participate in education, business, public affairs and daily life?

English Only 47%

Second Language 49%

Some people say the government should make it much more difficult for illegal aliens to get work in the U.S. by penalizing companies that knowingly hire them. Others oppose such a penalty because it would restrict U.S. businesses too much and limit opportunities for legal immigrants especially Hispanics. Which view comes close to your own?

Penalize Companies 61%

Oppose Penalties 28%

4- Some people propose that the federal government issue identity cards to all citizens and legal immigrants to distinguish them from those who are in the country illegally. Others oppose this plan on the grounds that it would give the federal government too much knowledge and control over all Americans. Which view comes closest to your own?

Issue ID Card 42%

Oppose ID Card 52%

Some people say there are too many illegal immigrants living in this country for the authorities to arrest and deport them; they feel we should have an amnesty to let most of these aliens live here legally. Others say the government should do everything it can to arrest those living in this country illegally. Which comes closer to your view?

Amnesty for Those Here 34%

Arrest and Deport 55%


Agree 61% 80% 59% 61% Disagree 36% 17% 33% 35%

Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?

Immigrants take jobs from U.S. workers. Many immigrants work hard often taking jobs that Americans don't want. Many immigrants wind up on welfare and raise taxes for Americans Immigrants help improve our culture with their different cultures and talents.

For this NEWSWEEK Poll. The Gallup Organization interviewed 751 adults by telephone on June 1, 2 and 3. The margin of error is plus or minus 4 percentage points. 'Don't knows' not shown. The NEWSWEEK Poll @ 7984 by NEWSWEEK Inc.

From Newsweek magazine, June 25, 1984

22

PART C Exercises
1. Analyzing a Song
"America"
1. The song is recited by two groups of Puerto Ricans. Generally speaking, what is the difference in the two groups' views of America? 2. Looking at each of the eight stanzas of the song, how is the theme of the ambivalent American experience developed? 3. Now have a closer look at the language which is used in the song to express the contrasting views of America. Which stylistic and syntactical means does Stephen Sondheim use when he makes the second group take up and react to the points brought up by the first group? 4. How are these stylistic devices used to convey the differing viewpoints of the singers? How would you describe the general tone of the song? 5. What do you think Stephen Sondheim's intention was when writing the lyrics of this song? the role ethnic traditions should play why some immigrant groups changed their names if he can give examples of the new awareness of ethnic traditions

3. Writing a Resume Immigration Today: A Case Study


Savuth Sath reads the following ad in the
Chelsea Gazette.

Major expanding food company is seeking careeroriented applicants for the position of MANAGEMENT ASSISTANT to supervise production of our chicken processing plant, plan and coordinate new food section. We offer advancement opportunities and an attractive salary. Send your application with a resume in tabular form including all personal facts qualifications and present job hobbies and other interests CHICKENHOUSE FREEZEWAY, Inc. Chelsea, MA

2. Interview Practice New YorkA Melting Pot?


Working in pairs, simulate an interview with Mayor Koch based on the information given on the back cover of his book. You want to know: how he felt about being the mayor of New York how many inhabitants the mayor of New York is responsible for what he did to get to know the people of New York how many people are represented at the U.N. in which respects the people of New York differ whether he thinks New York is a melting pot what he thinks about those who tried to forget their heritage in order to become true Americans

Write the tabularized resume and the application for Savuth Sath.

4. Comprehension Check A Newsweek Poll on Immigration


Determine whether the statements are true or false and correct the false ones with reference to the information given in the Newsweek poll. 1. About half the Americans surveyed believe that too many Asians immigrate into the U.S. 2. Most Americans believe that the fastest way of being integrated into American life is speaking only English.

THE MAKING OF A NATION 23

3. A vast majority of Americans believe that firms which hire illegal aliens should be penalized. 4. Most Americans feel that the government would have too much control over them if identity cards were introduced. 5. Most Americans would not like to see illegal immigrants return to their countries. 6. There is almost unanimous agreement that illegal immigrants are hard-working people. 7. About a third of all Americans agree that many immigrants are a social and economic burden for society. 8. The notion that the culture of immigrants enriches the American culture is not shared by most people surveyed.

do they live? How do they differ from the majority of people in your country with respect to customs, religion, clothing, food, music, etc.? 2. How is immigration handled in your country? Are there any major restrictions? What do you know about the immigrants' motives for leaving their mother countries and what are their expectations about living in your country? 3. To what extent do you think immigrants of different ethnic backgrounds should be integrated into society? How do the ethnic minorities themselves feel about this issue?

5. Discussion Points
1. Are there different ethnic groups in your country? Where do they come from? Where

6. Picture Analysis
Describe and compare these pictures featuring immigration to the U.S. 100 years ago and today.

Illegal Mexican immigrants detected by helicopter border control as they try to cross the Rio Grande

German immigrants in the 1890s greeting the Statue of Liberty as they enter New York Harbor

24 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

7. Essay Writing "Emigrating to the U.S. Today"


Write an essay of about 300 words on this topic expressing why you could or could not imagine emigrating to the United States.

8. Debate
Prepare and carry out a debate on the motion "The U.S. should strictly prohibit all illegal immigration." The following diagram and the text are meant to inform you about the structure and the rules of a debate.

Chairperson

proposer For

opposer

seconder
:: :

seconder

audience

A debate is a formal discussion led by a chairperson who presents the subject of the debate which is called the motion. The proposer makes a short speech giving arguments for the motion, whereas the opposer speaks against it. Then the proposer and the opposer are supported by their seconders, who take up the arguments already presented. The audience may interrupt the speakers to ask questions on

points of information (but not to discuss their arguments!). When the main speakers have finished, the chairperson declares the motion open to general discussion by the audience, at the end of which the opposer and then the proposer give summaries of the points which have been made. Finally a vote is taken on the motion.

2 American Beliefs and Values


PART A Background Information
IDEALS AND VALUES What among all of its regional and cultural diversity gives America its national character and enables its citizens to affirm their common identity as Americans? Clearly, having a particular race or creed or lifestyle does not identify one as American. However, there are certain ideals and values, rooted in the country's history, which many Americans share. FREEDOM At the center of all that Americans value is freedom. Americans commonly regard their society as the freest and best in the world. They like to think of their country as a welcoming haven for those longing for freedom and opportunity. They are proud to point out that even today America's immigration offices are flooded with hopeful applicants who expect the chance for a better life. The news of a Soviet ballet dancer's or Polish artist's defection to the United States arouses a rush of national pride, for such events give substance to the ideal of freedom that America represents to its people and to the world. Moreover, such news events provide continuity to Americans' perception of their history as being that of a nation populated by immigrants who exercised free choice in coming to the New World for a better life. Americans' understanding of freedom is shaped by the Founding Fathers' belief that all people are equal and that the role of government is to protect each person's basic "inalienable" rights. The U.S. Constitution's Bill of Rights, ratified in 1791, assures individual rights, including provisions for freedom of speech, press, and religion. The notion that America offers freedom for all is an ideal that unifies Americans and links present to past. Yet this ideal has not always corresponded to reality. The inconsistency of black slavery in a society supposedly dedicated to freedom and equality plagued the nation from the very beginning and was not resolved until the Civil War. Reality continues to demonstrate that some social groups and individuals are not as free as others. Because of religious, racial, sex, or age discrimination some Americans have not enjoyed the same rights and opportunities as others. In a real sense, American history is the Founding Father: member of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which drafted the fundamental law of the U.S. Bill of Rights: the first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States.

26 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

INDIVIDUALISM

IDEALIZING WHAT IS PRACTICAL

history of groups and individuals struggling to attain the freedoms the Founding Fathers promised. Americans' notion of freedom focuses on the individual, and individualism has strong philosophical roots in America. Thomas Jefferson, philosopher, third president of the nation and author of the Declaration of Independence, believed that a free individual's identity should be held sacred and that his or her dignity and integrity should not be violated. America's nineteenth-century Transcendentalist philosophers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller, argued for more individual self-reliance. Transcendentalists encouraged individuals to trust in themselves and their own consciences and to revolt against routine and habitual paths of conduct. The nineteenth-century poet Walt Whitman celebrated the individual in his poetry. In By Blue Ontario's Shore Whitman writes, I swear nothing is good to me now that ignores individuals, The American compact is altogether with individuals. Early twentieth-century Pragmatists such as William James and John Dewey insisted upon the individual's ability to control his or her fate. Individualism, understood not only as self-reliance but also as economic selfsufficiency, has been a central theme in American history. In the early days, most Americans were farmers whose success depended not on cooperation with others but on their ability to confront the hardships of land and climate on their own. Both success and virtue were measured by individual resourcefulness. In American history, the concept of "rugged individualism' is commonly identified with frontier heroes such as Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett, men who braved the wilderness alone. The idealization of the selfreliant individual translated itself in the industrial age into the celebration of the small businessman who became a financial success on his own. Even in today's society, where most Americans work for large, complex organizations and few people can claim economic self-sufficiency, individualism persists. Individual proprietorship in business is still extolled as the ideal. Government regulation is often resisted in the spirit of individualism. "Right to work" laws, which discourage union activity, are defended on the grounds that they protect the independence of the individual worker. Many historians believe that most of the beliefs and values which are characteristically American emerged within the context of the frontier experience. Survival in the wilderness was best achieved by robust individualists. Survival experiences also explain the American tendency to idealize whatever is practical. In America, what works is what counts. Most pioneers who went west
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803-82): American philosopher, essayist, ! poet. Thoreau, Henry David (181762): American philosopher, essayist, and poet. Fuller, Margaret (181050): American author, critic, and feminist leader. James, William (18421910): American philosopher and psychologist. Dewey, John (1859-1952): American philosopher, educator, and author. Boone, Daniel (17341820): American pioneer; explored and settled Kentucky. Crockett, David ("Davy") (1786-1836): American frontiersman and politician. frontier: in American history the frontier was the edge of the settled country where unlimited cheap land was available attracting pioneers who were willing to live the hard but independent life in the West.

AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 27

VOLUNTEERISM

PSYCHOLOGY OF ABUNDANCE

had not trained themselves in prairie fanning or sod house construction, but they trusted they would be able to devise workable solutions to the daily problems and dangers they faced. Inventiveness was necessary for survival. This "can-do" spirit is something Americans are proud of today. They like to think they are natural-born do-it-yourselfers. In which country does one find such a variety of "how-to" books and self-service opportunities? There are do-it-yourself books on everything from how to build and repair your own engine to how to be your own best friend. Self-service arrangements include time-saving clerkless airline ticket counters and do-it-yourself telephone installment kits. These kinds of solutions appeal to Americans' preference for whatever is quick and practical. The do-it-yourself spirit is known as volunteerism in American community and political life. Volunteerism means people helping people through privatelyinitiated, rather than government-sponsored, agencies. Volunteers, usually unpaid, are highly motivated workers who organize themselves and others to solve a particular community problem or meet an immediate social need, rather than waiting for someone elseusually the governmentto do it. Volunteerism is pervasive, arising wherever social services do not cover community needs. When a high school football team requires money for uniforms, parents and students form an athletic association which organizes car washes and bake sales to raise money for uniforms. Volunteer fund-raising groups step in to help the needy in all spheres: there are groups that hold clothing drives for the poor and homeless as well as groups that organize expensive money-raising dinners to save a symphony orchestra, for example. Where there are gaps in federal social programs, volunteers provide services such as adult education, psychological counseling, and legal aid. The willingness to participate in such groups is so widespread that six out of ten Americans are members of a volunteer organization. Volunteerism reflects Americans' optimistic pride in their ability to work out practical solutions themselves. It is easy to be an optimistic do-it-yourselfer in so many spheres when one takes for granted an abundance of resources. Historically, Americans have regarded their country as a land of limitless wealth. The first colonists of the New World wrote letters back home, contrasting the riches of America with the scarcity of the lands from which they came. Sir Thomas Dale, governor of Virginia in 1611, said of his colony: "Take four of the best kingdoms in Christendom and put them all together, they may in no way compare with this country either for commodities or goodness of soil." Fertile land was cheap and available to anyone who wanted to farm. A country where everyone could take what he wanted was indeed alluring. Yet as settlement on the east coast increased, resources were gradually depleted. Some tobacco lands began to be exhausted and abandoned before the end of the eighteenth century, and cotton lands were also abandoned when their fertility was used up. Did it matter? No. There were still inexhaustible acres in the limitless West. The words of a popular pioneer song capture the attitude that prevailed: Come along, come along, make no delay, Come from every nation, come from every way, Our lands are broad enough, don't be alarmed, For Uncle Sam is rich enough to give us all a farm. The abundance of untapped natural resources on the American frontier attracted not only farmers, but also game hunters, fur trappers, gold and silver miners, lumberjacks, and cattle ranchers. Those who exploited the land exercised little

28 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

MOBILITY

PATRIOTISM

restraint and opposed government regulation of their activities. The buffalo was hunted to near extinction, millions of acres of forested land were cut and burned, and rivers were polluted from mining. Still America is rich in natural resources. But attitudes toward wastefulness are changing. While some Americans still believe in the inexhaustibility of the nation's resources, others reluctantly recognize that the era of cheap and plentiful resources is over. They realize that America must adopt new values to cope with a shrinking world. Today, America's Mountain West, the least populated region of the country where resources seem barely tapped, is suffering from a severe water shortage. Westerners are faced with the need to restrict population growth and reconsider uses for water. Limits such as these are difficult to acknowledge because they contradict the psychology of abundance which has become so much a part of the American way of life. The pragmatism of Americans and their trust in an abundance of resources relates to the American habit of mobility. As a nation of immigrants, Americans have from the beginning shared the assumption that the practical solution to a problem is to move elsewhere and make a fresh start. After all, this is the attitude that settled the West. Mobility in America is not a sign of aimlessness but optimism. Pioneers made the arduous journey westward because they believed they could establish a better life for themselves and their children. Now, Americans move from place to place with the same sense of optimism, hoping to secure a better job or enjoy a warmer climate. Moving about from place to place is such a common and accepted practice that most Americans take it for granted that they may live in four or five cities during their lifetime, perhaps buying a house and then reselling it each time they move. Consequently, when Americans go house-hunting, their foremost concern is usually how profitably they will be able to resell the house. A comfortable, well-designed house is not necessarily desirable unless it has a good resale value. Americans hate to feel that buying a house might immobilize them forever, thereby inhibiting their chances of bettering their lives. The American habit of mobility has been important in contributing a degree of homogeneity to a society of such extreme cultural diversity and spaciousness. Cultural differences still exist from region to region, but they are becoming increasingly less distinct as mutual exchange occurs. A further consequence of Americans' mobility is that they develop relatively little attachment to place. In this century, national pride has become generally stronger than regional pride. Foreign visitors to America are quick to observe the prevalence of patriotic symbols: flags fly in suburban neighborhoods, bumper stickers announce "I'm proud to be American," the national anthem is played at every sporting event. National holidays such as Thanksgiving and Independence Day intensify the sense of national identity. Yet patriotism in America is in some ways distinct from patriotism in other countries. In many nations, patriotism is essentially the love of the land. Songs celebrate the scenery of certain rivers, valleys, and forests. In America, however, this specific sense of place, this identification with a particular geographical region as the
Thanksgiving Day: a national holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November to give thanks to God for the harvest, remembering particularly the first successful harvest of the early settlers who had suffered a terrible winter when they arrived. Independence Day: July 4, a national holiday celebrating the anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 29

PROGRESS

AMERICAN DREAM

QUESTIONING OF VALUES

homeland, is generally not developed to this extent. American patriotism is concentrated instead upon the particular historic event of the nation's creation as a new start and upon the idea of freedom which inspired the nation's beginnings. Directly associated with the value of freedom is the ideal of progress. The nation's progress has been measured by the taming of the frontier and industrial expansion. The desire to progress by making use of opportunities is important to Americans. In this immigrant society, progress is personally measured as family progress over generations. Many Americans can boast that with each succeeding generation since their first ancestors arrived, the family's status has improved. The classic American family saga is all about progress. The great-grandparents, arriving from the Old World with nothing but the clothes on their backs, work hard and suffer poverty and alienation so that they can provide a good education for their children. The second generation, motivated by the same vision of the future and willingness to work hard and make sacrifices, pass these values to their children. The attainment of the vision of one's grandparents is part of the American Dream. The term American Dream, used in widely different contexts from political speeches to Broadway musicals, eludes precise definition. J. T. Adams in The Epic of America (1931) expressed it as "the dream of a land in which life should be better, richer, and fuller for every man with opportunities for each according to his abilities and achievement." The American Dream is popularized in countless rags-to-riches stories and in the portrayal of the good life in advertising and on TV shows. It teaches Americans to believe that contentment can be reached through the virtues of thrift, hard work, family loyalty, and faith in the free enterprise system. However, throughout America's history, reality has also taught her citizens, particularly minorities, that the American Dream is not open to all. Segregation and discrimination are effective tools which have barred minorities from equal opportunities in all spheres. Events in the late 1960s and early 1970s, most obviously the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal, jolted the country with doubts and insecurities and created fundamental divisions among Americans about their country's goals. The mainstream Protestant values which had held society together seemed to be collapsing, and no coherent, unifying system of belief emerged as an alternative. The 1980s saw a return to conservative family values and morals, as well as a renewal of national pride. The ultimate significance, however, of this conservative revival is uncertain. Some critics observe that with the breakdown of consensus on beliefs and values which began around 1970, there has been increasing disparity of opinion about Americans' values and national goals.

Vietnam War: see page 15. Watergate scandal: an illegal break-in at the Democratic Party headquarters in Washington, D.C. in 1972, involving Republican presidential campaign employees. President Nixon's cover-up led to his resignation in 1974.

30

PART Texts

AMERICAN IDEA
By Theodore H. White
When he died seven weeks ago. Theodore H. White, the Pulitzer Prize-winning author and journalist, was working on an article for this magazine to commemorate the Fourth of July. Below is an excerpt from the unfinished piece.

THE

HE IDEA WAS THERE AT THE very beginning, well before Thomas Jefferson put it into words and the idea rang the call. Jefferson himself could not have imagined the reach of his call across the world in time to come when he wrote: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." But over the next two centuries the call would reach the potato patches of Ireland, the ghettoes of Europe, the paddyfields of China, stirring farmers to leave their lands and townsmen their trades and thus unsettling all traditional civilizations. It is the call from Thomas Jefferson, embodied in the great statue that looks down the Narrows of New York Harbor, and in the immigrants who answered the call, that we now celebrate. SOME OF THE FIRST EUROPEAN Americans had come to the new continent to worship God in their own way, others to seek

The Statue of Liberty

AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 31

1. continued
their fortunes. But, over a century-and-a-half, the new world changed those Europeans, above all the Englishmen who had come to North America. Neither King nor Court nor Church could stretch over the ocean to the wild continent. To survive, the first emigrants had to learn to govern themselves. But the freedom of the wilderness whetted their appetites for more freedoms. By the time Jefferson drafted his call, men were in the field fighting for those newlearned freedoms, killing and being killed by English soldiers, the best-trained troops in the world, supplied by the world's greatest navy. Only something worth dying for could unite American volunteers and keep them in the field a stated cause, a flag, a nation they could call their own. When, on the Fourth of July, 1776, the colonial leaders who had been meeting as a Continental Congress in Philadelphia voted to approve Jefferson's Declaration of Independence, it was not puffed-up rhetoric for them to pledge to each other "our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor." Unless their new "United States of America" won the war, the Congressmen would be judged traitors as relentlessly as would the irregulars-under-arms in the field. And all knew what English law allowed in the case of a traitor. The victim could be partly strangled; drawn, or disemboweled, while still alive, his entrails then burned and his body quartered. The new Americans were tough men fighting for a very tough idea. How they won their battles is a story for the schoolbooks, studied by scholars, wrapped in myths by historians and poets. But what is most important is the story of the idea that made them into a nation, the idea that had an explosive power undreamed of in 1776. All other nations had come into being among people whose families had lived for time out of mind on the same land where they were born. Englishmen are English, Frenchmen are French, Chinese are Chinese, while their governments come and go; their national states can be torn apart and remade without losing their nationhood. But Americans are a nation born of an idea; not the place, but the idea, created the United States Government. The story we celebrate this weekend is the story of how this idea worked itself out, how it stretched and changed and how the call for "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" does still, as it did in the beginning, mean different things to different people ...

Statue of Liberty: a large copper statue located on Liberty Island in New York harbor, given to the U.S. by France in 1886. Declaration of Independence: the document that proclaimed the freedom of the 13 American colonies from British rule. Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, it was adopted on July 4 1776. War of Independence: the war between Great Britain and her colonies in North America (177583) by which the colonies won their independence (also called the Revolutionary War).

32 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

)
Arnold Schwarzenegger
I was born in a little Austrian town, outside Graz. It was a 300-year-old house. When I was ten years old, I had the dream of being the best in the world in something. When I was fifteen, I had a dream that I wanted to be the best body builder m the world and the most muscular man. It was not only a dream I dreamed at night. It was also a daydream. It was so much in my mind that I felt it had to become a reality. It took me five years of hard work. Five years later, I turned this dream into reality and became Mr. Universe, the best-built man in the world. "Winning" is a very important word. There is one that achieves what he wanted to achieve and there are hundreds of thousands that failed. It singles you out: the winner. I came out second three times, but that is not what I call losing. The bottom line for me was: Arnold has to be the winner. I have to win more often the Mr, Universe title than anybody else. I won it five times consecutively. I hold the record as Mr. Olympia, the top professional body-building championship. I won it six times. That's why I retired. There was nobody even close to me. Everybody gave up competing against me. That's what I call a winner. When I was a small boy, my dream was not to be big physically, but big in way that everybody listens to me when I talk, that I'm a very important person, that people recognize me and see me as something special. I had a big need for being singled out. Also my dream was to end up in America. ...

Arnold Schwarzenegger

It is the country where you can turn your dream into reality. Other countries don't have those things. When I came over here to America, I felt I was in heaven. In America, we don't have an obstacle. Nobody's holding you back. Number One in America pretty much takes care of the rest of the world. You kind of run through the rest of the world like nothing. I'm trying to make people in America aware that they should appreciate what they have here. You have the best tax advantages here and the best prices here and the best products here. One of the things I always had was a business mind. When I was in high school, a majority of my classes were business classes. Economics and accounting and mathematics. When I came over here to this country, I really didn't speak English almost at all. I learned English and then started taking business courses, because that's what America is best known for: business. Turning one dollar into a million dollars in a short period of time. Also when you make money, how do you keep it?

AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 33

That's one of the most important things when you have money in your hand, how can you keep it? Or make more out of it? Real estate is one of the best ways of doing that. I own apartment buildings, office buildings, and raw land. That's my love, real estate. I have emotions. But what you do, you keep them cold or you store them away for a time. You must control your emotions, you must have command over yourself. ... Sport is one of those activities where you really have to concentrate. You must pay attention a hundred percent to the particular thing you're doing. There must be nothing else on your mind. Emotions must not interfere. Otherwise, you're thinking about your girlfriend. You're in love, your positive energies get channeled into another direction rather than going into your weight room or making money, You have to choose at a very early date what you want: a normal life or to achieve things you want to achieve. I never wanted to win a popularity contest in doing things the way people want me to do it. I went the road I thought was best for me. A few people thought I was cold, selfish. Later they found out that's not the case. After I achieve my goal, I can be Mr. Nice Guy. You know what I mean? California is to me a dreamland. It is the absolute combination of everything I was always looking for. It has all the money in the world there, show business there, wonderful weather there, beautiful country, ocean is there. Snow skiing in the winter, you can go in the desert the same day. You have beautiful-looking people there. They all have a tan. I believe very strongly in the philosophy of staying hungry. If you have a dream and it becomes a reality, don't stay satisfied with it too long. Make up a new dream and hunt after that one and turn it into reality. When you have that dream achieved, make up a new dream. I am a strong believer in Western philosophy, the philosophy of success, of progress, of getting rich. The Eastern philosophy is passive, which I believe in maybe three percent of the times, and the ninety-seven percent is Western, conquering and going on. It's a beautiful philosophy, and America should keep it up.

2. continued

Florence Scala
In the late fifties, Florence Scala led the fight against City Hall to save her old neighborhood on Chicago's near West Side. It was a multiethnic, multiracial community. It was one of the city's most alive areas. It is now a complex of institutions, expressways, of public-housing projects, and a few islands of old-timers, hanging on. . . . I had a feeling that things would happen in my life that would be magical. I think everybody has that feeling, I thought I would grow up to be whatever it was I wanted to be. I was a dreamer. When I was in high school, I wanted to be a writer, a journalist. My dreams have not been fulfilled personally, I was born in 1918. My first memory, as a small girl, was going to school and not being able to speak English, feeling panicky and running all the way home. I became ashamed of my mother. She was very emotional and used to make scenes. I didn't want her to take me to school any more. I remember a crowded city street, and my father on the pressing iron and my mother sewing in the store, and all of us playing out on the street. I don't remember those days with loving nostalgia. The street was miserable. But I always felt way up in the summertime and late afternoon, and the sun shining and people coming home. It was always a magic time for me. My parents worked very hard. You had to when you're running a small business like that, a tailor shop. They worked with their hands all the time. He did the pressing and the tailoring. My mother did the more simple things of repairing. Getting up very early in the morning, working late at night. He would do the pressing during the day, the sewing in the evening. He'd close the store about nine o'clock at night. We lived in back of the store, until my teens. Then we moved upstairs. My mother decided I should have a room for myself. Oh, our neighborhood was a mess. At the same time, it was a wonder. There was a lot of anxiety because of the hooliganism. Our parents

34 AMERICA IN CLOSE UP

were worried because the kids might get involved and that it would touch their lives. My father was frightened during the trade union wars in the cleaning industry, which was dominated by hoodlums. For weeks, his business was closed down because they struck the plant and he had no place to send the clothes. Then he was a scab and took the clothes to another cleaning establishment. There were killings on the streets. We were used to seeing that. Among Italians, there were padrones who went to mediate the fights within the neighborhoods. My father never participated in any of this. He was aloof, a loner. He was really an educated man by the standards of the time. He did a lot of reading. He loved opera. He would buy all the librettos. We still have our old Caruso records. The other thing he loved was astronomy. He knew how far the moon was from the earth, how far Venus was. He thought the trip to the moon was a waste of time, a waste of money, because, he said, there is nothing they discovered that he hadn't already known. He had this one dream that he wanted to see Grand Canyon. He never saw it. He was so tired by the time he had time that he was afraid to take the trip. I never really got to talk to him. He was very shy and lonely. Black people came to our store, left clothes. They were people who painted and did carpentry. They were craftsmen. Our parents had no animosity toward blacks. They the immigrants saw themselves as being in the same predicament, trying to make it in the city. I never remember any racial conflict when I was little. Later I saw it. Today the community is very small, five or six square blocks. There's public housing, largely black. The medical center students and young people from advertising and TV see it as part of chic downtown. Some old Italian families are hanging on. It began to change as my generation was growing up. People my age wanted

2. continued

to be more like the people from other communities ... Friends of mine would prefer to meet their friends elsewhere than invite them into the neighborhood. That didn't happen in my case because I was growing up in a whole different atmosphere of pride. I don't have regrets. I believe strongly and I see signs of it today that what we were trying to do and didn't succeed in doing had left its mark on the people there. They don't take things sitting down any more. They remember the struggle to save the neighborhood with a certain amount of sadness and a certain amount of respect. I don't dream any more like I used to. I believed that in this country, we would have all we needed for the decent life. I don't see that any more. The self-interest of the individual "I'm number one" is contaminating much of our thinking today. It's happening with our institutions as well. They seem to be acting in their own selfinterest. The world doesn't seem definable any more. Even this city. I see it becoming more and more disoriented. I'm against bigness for its own sake. We walk down the street and don't even look at one another. We're strangers. It's a time that's hard to figure out. It's a world I don't know. The world of the computer and the microwave oven. I'll never have one. [Laughs.] There are things alien to my understanding. Younger people growing up will find it easier to contend with, but I doubt it. They'll conform because it's the only way to go. Big Brother is there. I think they will become digits. I don't see myself as a digit, but I know I'm becoming one. It's necessary for me to have my Social Security number available or my driver's license, because I don't have credit cards. It's un-American. Anywhere I gotta pay cash. You see, I'm not a digit yet. [Laughs.] I don't even know what the American Dream is any more. Maybe it's picking up some pieces I've left behind.

padrone: a man who exploitatively employs or finds work for Italian immigrants.

AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 35

A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values


In the following interview four young Americans are asked what they think about their own country, how they feel about being Americans, and what their values are. As seniors at Casa Grande High School in Petaluma, California, they all take English literature as one of their college prep classes. The participants are Shannon Alexander (18), Mark and Andrew Ferguson (17), and Mike McKay (18).

Interviewer: The traditional American value system has included preaching hard work and worshipping the dollar. It has been part of the American Dream that if you only work hard enough, you can make it. Do you think these values are still important? Andrew. Andrew: I think they really are. I think they are really valid in America of nowadays because it's really coming back in on the media, TV, newspapers about people who are successes from hard work. And really that's all we are treated with all our life. And I think anyone, anyone at all, could make it really big, if they just tried really hard, no matter what. I don't think it really

Section 1

matters about their background. And I think that being a success is really what's important in America that society really frowns upon people who don't make it. So, if you're not a success, if you're just a medium success, you feel like you're failing. That's my feeling. Interviewer: Mark, you agree with your brother? Mark: No, not really. I feel that hard work still has its value in America but success, I think, has a different definition and money isn't really as valuable. I think that success has become more a measure of a person to himself rather than a person to society and that people don't

36

AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

look down on you if you're happy what you're doing. And actual money isn't really as important as it used to be. And people have found that less money can make you as happy as more money. Interviewer: Do you agree, Andrew? Andrew: No, I don't agree because how you feel about yourself is influenced by your society and society does encourage success and does look down on its people who are not successful as far as money goes, and whether or not they are happy with themselves doesn't matter. Interviewer: Mark. Mark: Although that what you are saying is true, I feel that society's importance to the individual has lessened, even with our generation, society's criticism isn't as important to people any more. It is more important to people to be happy. Interviewer: Mike, you want to join in? Mike: I kind of feel that the society ideal of success has really been kind of drifting out. It reached its height with the American yuppie. The yuppie, you know, is trying to achieve. Everybody is trying to be alike, and everybody wants to own a BMW and things like that. Interviewer: It is sometimes said that winning is an American passion. But in order to succeed you've got to compete. In other words, rivalry and not cooperation is the spur to achievement. Then, if this society is a society which encourages individualism, how do more social values fit in? Mike. Mike: I definitely think that winning is an American obsession. You can just kind of look at what the Vietnam War did to us in the past 20 years. It really ripped apart American society. It divided some people. It divided American society. Many people felt we shouldn't have been in there first place, others felt that while we were there, we might as well win, others felt we really should be there trying to save Vietnam from itself or something to that effect. And it really

3. continued

Section 2

ripped us apart, and it is because of the fact, you know, it was one of the first wars we really didn't win. And it was really tough on America. Shannon: I wanted to say that winning is different things to different people. And while some people think winning would be becoming a president of a major corporation and running a whole bunch of financial situations, other people think winning is helping people around them. To the social workers it's the feeling that they want to help the poor and they want to help the elderly, and to them that's winning. And it's sort of everyone has their own ideals, and some like to help others and some people don't care about anyone but themselves. Interviewer: What would be winning to you? Shannon: Winning to me? Well, if I won, which would be becoming a famous actress, world-famous, that would be my ideal because I love to act and I always wanted to be famous, I guess. But I wouldn't forget the people around me and I would never do any dirty tricks to get ahead. I'd still be conscious of the society around me. Interviewer: Andrew. Andrew: I think most people are like that. And, they want to win without really hurting anyone else. However, I think that the bottom line is that there are winners and there are losers, and everybody would rather really be a winner and that somebody else be the loser. And, I guess that is the sort of attitude I have. But I'd never want to tread over anyone else, of course. Section 3 Interviewer: One feature that has often been associated with the American dream is the desire to be well-liked. Do you still subscribe to this idea? Mark. Mark: No, not very much, though, on a social level there are still many people who have to be well-liked. It's part of their personalities. And they like to form into different groups where they all dress the same and talk the same. But a lot of people like ourselves don't conform to this

yuppie: (young urban professional), a young person in a professional job with a high income, especially one who enjoys spending money and having a fashionable way of life.

AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 37

value at all. So we have much fewer friends but a much more honest relationship. And being well-liked is very important because it can be very hard to have people not like you or just think you're very strange or something. But it's more important to be more honest with yourself. Interviewer: Andrew. Andrew: There are a lot of people at this school who are, I think, really fairly phoney. They do things they do not really want to. They dress in a way they do not really want to just because their group is doing it and they want to fit in. And none of us four really were ever like that. So we can't really get into that kind of mind. Shannon: Um, I had two things to say, one about what they were speaking of. I did go through a phase, I guess, from 8th to 10th grade, where it was important for me to be well-liked and I did dress like my friends and talk like my friends. But then I just felt so out of place because I have my own ideas and I've been raised all my life to think the way I wanted to think. And now I live a different sort of life. I have people I act with and people that I talk with and I really enjoy my A.P. class because the people there really think. And that's the life I like to live. Not just, you know, have everyone like you for stupid reasons but because you respect each other. I think it's a goal that a lot of people have, to have a respect of other people, and that's the kind of liking that people want. They want people to respect them and to listen to what they have to say. Interviewer: Mike. Mike: Whether someone agrees with you or not isn't really necessarily the most important matter. The most important matter is respect. Interviewer: Andrew. Andrew: Respect is so important. I think I'd much rather be respected for my opinion to being myself than just being liked.

Interviewer: The famous quote from the Declaration of Independence that this country grants equal opportunities for all is that still valid? To what extent does a certain ethnic background or a certain family background help to predetermine future chances in life? Mark. Mark: I feel that rich people have much more of an opportunity than the poor people. The poor people can succeed but they need luck and there is no guarantee that goes with it. The rich people, they have a lot more leeway in what goes in their lives. They start out a step up. Shannon: A lot depends on the type of family background you have and the type of parents you have and if they promote thinking and if they bring different views to you. And I've known many friends that ... these views they have are so rigid and they refuse to think and they refuse to understand what other people have to say because their parents said well this is how it is, and this is the way we think. I feel lucky my parents have always told me the way many people thought and I was given opportunity to choose. And that's important too. Interviewer: Mike. Mike: Under the law there is equal opportunity in the United States, more than there ever was before. Interviewer: Andrew. Andrew: Yes, but in reality you also got to be aware of schooling. Many poor people, generally blacks in slum areas, go to schools and they have to work and drop out of school by 10th grade and they will never finish high school and without a high school diploma you cannot make it in America, at least it's almost impossible. Interviewer: Mike. Mike: It takes a lot more drive to succeed if you're black or if you're shall we say just kind of less advantaged.

Section 4

A. P. class: advanced placement class, open to outstanding Seniors at an American high school, bringing students to a first year of college (Freshman) level of proficiency.

38 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Put Out No Flags


by Matthew Rothschild

Patriotism is like religion; those who believe in it view the rest of us as sinners, condemned to purgatory or at least to an uncozy predicament
in trie Viere and now. . . .

Rejoice, ye sinners! Fear not! This patriotism thing is a hoax. . . . Patriotism and nationalism are identical twins. They infect people with a feeling of superiority, of bellicose pride, that translates into war slogans easy as apple pie. Trying to extricate the virtues of patriotism from the vice of nationalism is like trying to pluck the quills from a porcupine. It can't be done.

matter the duplicity involved, if we want to effect political change and gain the support of our unenlightened fellow citizens, we should wrap ourselves in trie flag. Unfortunately, we'd succeed only in suffocating ourselves. When the Left, the radicals, the superliberals join the patriotic chorus, it reinforces the message that America is on the side of virtue. . . . Our more philosophical friends tug us from the opposite direction. They tell us that the concept of patriotism as distinct from nationalism transports us from

Patriotic Americans celebrating their country's independence Or if it can, you won't be left with a petty individualistic concerns to an porcupine. awareness of a greater, more noble Still, we are implored to embrace identity that is communal. They utter patriotism. Many good-hearted souls starchy, upright phrases about indisurvey the political horizon and deviduals not existing in a vacuum but spair. They see a rolling conservative in a social framework of family, tide, with Ronald Reagan riding its community, and country. From this, crest. The only way to survive, they they conclude that our identities are say, is to get on that wave. And so, entwined with these institutions and, we are told, we must be more patriotic to some extent at least, owe them an than our right-wing neighbors. No obligation.

This is sheer folly. . . . Free will and individual liberty are forsaken in this repressive philosophy, which denies the individual the right to create and develop his or her own identity. . . . The notion that one owes an obligation to one's country is absurd. Like the defenders of family, church, and community, the champions of the modern nation state want us to believe that inanimate objects mere social sandboxes deserve to command our respect, love, and loyalty. This is reification of the highest order. Our obligations should be to ourselves and our fellow living beings, not to some bloodless concoction of bygone rulers. Our identities should be of our own making, not imposed by an ancient cartographer. And our loyalties should not stop at the border. Once we recognize this, we won't fall into the good old American trap of caring solely for U.S. citizens and not a whit for inhabitants of other countries. The United States can kill two million Indochinese, but Americans concern themselves only with the less than 60,000 U.S. soldiers who fell in the fetid conflict of Vietnam. Something's not right about that, and that something is patriotism. Yet it's not ^ust a Uome-grown affliction. Always a dutiful and willing servant, patriotism has carried the body bags for every modern ruler from Napoleon to Hitler, Stalin to Pol Pot. "Patriotism is the most primitive of passions," Jorge Luis Borges has observed. It's been around for thousands of years, and these days the sentiment is transmitted in the home, the classroom, the assembly hall, the athletic field, as well as on the radio waves and television screens. No day passes without our being bombarded by some patriotic message or symbol. It's a tough bug to shake, but that doesn't mean we should celebrate the disease. Nothing justifies a salute to patriotism. It is too dangerous a concept to be toyed with. And by playing the silly game of capture the flag, we only capture ourselves.

39

PART C
The American Idea

Exercises
2. He stopped taking part in body-building competitions because a) he believed he had won the championship too often already. b) he was afraid that he might lose the title if he tried again. c) he had no serious competition. 3. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger, America is the country where a) nothing can prevent people from fulfilling their dreams b) everybody is Number One. c) the chances to be economically successful are better than in any other country. 4. Arnold Schwarzenegger became a successful businessman because he a) was business-minded. b) took courses in English and business. c) became a real estate agent. 5. Schwarzenegger maintains that emotions a) provide the energy that leads to success. b) have to be suppressed if you want to be successful. c) prevent you from concentrating on your primary goal of making money. 6. Schwarzenegger thinks that popularity a) is the key to success. b) has to be subordinated to success. c) is as important as being successful. 7. Schwarzenegger believes a) that poverty and hunger make people dream of success. b) that people should never be content with what they have achieved. c) that hungry people are dreamers unable to achieve anything.

1. Previewing and Anticipation


Try to get a global idea of what the text is about by first looking at the headline, introduction and source. Then quickly read the beginning (first three paragraphs) of the article. 1. Where, when, and on what occasion was the article published? 2. Why could the information given about the author be of interest to the reader? 3. What is meant by "The American Idea" and who was the first to formulate it?

2. Scanning
Now go quickly through the text to extract information to answer the following questions: 1. Which basic motives of the first European settlers for coming to America are mentioned in the text? 2. According to . . White, what was it that made the American volunteers persevere in their revolutionary war against the better-equipped English soldiers? 3. What would have happened to the colonial leaders if the war had been lost? 4. Which decisive difference between the American nation and other nations does the author point out? 5. What does the author want to convey to the reader by writing this article?

3. Comprehension
Arnold Schwarzenegger
Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. 1. Arnold Schwarzenegger dreamed of being the best body builder in the world a) when he was a little boy. b) when he was fifteen. c) when he was twenty.

Florence Scala
Which of the following statements are true and which are false according to the information given in the text? Correct the false statements. 1. When Florence Scala was young she did not 'believe in the American Dream. 2. As a small girl she was afraid of school because she could not speak English.

40 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

3. When Florence Scala thinks of her childhood, nostalgic memories come to her mind. 4. Her parents worked for a tailor who lived on the same street. 5. They were afraid that their children might turn into hooligans. 6. During the trade union wars in the cleaning industry her father went on strike. 7. Her father avoided getting involved in the fights that took place in the neighborhood. 8. Her father was unusually well-educated. 9. He never really had the time to fulfill his dream of going to the Grand Canyon. 10. Her parents were somewhat prejudiced against black people. 11. Today the community she grew up in has changed a lot. 12. Looking back on her efforts to save the neighborhood, Florence Scala now thinks she wasted her energy. 13. Florence Scala thinks that the American Dream promotes selfish attitudes. 14. She believes that technical progress has led to a less humane world.

1. All people are given equal opportunity in life. 2. Everybody has a chance to succeed if he or she only works hard enough. 3. Money and material wealth are what matters most in life. 4. Winning in competitions is one of the most important things in life. 5. Self-reliance is more important than concern for others. 6. Being popular is as important as material success.

5. Comment on a Cartoon
Comment on the following cartoon and show how it relates to the American Dream. Give the cartoon a title.
THE JOV NINTHS a AflN6
WHAT HAPPEN5 IF fOU PRACTICE FOR TUINT'CYEAR5,ANP THEN ENP UP NOT 0EIN6 RICH ANP FAMOUS

4. Evaluation
Use the following scale to determine to what extent Arnold Schwarzenegger, Florence Scala and her parents would agree or disagree with the following statements. How do you feel about these statements? strong agreement agreement undecided disagreement strong disagreement

Reproduced by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.

AMERICAN BELIEFS AND VALUES 41

6. Comprehension Survey
A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values Section 1
Let us find out how the value systems of Andrew, Mark, and Mike differ. Have a look at the statements below and decide who holds which view. Andrew Mark Mike . By spreading the gospel of success, the media greatly influence the American value system. People who fail are not accepted by society. Society considers happiness to be as important as material success. Happiness is not a question of money. The yuppie's philosophy revives the traditional value of success. /
/ /

8. Cloze Summary
A Discussion of American Beliefs and

ValuesSection 3

This paragraph summarizes part 3 of the discussion. Find the missing words. The participants agree that the notion of being "& is a ik that a great number of their fellow students "& to. They consider this value so important that they give up their "& and adopt the habits of "& and "& prescribed by their peers. A minority of students "& this peer pressure and prefer more "& relationships which they "& higher than a large circle of so-called friends. To those young people who have developed their own "& it is more important to be W for their independent TwT than to be well-liked as a reward for their & They unanimously "r that respect is the most important "& in human relationships.

1
)

9. Summary
A Discussion of American Beliefs and ValuesSection 4
Summarize how the following aspects are related to the ideal of "equal opportunity": money family social ethnicity law background education

10. Discussion
To what extent can the values discussed by these four young Americans also be found in your country? What is your personal attitude towards them?

7. Comprehension questions
A Discussion of American Beliefs and Values Section 2
1. How does Mike think the Vietnam War affected America as a "nation of winners"? 2. Shannon thinks that, "winning is different things to different people." What examples does she give to support her opinion? What does "winning" mean to her? 3. How does Andrew view the concept of cooperation and rivalry in society?

42 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

11. Structural Analysis


Put Out No Flags
Let us examine how the author structures his argument in this article. 1. Matthew Rothschild makes two comparisons to defend the thesis that patriotism is harmful. He then develops his argument by drawing consequences from these comparisons. Find the comparisons in the text and show how they are used as a basis of his further argumentation. 2. He then raises two objections to his thesis but immediately refutes each of them. What are the objections he mentions and how does he refute them? 3. Why does he mention the names of four "modern rulers"? 4. The author supports his argument with a quotation which he further illustrates by examples of patriotism in contemporary America. To what extent is the average American exposed to sentiments and symbols of patriotism? 5. What is the conclusion the author finally draws?

12. Style
Let us now have a closer look at the stylistic means the author employs to convey his opinon to the reader. 1. The text is full of comparisons, especially similes and metaphors. A simile is a figure of speech in which two things or actions are compared because they have something in common, although they are unlike in many other respects. A metaphor is a simile condensed. Whereas in

a simile the imaginative comparison is expressed by the words like and as, in a metaphor the comparison takes the form of an identification of the two things compared. So when the author says that "patriotism is like religion" he uses a simile. When he says that "patriotism and nationalism are identical twins" which "infect people" he uses metaphors. The author uses the first metaphor in this sentence to illustrate the identical nature of patriotism and nationalism. The second metaphor suggests patriotism's harmful effects through the use of the word "infect," meaning to spread disease. Look for more similes and metaphors in the text and explain their function. 2. This text has many satirical features because the author often uses irony and sarcasm to expose the "folly" of patriotism. Irony is a figure of speech in which the author stresses his point by saying the opposite of what he means. Sarcasm is aggressive and intended to injure. When the author ironically refers to the community as an institution providing a "noble identity," he actually regards this as a nonsensical idea. He is also being sarcastic when he compares patriotism with a disease. What other examples of irony and sarcasm can you find in this text?

13. Comment and Discussion


1. Do you think that the author's viewpoint is logically consistent? 2. What role does patriotism play in your country? 3. How do you feel about patriotism?

Regimalism vs. Americanization


PART A
P.43 a spacious country, diffusion of culture, 1 2 3 4 5 to be at the helm of smth., to surpass, to recede g radually , , to oppose smth., ; to stir up bitterness and resentment ,

P.44 to become prosperous,

P.45 a reverence for the past, racial tensions, to be mindful of smth., (-.) ; (-.) 6 7 a trend-setter P.46 long-standing hostility ,,

distressing, ,, to face problems, 8 9 10 to preserve ones income , P.47 an intermixing of cultures, a tax relief , .,

, . .) P. 48 to have a dramatic effect on smth., to recover from economic decline

Background// Information

A LARGE COUNTRY WITH MANY DIFFERENCES

THE NORTHEAST

The United States is a spacious country of varying terrains and climates. To get from New York to San Francisco one must travel almost 5,000 kilometers across regions of geographical extremes. Between the coasts there are forested mountains, fertile plains, arid deserts, canyonlands, and wide plateaus. Much of the land is uninhabited. The population is concentrated in the Northeast, the South, around the Great Lakes, on the Pacific coast, and in metropolitan areas dotted over the remaining expanse of land in the agricultural Midwest and Western mountain and desert regions. Each of the country's four main regions the Northeast, the South, the West, and the Midwestmaintains a degree of cultural identity. People within a region generally share common values, economic concerns, and a certain relationship to the land, and they usually identify to some extent with the history and traditions of their region. Today, regional identities are not as clear as they once were. As with most modernizing nations, the United States has seen its regions converge gradually. While important regional differences are discernible, the mobility of people and the diffusion of culture through television and other mass media have greatly advanced the process of Americanization. The Northeast, comprising the New England and Mid-Atlantic states, has traditionally been at the helm of the nation's economic and social progress. Compared with other regions, the Northeast is more urban, more industrial, and more culturally sophisticated. New Englanders often describe themselves as thrifty, reserved, and dedicated to hard work, qualities they inherited from their Puritan forefathers. A sense of cultural superiority sets Northeasterners apart from others. During the nineteenth century and well into this century, the Northeast produced most of the country's writers, artists, and scholars. New England's colleges and universities are known all over the country for their high academic standards. Harvard is widely considered the best business school in the nation. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology surpasses all others in economics and the practical sciences. The economic and cultural dominance of New England has gradually receded , , since the Second World War. In the past decades, businesses and industries have been moving to warmer climates in the South and West. Many factories and mills have closed, and the population has stabilized or even declined. While areas of aging industry continue to suffer, some parts of New England

44 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

America on the move:

but which \v;i\:

THE SOUTH

are experiencing economic recovery. New high-tech industries are boosting foreign investment and employment. Regional identity has been most pronounced in the South, where the peculiarities of Southern history have played an important role in shaping the region's character. The South was originally settled by English Protestants who came not for religious freedom but for profitable farming opportunities. Most farming was carried out on single family farms, but some farmers, capitalizing on tobacco and cotton crops, became quite prosperous. Many of them established large plantations. African slaves, shipped by the Spanish, Portuguese, and English, supplied labor for these plantations. These slaves were bought and sold as property. Even though the system of slavery was regarded by many Americans as unjust, Southern slaveowners defended it as an economic necessity. Even after the North began to industrialize after 1800, the South remained agricultural. As the century progressed, the economic interests of the manufacturing North became evermore divergent from those of the agrarian South. Economic and political tensions began to divide the nation and eventually led to the Civil War (186165). Most Northerners opposed slavery. The unresolved dispute over slavery was one of the issues which led to a national crisis in 1860. Eleven Southern states left the federal union and proclaimed themselves an independent nation. The war that broke out as a direct result was the most bloody war in American history. With the South's surrender in 1865, Southerners were forced to accept many changes, which stirred up bitterness and resentment towards Northerners and the Republican Party of the national government. During the post-war period of reconstruction which lasted until 1877, slavery was not only abolished, but blacks were given a voice in Southern government. Southerners opposed the
Civil War (1861-65): the war between the Union (the North) and the Confederacy (the South).

REGIONALISM VS. AMERICANIZATION 45

THE WEST

intervention of Northern Republican politicians. For the next century white Southerners consistently voted for Democrats. The Civil War experience helps explain why Southerners have developed a reverence for the past and a resistance to change, and why the South is different from the rest of the country. Other regions have little in common with the South's bitterness over the Civil War, its one-party politics, agrarian traditions and racial tensions. Recent statistics show that the South differs from other regions in a number of ways. Southerners are more conservative, more religious, and more violent than the rest of the country. Because fewer immigrants were attracted to the less industrialized Southern states, Southerners are the most "native" of any region. Most black and white Southerners can trace their ancestry in this country back to before 1800. Southerners tend to be more mindful of social rank and have strong ties to hometown and family. Even today, Southerners tend to have less schooling and higher illiteracy rates than people from other regions, and pockets of poverty are scattered throughout the Southern states. Americans of other regions are quick to recognize a Southerner by his/her dialect. Southern speech tends to be much slower and more musical. The Southern dialect characteristically uses more diphthongs: a one-syllable word such as yes is spoken in the South as two syllables, ya-es. In addition, Southerners say "you all" instead of "you" as the second person plural. The South is also known for its music. In the time of slavery, black Americans created a new folk music, the negro spiritual. Later forms of black music which began in the South are blues and jazz. White Southerners created bluegrass mountain music, and most American country music has a Southern background. The South has been one of the most outstanding literary regions in the twentieth century. Novelists such as William Faulkner, Robert Penn Warren, Thomas Wolfe, and Carson McCullers have addressed themes of the Southern experience such as nostalgia for the rural Southern past. Wide regional diversity makes the West hard to typify. While most of the Mountain West is arid wilderness interrupted by a few urban oases, California has some of the richest farmland in the country, and, along with Oregon and Washington in the rainy Northwest, does not share the rest of the West's concern over the scarcity of water. California is different in other ways. The narrow band along its southern Pacific coast is densely populated and highly industrial. By combining the nation's highest concentration of high-tech industries with the greatest percentage of service industries, California's progressive economy is a trend-setter for the rest of the nation as it enters a new post-industrial age. Even if one disregards the Pacific coast states, the rest of the West is marked by cultural diversity and competing interests. Mormon-settled Utah has little Faulkner, William (18971962): American author of novels, short stories and poems. He received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1949. Among his novels are The Sound and the
Fury, As 1 Lay Dying, Sanctuary, Light in August, and Absalom, Absalom\ all of which are set in Yoknapatawpha, an imaginary Southern provincial community. Warren, Robert Penn: born 1905, American author, won the Pulitzer Prize for his novel All the King's Men. Wolfe, Thomas (1900-38): American novelist, author of Look Homeward, Angel. McCullers, Carson (191767): American author of novels, short stories, and plays; among her works are Reflections in a Golden Eye, The Ballad of the Sad Cafe, and Clock Without Hands.

46 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

THE MIDWEST

AMERICANIZATION

in common with Mexican-influenced Arizona and New Mexico. The aims of Western commercial developers anxious for quick profits clash with environmentalists' campaigns for preservation of the region's natural beauty. Montana ranchers have different needs and different outlooks from the senior citizens clustered in a retirement community near Phoenix. While generalizations about the West are difficult to make, the region does share concerns that are distinct from the rest of the country. Westerners are united in their long-standing hostility toward Washington and Eastern federal bureaucrats. Westerners feel alienated by government policies which fail to address the vital concerns unique to their region. Western states' troubles with water scarcity and government-owned land seem to matter little to the rest of the country. Particularly distressing to Westerners is their lack of control over Western land and resources. The federal government owns and administers vast portions of land in many Western states86.6 percent of Nevada, 66.1 percent of Utah, 47.8 percent of Wyoming, 42.8 percent of Arizona, and 36.1 percent of Colorado. Westerners like to think of themselves as independent, self-sufficient, and close to the land, but they feel they cannot control their own destiny while Washington controls their land. Western life is dominated by resources. Although water is scarce in the Mountain West, the region is rich in uranium, coal, crude oil, oil shale, and other mineral deposits. As the population of the West rapidly increases, debate intensifies over how its resources should be used. Trying to support growing populations with limited supplies of water while at the same time preserving the land is, according to some Westerners, impossible, and they feel the West is already experiencing physical limits to growth. Despite the differences that may exist within the region, the Western states face these problems together. While the South and West have felt alienated, the Midwest, by contrast, has long been regarded as typically American. The fertile farmland and abundant resources , have allowed agriculture and industry to thrive and to strengthen the Midwesterners' conviction that people can make something of themselves if they seize opportunities. Class divisions are felt less strongly here than in other regions; the middle class rules. Midwesterners are seen as commercially-minded, self-sufficient, unsophisticated, and pragmatic. The Midwest's position in the middle of the continent, far removed from the east and west coasts, has encouraged Midwesterners to direct their concerns to their own domestic affairs, avoiding matters of wider interest. The plains states which make up America's "Farmbelt" have traditionally favored a policy of isolationism in world affairs. However, now that American agriculture has become dependent on unstable foreign markets, farmers have changed their stance. Farmers are no longer isolationist or opposed to "big government." It is often this very government which provides subsidies and price controls that preserve their incomes. The Midwest is known as a region of small towns and huge tracts of farmland where more than half the nation's wheat and oats are raised. Dominating the region's commerce and industry is Chicago, the nation's second largest city. Located on the Great Lakes, Chicago has long been a connecting point for rail lines and air traffic crossing the continent. The distinctiveness of these regions is disappearing. The Northeast, the South, the West, and the Midwest are becoming evermore alike due to the homogenizing influence of mass media and regional convergence towards national sodoeconomic norms. Since the Second World War, interstate high-

REGIONALISM VS. AMERICANIZATION 47

MOBILITY

MIGRATION TO THE SUNBELT

ways and communication lines have connected isolated rural areas to urban centers, fostering a high level of cultural interchange. Television has conveyed mainstream American culture to everyone, giving Americans a shared national experience and identity. Americans' mobility has also played an important part in leveling off regional differences. Americans have always been on the move in pursuit of opportunity. Steady movements from farm to city, east to west, and south to north brought about an intermixing of cultures. This process of Americanization has been accelerated by new migration trends. Poorer, less populous areas in the South and West are experiencing tremendous growth as people and businesses move out of the historically dominant Northeast and Midwest in search of new opportunities in wanner climates. The new migration has brought economic prosperity to the warm "Sunbelt" while economic stagnation has occurred in the "Frostbelt." attractions of the Sunbelt are numerous. Many older couples.have moved to the South in order to enjoy retirement in a less harsh environment . The others have moved to escape problems of urban crime, overcrowding, high taxes, and expensive housing. Most people move for better employment opportunities. Many corporations are relocating to the Sunbelt because of the more favorable business conditions. Wage scales are lower, unions are weak, and local governments offer a wide variety of incentives, including tax reliefs, to attract new industries.

U.S. REGIONAL MIGRATION: 1970-1980

NORTHEAST 2,828,000

NORTH CENTRAL 2,368,000

Figures indicate net population gains or losses due to regional migration between 1970 and 1980
Changes in Proportion of National Population Percent increase Percent of total 1970-1980 population 1970 1980 T1.4 WOO WOO 0.2 4.0 20.0 23.9 24.1 27.8 30.9 17.1 21.7 26.0 33.3 19.1

Total Northeast North Central South West

Due largely to interregional migration, the proportion of national population in the South and West increased from 48 percent to 52 percent-a majority-in the decade between 1970 and 1980. During the same period, the imaginary "centre of U. S. population " (defined as the geographical point where the country would balance if it were flat and every American weighed the samel crossed the Mississippi River, continuing the westward drift evident since the first census in 1790.

48 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

REGIONAL CONVERGENCE

These recent migration patterns have had a dramatic effect on population growth. During the past few decades the populations of the South and West have been growing rapidly while those of the Midwest or Northeast have grown slowly or not at all. The increase in numbers moving to the Sunbelt has brought an increase in power. The political and social status of the South and West is on the rise. After both the 1970 and 1980 ; censuses, the South and West gained seats in the House of Representatives at the expense of the North and Midwest. Historically, the winners of presidential elections have been Easterners or Midwesterners, but Southerners and Westerners have won the past five presidential elections. A clear rise in per capita income in the South and West is an indication that socioeconomic gaps between regions are narrowing. In 1940 the Northeast claimed more than 120 percent of the national income average, but the core of the South had less than 70 percent, and the Rocky Mountain states had just over 90 percent. By 1970 the Northeast had fallen to about 110 percent, the South had risen to 86 percent, and the Rockies had held steady at 90 percent. Further narrowing had occurred by 1980. The cultural dominance of the Northeast and Midwest is diminishing as cities in the South and West, such as Atlanta, Santa Fe, and Los Angeles, are gaining reputations as important cultural centers. The great universities of the Northeast are rivaled by Stanford in California and the Universities of Texas and North Carolina. The shift in economic strength and status to the Sunbelt does not mean that the Northeast and Midwest are drained of power and promise. Parts of the Northeast are recovering from economic decline. Adapting to the needs of a post-industrial age, many communities are redirecting their economies to accommodate new service-related and high-tech industries. The downtown areas of Baltimore, Boston, and Pittsburghcities that once specialized in heavy industryhave been rebuilt as cultural and convention centers. Some cities in the Frostbelt are registering a resurgence ..in population growth as people move back to take advantage of new opportunities. The most significant trend is not the decline of the Frostbelt, but rather a steady converging of the regions' economic status as the formerly lagging Sunbelt states catch up. In this process, regional differences have not altogether disappeared, but they are significantly less striking today than they were 40 years ago.

49

PART Texts

THE COOLING OF THE SOUTH


by Raymond Arsenault
In the following text the historian Raymond Arsenault chooses a very interesting approach for his analysis of the "Americanization of Dixie" when he looks at the air conditioner as one of the important factors involved. (Also called: Dixieland the southern states of the US; the states that joined the Confederacy during the Civil War)

A Southern family circa 1914

ied to the land, with few big cities, Southerners treasured life on the family homestead (a house or estate and the adjoining land, buildings; ) or in the small town where, in the words of Faulkner, "beneath the porticoes of the courthouse and on benches about the green, the city fathers sat and talked and drowsed. ;. . " Family ties and local folklore ruled life in a region

that preferred, as John Crowe Ransom said, "to look backwards rather than forwards". Long after the Civil War, the inhabitants of the old Confederacy remained culturally distinct, a people apart from the rest of the Union and its ever-changing ethnic "melting pot". Air conditioning has helped to change all that.

50 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Many Southerners who are old enough to remember life before the air conditioner give thanks for the artificial chill that now pervades cars, restaurants, offices, and family rooms, and wonder out loud how they ever survived without it. Others echo the sentiments of one Florida woman who recently told me: "I hate air conditioning; it's a damnfool invention of the Yankees . If they don't like it hot, they can move on back up north where they belong."... The northern migration of the last two decades has infused the South with new ideas and new manners, ending the region's long-standing cultural isolation. And with this increasing diversity, the legacy of the old Confederacy has begun to fade. The changes wrought in the South by the air conditioner helped, of course, to speed the demographic transformation. By making life in the factory more bearable, climate control nurtured the expansion of industry in the New South. The number of Southerners employed in manufacturing exceeded those employed in agriculture for the first time in 1958. By 1980, factory workers outnumbered farm laborers by a margin of 3 to 1.. . . Since 1940 the South has also been the most rapidly urbanizing section of the country. The pro-

1. continued

portion of the Southerners living in urban areas has nearly doubled, from 36.7 percent to almost 70 percent today. Although its population still remains the most "rural" in the United States, the South and the rest of the nation are no longer that far apart.... A more noticeable effect of air-conditioned architecture has been its assault on the South's strong "sense of place". Epitomized by the fictional inhabitants of Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha County, Southerners have been rooted to local geography to a county, town, neighborhood, or homestead. As look-alike chain stores, tract houses, glass-sided skyscrapers, and shopping malls overwhelm the landscape in and around cities and towns, this sense of local identity is bound to fade. Perhaps, as it has done so often in the past, the Southerner's special devotion to regional and local traditions will ensure the survival of Southern folk culture. But this time it won't be easy: General Electric has proved a more devastating invader than General William Tecumseh Sherman. As long as air conditioning, abetted by immigration, urbanization, and broad technological change, continues to make inroads, the South's distinctive character will continue to diminish, never to rise again.

Dixie: The southern states of the U.S., especially those eleven that formed the Confederacy and seceded from the United States in 186061.
Faulkner, William: see page 45. Civil War: see page 44. Yankee: a native or inhabitant of a northern U.S. state, especially a Union soldier during the Civil War. Yoknapatawpha County: the fictional setting of many of Faulkner's novels and short stories. General Electric: a large American corporation. Sherman, William Tecumseh (1820-91): American Union General in the Civil War.

REGIONALISM VS. AMERICANIZATION 51

Southern Women-Stiff Ladies?


by CORA MCKINNEY
The following interview seeks to discover whether the "moonlight-and-magnolia" stereotype of the "Gone-with-the-Wind" Southern lady still holds today.

Southern belles

Question: When I think of the stereotypical Southern woman, what immediately comes to my mind is the image of the genteel Southern belle the lady of the plantation portrayed in so many books and films. Is this Southern lady a bygone figure of the past (baigon), or does the Southern woman of the 1980s have something in common with her? Answer: Oh yes, I think there are still Southern belles in the South today. It hasn't changed so much. I think you could say that the Southern woman is a breed, that hasn't totally died out. She may not live on a plantation any more, but there are still Southern belles, and Southern girls are still taught to be Southern ladies. Question: What characterizes a woman as a "lady" nowadays? Answer: A lady is gracious and charming and above all she's well-bred. I think that says it all. A

A lady is a woman who is well-bred and who feels well-bred and who is proud to come from a good family. I think the family background is actually the most important distinguishing feature of a lady. What's really important is that these qualities, these ideal qualities of charm and grace, are learned. They are passed on from mother to daughter in each generation. That's why the Southern lady today isn't that different from the Southern lady back in the antebellum South. The mothers pass on to their daughters the ideals of being a lady. And, in fact, the degree to which a Southern girl approximates her mother, or is like her mother, is a measure of the degree to which she is a lady. You can see in the South that Southern girls are willing to identify with their mothers, because there are lots of social functions and mother-daughter banquets sponsored by the

52

AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued
cheerleading club, and there are even look-alike mother-daughter dresses that you can buy in fashion shops. So, Southern girls do well to be like mother. Question: What about you? In what ways were you brought up to be a "lady"? Answer: For my twelfth birthday, my mother gave me a book called Party Manners and White Kid Gloves. This is a book that probably a lot of mothers give to their little girls when they reach the age of twelve. Party Manners and White Kid Gloves ; (kid gloves ) explains to little girls, or to young ladies, how they are to act to be considered a young lady. For example, I remember reading that when I go to a social function ; , I'm supposed to shake the hand of the hostess and say something nice to her and, well, it tells you all the little niceties , concerning how you're supposed to act at a party and when you're supposed to wear white gloves and when not, and when it's right to light a candle. I remember reading that you're never supposed to light a candle at the coffee-table when you're serving guests unless it's evening. Otherwise it's bad taste. Well, okay, that's one example: we learn how to be ladies by reading books like that. And in my family, my sister and I took dancing lessons. There are many semi-elite dancing societies which are especially popular in the South. When you're fourteen or fifteen and fortunate enough to be invited to join the club, you can participate in these dances. At the final balls, the final big function (and we really do wear white kid gloves) we really get to test our manners. This is one kind of training for becoming a lady. Question: Is it possible to distinguish a Southern girl from, let's say, a Northern girl, simply by virtue , of appearance? Answer: Yes, very often. You see, a Southern girl is rather vain about her appearances, or at least that's the way I see it. You see, a Northern girl might wear rugged outdoor sportswear, for example, a skirt, long knee-socks, and comfortable shoes. But when a Southern girl wears a skirt, she usually wears nylon stockings and some dainty little pumps. That's one difference: that the Southern girl cares so much about her appearance she would rather be pretty than comfortable. Sometimes the Southern girl ties her hair back in little colored ribbons. She just looks more feminine on the whole. But I mean, there are also other ways to distinguish a Southern girl from a Northern girl besides just her clothing. Question: Do you think that a Southern girl is different in other ways as well? What about a political involvement and issues like Women's Liberation? Answer: When you ask me that, I think of women on college campuses because I've just been to a university and I can best relate to the women there. There's really a big difference in the women on Southern college campuses compared with the college women in the North. What comes to my mind is that in the South the women aren't particularly interested in politics. They prefer to join social clubs. What's really popular in the South are sororities . They are sort of semi-elite societies. They are primarily social, and the women meet together and arrange social activities. They arrange parties and dances, and sometimes do things for charity. These sororities are really popular in the South. But in the North, they are not that popular. When I think about politics it seems to me that women in the South prefer being involved in things like sororities and partying and having a nice social life to being involved in politics. Politics is something controversial, and very often the Southern girl just avoids controversy. She prefers to be charming and gracious and never step on anyone's toes. But in the North, politics are important, and the ERA issue the Equal Rights Amendment issue was a very strong and controversial topic. But I think the Northern girls don't mind getting into controversies as much as the Southern girls do. You have to realize, for the Southern girl the highest virtue is to be gracious and warm and friendly and hospitable and always proud. And somehow that doesn't mix so well with politics.
;

Gone with the Wind: a novel by Margaret Mitchell (1900-49) featuring the American South before and during the Civil War, also a film classic. antebellum: before the Civil War. Women's Liberation: a movement striving for full educational, social and economic opportunities for women. ERA: Equal Rights Amendment; suggested change to American law, intended to give women the same legal rights as men.

REGIONALISM VS. AMERICANIZATION 53

The Nation's Most Strongly Defined Region

ew England, alone among the nation's regions, has a precisely defined identity. While people may argue about what the Mid-west or even the South includes today, New England consists of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New CANADA Hampshire, Rhode Island U'SA and Vermont nothing more and nothing less. The inhabitants of this region call coffee with cream "regular" and carbonated beverages "tonic." They pronounce Bingo "BeanO," and when they bowl they use candlepins rather than tenpins. Those who live in Boston, which most New Englanders recognize as their regional capital, eat hot dogs, beans and black bread on Saturday evening, and on Halloween they drink apple cider. Above all else New Englanders arc Yankees, people whom all Americans think of however accurately or inaccurately as conscientious, hard-working, terse , frugal, , and (like the climate) cold and inhospitable to outsiders. Outside the United States people think of all Americans as Yankees, reflecting New England's tendency to project its own traditions, practices and beliefs onto the nation as a whole. The Puritans, who came to New England in 1620, were the first to articulate what was to become Protestant America's characteristic image of its place in the world. "For wee must consider that wee shall be as a Citty uppon a Hill, the ties of all people are uppon us," said John Winthrop, one of the Bay Colony's first and most influential leaders.
candlepin: a slender bowling pin used in a variation of the game of tenpins.

54 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

What is a Middle Westerner?


A congeries of traits seems to be more or less characteristic of the breed, although no single trait is unique, and none is distinctive. None of them is mandatory for residence in the area, and one need not be a native to hold any or all of them. Some, at least, might be considered standard American traits, which is not especially surprising, because the Middle West, after all, is the American heartland. These caveats and provisos notwithstanding, the identification of this congeries of traits helps one to understand the people of the region and why they do the things they do. Most of the following adjectives are applicable in varying degree to most genuine Middle Westerners, as I perceive them: Pecuniaristic: pikjunie- A deep faith that all values can eventually be measured in terms of money: "the worth of a man is indicated by his income." Materialistic: Blatant worship of the almighty dollar, or even ostentation of income, is generally considered bad taste, but conspicuous consumption can serve the same purpose: an expensive house in the "right" neighborhood, wearing the latest fashions, status-oriented travel to places others cannot afford to visit, the most powerful and expensive speedboat or snowmobile. Self-assured: A value system based on money is unlikely to be questioned by a prosperous

Farming in the Midwest people, and the Middle West has been enormously successful in terms of its own system of values; "somebody must be doing something right." Critical re-evaluation of the value system has never really been necessary, and many Middle Westerners have seldom, if ever, been afflicted with self-doubts of their own righteousness. Functionalist: - "If it works, I'll buy it, and not ask any questions; if it doesn't work, let's get rid of it and get something that does work." Technologic: Almost unbroken prosperity (especially in comparison with other parts of the nation) can easily be attributed to a predilection for the latest and most modern machines and techniques. New and better machines always have been invented in the past: why should the future be different? Competent: An almost childlike faith in perpetual progress through technology is coupled with enormous technological sophistication and competence, and a profound respect for hard work. Simplistic: - "If I ask a guy why he does something, and if he gives me an answer that makes sense, I don't see any need to probe any deeper." Xenophobic : A suspicion of anyone different is reflected in an isolationist stance in international affairs, in a deep distrust of all governmental activity on the domestic scene, and by strong social pressures on all nonconformists, whether Catholic, Slav, black, long-haired, or bearded.

REGIONALISM VS. AMERICANIZATION

55

'Just like the rest of us, only more so"


For more than a century, Americans have looked at California as something different, a "new" New World at the end of the continent, the ultimate expression of manifest destiny. It is a place as distinct from the rest of the country as America was from the Old World it rejected some 200 years ago. ... It is difficult to characterize in a phrase a state that takes in over a thousand miles of coastline, a variety of landscapes and more than 22 million people. Nevertheless, it is often said that California is not just a state but a state of mind. For some, it represents the final embodiment of America's frontier spirit; for others, it is a version of El Dorado, a place to find fortunes or spend fortunes made elsewhere. California is the nation's leader in fads , ;, fashion and self-indulgence , ,. New religions, new living arrangements, new forms of entertainment from Disneyland to sexclubs, new attitudes towards work, family and education, all have been nurtured by California's tolerant social climate. It may well be true that Californians are quintessential Americans. In a wealthy nation, they are wealthier than most; in a suburban society, they are more suburbanized; in a culture devoted to immediate satisfaction, they are satisfied faster; in a country where optimism reigns supreme, they are the most optimistic; and in a time of doubt and uncertainty, they have the most to be uncertain about.

The wealthy lifestyle of California

Californians, the saying goes, are just like the rest of us, only more so. California stands for "absolute freedom, mobility and privacy," wrote author Joan Didion, a native of the state. It represents "the instinct which drove America to the Pacific .. . the desire . . . to live by one's own rules." This sense of freedom extends beyond what has come to be known as lifestyle. It pervades the political atmosphere as well. While California voters do not easily fit into hard and fast ideological categories, they have consistently been in the forefront of political trend-setting. . . .

manifest destiny: the nineteenth-century belief that the U.S. had the right and duty to expand across the North American continent. frontier: see page 26.

56

PART C
1. Text Analysis

Exercises
3. Comprehension
Southern Women Still Ladies?
1. After reading the interview for the first time, answer the following questions: a) Is the Southern lady a bygone figure of the past? b) Describe the mother-daughter relationship. c) How is a girl taught to be a lady? d) What visible differences are there between a Southern girl and a Northern girl? e) What is said about the political attitude of Southern girls? 2. Read the interview again and answer the following questions: a) What does Cora McKinney mean when she says "the Southern woman is a kind of breed that hasn't died out"? b) Name important preconditions for becoming a lady. c) Why is it that a Southern lady today is not that different from a lady in the antebellum South? d) Why is the book Party Manners and White Kid Gloves still popular in the South? e) What is the significance of the balls at the end of the dancing lessons? f) What does a Southern girl do to make herself look more feminine? g) How do Northern girls differ from Southern girls in their attitudes towards controversies? h) Why is it important for a Southern lady to join a sorority?

The Cooling of the South


Refer to the chart below and explain how air conditioning has affected the process of Americanization in the South.
ECONOMY

A"

SENSE OF PLACE I

AIR CONDITIONING

RURAL & URBAN POPULATION

ARCHITECTURE

SOUTHERN WAY OF LIFE

V-

2. Discussion
"Americanization"
In what areas do you find strong American influences in your country? How do you feel about these influences?

4. Discussion
Imagine you have applied for a student's exchange with one of the exchange When asked which region of the United States you would prefer to go to, how would you decide on the basis of the information about the different regions given in this unit?
organizations like American Field Service or Youth for Understanding.

REGIONALISM VS. AMERICANIZATION

57

5. Comprehension The Nation's Most Strongly Defined Region


Decide whether the following statements are true or false and correct the false statements: 1. New England, the Midwest and the South are all clearly defined regions of the United States. 2. Opinions differ as to the number of states that make up New England. 3. The people who live in New England use some special words which are not used in the rest of the country. 4. To a New Englander, "regular" means coffee, with cream. 5. Boston is the official capital of New England. 6. New Englanders have a reputation for being warm and friendly to visitors. 7. New England is known for its good weather. 8. Foreigners often expect all Americans to be like New Englanders because of the high profile of New England throughout the ages. 9. The immigrants who arrived in 1620 were known as Yankees. 10. John Winthrop was anxious that the New England settlers should set an example to the world.

6. Comprehension What Is a Middle Westerner?


Do you remember the traits of a Middle Westerner? Match numbers and letters. Characteristics Traits 1. competent 2. self-assured 3. materialistic 4. technologic 5. simplistic 6. functionalist 7. pecuniaristic 8. xenophobic a) hardly ever doubting the Tightnes s of his/her actions or words b) having the skill to do what is necessary and working hard to achieve it c) valuing everything in terms of money d) distrusting foreigners and outsiders e) believing strongly in modern machines and techniques f) valuing money and possessions highly and spending money in order to attract attention and prove one's high social position g) concerned with practical use, i.e. "Does it work?" h) easily satisfied by answers that make sense

58 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

7. Comprehension
"Just Like the Rest of Us, Only More So"
After reading the text, try to find the missing words first without looking at the list below. Then complete the task by choosing the right phrase from the list. For many Americans, California is the ultimate expression of l^T It is not just a state but a "& and embodies America's "& For some people it is the place to find or spend "" New religions, living arrangements and forms of entertainment can be attributed to California's $" Being wealthier, more easily satisfied and more optimistic than the ordinary American, Californians arc & Americans. Being more self-indulgent, enjoying more privacy and being more mobile, Californians have developed a greater -fr Californians have always been in the forefront of political "& , because they do not fit into hard and fast ideological categories. sense of freedom quintessential fortunes manifest destiny state of mind tolerant social climate frontier spirit trend-setting

8. Discussion
1. Compare the characterizations of Middle Westerners, New Englanders and Californians. In order to find out for yourself whether they are merely stereotypes or if there is some truth in them, ask Americans you know to comment on the authors' descriptions. 2. Show how each of the authors relates regional traits to national characteristics. 3. Can you trace any definable traits in the regions of your own country?

4 The U.S.
PART A
FREE ENTERPRISE: THEORETICAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Background Information
The American economy is described as a free enterprise system, which allows private business the freedom to operate for profit with minimum government interference and regulation. The theoretical foundation of the American economic system was provided by Adam Smith, the eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher whose economic ideas of "laissez faire" (leave it alone) had a strong influence on the development of capitalism. Smith argued that when individuals, motivated by self-interest, are allowed to pursue profit freely, the result is good for all of society. The more people manufacture and trade, the greater the competition. Competition benefits society by allowing the consumer to seek the best product at the lowest price. Thus, market forces, which Smith termed "the invisible hand," control the efficient allocation of goods while each participant in the market is seeking his or her own self-interest. These ideas were compatible with the high value America's Founding Fathers placed on individual liberty. Freedom from economic control seemed an extension of freedom from control of religion, speech, and the press. Throughout the nineteenth century, market forces in America operated with a minimum of government intervention. Since the 1930s, American capitalism has undergone substantial change. Although private enterprise still flourishes, government regulation now exists in many areas of business ranging from product safety to labor conditions. Political conservatives frequently complain of too much government regulation. Liberals, on the other hand, are generally more willing to accept government's role in business and the economy. Americans on both sides of the political spectrum generally support "free" private enterprise, and there is no serious political debate focusing on alternate economic systems. The country's reliance on private initiative and enterprise has produced impressive growth. The United States today is a leading economic power, with a high standard of living and enormous productivity in industry and agriculture. The United States is one of the most affluent nations in the world. The average annual income for American families in 1985 was $27,700, and 60 percent of all families and individuals are in the middle-income or highincome ranks. Although the generalization can be made that America is an affluent society, in 1985 about 14 percent of the population (11.4 percent White, 31.3 percent Black, and 29 percent Hispanic) lived below the official poverty level, which was then $10,989 for a family of four.
Smith, Adam (1723-90): author of The Wealth of Nations

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

U.S. ECONOMIC PROFILE

HIGH LIVING STANDARD

60 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

WORLD'S LEADING PRODUCER

The U.S. remains the world's leading producer of goods and services, although its margin of superiority is diminishing as other countries become more competitive in the world market.
The U.S.A. - The World's Leading Economic Power Share (%) of World Gross National Product (GNP)

FED. REP. GERMANY 8 JAPAN 3

1960

1982

Industrial and technological production is high. The United States is the world's leading producer of electrical energy, aluminum, copper, sulphur, and paper, and one of the top producers of natural gas and automobiles. No other nation exports as much high technology as the United States. Technological advancement has accelerated changes in American agriculture. Farming is highly mechanized and commercialized. In productive terms, the achievements of this sector of the economy are extraordinary. U.S. farmers produce enough food for domestic consumption and still supply 15 percent of the world's food needs.
U.S. Agricultural Production as a Proportion of World Production in 1982/83 (in %)

" " 3" (5 " "


Wheat Corn Soy Beans Cotton Tobacco Vegetable Fats

Production

64

Wheat

Corn

Soy Beans

Cotton

Tobacco

Vegetable Fats

Exports

FOREIGN TRADE

DECLINING GROWTH RATES

Besides agricultural products, principal goods in America's export trade are machinery, automotive products, aircraft, and chemicals. The leading U.S. imports are petroleum products, foods and beverages, machinery, and iron and steel products. The United States is the world's largest importer and exporter. Despite its huge domestic production, the U.S. economy depends heavily on foreign imports. Until recently, the United States consistently exported more goods than it imported. However, since 1971, the U.S. has been operating under a trade imbalance, importing more goods than it exports. While the profile of the modern U.S. economy shows the U.S. to be a formidable economic power, the strength of the U.S. economy in the last 15 to 20 years has waned. Within the past two decades, the U.S. has slipped from a better than 3 percent per year increase in productivity to an annual increase of below 1 percent. Declining growth rates are a major concern.

THE U.S. ECONOMY 61

U.S. Productivity: The Lead Diminishes


Comparison of some branches of industry with Japan
AUTOMOBILES ELECTRIC APPLIANCES MACHINE BUILDING CHEMICAL PRODUCTS/ PETROCHEMICALS 20 0 STEEL/IRON

Japan in each case = 100

1967 FOREIGN MARKETS

1973

1982

Confidence has also been shaken by the declining competitiveness of U.S. goods abroad, indicated by the increasing trade deficit. Foreign manufacturers are now selling roughly 50 percent more in this country than Americans are exporting abroad. Most of America's television sets, cameras and typewriters are made by foreign companies. High productivity of Japanese industries has increased the appeal of lowerpriced Japanese goods. In 1980, for the first year ever, the Japanese manufactured more automobiles than the United States. Steel production in Japan is now higher as well. Stiff foreign competition challenges U.S. manufacturers to step-up productivity levels, modernize their factories, and provide better worker training.

"Yes, sir, it's made right here in this country with Jafanese know-how."

Despite high productivity in farming, agricultural exports began to decline in the early 1980s. American farmers had difficulty exporting their goods because of import restrictions imposed by foreign countries and because of the high value of the American dollar in the early 1980s. Current international trade developments in areas such as foreign competitiveness, import/export policies, and currency exchange rates have posed

62

AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

CHANGES OF A MATURE ECONOMY

tough problems for the United States' economy. Economic developments on the domestic front such as the shift in production from manufacturing to service industries and the federal budget deficit also create challenges for U.S. business and industry. In recent decades, the rapid maturity of the United States' capitalist economy has prompted some economists to contend that the country's industrial policy is not prepared for the future in what is being termed the "post-industrial age." One of the most significant structural changes has been a shift in production of goods to the delivery of services as the dominant feature of the American economy. Service industries include banking, hotels and restaurants, and communications, as well as many other areas. This sector of the economy now contributes the greatest share of the nation's gross national product.
Service Industries the Decisive Sector of the U.S. Economy Percentage of Gross National Product FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY

U.S.A.

U.S.S.R.

agriculture forestry Primary Sector fishing

mining energy industry Secondary Sector construction Tertiary Sector transportation service industries

BUDGET DEFICIT

Businesses that manufacture high-technology computer, aerospace, and biochemical products and services are also on the rise. Many economists feel that the U.S. has the potential to increase its overall economic productivity by making heavier investment in the new service and high-tech industries instead of subsidizing competitive manufacturing industries. These observers believe that the U.S. economy, still organized for basic production, is unprepared for the future. They believe the government should play a more active role in developing a long-term industrial policy that directs capital investment and training in the new service and high-tech industries. Leaders of labor and industry, however, resist these proposals. One serious problem that hampers economic growth domestically and affects the United States' ability to sell products overseas is the enormous federal budget deficit. Almost every year since 1930, the government has been spending more money than it has taken in. Deficit spending in the Reagan administration exceeded $200 billion a yearnearly three times greater than that of any previous administration. Such huge deficits can cripple the economy because they lead to inflation, high interest rates, and unemployment. One of the reasons for the high value of the American dollar abroad which hurt the sale of U.S. products was these deficits. Pressures to decrease the budget are strong. One important measure to control the budget deficit was the GrammRudman deficit reduction plan, adopted in December 1985. This act calls for yearly spending cuts of $36 billion until a balanced budget is reached in 1991. Most Americans are doubtful these targets will be met. Whether the deficit will be reduced depends on the ability of the president and Congress to agree on areas for spending cuts and/or tax increases. Many experts blame the budget deficit for the sudden stock market crash in October, 1987, which caused a drop in markets all over the world. The dramatic downturn of the U.S. stock market has intensified Americans' fears of an

THE U.S. ECONOMY 63

AGRICULTURE

imminent recession. A falling market can contribute to a decline in spending which could severely weaken the U.S. economy and create economic distress all over the world. American agriculture is a highly productive sector of the U.S. economy facing tough challenges. Farming nowadays has become an extremely efficient, highly mechanized industry requiring huge investments. In the past thirty years, agricultural land has been concentrated into fewer and fewer hands as large-scale specialized farms replace small family farms.

Revolution in Agriculture US$ per farm 3000 -

1950 60 70 1981/82 ...increased mechanization kg by hectare 150 100 1950 60 70 50 1981/82 ...more

1950

...fewer workers

60

70 1981/82

1950

...fewer farms

60

70 1981/82

1950 60

...increased agricultural acreage per farm

70 1981/82

bushels 30RESULT:

bushels 100 -

50 -

fertilizers

...higher performance Example: coin bushel per labor hour 1 bushel = 35.3 litres

1950

60

70 1981/82

1950 60 70 1982/82 ...and higher yields Example: corn bushel per hectare

CRISIS OF THE SMALL FARM

The high efficiency and productivity of American agriculture has its negative side. Farming has become too productive to be profitable to many American farmers. Low crop prices, which have resulted from overproduction, often do not bring farmers enough income to live on. Another difficulty the American farmer faces is the decline of agricultural exports. Farmers depend heavily on exports; one third of the crop land in the United States is planted in crops destined for export. But the market for these export crops is shrinking as the markets of the European community expand. Increased mechanization of American farming is threatening the existence of the small farmer. Farmers have had to increase their debts to afford expensive farm equipment, and high interest rates make it difficult for many farmers to keep up payments on loans and mortgages. Small farmers are unable to compete with large agribusiness firms that usually have the capital needed to sustain themselves through periods marked by low crop prices and high interest rates. With as many as 200 farmers having to declare bankruptcy every day, many farmers insist on emergency aid from the government. A variety of
agribusiness: farming engaged in as big business, including the production, processing and distribution of farm products.

64 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

CORPORATIONS

governmental and private programs, including crop insurance, loan guarantees, and price supports, have been set up to assist farmers. The problems of the American farm economy are not unique. Farmers in the European Economic Community are facing many of the same problems. The trend in modern agriculture towards large-scale enterprise conforms to the overall pattern in American business. Giant corporations dominate. Small corporations are being consumed by larger ones and large corporations become even larger through mergers.
The Dominance of the Large Corporations
Percentage o' corporations with more than 250 employees around 1980 NUMBER OF CORPORATIONS JAPAN 0.6 4 E ___ 1

NUMBER OF

USA. |

ENTREPRENEURS

SUCCESS

YUPPIES

Large corporations EMPLOYEES JAPAN | J30 were once run by individuals with high public profiles. Henry INDUSTRY U.S.A. 1 : ; ; : ; : 164 Ford of the automobile RETURNS JAPAN | industry and Andrew Carnegie of the steel industry are well-known magnates of the early part of this century. Modern corporations, on the other hand, are often run by nearly anonymous career executives who rarely own more than a fraction of one percent of the corporation's stock. While giant corporations determine much of the nation's economic behavior, entrepreneurs also have a significant impact on the American economy. In 1984, 700,000 small businesses were started in the United States. Since the 1970s such businesses started by entrepreneurs have provided more new employment than larger corporations. The high-tech era has produced a new generation of entrepreneurs. One example from the 1970s is that of two young men who worked together to design a new and better computer. They gathered money needed to pay for large-scale production, and in 1977 Apple Computer Corporation was started. By the end of 1984, that company, started by two business-minded entrepreneurs, was one of the largest computer makers in the United States. This success story is similar to others in American history. The Coca-Cola company began when an American pharmacist mixed together the first CocaCola drink and began selling it in Atlanta, Georgia, in the 1890s. The famous Heinz food company, which specializes in mustard, pickles, and ketchup, began when a teenager started to sell various food items on the street. While most people who start businesses do not become millionaires, Americans do believe in the potential for individual success that exists within their free enterprise system. Americans are known for being highly success-oriented and dedicated to hard work. Today's baby boom generation has acquired a reputation for its
baby boom generation: people born in the 1950s and 1960s when birthrates were extremely high.

|56

THE U.S. ECONOMY 65

LABOR UNIONS

AFL-CIO

DECLINING MEMBERSHIP

relentless drive for material success. The term "yuppie," meaning young upwardly-mobile professional, has been coined to describe those people between the ages of 25 and 45 who, according to the stereotype, devote themselves to careers and status. Whereas the drive for success is firmly entrenched in American ideology, what is curiously absent is focused ideological support for America's labor unions. Although a legal framework for worker representation and collective bargaining was established by legislation in the 1930s, labor unions in America do not have the power or political direction of their counterparts in Europe. Achievements of European labor, such as worker participation in corporate strategy in West Germany and nationalization of industries in Great Britain seem radical compared with the achievements of American workers. Some significant gains American labor unions have won for their members include benefits such as increases in overtime pay, paid vacations, premium pay for night work, and employer subsidized health insurance plans. Although American workers are now beginning to focus their demands more on job security than benefits, few employees can aspire to the job security won by unions in continental Europe. In America, lay-offs of blue-collar workers in industries such as automobiles, aerospace, and shipbuilding are routine. In Europe, corporations are deterred from laying off workers. Laws require companies to make costly redundancy payment to workers who are dismissed. One explanation for this difference between labor unions in Europe and America is that American workers have traditionally valued self-reliance and individualism. Furthermore, the lack of rigid class distinctions has given many workers the feeling that they are not permanently destined to a working-class existence. The lack of class consciousness and the belief that one can rise to a higher station in life through individual effort help explain why socialism has not gained mass appeal as a unifying ideology among American workers. Today the largest American labor union is the joint AFL-CIO, the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations. The AFL-CIO is active in the world labor movement. It is an affiliate of the International confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) which has members in 95 countries and territories. American labor unions today are losing members and influence. In 1950, as many as 1 in 3 wage earners were union members. Now that percentage has dropped to 18 percent and shows signs of shrinking further. The AFL-CIO has also been troubled by a sharp decline in membership. Between 1975 and 1985, membership dropped from 14 million to 11 million workers. The decline in labor membership is related to the changing trends in the economy as a whole. Foreign competition has depressed many U.S. industries and left many workers unemployed. The decline in manufacturing industries, once a stronghold of unionism, and the rise in service and high-tech industries, which employ fewer blue-collar workers, has contributed to the decline of America's labor unions. Another explanation for the unions' loss of membership is the movement of many industries to the South, where right-to-work laws hinder union organizers. Automation and other technological innovations in industrial production have displaced many blue-collar workers. The transition to a post-industrial economy presents challenges not only to labor unions, but to all sectors of the U.S. economy.

66

PART

Texts
The New Entrepreneurs

Peter Drucker on Entrepreneur

From U.S. N EWS & W ORLD R EPORT Peter Drucker is probably the most widely respected corporate management expert in the United States. Beginning in 1939 with The End of Economic Man, he has written more than 20 books on economics, corporations and management, including most recently The Changing World of the Executive. In this interview with the editors /U.S. News & World Report, Drucker, a professor of social science at Claremont Graduate School in California, discusses America's new wave of entrepreneurs. Is it still possible to start new companies today and succeed? It's more than just possible. We have on our hands an entrepreneurial boom the like of which we have not seen in a century. The most important economic event of the last few years, in fact, is the emergence of this entrepreneurial trend. In the past decade, the United States has created 20 million new jobsthe largest number ever created anywhere in such a short period. At the same time, large, established companies have lost several million jobs. Government has not grown, either. Most of these 20 million additional jobs are in small, new enterprises. They absorbed all the postWorld War II babies, and they absorbed the millions of women who entered the job market. Would you characterize these as high-tech businesses? No. The high-tech people are traditional entrepreneurs, which means nine of every 10 of them will lose their business within two years. They talk profit, and in a new business it's not profit that matters but cash flow, and they don't know how to make a cash-flow forecast. Too many hightech people can't build teams or train people, either. Their enterprises tend to resemble entrepreneurships of years agoa game in which all the cards are marked and you don't know what anyone has up his sleeve. // not in high technology, where are these millions of jobs being created? I'll give you an example. The fastest growing and most profitable new business I know is a chain of barbershops founded by two young men, neither of whom had ever had a pair of scissors in his hand. Rather than eke out an existence like most barbershops, theirs are earning 30 to 40 percent returns on investment.
Reprinted from U.S. News if World Report, March 26, 1984, published at Washington, D.C. 1984 US News Sc World Report, Inc.

They did nothing more than apply elementary management. They asked, "What are the key factors?" The answers are location, traffic and the number of people you can cut in a day without anyone's having to wait. They knew how to build their team and how to train their people. These barbershop fellows understand cash flow, too. One of them told me: "I started another business once, and after nine months I was in a cash bind and had to give away 40 percent of the business to the next batch of investors. With these barbershops, I make sure of the money six months before I need it." That's the whole secret of financial management: know when you'll need money and make sure of it before you need it. The new entrepreneurs, then, don't go near glamour, and they don't bet on new technology but on something far more predictable: demographics, population trends and things of that sort. How do they get started? Most come out of big companies or institutions. Typically, after eight or 10 years of being trainees and young managers, they realize their next promotion is a ways off. So they get an idea and start off on their own. By that time, they know a lot about what we call upper management and organization. These are a stable group of people who look systematically for opportunities, and the casualty rate of their businesses is quite low. Few of them have any illusion that they're going to build thousand million-dollar companies. A good many, once their businesses get to 10 or 15 million dollars in sales, set out to start something new again. Aren't these small businesses vulnerable to competition from giant companies? There is no longer a premium on big size in many industries. Companies pay a price for size; they are not very agile. Elephants can't turn on a dime, and neither can huge organizations with all their layers of management. Politically, they are too visible in a world in which business is damned if it does and damned if it doesn't. The smart business executive knows the advantages of anonymity. But if you run one of the world's great banks, don't expect to have it. Are you implying that the day of the big company is over? I'm not saying we won't have large companies but that we no longer need them in many instances. For 30 years the trend was toward the large unit because it was the one we knew how to manageor thought we did. That is over. We are deinstitutionalizing. You see it in hospitals, where clinics now perform outpatient surgery. You see it in education, where the huge consolidated secondary school is being judged a failure. And you see it in business, where the spot light is shifting toward the smaller unit.

THE U.S. ECONOMY 67

By Gene Bylinsky
Scientific advances at America's top research laboratory run the gamut from building an efficient phone system to discovering evidence of the Big Bang.
Research laboratories within large companies have been one of the great incubators of scientific discovery in the United States. Charles Steinmetz, whose 30years of research at General Electric helped usher in the age of electricity at the beginning of this century, established the model of an alliance between creative genius and big business. In more recent times IBM scientists have designed fundamental computer languages and software; in 1987 two of their colleagues were awarded a Nobel Prize for their pioneering work on superconductors. Similarly, researchers at Du Pont have used chemical compounds discovered in their labs to develop plastics and other materials put to everyday use. America's largest and most famous research facility is Bell Laboratories, a division of American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T). Scientists at Bell Labs have won more Nobel Prizes than any other industrial institution in the world. Yet since 1984, when a federal judge ruled that AT&T must be split up because its control of U.S. telephone service violated antitrust law, the American scientific community has been concerned about the scaled-down company's support for its distinguished research arm. As the author of this article reports, however, Bell Labs has survived the breakup and its research remains as innovative as ever. Gene Bylinsky is on the board of editors of Fortune magazine, where he has been a science writer since 1966. He is the author of several books including Mood

Control and Life in Darwin's Universe.

68 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued

ell Laboratories, the premier corporate research facility in the United States for most of its 62-year history, has produced the transistor, the laser, the solar cell and the first communications satellite, as well as sound motion pictures, the science of radio astronomy and crucial evidence for the theory that a Big Bang created the universe. Today the vital signs are still strong at the Bell Lab headquarters in northern New Jersey, putting to rest fears that without the vast revenue base provided by &, the parent operating company, Bell Labs might wither into just another run-of-the-mill industrial research and development (R&D) operation. Not only has basic research come through the court-ordered break-up of AT&T largely unscathed, but Bell Labs is also branching into new commercial areas in part by launching new R&D companies and looking into licensing of companies as far afield from telecommunications as airlines and shipping firms. Historically, basic research absorbed only about 10 percent of manpower and spending at Bell Labs, and that proportion remains unchanged. Most of the employees are engineers, who have worked on applications, not basic research. But basic research at the Labs has always been a huge attentiongetter because of its unmatched results and epochal discoveries. The 1947 invention of the transistor set off the world microelectronics and computer revolution. Seven Bell Lab scientists have won Nobel Prizes. In 1985 President Reagan awarded Bell Labs the National Medal of Technology the only U.S. laboratory ever singled out for it. What happens at Bell Labs is of vital interest to American industry because of the labs' high quality of research and because it has been strong where the United States

now finds itself weak: in the transfer of research results into products. Says Robert M. White, president of the National Academy of Engineering: "America's problem is not lack of basic research but inadequate conversion of scientific discovery to commercialization. Bell Labs does that very well indeed." Bell Labs is striving to help AT&T's businesses by tailoring basic research more closely to the needs of the parent company without sacrificing the scope and sweep of investigations. The economics and psychology departments have been cut drastically while robotics and computer science have grown, but that shift in emphasis involved only about 40 of the 200 or so scientists who pursue the purest kind of pure research. "To an outside observer it may seem that we've gone product oriented, but the intellectual content of the work is the same," says Arno A Penzias, vice-president in charge of research at Bell Labs. Penzias, an ebullient astrophysicist, made his mark soon after he arrived at the labs in 1961. He was asked to join a committee of older scientists who were trying to devise the best way to calculate the precise positions of communications satellites. The scientists were talking about setting up tall, expensive radio masts when Penzias piped up with the suggestion that nature's own radio masts radio stars, which emit characteristic frequencies from fixed positions in the skywould serve equally well at no cost whatever. Penzias's idea was accepted and the committee disbanded on the spot. Later, Penzias and his colleague Robert Wilson built measuring devices for Bell Labs' radiotelescope as part of their effort to track down the source of static that often interfered with their studies of radio waves from the

Milky Way. The noise they studied turned out to be the residual radiation from the Big Bang; for their discovery, the two men shared a Nobel Prize in 1978. The scope of research at Bell remains wider than at most other industrial labs and even some universities. The staff includes 3430 Ph.D.s more than the total research staff of the closest rival corporate lab, at IBM. The scientists at Bell are spread among physics, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, electronics and sundry other fields. Bell Labs' method has always been to assemble a huge mass of diverse specialists who interact closely. The sprawling headquarters building is an immense beehive. It houses more than 3000 researchers, product developers and support staff along lengthy corridors lined with hundreds of small labs crammed with the latest instruments. The physics-research division alone employs 250; it's larger and more diverse than most university physics departments. Investigations range from basic studies of the nature of matter, including such current topics in theoretical physics as instabilities and chaos, to building ceramic superconductors and creating so-called neural networks in silicon chips that mimic rudimentary animal brain pathways. Electronics and optics are two other large areas of emphasis. Recently AT&T began to install the world's most advanced fiber-optic transmission system, developed at Bell Labs, which can speed 24,000 telephone calls simultaneously through a pair of fibers, each twice the thickness of a human hair. It has 40 percent more capacity than any other commercial system. The most basic work at Bell Labs has a way of merging into development, though that's not immediately apparent from the activities of some of the basic

THE U.S. ECONOMY 69

scientists. One recently reported on the activities of ants in the jungles of Brazil; another observes faint galaxies at the edge of the universe from observatories in Chile and Hawaii. The student of ants, Thomas Gradel, reports that a major cause of acid rain in the Amazon is formic acid, a pungent, colorless substance released by the decomposing bodies of anls. However, Gradel's interest in the Amazonian ants is highly practical: he is a corrosion chemist, and part of his job is to find out why telephone equipment can fail in various environments. The stargazer, astrophysicist J. Anthony Tyson, has his feet on the ground as well. He is trying to improve another Bell Lab invention, the charge coupled device in effect a silicon chip that can see. It has revolutionized astronomy because it collects light up to 1000 times more efficiently than film, but it also has potential uses as the eyes of robots and in the precision manufacture of semiconductors. Tyson is one of a handful of Bell's basic scientists who "couple us to the universe of science," as Penzias says. "It's a small but vital part of our business strategy to have a few scientists do work that gives Bell Labs a connection to the universities and the rest of the scientific community that it couldn't get otherwise." Among other things, such connections help attract young scientists. Bell Labs pays competitive or somewhat higher salaries than other major corporate labs, such as those at IBM and Du Pont. And although Penzias says that some scientists earn more at Bell

Labs, money is not the main draw for most of them. The freedom, the facilities and first-class colleagues come before that. Harvesting the fruits of research happens faster than it did in the good old days. Bell Lab President Ian M. Ross is a subdued Britishborn Ph.D. in electrical engineering with several advances in semiconductors to his credit. He cites the emergence and the rapid adoption of a remarkable mathematical shortcut to the celebrated traveling-salesman problem, which requires devising the shortest possible route connecting a given number of destinations. Indianborn mathematician Narendra Karmarkar described this new insight in 1984. Where programmers and mathematicians once took days to solve a problem with thousands of variables, the Karmarkar algorithm allows them to do so in minutes. AT&T is already using the algorithm to design a vast and complex phone network among the 20 nations of the Pacific Rim. The algorithm is useful in other fields as well; Bell Labs is getting ready to apply it to airline and shipping businesses. Competing against the rest of the world is teaching Bell Labs' product developers to couple R&D even more closely to both manufacturing and market needs. In the past, technology drove Bell Labs' development; now the customer does. A classic example of a technology-driven product: the Picturephone of the mid-1950s. It worked well, but market studies of the potential demand for it failed to make clearjust who could afford to use it. Nowadays Bell Labs

would let the market determine whether it would develop a Picturephone. Into the competitive world today Bell Labs' developers are bringing such impressive products as a gigantic computerized electronic switching system, which can cost several million dollars and handles up to 300,000 telephone calls an hour. Bell Labs is also helping install a system that will connect McDonald's 7500 hamburger outlets and the company's administrative offices. In all these activities Bell Labs' people think they have a competitive advantage because research has been integrated into the work of the parent company better than at any other industrial lab. Just as it opened the new world of microelectronics by inventing the transistor, Bell Labs is now far along in harnessing the electron's ephemeral cousin, the photon, for the task of information movement and management. In Bell Labs' bag of surprises there even could be an optical computer superior to its electronic counterpart. Progress in that field in recent months has been exceptionally rapid. The optical computer, using laser beams instead of electrical connections, would work 1000 times faster than today's electronic varietyan almost unimaginable boon to everyone from theoretical physicists to weather forecasters. Bell Labs' basic scientists insist that competition is nothing new for them, that they have always competed against the world at large. As Arno Penzias puts it, Bell Labs traditionally has been a place that "made its own future happen."

IBM: international Business Machines: large American corporation.

70 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

A French-Fry Diary: From Idaho Furrow To Golden Arches


For the Potato That Qualifies, McDonald's Has a Slicer, Sprayer, Drierand Ruler
BY MEG COX

OAK BROOK, ILL.

2/8/82

eep within the high-rise confines of McDonald's Corp. headquarters, inside his "war room," Chairman Fred Turner ponders a weighty business issue: the fate of five Idaho potatoes. The potatoes have been transplanted from their American homeland to a field in far-off Holland. Delicate negotiations with the government of the Netherlands preceded the move; eight months in Dutch quarantine followed before the potatoes could be planted. "God, I hope they didn't die," Mr. Turner exclaims. Lower-level McDonald's operatives are asked to check. Alas, the news is bad. The five potatoes, estranged from their native land, have fallen victim to a virulent foreign potato virus. Once again, McDonald's Corp.'s costly, 10-year struggle to take its favorite source of French-fried potatoes to Europe has been thwarted. Thwarted but not defeated. This company didn't get to be king of fast food by taking French fries lightly. The attention McDonald's lavishes on the spindly side order suggests something approaching a corporate obsession. And why not? French fries currently pour more than $1 billion a year into McDonald's cash registers, nearly 20% of annual revenue. They are the most profitable food served under the Golden Arches. Seven of every 10 customers arriving after the breakfast hour order fries. To keep them that way, McDonald's has spelled out no fewer than 60 specifications a strip of potato has to meet to make it into the frying basket. To frustrate imitators, it has a patent on the precise combination of steps in making its fries. The restaurants even use a special blend of frying oil. Its name: Interstate 47.

THE U.S. ECONOMY 71

3. continued
Now, frying is important, but what good is it if you don't have a sturdy potato to begin with? At McDonald's the tuber of choice is the russet Burbank. "People think all potatoes are alike, but they aren't," says B i l l Atchley, the chief of McDonald's crew of spud scouts. He explains: "A russet Burbank potato has a distinctive taste and a higher ratio of solids to water, which makes for crispier fries." There are plenty of russet Burbanks in the U.S., but overseas is another matter. Mr. Atchley recently returned from the Philippines, where he spent much of his time on his hands and knees in the dirt trying to teach farmers to plant the right kind of potatoes. "If we can grow these potatoes in the Philippines, we'll learn a lot about how to do it in other tropical countries," he says. But the big target is Europe. No russet Burbanks are grown there, and the Common Market doesn't allow potato imports. Never mind that the Continent offers several hundred other varieties; Mr. Turner says they are small and yellow and low in solids, producing, he adds with distaste, "small and soggy" French fries. The state of the art in French-fry making today can be seen at the J. R. Simplot potato factory in Caldwell, Idaho, which processes a good portion of the billion potatoes McDonald's uses each year. "Mac fries," like the ones Simplot prepares for other companies, begin their journey on an assembly line, where women in aprons pluck out the bad potatoes. Like the others, those going to McDonald's are chopped, prefried and frozen. But there are subtle differences. Other fries are blanched, or quickscalded, in water; McDonald's has its steamed, figuring that water carries off flavor and nutrients. All the fries in the assembly line are prefried, then dried; but those going to McDonald's are dried at higher heat, to make them chewy. The time and the heat are covered by the patent. Nor is McDonald's indifferent to the amount of moisture that slips away between the frying and the drying. Company food scientists monitor this. They call it "drier-frier weight loss." Else.where on the Simplot production line, other people's fries are dipped in sugar to make them brown better. Mac fries get doused in sugar too, but they are sprayed rather than dipped. Spraying the sugar on makes the fries brown unevenly, the company believes, and that makes them look more natural. In looks, though, color isn't everything. Fries have to be the right length, too. What hungry diner wants to look into his bag and find a bunch of little stubby fries? McDonald's is ruthless about length: 40% of all fries must be between two inches and three inches long;

72

AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

3. continued
another 40% must be over three inches; the other 20%well, it doesn't hurt to have a few stubby ones. McDonald's is convinced all this trouble pays off. It says a 1975 telephone survey showed that Mac fries were the favorite of 70% of those called. Even some gourmets like them. "I think McDonald's fries are remarkably good," says television chef Julia Child. "They're cooked in extremely fresh fat." Nutritionists tend to be less enthusiastic. Isobel Contento, a nutrition professor at Columbia University in New York, says, "About half the calories in French fries come from fat, there are very few vitamins, and you'd feel a whole lot fuller eating a comparable amount of green vegetables."

WAYNE STAYSKAL Courtesy Chicago Tribune

eei op THAT vewew . 1"

THE U.S. ECONOMY 73

The Forgotten Farmer


THE C R I S I S IN AMERICAN AGRICULTURE fcyD A N N Y COLLUM
today its customers include some of America's biggest banks and insurance companies who have "inherited" the land through foreclosure and other institutional investors taking advantage of crisis-induced low land prices. Food processing and distribution in the United States has long been an oligopoly controlled by a handful ofcorporations. Now the food-growing industry is taking the same route. Further evidence of corporate centralization of agriculture was recently provided when the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, already the proud owner of 300 farms, bought out the nation's largest farm-management company, which runs 3,900 farms (including 200 of Metropolitan's) comprising more than a million acres in nine states. THE CURRENT CRISIS in American agriculture is not the result of bad weather, bad luck, or bad management. It is instead the result of bad choices in U.S. agriculture policy, especially in the last 15 years. In the early 1970s, a fundamental shift occurred in the direction of federal agriculture policy. The U.S. economy was weakened by Vietnam War-induced inflation and new international trade competition from its European and Japanese allies. Then came the 1973 Arab oil embargo and the consequent doubling of oil prices, which further exacerbated both

ast year rural Sac County, Iowa, cxperiend three bank failures. In the county seat of Odenbolt (population 1,300), 12 businesses closed, church attendance and collections were down, as were school enrollments which have now declined 7 percent since 1982. Also in 1985 more than 40 Sac County farms were lost to foreclosure, with another 120 in immediate danger. Across the state in Hills, Iowa, near Iowa City, last December a farmer killed his wife, a man he had bought land from, his banker, and finally himself. At the time of the tragedy, the farmer was almost a million dollars in debt. The local sheriff said the man left a note "indicating he couldn't stand the problems anymore." There is a crisis in American agriculture in the 1980s, a crisis in many ways worse than the one accompanying the Great Depression of the 1930s. There are about 600,000 full-time, family-run farms left in the United States, and they are disappearing at the rate of about 30,000 a year. At least a third of the nation's family farmers are carrying levels of debt that place them in imminent danger of bankruptcy. After 40 years of slow shrinkage, the family farm as an institution, a culture, and a vocation is facing extinction. The current farm crisis is creating a nearly unbearable economic, emotional, and spiritual dislocation for

hundreds of thousands of Americans with long-standing ties to the land and no other means of livelihood. And as the experience of Odenbolt, Iowa, indicates, the ripple effects of farm foreclosures are taking down banks, businesses, farm-related industries, and entire communities. While the farm crisis is creating an ever-widening circle of losers, from 'rural America to the industrial cities, there aresome winners. One big winner is the farm-management industry, made up of companies that operate farms for institutional owners. According to theA'ero York Times, the number of farms operated by those companies has risen by more than 40 percent daring the farm crisis. Their acreage now comprises an area roughly the size of Colorado. Originally the farm management industry mostly served retired people who didn't want to sell their land. But

Great Depression: the economic crisis and worldwide decline in business activity, beginning with the stockmarket crash in October, 1929 and continuing through the 1930s. New York Times: established 1851, one of the most important national daily newspapers, renowned for its excellent news service. Vietnam War: see page 15.

74 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

inflation and the export-import imbalance. At this time the decision was made to crank up U.S. grain produciton to the highest possible level. The old farm-policy emphasis on price maintenance was traded in for a policy that emphasized higher production, lower prices, and massive export sales. This had the advantage of redressing the international trade problem while simultaneously holding down domestic food prices in a time of inflation. Government policies encouraged farmers to plant their land from fence row to fence row. Banks were flooded with Middle Eastern petrodollars in search of investment opportunities. Interest rates were low, and the banks actively encouraged farmers to take out loans to buy more land and equipment to enlarge their operations and produce still more. Demand for farm land increased as a result of these changes, and the new levels of land productivity drove the price of farm land sky-high. In turn the increased value of their landholdings (a farmer's primary loan collateral) allowed farmers to borrow even more, expand more, and produce more. Farmers' total indebtedness grew by leaps and bounds. No one worried about it, though, because America was the bread-basket of the world and there was nothing but clear skies ahead. But the clouds soon appeared. In 1981 the Reagan administration came into power and induced a crippling recession as the final solution to the domestic inflation problem. The U.S. recession inevitably became a global recession. The market for U.S. grain exports, already reduced by President Carter's grain embargo, now declined further because other countries, particularly those in the Third World, simply could not afford to buy them at any price. Also other countries, especially in Europe and Latin America, had increased their food production to the point that they no longer needed U.S. grain. Some of them, in fact, had begun to compete

4. continued

with the United States on the world market.. The Reagan administration's policies of high military spending deficits and a tight money supply also combined to drive up the interest rates on farm loans, as did bank deregulation. At the same time, the farm recession drove down the value of the land, making it more difficult for farmers to get the loans they needed for seeds and supplies from year to year. Suddenly many farmers found themselves with an enormous debt load, taken on at the encouragement a few years before, and no way to pay it. Before long the current tidal wave of foreclosures began. Ultimately, the crisis that is destroying family farms raises serious questions about the social and economic direction America will take in the rest of this century. The economics of the

marketplace are increasingly replacing all notions of the common good in areas ranging from banking and telephore service to newspapers and other mass media. The farm crisis is symptomatic of that trend. Little room exists in U^S. political debate for the idea that decentralized ownership and control of land and the institution of family farming might have an intrinsic social and moral value that outweighs the demands of the market. Such a narrow approach to public life will inevitably leave behind staggering human damage. Right now the damage is most visible in black and Hispanic inner-city communities without jobs or hope, in the abandoned industrial towns of the Northeast and upper Midwest, and in the farm belt. But it won't stop there. If farm families can be declared dispensable, so can we all.

petrodollars: surplus profits accumulated by petroleum-exporting countries. Hispanic: an American citizen or resident of Latin American descent. farm belt: region in the midwestern U.S. of deep fertile soils which are especially adapted to the production of corn, wheat, oats and soybeans.

THE U.S. ECONOMY 75

Economics vs. Ecology:


Problems with Solutions to Pollution

"... Our short-run look at income and profit keeps us from the long-run look at the future of life."
by Robert W. Haseltine

Industrial pollution no easy solution

HE EFFECTS OF BOTH AIR T and water pollution on the environment have been observed for

years. One of the best examples of the debilitating effects of air pollution is Sudbury, Ont., Canada. International Nickel and "the world's tallest smokestack" put enough sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide into the atmosphere to have caused the death of all vegetation, with the concomitant erosion and loss of all soil down to bedrock, for about 20 miles east of Sudbury. For anyone familiar with the New York City area, the East River and Hudson River both give a good example of water pollution carried to its extreme. A major lack of foresightedness has occurred not only in the business community, but in the consumer community as well.
Prof. Haseltine, Economics Editor of USA Today, /s associate professor of economics, State University of New York at Geneseo.

Both sides refuse to accept pollution in its various aspects as having any form of economic consequences. . .. The average citizen, you and me, is part and parcel of the problem. Unfortunately, as with most complex problems, there are more things involved than meet the superficial glance that most of us give to problems of this nature. Most Americans are after the "quick fix." If we are hungry, we go to the nearest fast food place and quickly fill the vacuum. Similarly, in the area of fixing environmental problems which have been developing for well over 100 years, we ask "them" (whoever we may think "them" to be) to quickly make the problem go away, much as a child asks mommy to kiss the bruise and take away the hurt. The solutions are not that easily found. . .. When it comes down to which is going to suffer, the environment or my family, my family has to take precedence. The pollution spewed

into the atmosphere by the smokestack is a long-range problem, while my support of my family must be viewed as a short-range problem. If there is no food coming into the house in the short run, we starve to death and there is no long run.

The short-run problem


Ever since business began to operate in the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution, it has generally done so with a total disregard for the environment. Business, any business, has to be very cost-conscious if it is going to exist long in a free-market society. At least that is what we are told by American business as it fights any of the laws which would place restrictions on the manner in which it dumps its wastes into the atmosphere, or the ecosphere in general. Business, according to economic theory, attempts to operate all of its production in a least-cost manner. That is, in putting together the resources

76 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

5. continued

which it uses to produce a final good, it uses capital and labor in a manner which will produce the most output for the least possible cost per unit of production. Business, therefore, will use capital, especially, in such a way that labor, as it works with that capital, will be most productive. For this reason, more and more businesses are turning to robots to do the painting, welding, and countless other tedious jobs that up to now have been done by wage labor. This means that more and more jobs have disappeared from the industrial sector of the economy, with no corresponding positions opening up in the service sector. From this stems an over-all loss of jobs, especially among tho; e who have poorer levels of education and a need to protect their families and livelihoods. If business puts into the production line the types of equipment which will clean up the residue so that what comes out of the smokestack is nothing but steam, they recognize that a number of things will have to occur. In the short run ,iftheydothisand other competing businesses do not do this, their costs of production will rise while that of their competition will not. This means that unit cost is more than it was previously and, if the levels of profits are to remain high enough to satisfy the stock-

holders, then the market price of the good will have to be increased. ...

Polluting the air


The major reason for air pollution, especially as one looks at the problems of hydrocarbons and lead, is the private consumer. In order to save four to 10 cents per gallon, we find people doing away with pollution control devices, or buying a device which allows them to add regular gas to their tank instead of being forced to purchase unleaded. This has caused a problem with the amounts of hydrocarbons and lead in the atmosphere close to the surface, just as the high smokestack has added to the problem of long-distance pollution. The problem which is caused is endemic throughout the world, . . . and the basic cause is that which is outlined above - the economics of self-interest (greed) which causes me, as a consumer, to save as much of my income as possible, just as the business manager attempts to save the company as much money as possible. I can not point a finger of blame, because, if I do, I find three other fingers pointing back at me. . . .

Polluting the water


The waterways are another . . . area that we find it easier to pollute than to spend the money necessary to

clean wastes properly. Wisconsin has a law that all houseboats must have a self-contained head (toilet) which must be pumped out properly and dumped properly if you have it done in the state of Wisconsin. The cost is not exorbitant, about $5.00. If, however, you go across the river to Iowa, and have it pumped out in that state, it is only about $1.00. What is the difference? In Wisconsin, it is pumped into a storage tank, then into a sewerage disposal system. In Iowa, it is pumped directly into the Mississippi River to become part of the problem of downstream urban areas which may take their drinking water from that river. For the individual, it becomes a dilemma: Should I save money by pumping in Iowa, and harming the river, or should I waste my money by pumping in Wisconsin? For some reason, Iowa does a thriving business in pumping! Where does it lead? While the first impact is on wildlife, we are all a part of this "marble in space," and what affects other life will eventually affect me. The effect might be emphysema, heart problems, or general ill health, if not death, and it is definitely an economic problem affecting incomes of both business and workers. So far, however, our short-run look at income and profit keeps us from the long-run look at the future of life. Yes, we are all a part of the "economics of greed," like it or not.

77

PART C Exercises
1. Comprehension
Peter Drucker on Entrepreneurs
Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the original text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. 1. An entrepreneurial boom a) will possibly emerge in this century. b) has not been seen in this century. c) is the extraordinary economic event of this century. 2. An enormous number of new jobs a) have been created by large established companies. b) have been taken by the millions of women who have entered the labor force. c) have been taken up by the quickly growing population after the Second World War. 3. The large majority of high-tech entrepreneurs fail because a) they only talk about profit but do not work hard enough. b) they do not have enough cash to start a business. c) they know too little about financial planning. 4. The two men who started a barbershop chain were successful because a) they were real experts in haircutring. b) they applied all the elementary management techniques. c) they only accepted cash from their customers. 5. The new entrepreneurs rely heavily on a) glamor. b) predictable technology. c) demographical data. 6. Most new entrepreneurs worked for big companies until they realized that a) there was no chance of being promoted in the near future. b) they had a good idea which they thought they could sell themselves. c) they could build a thousand million dollar company themselves. 7. Compared with giant companies small businesses a) are more flexible. b) do not lay so much stress on the organization of management. c) enjoy a higher degree of anonymity. 8. Peter Drucker believes that big companies a) will die out soon. b) are not as efficient as they used to be. c) like other big institutions, are often regarded as failures.

2. Anticipation
Inside Bell Labs Before you read the text, look at the layout. 1. What can you anticipate about the article by just looking at the title photo and the subtitle? 2. The italicized introduction or lead is meant to provide as much information as necessary to arouse the reader's curiosity about the text. What aspects are mentioned in this introduction? Which ones would you be interested in following up? 3. Who is the author and what are his credentials?

3. Organization of the Text


Now have a closer look at the organization of the text as a whole and the function of each paragraph. 1. First read through the text and underline the key words or phrases of each paragraph. 2. Then number the eighteen paragraphs of the article and match them with the descriptions below using the following sentence: The function of paragraph. . . (number) is to point out a) the growing expansion and diversity of Bell Labs in spite of the court-enforced break-up of AT&T. b) the enormous attention basic research gets through epochal discoveries. c) the new emphasis on robotics and computer science.

78 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

d) that competition has always been a constant driving force in research. e) impressive technological products which support the view that Bell Labs have an advantage over their competitors. f) the use of the Karmarkar algorithm. g) a Bell Lab invention that revolutionized astronomy. h) the latest invention of the physics research division, i) a discovery for which Penzias and his colleague Wilson won the Nobel Prize in 1978. j) the development of an optical computer, k) an example of the practical use of basic research on ants. 1) the motives of scientists for joining Bell Labs, m) the idea of market-oriented research and development, n) Bell Labs as the most important corporate research facility in the United States, o) the percentage of staff doing basic research, p) the size and diversity of the Bell research staff. q) an ingenious idea of Arno Penzias. r) the importance of the transfer of basic scientific discovery to the world of commerce.

the business policies of McDonald's potato processing from Idaho furrows to McDonald's restaurants different people (young people, a gourmet, a nutritionist) expressing different opinions about McDonald's French fries. The film is to be made on location, with comments alternating with interviews. Estimated length: 15-20 minutes. Draw up a plan for such a film and decide how to present the basic points you want to make. Think about the kind of interviewees you will have to pick in order to present these points. the role of the commentator the settings required the total number of scenes. After forming small groups or pairs, concentrate on the individual scenes and write a filmscript to include the setting the camera movements the dialogues of the interviews the remarks of the commentator the kind of music you would like to use. Here is a list of vocabulary connected with filmmaking: shot a unit in film-production, i.e. a single part of a film made by one camera without interruption exterior shot shot of an outdoor scene indoor shot shot of an indoor scene
types of camera shots

4. Style
A French-Fry Diary: From Idaho Furrow to Golden Arches
1. Especially at the beginning of this article the author aims at a comic effect when transferring words that originate in the fields of warfare or medicine to the potato and French-fry business. Find examples in the text. 2. Look at the questions asked in this article. What do you think their function is?

close-up a large-scale photograph taken from very near: the slightest nuance of expression in an actor's face is magnified by the close-up and can become significant long shot shot taken from a distance medium shot normal camera angle and distance
special effects

5. Producing a Filmscript
Imagine you work for an American TV station. You have enjoyed reading this article so much that you have decided to use it as the basis for a loosely-connected documentary film showing

low angle in a low angle a figure is seen as if from below: the effect is often one of a towering presence, overriding powerotten associated with a sense of threat. "The camera shoots from a low angle." high angle high angle looks down on the

THE U.S. ECONOMY 79

subject, reversing the psychological effect of low angle to fade out gradually dissolve one picture in another
camera movements

camera pans it moves from side to side, up and down, following the action. "The camera pans across the picture."

camera tracks it moves along. "The camera tracks the movement of an actor." camera is tilted "It is tilted to make a low angle shot." camera zooms it moves quickly between a distant and a close-up view. "The camera zooms in on Mr. W.'s face."

6. Structuring an Article
The Forgotten Farmer
U.S. agricultural policy decides to increase grain production to the highest level

farmers' indebtedness grows| by leaps and bounds

FARM FORECLOSURES FARMS FOR SALE

The diagram presents the logical organization of the article. It shows how various factors contribute to the present farm crisis in the U.S.A. Decide on the logical position in the diagram of the following factors. Match numbers with letters.

banks encourage farmers to lake out loans at low interest rates

high military spending deficits and a tight money supply drive up interest rates on farm loans government policies encourage farmers to plant their land from fence row to fence row

increasing international trade competition

countries in the Third World are no longer able to buy U.S. grain at any price increased value of landholdings allows farmers to borrow more, expand more and produce more

Carter's grain embargo reduces U.S. grain exports

the high level of productivity drives the price of farms sky-high

farmers buy more land and equipment to enlarge their operations and produce more

80

AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

7. Discussion
Danny Collum's article points out why in the 1980s a great number of family farms in the U.S.A. closed down. What about the situation of farmers in your country? Do you think that the "economics of the marketplace" should also be applied to farming? Should big agricultural firms, which are more competitive, replace small farms? Should governments guarantee family farming through subsidies and protective measures? How would you advise your government about its agriculture policy?

9. Text Production
The following group work activity consists of three successive steps. A business manager, a newspaper reporter, and an environmentalist are involved in the controversy of economics versus ecology. Choose one of the roles. Step 1 (statement): You are a representative of Chemicals International. Write a statement which you are going to deliver at a press conference. The purpose of the statement is to announce the company's decision not to take immediate steps to reduce pollution of the environment. Try to convince the audience.
Step 2 (newspaper article): You are one of the

8. Comprehension
Economics vs. Ecology: Problems with Solutions to Pollution
1. What are the effects of the air pollution caused by International Nickel? 2. Americans have a special liking for the "quick fix." What examples does the author use to explain the meaning of this way of solving problems? 3. Name the principles of American business that get in the way of any substantial progress in environmental improvements. 4. The average citizen acknowledges the necessity of an effective protection of the environment. Why, then, does he/she not always advocate reasonable solutions to ecological problems? 5. What can the private consumer do to reduce the air pollution caused by his/her car? 6. How do the different methods of cleaning wastes applied by Wisconsin and Iowa reveal the conflict between economics and ecology?

reporters attending the news conference of Chemicals Internationa!. Take notes on the business manager's statement and write an article for your newspaper. Step 3 (letter to the editor): You have read the article about the commercial views of Chemicals International on ecological problems. As an active environmentalist you do not agree. Write a letter to the editor.

5 The Urbanization

of America

PART A
NEW YORK

Background Information
The first glimpse of American city life for the 12 million foreigners who arrived in New York harbor during the wave of European immigration between 1892 and 1924 was New York City. The first destination of many tourists to the United States today is the "gateway to America." What one sees in New York City is in many ways the best and worst of American cities. Many would agree with contemporary American novelist Saul Bellow, who observed that "what is barely hinted at in other American cities is condensed and enlarged in New York." All large cities, not only in the United States but all over the world share many of New York's desirable and undesirable qualities. On the one hand, New York is a focus of culture and power. New York's attractions include spectacular sky-scrapers, Broadway theaters, outstanding museums, and posh department stores. The city houses the national centers of finance, insurance, advertising, and communications. On the other hand, New York is a city of poverty and deterioration. Acres of neglected tenements and failing business establishments betray the city's social and economic troubles. As America's largest city, with a population of 7 million people of various ethnic groups, New York is plagued by interracial conflicts, slums, and financial difficulties. New York is sometimes called "the melting pot that didn't melt." New York's ethnic groups generally do not intermix. It is easy to point out black, Italian, Jewish, Chinese, Puerto Rican, Polish, and other ethnic neighborhoods. Even the city's Swedes and Norwegians live in separate neighborhoods. Tensions surface when members of one ethnic group begin to challenge another group for housing, jobs, and power. Some friction has arisen between blacks and other city ethnic groups that have tended to be concentrated in certain occupations. Historically, New York City policemen have been predominantly Irish and garbage collectors have been mostly Italian. Each of these groups has resisted attempts by blacks to move into these occupations. A well-known problem in New York City is its slums. In many sections of Brooklyn and the Bronx, one can see demolished buildings, littered lots, and abandoned structures. Problems such as high crime rates, deteriorating schools Bellow, Saul: born 1915, American novelist, author of Herzog, Mr Sammler's Planet and
Humboldt's Gift.

82 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

GROWTH OF CITIES

SUBURBANIZATION

and public services, and poverty require costly solutions. New York City has suffered serious financial problems. In the mid-1970s the city came near bankruptcy and was forced to appeal to the federal government for loan assistance. Financial problems have recently been worsened by the flight of many businesses and industries from the city to the suburbs. Many of New York City's problems are not unique, but are shared by most large cities at this stage in the urbanization process. A look at present-day New York gives the reader an orientation point for a wider view of American urbanization. Today most Americans live in urban areas. This high concentration of the population in cities was not always the case in America. In the 1780s most Americans lived in rural areas; only 10 percent lived in cities. Throughout the period of industrialization and immigration in the nineteenth century, cities grew rapidly so that by 1920, 50 percent of the population were city dwellers. Urbanization has continued in the twentieth century. By 1980, America's metropolitan areas claimed 80 percent of the population. America's transition from a rural to an urban nation brought on new problems for cities. At the beginning of the 1800s, American cities did not experience the social problems resulting from overcrowding which were characteristic of European cities at that time. Within a few decades, however, rapid urban population growth gave American cities the same unpleasant qualities associated with the world's older cities. Social services such as sanitation, housing, and public education were inadequate, and facilities for sewage treatment and garbage collection were archaic or nonexistent. One temporary solution for clearing the garbage-filled streets of large cities was to let pigs roam the streets as scavengers. Gradually, conditions in large cities improved. By 1920 most cities had public health facilities, housing quality laws, and more adequate public schools. Even as the United States has become increasingly urbanized, countercurrents of hostility have run strong. The corrupting influence of cities contrasted with the wholesomeness of rural life has been a common theme in American literature and philosophy. Yet urbanization is an inescapable fact of modern life. People are drawn by the promise of economic gain or cultural advantages that cities offer. At the same time, however, Americans have traditionally yearned for a separate piece of land, closeness to nature, and freedom from restrictions imposed by living too close to others. One rather recent trend which reconciles the ambivalence Americans have felt towards their cities is suburbanization. In the suburbs, the less heavily populated areas at the edge of the city, both the spaciousness of rural life and the bustling activity of urban life are available. Since the mid-1960s many central cities have experienced a decrease in population, while the suburbs have continued to expand as a result of America's increasing prosperity and desire for cleaner air, more space, and a private house and yard. Of the 80 percent of Americans who live in urban and metropolitan areas, about two-thirds now live in suburbs. Suburbs are regarded as part of a city's structure. As suburban rings spread farther and farther out, metropolitan areas, in the past ten or twenty years, have become enormous. The metropolitan areas of each of the country's six largest cities, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Houston, and Detroit, have populations of over a million. Many metropolitan areas have become so large that they have begun to merge into other metropolitan areas, forming a megalopolis, which

THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 83

THE TRANSPORT FACTOR

DETERIORATION AND ABANDONMENT

SLUM CLEARANCE

GENTRIFICATION

is the term used to describe the urban network that results from such expansion. One megalopolis extends along the Atlantic coast from Boston through New York to Washington, D.C. It is estimated that by the year 2000, 80 percent of Americans will live in 28 or so of these megalopolises. The first outward spread of cities away from the center, a movement antecedent to suburbanization, was made possible in the 1890s with the development of better public transportation. Electric trolley lines and trains allowed wealthy and middle-class city dwellers to move out from the city at a commutable distance from work. As the middle class moved away from the working class, the wealthier moved even farther into the countryside. Thus, the possibility of commuting allowed urban areas to spread outwards and provided for a rough stratification along class lines. The change which directly precipitated the emergence of suburbs was the popularization of the private car. In the baby boom of the 1950s, when cities were scarcely able to cope with the demand for family housing, the wealthy and middle class, now car owners independent of public transportation, were able to move still farther out of crowded cities to find a suitable home with a private yard. In the 1950s and early 1960s, the building industry responded to the demand by developing residential areas which characteristically were comprised of neat, quickly constructed, look-alike houses set on unfenced lots. Today, the typical suburban home, the symbol of middle-class security, is comfortably equipped with at least two bathrooms, a den, and a separate bedroom for every child. Not only have families been attracted to the suburbs, but businesses have also discovered the advantages of a suburban location. Lower taxes and the growing labor pool there have prompted many retail stores, corporate centers, and other firms to move from downtown to the suburbs. A direct consequence of the suburbanization of American cities has been the depletion of the central cities' financial resources, a condition which has led to a new problem: deterioration and abandonment of city centers. With suburbanization, city centers were regarded as the least desirable areas in which to live. Houses and apartments were poorly maintained and allowed to deteriorate to such a state that many residential areas have been abandoned. The inner city slums, where rent for shabby buildings was cheaper, were then populated by those who could not afford to move out: the uneducated and unskilled. In addition, there was an influx after 1945 of many newcomers to the city, mostly blacks and Hispanics, whose livelihood had been lost through mechanization of farms. With the increase of relatively unskilled poor people, for whom employment was not readily available, social problems such as crime and slums were exacerbated. In the past two decades, nevertheless, attempts have been made to improve cities. One approach, which was practiced in the 1960s, was the systematic clearance of slums and the construction of modern high-rise social housing units in their place. Between 1949 and 1968, 425,000 housing units for poor people were torn down in the belief that social problems could be erased by starting from scratch. This response failed to take into account the human elementthe feelings of displacement and alienation which these underprivileged families suffered at having to abandon their neighborhoods. Another more recent response to the problems of cities has been preservationist in nature. Rather than razing whole neighborhoods, many people are restoring and renovating. Washington's Georgetown, Boston's Beacon Hill,

84 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

THE NEW DOWNTOWN

and Philadelphia's Society Hill are areas which, protected from demolition, have recently been restored as charming townhouse residences for the well-todo. The interest in restoration has extended even to old warehouses where studio lofts are becoming trendy residences for artists and young professional singles. This private-sector restoration of dilapidated housing is known as gentrification. For many people, gentrification, and thus the return of the middle class to the cities, represents real progress in the urban center's struggle to bolster its impoverished rax base. Some cities have experienced not only cosmetic renewal but overall economic and social rejuvenation. However, viewing gentrification from the perspective of the poor, who are displaced by the transformation of low-rent housing into luxury apartments, leaves some of urban renewal's more difficult questions unanswered. Another recent strategy for renewal has been targeted at the downtown the term which has come to refer to the central business district where banks and stores are located, as opposed to the inner city which connotes troubled, crime-ridden residential areas. Private sector groups, including architects, bankers, and retailers, have been active in redeveloping downtown areas. Many of the new downtowns are modeled after Atlanta's Peachtree Center, a spacious, elaborately decorated plaza complex containing retail stores, res-

Modern office building in central San Francisco

THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 85

taurants, and cultural attractions such as art exhibits. Other downtown programs feature main-street malls, skywalks, and dial-a-bus systems, all designed to give office workers a reason to stay downtown. During the past two decades, cities such as New York, Boston, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco have succeeded in rebuilding and renovating large tracts of the central city area, thus once again attracting businesses and more affluent groups. In recent years, downtown areas undoubtedly have become more livable, more people-oriented, and more aesthetically interesting. Where ten years ago it was virtually impossible in many cities to get around without a car, today many cities offer pedestrian zones and improved mass transit systems, making car ownership optional rather than mandatory. Although the inner cities' social problems of poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, and crime are not adequately addressed by this focus on business districts, the new interest in preserving the nation's downtowns provides hope for many cities as they compete with the suburbs for tax bases and federal assistance. GROWTH OF SMALL The recent urban renewal programs have been successful in stimulating TOWNS population growth in at least some major cities. Yet since the 1960s and 70s, many cities have been experiencing a continual decline in population. Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Cleveland were among those cities with the greatest population losses between 1970 and 1980. Not all of those who are leaving the city are settling in the suburbs. According to the 1980 census, small towns have been experiencing heavy population growth. Rural population growth in the 1970s was the greatest since the 1870s. Between 1970 and 1980, it grew by over 11 percent. Public opinion polls consistently show that most Americans would rather live in small towns or rural areas if they could. What accounts for the fact that so many Americans are now fulfilling this dream? New employment opportunities have opened up, especially in small southern towns, as light industries move to these less expensive, warmer locations. In addition, the improved network of highways gives smaller communities better access to supplies and markets. What many of these city people hope to find by escaping to small communities is the fulfillment of their wistful longings for friendly neighbors and a slower pace of life. While most newcomers find that small towns do provide the more congenial atmosphere they sought, small town life is far from idyllic. They are discovering that America's small towns are beset by the same problems that affect cities, except on a smaller scale. Like cities, many small towns suffer from high unemployment rates, tight budgets, housing shortages, and even "downtown decay." Poverty exists in most small towns. Many of these conditions occur because rural America is no longer economically or culturally isolated from the rest of America. Although the movement to small communities may at first seem like the beginning of a deurbanization of America, what is actually happening is that the countryside is becoming more urbanized. Since the Second World War, when roads and communication lines permanently linked country to city, rural America has been modernizing at such a rate that the gap between rural and urban is closing. The present attraction to small towns represents not a ruralization trend, but the continued suburbanization of an already quite suburbanized America.

86

PART

Texts

SMALL-TOWN LIFE
We were sitting around a fireplace filled with greenery - Edward Runden and his wife, Linda, and I - drinking sherry and smelling the good smell of something roasting in the kitchen. Runden is forty years old, with an eager, boyish look and an inconspicuous mustache, and he teaches history at Corydon Central High School. Mrs. Runden, a vivid young woman with a fall of thick, dark hair, is also a teacher. She teaches behavioral science twice a week in a family-practice residency program at the University of Louisville Medical School. "Oh, sure," Runden was saying. "Randy West and I have a lot of things in common. For one thing, we both married local girls. Linda was a Keller. Her Cousin Bill runs the furniture factory." Mrs. Runden smiled across the lip of her glass. "I'm also related to Art Funk," she said. "And to Fred Griffin's wife. And Bob O'Bannon. And Rosamond Sample." "She's probably even some kin to Marydee West," Runden said. "Another thing about Randy and me - his first job when he came to Corydon was teaching at the high school." He took a sip of sherry. "And I used to be a newspaperman myself. That's how Linda and I met. That was in Chicago, at one of those demonstrations. Linda was demonstrating, and I was covering it for the Associated Press. I started out on a paper in Elgin, Illinois, and then I went with U.P.I, in Chicago, and then I tried the Foreign Service, in Iran, in Teheran, until our deadly foreign policy made me sick. I was glad to come back to Chicago. That's when I started working for the A.P. But by the time Linda and I got married we were both getting tired of city life the ugliness, the squalor, the misery. So we got to thinking about Corydon. We subscribed to the Democrat a terrific paper, by the way to try to get the feel of the place. And, one way and another, we liked the feel we got." "I liked the idea of connectedness," Mrs. Runden said. "And, I guess, the roots. My great-grandfather came here from Germany in eighteen forty-six. He arrived in New York, and the first person he met who spoke German was a black freedman, who was on his way west - on foot. My great-grandfather walked along with him and ended up in Harrison County. I think I miss big-city life more than Ed does. I seem to need people more. And then there's the conservatism here. Corydon must be one of the last places on earth where people in real need are too proud, too ashamed, to go on welfare. And you can imagine their position on something like abortion. Still, when I remember Chicago . . . " "Small-town life has its drawbacks," Runden said. "There is a certain lack of privacy, although people are aware of that and make an effort to keep their distance, to not be nosy. But lack of privacy doesn't bother me. It might if I had a Swiss bank account, or if I was into some kind of kinky sex. But I just don't have that much to hide. I think the good side of small-town life far outweighs the bad. If you have trouble with your dry cleaner in Chicago, he couldn't care less what you think or do. It's different here. You can't be ripped off. A person's reputation matters. And so does the individual. He can still influence the course of events. Corydon's still on a human scale. There's a sense of the seasons. There's a closeness to the basics. It's something to be able to hear a rooster crow these days. I think more and more people are coming to realize that. I think Linda and I are part of something interesting. We're in the first wave of people of our age and position who are moving away from the city and not to the suburbs. Moving to the small town. To Corydon."

Associated Press: the oldest of the American press agencies, started in 1848. Associated Press (A. P.) and United Press International are the two largest American press agencies. U.P.I.: United Press International, American press agency, formed in 1958. freedman: man who has been freed from slavery, an emancipated slave.

THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 87

REVIVAL OF A CITY'S VIRTUES


Why a young single woman moves to the city
by Mildred Norman-Risch
Last fall I spent a weekend visiting my friend Susan m Richmond, Virginia. One purpose of my visit was to get away from the small town where I had been living and enjoy the motion and activity of a bigger city. Furthermore, I was looking forward to seeing Susan's new apartment, which I had already heard so much about. Four months earlier, Susan and another girl had moved into the second floor of a two-story brick house in a part of the city known as "the Fan." This section gets its name because the streets here radiate from a central point in the city forming a fan shape. The main business district, the tall, 25-story buildings, the grand, old southern hotels, and hundreds of stores and parking garages, all of which designate "downtown," are only a few blocks away from Susan's apartment. From the outside, Susan's house was what I can only describe as neat and yellow. Yellow shutters at the windows, a solid yellow front porch, brightened with geranium blooms, and a heavy colonial style door with a brass eagle knocker. I was somewhat surprised. Perhaps I had expected to see some chipped paint, a sagging front porch, or some feature of the picture I had had of inner-city houses. Susan met me at the door and proudly asked, "Well, how do you like it? I'm dying to show you the inside!" We went up the stairs to her place. What caught my attention were the beautiful wooden floors.

Renovated houses in "the Fan'[, Richmond, Virginia

How long had it been since I was in a and we've learned to take off our house that had no carpeting? How many wooden clogs as soon as we come modern houses and apartments are even in," Susan laughed, "Besides, it's a lot built with hardwood floors? "Ann and I cheaper than buying carpeting. We really like the floors. We've gotten used really didn't have much money when to walking softly, we moved in here."

AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

The large room was in fact sparsely furnished a big oak table, a red leather chair, a small table and some bookshelves. A large fireplace, already stacked with wood, and ready for use, dominated the living room. Next I was shown the bathroom, which included an antique bathtub complete with four little feet, two bedrooms, both of which had large windows, and the kitchen, which was large enough for a breakfast table. We talked about how she and Ann had made the decision to move here to the Fan. I was curious about the neighborhood. Many mner-city residential areas are predominantly black, and very often there are tensions between whites and blacks. "We haven't had any bad experiences, if you mean trouble between blacks and whites. Before we moved here, our parents and some of our friends tried to persuade us into moving into a modern apartment complex, which they considered "safer"; they warned us against moving to the Fan, where crime is supposedly a problem. "I think many people have a totally false impression of city life, and what it's like to live here in the Fan. We don't take any more precautions against theft or rape than our girlfriends who live farther away from the city. Sure, every day you can pick up the newspaper and read about a robbery or a mugging; it happens. And there are a few streets in the Fan that I absolutely avoid. But I think many people exaggerate the dangers and carry in their minds the delusion that life in the city is a constant fight for survival and selfdefense. It's certainly not my experience. Some people think that if you live in the city, all you have to do is

2. continued

look out your window and you can see live scenes from Kojak and other crime shows passing before your very eyes; risk, danger, violence. "I find another kind of challenge living here in the Fan: the challenge of restoring the neighborhood, for example. And there's adventure in discovering the little cafes and shops that only real city people know about. The people here in the city are so interesting to watch and to talk to. This is why I moved to the Fan." Susan told me about her neighborhood. The Fan is one of the many city neighborhoods which follows the recent trends in urban community renewal. As Susan put it, the Fan is one of those places that's "on its way up and in." The neighborhood has in recent years taken on a new identity and has become a popular area for students. For one thing, the university is located right in the Fan, and so the row houses have attracted students because of their convenience. Many landlords invested money renovating the houses so that they could accommodate the students' demand for housing and also meet the student's expectations. With the influx of students, the Fan is experiencing a changing identity. What was the neighborhood like many years ago? Quite different, Susan told me. This area near downtown had followed the pattern of many neighborhoods in cities, typical not only of Richmond, but other cities as well. In the 1880s, when many houses in the Fan were built, the property was expensive, and most of the people living in the area were people with money. At that time, this residential area was not so near the city. Richmond was much smaller then. But as the businesses expanded, the city spread out until it

met the Fan. Many of the residents joined the middle-class exodus from the city to the suburbs, where distance from the city was seen as more desirable. The property in the Fan, being therefore less desirable, went down in price. Throughout the years the population of the Fan community shifted to a greater percentage of black residents, most of whom rented the houses from former or other owners. The houses by this time had become run-down. Paint was peeling, porches were sagging, windows were broken. Generally, these lower-income families couldn't afford to make repairs, and the landlords didn't take the responsibility to keep up the quality of the houses. The investment wouldn't have paid off, in their short-sighted point of view. The neighborhood acquired another reputation by this time. Crime, segregation, and dilapidation were some of the new features. However, in the last twenty years, the composition and character of the neighborhood has started to change again. Besides the Fan's students, who come and go, lots of people are moving to the Fan to stay. These newcomers are often young professionals who take advantage of government programs that give tax breaks to anyone who buys and renovates an old house in this area. It's becoming trendy among young professionals not just to live in the city but to live in city townhouses they've renovated to suit their personal style. This fad has brought new life and charm to the Fan. Susan remarked that what she liked about the neighborhood was that it seemed "both old and new at the same time." That phrase captured my impression of Susan and Ann's renovated apartment, too.

Kojak: name of detective and police drama TV series.

THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 89

Beneatha goes to the door and opens it as Walter and Ruth go on with the clowning. Beneatha is somewhat surprised to see a quiet-looking middle-aged white man in a business suit holding his hat and a briefcase in his hand and consulting a small piece of paper.
LINDNER Uh

RUTH (Innocently) Some coffee? LINDNER Thank you, nothing at all. LINDNER

how do you do, miss. I am looking for a Mrs. (he looks at the slip of paper) Mrs. Lena Younger? BENEATHA (Smoothing her hair with slight embarrassment) Oh yes, that's my mother. Excuse me (She closes the door and turns to quiet the other two) Ruth! Brother! Somebody's here. (Then she opens the door.) (The man casts a curious quick glance at all of them.) Uh come in please. LINDNER (Coming in) Thank you. BENEATHA My mother isn't here just now. Is it business? LINDNER Yes . .. well, of a sort. WALTER (Freely, the Man of the House) Have a seat. I'm Mrs. Younger's son. I look after most of her business matters. (Ruth and Beneatha exchange amused glances) LINDNER (Regarding Walter, and sitting) Well my name is Karl Lindner . .. WALTER (Stretching out his hand) Walter Younger. This is my wife (Ruth nods politely) and my sister.
LINDNER HOW do yOU do. WALTER (Amiably, as he sits

himself easily on a chair, leaning with interest forward on his knees and looking expectantly into the newcomer's face) What can we do for you, Mr. Lindner? LINDNER (Some minor shuffling of the hat and briefcase on his knees) Well I am a representative of the Clybourne Park Improvement Association WALTER (Pointing) Why don't you set your things on the floor? LINDNER Oh yes. Thank you. (He slides the briefcase and hat under the chair) And as I was saying - I am from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association and we have had it brought to our attention at the last meeting that you people - or at least your mother has bought a piece of residential property at - (he digs for the slip of paper again) four six Clybourne street ... WALTER That's right. Care for something to drink? Ruth, get Mr. Lindner a beer. LINDNER (Upset for some reason) Oh - no, really. I mean thank you very much, but no thank you.

(Beneatha is watching the man carefully) Well, I don't know how much you folks know about our organization. (He is a gentle man; thoughtful and somewhat labored in his manner) It is one of these community organizations set up to look after - oh, you know, things like block upkeep and special projects and we also have what we call our New Neighbors' Orientation Committee . .. BENEATHA (Drily) Yes and what do they do? LINDNER (Turning a little to her and then returning the main force to Walter) Well it's what you might call a sort of welcoming committee, I guess. I mean they, we, I'm the chairman of the committee, go around and see the new people who move into the neighborhood and sort of give them the lowdown on the way we do things out in Clybourne Park. BENEATHA (With appreciation of the two meanings, which escape Ruth and Walter) Uh-huh. LINDNER And we also have the category of what the association calls - (He looks elsewhere) - uh - special community problems .. . BENEATHA Yes and what are some of those? WALTER Girl, let the man talk. LINDNER (With understated relief) Thank you. I would sort of like to explain this thing in my own way. I mean I want to explain to you in a certain way. WALTER Go ahead. LINDNER Yes. Well. I'm going to try to get right to the point. I'm sure we'll all appreciate that in the long run.
BENEATHA LINDNER YeS. Well

WALTER Be still now!

(Still innocently) Would you like another chair you don't look comfortable. LINDNER (More frustrated than annoyed) No, thank you very much. Please. Well - to get right to the point I (A great breath, and he is off at last) I am sure you people must be aware of some of the incidents which have happened in various parts of the city when colored people have moved into certain areas (Beneatha exhales heavily and starts tossing a piece of fruit up and down in the air) Well - because we have what I think is going to be a unique type of organization in American community life not only do we deplore that kind of thing - but we are trying to do something about it.
RUTH

90 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

3. continued

(Beneatha stops tossing and turns with a new and quuizzical interest to the man) We feel (gaining confidence in his mission because of the interest in the faces of the people he is talking to) we feel that most of the trouble in this world, when you come right down to it (He hits his knee for emphasis) - most of the trouble exists because people just don't sit down and talk to each other. RUTH (Nodding as she might in church, pleased with the remark) You can say that again, mister. LINDNER (More encouraged by such affirmation) That we don't try hard enough in this world to understand the other fellow's problem. The other guy's point of view. RUTH Now that's right. (Beneatha and Walter merely watch and listen with genuine interest) LINDNER Yes that's the way we feel out in Clybourne Park. And that's why I was elected to come here this afternoon and talk to you people. Friendly like, you know, the way people should talk to each other and see if we couldn't find some way to work this thing out. As I say, the whole business is a matter of caring about the other fellow. Anybody can see that you are a nice family of folks, hard working and honest I'm sure. (Beneatha frowns slightly, quizzically, her head tilted regarding him) Today everybody knows what it means to be on the outside of something. And of course, there is always somebody who is out to take the advantage of people who don't always understand. WALTER What do you mean? LINDNER Well you see our community is made up of people who've worked hard as the dickens for years to build up that little community. They're not rich and fancy people; just hardworking, honest people who don't really have much but those little homes and a dream of the kind of community they want to raise their children in. Now, I don't say we are perfect and there is a lot wrong in some of the things they want. But you've got to admit that a man, right or wrong, has the right to want to have the neighborhood he lives in a certain kind of way. And at the moment the overwhelming majority of our people out there feel that people get along better, take more of a common interest in the life of the community, when they share a common background. I want you to believe me when I tell you that race prejudice simply doesn't enter into it. It is a matter of the people of Clybourne Park believing, rightly or wrongly, as I say, that for the happiness of all concerned our Negro families are happier when From A Raism in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry Hansberry, Lorraine: 193065, black American playwright.

they live in their own communities. BENEATHA (With a grand and bitter gesture) This, friends, is the Welcoming Committee! WALTER (Dumbfounded, looking at Lindner) Is this what you came marching all the way over here to tell us? LINDNER Well, now we've been having a fine conversation. I hope you'll hear me all the way through. WALTER (Tightly) Go ahead, man. LINDNER You see in the face of all the things I have said, we are prepared to make your family a very generous offer ... BENEATHA Thirty pieces and not a coin less! WALTER Yeah? LINDNER (Putting on his glasses and drawing a form out of the briefcase) Our association is prepared, through the collective effort of our people, to buy the house from you at a financial gain to your family. RUTH Lord have mercy, ain't this the living gall? WALTER All right, you through? LINDNER Well, I want to give you the exact terms of the financial arrangement WALTER We don't want to hear no exact terms of no arrangements, I want to know if you got more to tell us 'bout getting together? LINDNER (Taking off his glasses) Well I don't suppose that you feel ... WALTER Never mind how I feel you got any more to say 'bout how people ought to sit down and talk to each other? ... Get out of my house, man. (He turns his back and walks to the door) LINDNER (Looking around at the hostile faces and reaching and assembling his hat and briefcase) Well I don't understand why you people are reacting this way. What do you think you are going to gain by moving into a neighborhood where you just aren't wanted and where some elements well - people can get awful worked up when they feel that their whole way of life and everything they've ever worked for is threatened. WALTER Get out. LINDNER (At the door, holding a small card) Well I'm sorry it went like this.
WALTER Get OUt.

LINDNER (Almost

sadly regarding Walter) You just can't force people to change their hearts, son. (He turns and puts his card on a table and exits. Walter pushes the door to do with stinging hatred, and stands looking at it. Ruth just sits and Beneatha just stands. They say nothing. Mama and Travis enter)

THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 91

CRISIS IN NEW YORK


By Andrew Stein

CHILDREN OF POVERTY
Imagine the Mayor of New York calling an urgent news conference to announce that the crisis of the city's poor children had reached such proportions that he was mobilizing the city's talents for a massive rescue effort not unlike the one that saved us from bankruptcy 10 years ago. I believe some such drastic action is warranted, even essential, because our city is threatened by the spreading blight of a poverty even crueler in some ways than that of the Great Depression half a century ago. Almost 40 percent of our children 700,000 boys and girls now live in families with incomes below the poverty line. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan has estimated that half of the babies born in the city in 1980 can be expected to be on our welfare rolls before they reach the age of 18. Social critics, including Mr. Moynihan, have been telling a tale of two cities to describe the kind of community New York has become: while the city enjoys prosperity, the "new" poverty goes unchecked. The richest Congressional district in the nation shares a boundary with one of the poorest. And it was precisely during the last two banner years of economic growth and enhanced city budgets that the child poverty rate accelerated dramatically. Today's children of poverty are suffering in ways that would have dumbfounded those who knew the Great Depression: an estimated

Harlem, New York. The landlord has still not mended the window a year after it fell out. The stove is kept on all day to provide heat for the house.

92 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

3,000 babies born addicted to drugs every year, 10,000 children living in shelters and hotels for the homeless, 12,000 children who were abused or neglected so severely last year that they had to be removed from their homes and placed in foster care. All too many poor children in New York are denied dignity even in death, according to a recent report by the Coalition for the Homeless. The report revealed that almost half of the infants under the age of 1 who died in the city between 1981 and 1984 were buried in potter's field in unmarked graves that their families thus could not visit. All this poses a practical as well as a moral issue for the city, for the way we deal with the problem will determine the quality of life for all of us in the future. There is no question that the problem is enormously difficult, but it is not yet hopeless. Many sensible steps can be taken to attack the situation, including the appointment of one person a "czar" if you will to oversee all agencies that serve children, efforts to engage the private sector, revamping of the workloads of caseworkers and the increasing involvement of the school system. There are others as well. . . . To understand what is happening

4. continued

in the city we must return to poverty and its related disorders family disintegration and teenage pregnancy. The likelihood of a child's growing up poor is four times as great if he is born into a household headed by a woman rather than a traditional two-parent home. And it is even more likely if the mother is a teenager. New York City has been massively afflicted by this "feminization of poverty." Though the city's population declined 11 percent between 1970 and 1980, the number of people living in female-headed families rose by almost 30 percent. The city's welfare rolls now consist mainly of minority-group women and children. Demographic projections suggest that this most vulnerable group will continue to grow as a percentage of the population at least through the next decade. The most potentially destructive of these trends is the epidemic of teenage pregnancy. Although the total number of teen pregnancies in the city has decreased in the last decade (as a result of a decline in the teenage population) pregnancies among 15- to 19-year-old females went up from 12.3 percent to 13.1 percent between 1975 and 1984. The

city's Adolescent Pregnancy Interagency Council has projected that if the present rates remain constant, 1 out of 4 girls 14 years old today will be pregnant at least once before her 18th birthday; 1 out of 8 will have had at least 1 abortion before reaching 18; and nearly 1 out of 11 will be a mother before she is 18. .. . What we are experiencing throughout the country, but most particularly in major urban areas such as New York, is the result of an unprecedented reversal of fortunes among our age groups. Historically, poverty had always struck hardest at the elderly, because they were most likely to be infirm, without work or without income. That held true until the mid-1970s. Then a disproportionate number of children began to be poor, a phenomenon exclusive to the United States among the industrialized nations. .. . Alone, the city can't eliminate poverty among children; it can't put back together families that fall apart, or are never formed, because of that poverty. But if we move the problems of poor children to the top of our agenda, we can find the means to intervene and save many from utterly shattered lives. In saving them, we would be saving ourselves.

Great Depression: See page 73. Moynihan, Patrick: born 1927, U.S. senator. Congressional District: a district within a state electing one member to the national House of Representatives. potter's field: a place for the burial of poor and unknown persons, cf. Matthew 27:7.

THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 93

A NEW CITY

till synonymous in many minds with steel, Pittsburgh is not waiting for the resurrection of Smokestack America. The metropolis of blast furnaces and belching smokestacks is dead. In its place has risen a new city, smaller (estimated population: 410,000, down from 677,000 m 1950), cleaner, more modern in its architecture and confident m its future m effect a prototype of the postmdustrial metropolis. The transition from a manufacturing to a service economy began way back during World War II, when 100 prominent citizens joined to spearhead an office building boom in the 1950s and 1960s that transformed the city's downtown near the spot where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers meet to form the Ohio - into what they named the Golden Triangle. That renaissance gave rise five years ago to a second one. While the steel industry was losing a great deal of money, seven major buildings went up downtown, including a $35million convention center and noted architect Philip Johnson's spectacular headquarters for PPG Industries (formerly Pittsburgh Plate Glass). Universities and hospitals attracted companies in computer science, robotics and other advanced technologies. Since 1978 an estimated 15,000 high-tech and 30,000 service jobs have been created, more than making up for the decline in steel-workers from 79,000 in 1980 to 42,000 in 1983. Third only to New York and Chicago as a headquarters city for major companies, Pittsburgh is completing a new subway system and boasts a symphony that

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A city with a new image

plays to packed houses. Even the city's football and baseball teams have the spirit: they have won more championships in the last six years than their counterparts in any other American city. from Fortune Magazine

94

PART C Exercises
1. Comprehension
Small-Town Life
Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the original text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. 1. The Rundens moved to Corydon because a) Linda was born there. b) Ed had been offered a job at the local newspaper. c) they had been attracted by the reports in the local newspaper. 2. Professionally, Edward Runden a) had always wanted to become a teacher. b) used to work as a correspondent for different press agencies. c) failed to make a career in the Foreign Service. 3. Ed Runden met Linda in Chicago when a) he reported on a demonstration for a news agency. b) he protected her from demonstrators. c) she took part in a demonstration. 4. Ed Runden left the Foreign Service because a) they sent all newspapermen back to Chicago. b) he tried in vain to get to Teheran. c) he did not agree with the U.S. foreign policy. 5. When comparing small-town life and life in the big cities a) both Ed and Linda were equally glad to have left big city life. b) Ed is happier about small-town life than Linda. c) Linda is happier about small-town life than Ed. 6. Linda Runden likes living in Corydon because a) everybody knows and is involved with everybody else. b) the people there are very conservative. c) she hates the crowds in big cities. 7. According to Ed Runden, one of the disadvantages of small-town life is, for example, that a) private life is rather restricted. b) people look at each other from a distance. c) he does not want other people to know about his Swiss bank account. 8. In Ed's opinion, however, the advantages of small-town life outweigh the disadvantages because a) there is not so much theft in small communities. b) people take less interest in their neighbors' affairs. c) the individual plays a more important role than in the big cities.

2. Text Reproduction Revival of a City's Virtues


The diagram below renders the structure and organization of the article, which falls into three parts: The visit Life in the city The development of inner city neighborhoods On the basis of the diagram, use your own words to reconstruct the argument and organization of this text.

purpose of the visit

the outside of the house

the inside of the house

THE URBANIZATION OF AMERICA 95

racial problems in inner city neighborhoods

3. Where would you prefer to live, in a small town or in a big city a) in America? b) in your own country? Give reasons.

4. Text Analysis
first experience of living in an inner city neighborhood

Neighborhoods
1. Summarize the contents of this scene in no more than three sentences. 2. What is the purpose of Karl Lindner's visit? 3. How does he try to achieve his aim? Point out the elements of the plan he has obviously worked out before. 4. What are the Youngers' reactions to Lindner's remarks in the different stages of the conversation? Why does the conversation inevitably lead to a crisis? 5. Show how Karl Lindner and the Youngers are characterized through conversation and gestures. 6. What central issue about life in an urban community in the United States does the author want to illustrate in this scene?

frequent misconceptions of city life

attractiveness of city life

the original neighborhood 60 or 70 years ago

change of the social structure of the community

5. Comprehension Check
Children of Poverty
Determine whether the statements are true or false according to the information given in the text. Correct the false statements. 1. The crisis of New York's poor children is as urgent as the financial crisis of the city ten years ago. 2. The poverty crisis equals that of the Great Depression in the 1930s. 3. According to Senator Moynihan 50 percent of the babies born in 1980 will depend on welfare before they reach the age of 18. 4. In spite of the recent economic growth, city budgets have decreased. 5. Increasing prosperity has led to less child poverty. 6. 12,000 children were abused and neglected in foster care. 7. Many of the infants who die before their first birthday are not even properly buried.

deterioration of the neighborhood

recent renewal of neighborhoods

the diversity of neighborhoods

3. Discussion
1. List and discuss the arguments for and against small town or city life mentioned in the texts "Small-Town Life" and "Revival of a City's Virtues." 2. Is there a similar difference between small town life and city life in your country?

96 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

8. Neither through more joint efforts nor through improved coordination of both the public and the private sector can the problem be tackled. 9. There are four times as many children growing up in female-headed households as in traditional two-parent families. 10. There were 30 percent more female-headed families in 1980 than in 1970. 11. Between 1975 and 1985 the number of teenage pregnancies has decreased. 12. Of all age groups in urban areas in the United States, the elderly are struck hardest nowadays.

transformed the city's downtown. While the steel industry was losing a great deal of money, seven major buildings were constructed downtown, including a $35-million "fr tV and noted architect Philip Johnson's spectacular & for PPG Industries. Universities and hospitals attracted companies in ^ "fc , ~fe and other advanced technologies.

7. Guided Letter Writing


Write a letter to the editor of Fortune magazine in which you: give a positive evaluation of the renaissance of Pittsburgh as described in the article ask whether the text and the photo show the whole truth about Pittsburgh state that the gap between the rich and the poor has widened in recent years demand that the mayor and the city council take stern measures against the growth of poverty among children warn them not to underestimate the problem, which could lead to serious social unrest and irreparable harm to the whole community.

6. Cloze Comprehension Test PittsburghA New City


Test your memory. First read the text thoroughly. Then try to remember those words which describe the old and the new city. Still synonymous in many minds with & , Pittsburgh is not waiting for the resurrection of Smokestack America. The metropolis of blast ft and belching & is dead. In its place has risen a new city, -r , "& , tV in its architecture and confident in its futurein effect a prototype of the *fc metropolis. The transition from a manufacturing to a "& " began way back during World War II, when 100 prominent citizens joined to spearhead an w "fr boom in the 1950s and 1960s that

8. Interpretation of Photos
Describe and interpret the pictures on this page and page 91 under the heading "A Tale of Two Cities."

Law, Crime, and Justice


PART A Background Information
CRIME AND JUSTICE

CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS

JUDICIAL BRANCH

STATE COURTS

Issues of crime and justice have always held Americans' attention. Americans are accustomed to bringing their claims for justice to the courts. There are few countries where so many people treat the law as part of their everyday lives. Local, state, and federal courts handle approximately 12 million cases a year. The sheer number of Americans employed in the legal profession is overwhelming; there is one lawyer for every 440 Americans, whereas in Japan there is one lawyer for every 10,000 people. The number of lawyers practicing in the Washington, D.C. area alone almost equals the 40,000 lawyers in all of West Germany. Americans' claims for justice rest on the provisions of the United States Constitution. Most of the rights and freedoms that Americans enjoy are guaranteed in the first ten amendments or "Bill of Rights" of the Constitution. Among the guarantees are freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom to assemble in public. Citizens have the right to be judged in a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury. If someone feels that these or other legal rights have been violated, he or she may bring the case to court. The Constitution, written in 1787, established a separate judicial branch of government which operates independently alongside the executive and legislative branches. Within the judicial branch, authority is divided between state and federal (national) courts. At the head of the judicial branch is the Supreme Court, the final interpreter of the Constitution. The Constitution recognizes that the states have certain rights and authorities beyond the power of the federal government. States have the power to establish their own systems of criminal and civil laws, with the result that each state has its own laws, prisons, police force, and state court. Within each state, there are also county and city courts. Generally, state laws are quite similar, but in some areas there is great diversity. The minimum age for marriage and the sentences for murder vary from state to state. The minimum legal age for the purchase of alcohol is 21 in most states.
Constitution of the United States: fundamental law of the U.S., framed in 1787 by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and put into effect in 1789. Supreme Court: the highest federal court in the United States consisting of nine justices and having jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation.

98 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

1987 License Laws for Passenger Cars


AMERICAN AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION
State Regular Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Col. c lorida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Mebraska Nevada Mew Hampshire Mew Jersey Mew Mexico Mew York Morth Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vemont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming 16 16 18 16 18 21 18 18 18 16 18 18 16 18 18 18 16 18 17 17 18 18 18 19 15 16 18 16 16 C 16 17 16 17 18 16 18 16 16 18 18 16 16 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 16 Age for driver's 2 license Learner's 15 14 d
d

Restrictive

15 & 7 mos. bd 15ce

151/2d

15 yrs. & 10 mo. d d 15 15 d d d 9 15 14 d d d d d 15"9 d d d 15

14' 14' 16" 14" 16 16 16


16bc

16" 15" b 16 15" 14


16" 16 & 1 mo. c

16" 16" 16

16 14 16" 15 15 c

16 15

15"

151/2d

14 14 d 16 16
149 16"
14

15 15" d
16bd

16" 14'

16"e

15

15

1 5 & 8 mos M

d h 15 d d 15 15 d d 15
s

14 16" 16 15 14 15 15
16"

16

15"

15 d de

14 " e. Driver with Learner's Permit must be accompanied by locally licensed operator 18 years or older. f. Restricted to mopeds. g. Must be enrolled in Driver Ed. h. Driver with Learner's Permit must be accompanied by locally licensed operator 21 years or older.

16 16" 16

a. Full driving privileges at age set forth in "Regular" column. A license restricted or qualified in some manner may be obtained at age set forth in "Restricted" column. b. Guardian or parental consent required. Must have completed approved Driver Ed Training course, d. Learner's Permit required.

LAW, CRIME, AND JUSTICE 99

FEDERAL COURTS

SUPREME COURT

EXTENT OF CRIME

The separate system of federal courts, which operates alongside the state courts, handles cases which arise under the U.S. Constitution or under any law or treaty, as well as any controversy to which the federal government is itself a party. Federal courts also hear disputes involving governments or citizens of different states. All federal judges are appointed for life. A case which falls within federal jurisdiction is heard first before a federal district judge. An appeal may be made to the Circuit Court of Appeals, and, possibly, in the last resort, to the highest court in the land: the U.S. Supreme Court. The Supreme Court hears cases in which someone claims that a lower court ruling is unjust or in which someone claims that Constitutional law has been violated. Its decisions are final and become legally binding. Although the Supreme Court does not have the power to make laws, it does have the power to examine actions of the legislative, executive, and administrative institutions of the government and decide whether they are constitutional. It is in this function that the Supreme Court has the potential to influence decisively the political, social, and economic life of the country. In the past, Supreme Court rulings have given new protection and freedom to blacks and other minorities. The Supreme Court has nullified certain laws of Congress and has even declared actions of American presidents unconstitutional. The U.S. government is so designed that, ideally, the authority of the judicial branch is independent from the other branches of government. Each of the nine Supreme Court justices (judges) is appointed by the president and examined by the Senate to determine whether he or she is qualified. Once approved, a justice remains on the Supreme Court for life. The Supreme Court justices have no obligation to follow the political policies of the president or Congress. Their sole obligation is to uphold the laws of the Constitution. Nevertheless, politics play a role in a president's selection of a Supreme Court justice. On average, a president can expect to appoint two new Supreme Court justices during one term of office. Presidents are likely to appoint justices whose views are similar to their own, with the hope that they can extend some of their power through the judicial branch. President Reagan's appointments to the Supreme Court were judges with a decidedly conservative view of constitutional law. Conservatives in America hope that the present Supreme Court, headed by Chief Justice William Rehnquist, will override precedents such as the Burger Court's 1973 decision legalizing abortion, or that it will vote for limiting the rights of criminal suspects and defendants. The United States is notorious for its high crime rates. After three years of decline, the crime rate rose 5 percent in 1985. In that year, over 12 million crimes were committed. In urban ghettos, violence is so widespread that homicide is the leading cause of death among black males between the ages of 25 and 45. Auto theft, muggings, robberies, and burglaries occur so frequently, especially in cities, that many people live in constant.fear of crime. In 1983, 45 percent of Americans surveyed admitted they were afraid to go out alone at
Rehnquist, William: born 1925, American jurist, chief justice since 1986. Burger, Warren Earl: born 1907, American jurist, chief justice of the Supreme Court 1969-86.

100 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

RIGHTS OF CRIMINAL SUSPECTS

THE DEATH PENALTY

PROBLEMS FOR LAW ENFORCERS

night in their own neighborhoods. Statistics indicate that only 20 percent of the people involved in illegal activity are apprehended. Many of these criminals belong to organized crime networks, among them, the Mafia, drug smuggling rings, and street gangs. Courts have the difficult task of striking a balance between the needs of society on the one hand and the rights of the individual on the other. The Constitution's guarantee of equal justice under the law for all citizens not only guarantees the individual's right to freedom and security, but also includes the protection of the rights of criminal suspects. Among these guarantees are the protection from unreasonable search and seizure, the suspect's right to decline to testify against himself/herself, the right to counsel, as well as protection from excessive bail and from cruel and unusual punishment. The Supreme Court has devised several rules to ensure the protection of these rights, which sometimes result in a guilty suspect being released from charges. One of these rules is the controversial exclusionary rule, which excludes from the trial any evidence gained by unlawful search and seizure. Sometimes the exclusion of evidence from a trial means that some persons who are clearly guilty go free because of a technicality. The Miranda rule is another controversial Supreme Court decision which extends the rights of criminal suspects. In the 1966 case, the Court ruled that suspects must be read their legal rights before being questioned by police. They must be told of their right to remain silent and to have an attorney present during questioning. If the police do not inform the criminal suspect of his or her rights, any evidence gained from questioning cannot be used in court. Looking for ways to secure community safety amidst rampant crime, many people hope that a more conservative court will weaken these protections, many of which derive from precedents created by the liberal Supreme Court of the 1960s. Conservatives view these protections as serious obstacles to effective law enforcement. Others, however, hold that the weakening of the rights of criminal suspects endangers the rights of all innocent people and gives too much power to the police. Responding to public pressure to get tough with criminals, many states have been applying the death penalty as a deterrent to murder. Although few criminals were sentenced to death between 1965 and 1983, there has been a surge in recent years in the number of executions. Between 1970 and 1980, three prisoners were executed under the death penalty, and between 1980 and 1985, 47 prisoners were executed. In 1972, the Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty, as carried out in most states, was unconstitutional because it was applied disproportionately to blacks and other minorities. States have since revised their death penalty laws, establishing new Court-approved procedures. Supporters of the death penalty argue that it is the only appropriate punishment for sadistic murderers. Opponents of capital punishment hope to see it declared unconstitutional. They claim that there is not enough evidence to prove that murderers are deterred by the threat of execution. Crime-stopping and crime prevention are formidable tasks for law enforcement officials, since the social problems which aggravate violencepoverty, unemployment, and unstable familiesare likely to persist. In addition to the overcrowding in prisons, the accessibility of handguns is a major problem which further complicates the task of securing public safety.

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Methods of Execution1
State Alabama2 Alaska Arizona2 Arkansas2 California* Colorado2 Connecticut2 Delaware D.C. Florida Georgia2 Hawaii Idaho2 Illinois Indiana2 Iowa Kansas Kentucky2 Louisiana2 Maine Maryland2 Massachusetts5 Michigan Minnesota Mississippi2 Missouri Montana2 Nebraska2 Method Electrocution No death penalty Lethal gas Lethal injection Lethal gas Lethal gas Electrocution Hanging No death penalty Electrocution Electrocution No death penalty Firing squad or lethal injection Lethal injection Electrocution No death penalty No death penalty Electrocution Electrocution No death penalty Lethal gas No death penalty No death penalty No death penalty Lethal injection Lethal gas hanging or lethal injection6 Electrocution State Nevada2 New Hampshire2 New Jersey New Mexico* New York North Carolina2 North Dakota Ohio2 Oklahoma Oregon5 Pennsylvania2 Rhode Island South Carolina2 South Dakota Tennessee2 Texas2 Utah2 Vermont Virginia Washington2 West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. (Fed. Govt.)* American Samoa Guam Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Method Lethal injection Hanging Lethal injection Lethal injection No death penalty Lethal gas or injection No death penalty Electrocution Lethal injection Lethal injection Electrocution No death penalty(3) Electrocution Lethal injection Electrocution Lethal injection Firing squad or lethal injection Electrocution Electrocution Hanging or lethal injection No death penalty No death penalty Lethal injection (4 ) No death penalty No death penalty No death penalty No death penalty

1. On July 1. 1976, by a 7-2 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the death penalty as not being "cruel or unusual." However, in another ruling the same day, the Court, by a 5-4 vote, stated that states may not impose "mandatory" capital punishment on every person convicted of murder. These decisions left uncertain the fate of condemned persons throughout the U.S. On Oct. 4, the Court refused to reconsider its July ruling, which allows some states to proceed with executions of condemned prisoners. The first execution in this country since 1967 was in Utah on Jan. 17, 1977. Gary Mark Gilmore was executed by shooting. 2. Voted to restore death penalty after June 29, 1972, Supreme Court decision ruling capital punishment unconstitutional. 3. Person shall be executed by gas if he commits murder while serving a prison term. 4. Method shall be that used by state in which sentence is imposed. If state does not have death penalty, federal judge shall prescribe method for carrying out sentence. 5. Death penalty has been passed, but not been used. 6. Defendant may choose between hanging and a lethal injection. Source: Information Please questionnaires to the states. NOTE: An asterisk after the name of the state indicates non-reply.

OVERCROWDED PRISONS

The nation's prisons, many of which are old and rundown, must operate above capacity to accommodate the number of inmates. One way to relieve overcrowding is parole, the conditional release of a prisoner before the term of his or her sentence has expired. Nevertheless, many states, responding to public pressure to get tough with criminals, have changed their laws. For example, some states have imposed longer sentences for serious crimes and have restricted parole. The result of heavier prison sentences is that prisons are filling up before state and federal authorities can find the money to build new facilities.

102 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

GUN CONTROL

SELF-DEFENSE

Many lawmakers favor stricter gun control laws as a method of curbing crime. Americans now own 65 million pistols and revolvers, two handguns for every three households. Even sophisticated rapid-fire combat weapons are available. An FBI report revealed that firearms were involved in more than half of the murders in the United States in 1984. Proponents of gun control are pressing the government to at least require registration of all handguns and to require background checks on all potential handgun buyers to ensure that they do not have a criminal record. Some opponents of handguns favor a complete ban on their sale and possession. While 70 percent of all Americans surveyed in 1985 favored registration of handguns, only 4 percent favored having a law to ban sale and possession. All the same, the lobbies against gun control are very influential. Congress passed a bill in 1985 to loosen restrictions on firearms, despite protest from law enforcers. Many Americans fear that gun control laws will prevent law-abiding citizens from being able to protect their homes. Lacking confidence in the ability of the courts, the police, and legislators to deal swiftly with the problem of crime, many Americans look for ways to protect themselves from attacks and burglaries. Refusing to be victimized, some people are willing to break the law in order to defend themselves. When New York subway passenger Bernhard Goetz took the law into his own hands to avoid being the victim of another crime, he was hailed as a hero by most New Yorkers. The incident occurred in 1984 on a subway train when four youths demanded five dollars from him. Goetz, a man with no criminal record who had already been mugged and severely beaten several months earlier, reacted by pulling out a gun and shooting the four youths, all of whom had criminal records, including convictions for armed robbery and burglary. In a three-month trial in 1987 Goetz was finally acquitted of all but the relatively minor charge of illegally possessing a gun. The public's support for Goetz indicates Americans' frustration with the criminal justice system's inadequacy in protecting individual rights. Until measures are taken to address the soda] factors which cause violence, crime wi\\ continue to aftect a \axge segment d the population.

103

PART
About Men
BY BRENT STAPLES

Texts

A BROTHER'S MURDER

T HAS BEEN MORE than two years since my telephone rang with the news that my younger brother Blake - just 22 years old had been murdered. The young man who killed him was only 24. Wearing a ski mask, he emerged from a car, fired six times at close range with a massive .44 Magnum, then fled. The two had once been inseparable friends. A senseless rivalry beginning, I think, with an argument over a girlfriend escalated from posturing, to threats, to violence, to murder. The way the two were living, death could have come to either of them from anywhere. In fact, the assailant had already survived multiple gunshot wounds from an incident much like the one in which my brother lost his life. As I wept for Blake I felt wrenched backward into events and circumstances that had seemed light-years gone. Though a decade apart, we both were raised in Chester, Pa., an angry, heavily black, heavily poor, industrial city southwest of Philadelphia. There, in the 1960's, I was introduced to mortality, not by the old and failing, but by beautiful young men who lay wrecked after sudden explosions of violence. The first, I remember from my 14th year Johnny, brash lover of fast cars, stabbed to death two doors from my. house in a fight over a pool game. The next year, my teenage cousin, Wesley, whom I loved very much, was shot dead. The summers blur.

Milton, an angry young neighbor, shot a crosstown rival, wounding him badly. William, another teenage neighbor, took a shotgun blast to the shoulder in some urban drama and displayed his bandages proudly. His brother, Leonard, severely beaten, lost an eye and donned a black patch. It went on. I recall not long before I left for college, two local Vietnam veterans one from the Marines, 6ne from the Army arguing fiercely, nearly at blows about which outfit had done the most in the war. The most killing, they meant. Not much later, I read a

magazine article that set that dispute in a context. In the story, a noncommissioned officer a sergeant, I believe said he would pass up any number of affluent, suburban-born recruits to get hard-core soldiers from the inner city. They jumped into the rice paddies with "their manhood on their sleeves," I believe he said. These two items the veterans arguing and the sergeant's words still characterize for me the circumstances under which black men in their teens and 20's kill one another with such frequency. With a touchy paranoia born of living battered lives, they are

104 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

1. continued
desperate to be real men. Killing is only machismo taken to the extreme. Incursions to be punished by death were many and minor, and they remain so: they include stepping on the wrong toe, literally; cheating in a drug deal; simply saying "I dare you" to someone holding a gun; crossing territorial lines in a gang dispute. My brother grew up to wear his manhood on his sleeve. And when he died, he was in that group black, male and in its teens and early 2()'s that is far and away the most likely to murder or be murdered. I left the East Coast after college, spent the mid- and late-1970s in Chicago as a graduate student, taught for a time, then became a journalist. Within 10 years of leaving my hometown, I was overeducated and "upwardly mobile," ensconced on a quiet, tree-lined street where voices raised in anger were scarcely ever heard. The telephone, like some grim umbilical, kept me connected to the old world with news of deaths, imprisoning and misfortune. I felt emotionally beaten up. Perhaps to protect myself, I added a psychological dimension to the physical distance I had already achieved. I rarely visited my hometown. I shut it out. As I fled the past, so Blake embraced it. On Christmas of 1983, I

traveled from Chicago to a black section of Roanoke. Va., where he then lived. The desolate public housing projects, the hopeless, idle young men crashing against one another these reminded me of the embittered town we'd grown up in. It was a place where once I would have been comfortable, or at least sure of myself. Now, hearing of my brother's forays into crime, his scrapes with police and street thugs, I was scared, unsteady on foreign terrain. I saw that Blake's romance with the street life and the hustler image had flowered dangerously. One evening that late December, standing in some Roanoke dive among drug dealers and grim, hair-trigger losers, I told him I feared for his life. He had affected the image of the tough he wanted to be. But behind the dark glasses and the swagger, I glimpsed the baby-faced toddler I'd once watched over. I nearly wept. I wanted desperately for him to live. The young think themselves immortal, and a dangerous light shone in his eyes as he spoke laughingly of making fools of the policemen who had raided his apartment looking for drugs. He cried out as I took his right hand. A line of stitches lay between the thumb and index fmger. Kickback from a shotgun, he explained, nothing

serious. Gunplay had become part of his life. I lacked the language simply to say: Thousands have lived this for you and died. I fought the urge to lift him bodily and shake him. This place and the way you are living smells of death to me, I said. Take some time away, I said. Let's go downtown tomorrow and buy a plane ticket anywhere, take a bus trip, anything to get away and-cool things off. He took my alarm casually. We arranged to meet the following night an appointment he would not keep. We embraced as though through glass. I drove away. As I stood in my apartment in Chicago holding the receiver that evening in February 1984, I felt as though part of my soul had been cut away. I questioned myself then, and I still do. Did I not reach back soon or earnestly enough for him? For weeks I awoke crying from a recurrent dream in which I chased him, urgently trying to get him to read a document I had, as though reading it would protect him from what had happened in waking life. His eyes shining like black diamonds, he smiled and danced just beyond my grasp. When I reached for him, I caught only the space where he had been.

LAW, CRIME, AND JUSTICE

105

LAW & JUSTICE

to Fight Crime
by Frank Borzellieri

ARMING CITIZENS
"The right to defend oneself is the highest natural law, more self-evident than any law chiseled in stone by some legislature."

Roy Innis: "With the armed criminal and the restrictive laws disarming the citizen, we have, in fact, aided and abetted- the criminal by making his work less difficult."

NE of the basic issues the case of Bernhard Goetz - New York's "subway vigilante" - has brought to light is a person's right to defend himself, once again focusing the public opinion spotlight on gun control. The knee-jerk reaction of many dealing with the gun control question is simple: guns are evil and therefore must be banned. This train of thought has dominated the New York area and similar crime-plagued areas throughout the country. It has also shown itself to be not only ineffective, but naive and dangerous. New York, despite the tightest gun control law in the nation, has not even remotely provided adequate protection for its citizens. In 1980, New Yorkers viewed their mayor on a television commercial proudly proclaiming the passage of what was hailed "the toughest gun law in America." As Ed Koch strode through a city prison, he informed the

Mr. Borzellieri is a free-lance journalist from Glendale, N. Y.

public of the consequences of being caught possessing an illegal handgun. "If you've got the gun, we've got the space," Koch said as he opened a cell door. Koch's intentions were noble, but wouldn't the subway riders prefer the "space" be reserved for the armed mugger, rather than the decent, though illegally armed, janitor who works the midnight shift to support his family and feels it necessary to carry a weapon to ensure that he can arrive at his destination safely? More recently, the mayor rekindled memories of his 1980 proclamation with another profound statement immediately following the Goetz shooting of four alleged muggers. "We will not tolerate vigilantism in New York," Koch warned the potential copycat shooters. Again, wouldn't his constituents feel more secure if Koch assured, "We will not tolerate crime."? The sad truth is that New York does tolerate crime, and its gun law insures this toleration. "They don't protect you in New York, but then they tell you, 'Don't you dare have a gun.'" Those words,

spoken by Bernhard Goetz, hit the nail precisely on the head and reveal certain inconsistencies in the gun control question. When an astute politician like Koch, normally a tough, anti-crime mayor, fails to see these misconceptions, it is time to reveal to the public the truth behind the entire gun issue. Civil rights leader Roy Innis, chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), has studied the gun question for many years. Innis, who offered to defend Bernhard Goetz for nothing even before he surrendered, is the only prominent black leader to back Goetz. Innis blasts those who offer what he terms "liberal knee-jerk" arguments: The conventional wisdom around the gun question in the society we live in is that guns are dangerous, guns should be restricted, guns should be kept out of the hands of people. But when you look at this conventional wisdom, it doesn't stand up, really, to reason because the fault of the question of keeping guns out of the hands of people, is the mistaken assumption that you can, in fact, keep guns out of the hands of people.

106 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued
Innis speaks wisely of the pragmatic effects, the tangible effects, that restrictive gun laws have demonstrated: New York, with the toughest gun law in the country, has not done very much to disarm the criminal. It has effectively disarmed the citizen. It has effectively made the citizen prey to the armed criminal. Carrying a gun, to a lifelong criminal, is just another felony in a series of felonies that that person has dedicated
Koch, Edward I . : see page 19.

his life to. So the fact that criminals are armed should not be strange to us. What is the problem is that, with the armed criminal and the restrictive laws disarming the citizens, we have, in fact, aided and abetted the criminal by making his work less difficult. A well-thinking criminal will have to be a strong advocate of tight gun control. Roy Innis has done more than reveal the tragic results of this gun law situation. He has proposed a plan

that will loosen the gun laws, allowing decent citizens to carry weapons. The Innis plan is a manifold, high-result program. What he is trying to do is give the public back what is rightfully theirs according to the Constitution and to do so in the perspective of what is pragmatically best for society, not what simply seems the best. . .. USATODAY/JULY 1985

Congress of Racial Equality: (CORE), a black nationalist organization founded in 1942. ".. .what is rightfully theirs according to the Constitution. ..": 2nd Amendment: A well-

regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Parting Thoughts

The Death Penalty: Legal Cruelty?


T
HE execution of Gary Mark Gilmore by a Utah firing squad on Jan. 17, 1977, marked the end of a 10-year moratorium on the use of capital punishment in the U.S. Since that time, seven more executions have taken place one each in Alabama, Florida, Illinois, Mississippi, Nevada, Virginia, and Texas. The latest innovation in the manner of killing was revealed in Texas on Dec. 14, 1982, when Charlie Brooks, Jr., was put to death by lethal injection. This new method of execution raises additional ethical issues in the debate over the death penalty. As a consequence of these eight executions and the impending death of numerous other death row inmates; the issue of capital punishment is once again in the public forum.

by Donald B. Walker

In 1972, at the time of the Furman v. Georgia decision, 629 persons were housed on death rows throughout the U.S. Today, just over 10 years later, the death row population exceeds 1,100 - 500 condemned persons more than at the time of Furman! While the debate over capital punishment has continued sporadically, and for the most part academically, over the past 20 years, the issue today takes on a greater sense of urgency. The sheer size of the death row population creates a significant moral dilemma for our society. In addition, since the appeals process for many of these condemned persons has been virtually exhausted, the debate takes on a heightened sense of immediacy. In short, under the present conditions, the debate

LAW, CRIME, AND JUSTICE

107

is far less an academic exercise over the significant levels of deterrence data than it is a significant public issue related to the concept of justice in our society. The fundamental question which must be addressed with respect to the death penalty is under what circumstance does the state have the right to take the life of one of its citizens? That question, with respect to the use of capital punishment for first-degree murder convictions, was answered by the Supreme Court in the Furman and Gregg decisions. In those cases, the Court held that the death penalty itself does not contravene the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment as long as it is applied in a fair and impartial manner. The Gregg decision further clarified the procedure which the sentencing court must use in determining the fate of the guilty defendant. What has been overlooked in these decisions is that the Supreme Court has answered the question only in a legal and not in any moral or ethical sense. One hard lesson which the world should have learned as a consequence of the Holocaust is that law and justice are independent concepts. Law is the derivation of a society's interpretation of justice which is relative both to time and place. Furthermore, the creation of law is more frequently the result of the interpretation of justice by the powerful in the society which is then applied at the expense of the powerless. A moral and humane society constantly seeks to bring the law into closer harmony with the widest interpretation of justice in that society at any given time. The civil rights movement in the U.S. is an excellent example of this process. The contention here is that the continued use of the death penalty in the U.S. constitutes a flagrant example of the continuing gap between law and justice in our society. While the Su-

preme Court has upheld the legality of capital punishment under the Eighth Amendment, it has ignored the moral and ethical implications of the "cruel and unusual" clause. If one considers the deliberate infliction of pain and suffering on others to be "cruel," then capital punishment, regardless of its legal interpretation, must fit that definition. Both the actual manner of execution and the long period of confinement in death row preceding its application cause acute pain and mental suffering to the condemned person. The uneasiness which we, in the U.S., feel towards the infliction of pain on the condemned prisoner has led to a continuous search for more refined and "humane" means of carrying out the execution order. Charlie Brooks, Jr., the first person killed by lethal injection, has now taken his place in history along with other objects of experimentation in this quest to kill people painlessly. However, the use of otherwise life-saving medical techniques and drugs to carry out executions raises serious ethical questions for the society as a whole and the medical profession in particular. Even though Texas District Judge Doug Shaver feels that death by lethal injection "will make it more palatable," it surely can not make it more ethical. On the other hand, if we remain convinced that capital punishment is both a necessary and just means of ensuring social defense, why is it necessary to make it "palatable"? Despite the legal interpretation of the concept "cruel," the moral interpretation of that concept and its relationship to justice in our society remains unsettling. Dr. Walker is assistant professor of criminal justice studies, Kent (Ohio) State University
USATODAY/NOVEMBER 1983

Furman v. Georgia decision: In Furman v. Georgia the Supreme Court ruled that the death

penalty in Georgia was unconstitutional because it was applied inconsistently as far more blacks than whites were executed for similar crimes. The court, however, did not rule that the death penalty violated the 8th Amendment. Gregg v. Georgia decision: the Court ruled that the death penalty was not unconstitutional as such under the 8th and 14th Amendments. 8th Amendment: "Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted."

108 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Thoughts on the Supreme Court


An Interview with Tom Clark (excerpts)
This interview was conducted on August 23, 1976, in Justice Clark's chambers in the Supreme Court. The late Justice Clark spent more than 50 years as a lawyer and judge. He served as attorney general of the United States from 1945 to 1949, when President Truman appointed him an associate justice of the Supreme Court. He then served on the Court until 1967, when he resigned because of a potential conflict of interest that arose when his son, Ramsey Clark, was named attorney general. QUESTION: Woodrow Wilson once called the Supreme Court "the balance wheel" in our system. Justice Robert H. Jackson said that the Court's function was nothing less than to be an arbiter among rival forces in our society. After your many years of service on the Court, how do you see its role in our political system? Justice Clark: Well, I think that Chief Justice (Warren) Burger put it pretty well when he said, "If you want to play a baseball game, what do you have? You have an umpire, otherwise the game is going to end up in a riot before the nine innings are played." I rather think that the Court is somewhat of an umpire. It considers what the Congress proposes, or what the executive proposes, or what some individual claims, and rules upon these laws, proposals, and claims by comparing them with the law as laid down by the Constitution...and then calls the strikes and the balls. The Watergate case was a good example of the Supreme Court's responsibility to decide whether or not the Congress or the president had exercised authority in a constitutional way. You also should remember that we on the Court serve another role. If the decisions of the other two branches are in keeping with constitutional doctrine, we use our authority to uphold these decisions. And if a citizen doesn't voluntarily follow the rules laid down by the Congress or by the president or by other courts, why then it's our job to enforce those rules so that that individual will be punished or reprimanded. QUESTION: Justice William H. Taft once said that courts are composed of people, and one would be foolish to deny that courts are not affected by the time in which the justices live. How much do you think the needs of the times affect the decisions of the Court? How is public opinion brought into the process of taking cases and making decisions? Justice Clark: Well, I served 18 years on the bench and frankly, I myself doubt if any public clamor or any political manipulation on the Court can be effective. I did get quite a few letters from all over the country about various things, but I don't think any of those things influenced my thinking on the legal matters which were involved. Yet we are influenced by the necessities of the time. Every year there are new cases, new people who come "knockin' on our door" with constitutional questions which need to be resolved. Take for example the criminal field. We started out with the case of Griffin v. Illinois* in which Griffin said, "I'm being charged with murder, which is a felony, and I ought to be entitled to read the transcript of what went on in the courtroom. I'm just a layman and couldn't remember everything. Without a transcript, I wouldn't be able to appeal to a higher court." So when this came to us (the Supreme Court) on appeal, we ruled that defendants are entitled to a transcript. But once they got the transcript they couldn't tell much about it without a lawyer and they commenced again to "knockin' on our door." In an old case before I became a justice, the Court had ruled that only in felony cases should a lawyer be appointed. Exceptions were made to this case over the years as additional cases came before the Court, until we had the Gideon case.** In this one we ruled that everyone accused of a crime was entitled to a lawyer. What happened was, they kept "knockin' on our door," and finally we extended the ruling to misdemeanors as well. So you had it going full sway. That's because of the necessities that were brought to our attention. Now you say, well, weren't those brought before? Possibly they were, but not with the impact that they were brought to us. The same was true in segregation. We had one case which had to do with segregation in the field of graduate education. We ruled that this was unconstitutional and later there came the case of Brown v. Board of Education,*** which was on the grade school level. Then other questions came up. What about public accommodations? What about swimming pools and things like that? And the first thing you know they're "knockin' on the door." I don't know whether you'd say that the individual citizen who felt the pinch knocked on the door, or whether the lawyer looking out saw the pinch and tried to minimize it. I rather think that the pinch was what caused it.
Editor's Note: In the case of Griffin v. Illinois (1956) the Supreme Court ruled that a defendant who is appealing a court decision should not be denied a copy of the transcript of his trial because of inability to pay for it. Editor's Note: In Gideon v. Wainwrighl (1963) the Court ruled that all defendants are entitled to a lawyer appointed by the court if they are unable to pay for one themselves. See the "How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court" diagram for more details on the Gideon case. Editor's Note: In Brown v. Board of Education (1954) the Court ruled segregation in public schools to be unconstitutional.

LAW, CRIME, AND JUSTICE

109

How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court

While there are certain cases that can be brought directly to the Supreme Court, the majority of cases are brought on appeal. If either party in a case is unhappy with the decision of a lower court, it has the right to appeal that decision to a higher court. An appeal is not a new trial, but rather a reexamination of the evidence, procedures and legal or constitutional principles on which the decision was based in the previous trial. Only a very small percentage of cases appealed are considered by the Supreme Court. During its 197677 term, the Court received petitions for 4,731 cases, yet agreed to hear oral arguments for only 176. Generally speaking, the Court will be inclined to hear a case if it involves a basic constitutional principle, an important question of federal law or a conflict between state and federal law. Appeals are brought to the U.S. Supreme Court from the highest courts in each state or from lower federal courts. From Federal District Court Brown v. Board of Education

"My Rights Have Been Violated" September 1950 - An eight-year-old black student named Linda Brown was denied admission to an all-white elementary school in Topeka, Kansas.

4>
Trial in Federal District Court February 1951 Her father, Oliver Brown, and 12 other black parents sued the city's Board of Education in the United States District Court. The case was officially titled Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.

Appeal to the United States Supreme Court While many cases must be appealed from district court to the court of appeals, this case was appealed directly to the Supreme Court. June 1952 The Supreme Court agreed to hear the Brown case. December 1952 - Arguments were heard from lawyers for both sides. However, the Court was divided and unable to arrive at a decision. December 1953 A year later, arguments were again heard for both sides. During that time, a significant change had occurred on the Court. Chief Justice Fred Vinson had died in September and President Eisenhower had appointed Earl Warren to replace him.

4>
The Supreme Court Decides May 1954 - By a 9 to 0 vote the Supreme Court overruled the district court's decision. It stated that segregated schools were unconstitutional because segregation "deprives children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities." It nullified the "separate but equal" principle of the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case.

110

PART C Exercises
1. Text Analysis
A Brother's Murder
1. This text comes from a special section of the New York Times Magazine. How does its style differ from the style you normally find in magazine reports? 2. What may have been Brent Staple's motives for writing this article? 3. Show how the author's biography is woven into the account of his brother's life and death. 4. Describe how the author conveys to the reader that his brother's tragic end was almost inevitable. 5. The author compares Blake Staple's world of violence, crime and aggression with his own much more secure and peaceful way of living. Find the words and expressions he uses to indicate this contrast. 4. Roy Innis, chairman of CORE, a) is one of the many black leaders who oppose stronger gun control laws. b) favors less strict gun laws. c) believes that stricter gun laws help criminals more than ordinary citizens.

3. Discussion
1. List the arguments Frank Borzellieri uses for and against gun control. Show how he tries to put greater emphasis on his argument by choosing examples that support his viewpoint quoting people who share his view using rhetorical devices to depreciate opposing views. Discuss whether you think the author succeeds in getting his message across to the reader. 2. Analyze the following opinion poll and compare the figures with the point Frank Borzellieri wants to make in his article.

2. Global Comprehension
Arming Citizens to Fight Crime
Which of the following statements about the text is correct? In some cases more than one answer is possible. Give reasons for your decisions. 1. In this text the author a) presents an objective discussion of the question of gun control. b) argues in favor of gun control. c) opposes the idea of gun control. 2. According to Frank Borzellieri, New York's gun laws a) have improved the protection of citizens. b) have at least made the janitors feel safer at work. c) have made criminal activities less difficult. 3. The author quotes Bernhard Goetz a) in order to reveal the inconsistency of Goetz's defense. b) to point out the inconsistencies in Mayor Koch's statements. c) to back his own viewpoint.

HANDGUN CONTROL
Should laws covering the sale of handguns be made more strict, less strict or kept as they are now? (Gallup)
More strict 60% Less strict Kept same 1975 69% 1980 59% 6 29 1981 65% 3 30 1983 59% 4 31 1986
8

3 24

Some communities have passed laws banning the sale and possession of handguns. Would you favor or oppose having such a law in your community? (Gallup)
I----------------------------------------------4/86-1 Men 39% 57 Women 55% 38 Whites 45% 49 Favor Oppose All 47% 47 Blacks 59% 34

3. How strict are the gun control laws in your country? 4. Do you think guns should be banned in the U.S.? When discussing this question, take into consideration:

LAW, CRIME, AND JUSTICE 111

the situation of young urban blacks as described by Brent Staples in the text A Brother's Murder. the 2nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: "A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed." a statement by Neal Knox of the National Rifle Association: "The right of self-defense is a fundamental one, and if I know how to use a gun and feel I need one for self-defense, whose business is it to say that I shouldn't own one?" the statement of a police sergeant in Houston, a city with a high crime rate: "It's getting to the point where it's up to the citizens to protect themselves. And the way to do that is with guns."

6. Modified Cloze Test Thoughts on the Supreme Court


The Supreme Court considers laws passed by the fa , proposals or actions made by the and claims made by fa. It decides whether they are in keeping with the fa . In the Watergate fa the Supreme Court had to decide whether the president had exercised authority in a fa way. If decisions of legislative and executive powers are constitutional, they are fa by the Supreme Court. A citizen who does not obey such rules will be fa . Justice Clark does not believe that political manipulation can influence the justices' thinking on fa matters. He admits, however, that the justices have to consider the necessities of the time when dealing with constitutional questions which have not arisen before. In the case of Griffin v. Illinois, Griffin was fa with murder, which is a fa . H e believed that he ought to be entitled to read the fa of what was said in the courtroom in order to be able to fa to a higher court. The Supreme Court fa that a fa is entitled to a transcript. Reading the transcript without a fa advice was too difficult for a layman. In the Gideon case the court ruled that every citizen fa of a crime was entitled to a lawyer provided by the court if he was unable to pay for one himself.

4. Comprehension The Death Penalty: Legal Cruelty?


1. Why was the discussion about the death penalty more urgent at the time the article appeared than ten years before? 2. In its Furman and Gregg decisions how did the Supreme Court rule on the question of the circumstances under which the state has the right to take the life of one of its citizens? 3. According to Donald B. Walker, which aspect of the issue did the Supreme Court deal with and which aspect did it ignore? 4. How do the concepts of law and justice relate to each other? 5. What is the author's view on capital punishment? 6. How does he support his view? 7. What is the author's opinion on carrying out executions by lethal injection?

7. Preparing an Interview How a Case Reaches the Supreme Court


Thirty-five years after the Supreme Court decided on the case of Brown v. Board of Education, an educational radio station is preparing a documentry series on the history of desegregation. As a reporter whose job it is to cover the Brown case you would like to interview Linda Brown, now 47, to recall the different stages of the case, her personal experiences in the years 1950-54 and the effects the Court's final decision has had on her life. Prepare the questions for the interview.

5. Debate
Have a debate on the motion: "Capital punishment is unethical and should be banned."

7 Minorities
PART A
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST MINORITIES

Background Information
Americans cherish the picture of their country as a land of wealth and opportunity. Yet many groups wanting to share in the nation's overall prosperity have experienced how scarce opportunities can be in the competition for income and status. Discrimination because of color, culture, and age, for example, has kept many Americans from sharing equal protections and prospects in American society. The 1960s was a decade of turbulence and social change. Blacks and other minorities became politically active, bringing their protests to the streets and courts all over the country. In response to minority demands, many new laws were passed to outlaw and compensate for inequalities. However, laws alone cannot eliminate discrimination. Attitudes change slowly. For example, despite the existence of laws that prohibit housing discrimination, many people still refuse to rent to blacks and Hispanics. Minority demands are sure to continue, and new solutions will be essential as the composition of American society continues to change rapidly. Hispanics and the elderly will account for an increasingly larger share of the population, and society will have to make adjustments to these changing demographics. For America's blacks, the struggle for equal rights has been long and often bitterly opposed. When the Founding Fathers asserted in the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal" and possess inalienable rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, women and blacks were excluded. Not until after the Civil War ended in 1865 did blacks begin to share in the most basic rights of citizenship. Three Constitutional amendments were passed and ratified between 1865 and 1870. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, the Fourteenth Amendment gave blacks the rights of citizenship, and
Founding Father: see page 25. Declaration of Independence: see page 31. Civil War: see page 44. Constitution of the United States: see page 97. Thirteenth Amendment: "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." Fourteenth Amendment: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."

THE BLACKS

MINORITIES 113

CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

the Fifteenth Amendment gave them the right to vote. Despite these Constitutional provisions, Southern whites found ways to circumvent the intention of the amendments. Racial prejudice was rationalized and institutionalized in the South. Until the modern civil rights movement, which began in the 1950s, blacks were denied access to public places such as restaurants, hotels, theaters, and schools. There were separate facilities marked "colored only" for blacks, and this practice of racial segregation was sanctioned by the courts. In 1896 the Supreme Court had ruled that racial segregation was legal as long as "separate but equal" facilities were provided. The landmark case Brown v. the Board of Education in 1954 was the first successful challenge to legalized segregation of blacks and whites. The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that maintaining separate but equal schools for blacks and whites was unconstitutional because separate schools can never provide the same educational opportunities. With goals which included desegregation, fair housing, equal employment opportunities, and fair voting laws, the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s had the momentum of a social revolution. Until his assassination in 1968, Dr Martin Luther King, Jr, provided leadership and strategy for the mass movement. He supported nonviolent tactics such as "sit-ins" at restaurants which segregated the races. Some radical black leaders later advocated violent revolution as the way blacks could finally take control of the economic and political aspects of their lives. The civil rights movement was a success in the areas of voting rights and public accommodations and facilities. In 1957 Congress passed the first civil rights legislation in eighty years. The legislation focused on protecting the voting rights of blacks, but additional legislation was found to be necessary. In 1963, Congress passed a constitutional amendment prohibiting the use of a poll tax in federal elections. Civil rights legislation was again passed in 1964, making it illegal to administer voting laws in a discriminatory manner. This act was significant in other ways. It prohibited discrimination in public accommodations such as restaurants and hotels and also outlawed job discrimination by employers and unions. The 1965 Voting Rights Act abolished literacy tests, which had been used to deny blacks the right to vote. In accordance with this legislation, federal examiners are still appointed in many communities to ensure that proper voter registration and election procedures are followed. As a result of these new laws, voter registration among blacks has increased, although the percentage is still well below the comparable figure for whites. Black political power has also grown: more and more blacks are being elected to public office. In areas such as housing and employment, new legislation was passed in the 1960s to prohibit discrimination. Many of these laws were controversial and have been difficult to enforce. Despite fair housing laws, blacks and other
Fifteenth Amendment: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Supreme Court: see page 97. Brown v. the Board of Education decision: Supreme Court decision of 1954 ruling that public schools could not be separated by race. King, Martin Luther Jr.: (1929-68) American Baptist minister and civil rights leader, awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, assassinated.

114 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

PROBLEMS OF URBAN BLACKS

HISPANICS

THE NATIVE AMERICANS

minorities are often refused leases and contracts. In the area of employment, one way the government has tried to correct job discrimination is through affirmative action laws that require most employers to take positive steps to remedy the effect of past discrimination against minorities. The goal of affirmative action is to match the racial and sexual composition of the working place with the composition of society. Employers are encouraged to hire and promote blacks, women, and others who had been denied opportunities. Supporters of the policy insist that some form of preferential treatment must be used to break down the long-standing patterns of discrimination against minorities and women in the job market. Critics charge that it results in reverse discrimination against qualified white males. The inequality gap between blacks and whites has been closing, but 1985 Census Bureau statistics show that wide disparities remain in income and employment. The poverty rate for blacks is alarmingly high 31 percent compared with 11 percent for whites. The unemployment rate for black teens is more than 40 percent. Related to the problem of poverty is the breakdown of the urban black family. According to Census Bureau statistics, two-thirds of all black children are born to unmarried mothers. Violence is another part of the poverty cycle. A 1980 Public Health Reports study reveals that the leading cause of death among young black men is murder. While black men make up only 6 percent of the population, they account for half of the male prison population. The poverty and unemployment among America's urban blacks are reminders that inequalities have not been eliminated. While black Americans, numbering about 28 million, make up the largest ethnic minority, the estimated 14 to 20 million Hispanics represent not only the second largest but also the fastest growing ethnic minority in the nation. Among the legal Hispanic residents, 60 percent are of Mexican origin, and most of the rest are from Cuba or Puerto Rico. Mexican Americans now make up one-fifth of California's population and the same proportion of the population of Texas. In 25 major cities, Hispanics number more than 50,000. The increase of Hispanic immigration has had a dramatic impact on American society, particularly in the South and Southwest where the greatest settlement has occurred. Spanish has become a major language in many areas, and some cities are officially bilingual. Because many Hispanics hold onto their language and customs, questions are raised about how successfully they will assimilate into American culture. The cultural infusion is resented by some Americans who fear that the country's ethnic identity is at stake. Many people wish to restrict immigration quotas in order to preserve the cultural dominance of nonHispanic whites, but the stream of illegal immigration across the Mexican border continues. Hispanics have faced a tradition of job discrimination and poverty in the United States. In the 1960s, Hispanic groups, inspired by the black civil rights movement, organized themselves to improve wages and working conditions, to institute bilingual education in schools, and to improve public services in Hispanic neighborhoods. Changes have occurred, but much remains to be done. The issues are of increasing importance as the Hispanic population may soon become the nation's largest ethnic minority if present birth rates continue. Toward the end of the 1960s, Native Americans also adopted the techniques of protest. Besides the problems of discrimination which they have shared with other minorities, the Native Americans were embittered by the United States government's long history of confusing policies. After the Native

MINORITIES 115

THE ELDERLY

THE DISABLED

HOMOSEXUALS

Americans were subdued by the U.S. army, the government policy toward them wavered inconsistently between encouraging assimilation and promoting tribal autonomy. In the 1960s the federal government encouraged the retention of tribal governments and cultural identity. By this time the Native American population was becoming increasingly urban. City life weakened tribal customs and bonds. Many urban Native Americans reacted against these conditions and began to take pride in their heritage, making Native American rights their prime political focus. The American Indian Movement (AIM) demanded reforms that would give political autonomy to Native American groups and recognize their special cultural needs. These efforts have brought a greater degree of sovereignty and increasingly favorable interpretation of Native American rights by the federal courts. Besides ethnic minorities, other fringe groups have voiced demands for recognition and equal rights. The elderly, the handicapped, and homosexuals are minorities that suffer from discrimination. Between 1960 and 1982, the number of people over age 65 grew twice as fast as the rest of the population. With the number of older Americans on the rise, the demands of the elderly are becoming harder to ignore. Activists have addressed the issues of job discrimination, retirement, and health care, and have sought to dispel distorted perceptions of the elderly as weak, senile, and helpless. In 1967, the Age Discrimination Act was passed to prohibit discrimination against people between the ages of 40 and 65. America's disabled are determined to cast off their image as secondclass citizens. For years, disabled people were institutionalized or segregated and considered incapable of working and living as productive members of society. The courts and legislators responded to their demands by outlawing barriers to equal education and employment. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 required employers who receive federal aid or work on government contracts to hire qualified disabled persons. In addition, the act required that public schools admit disabled children and that colleges make their buildings accessible to the blind and those confined to wheelchairs. Equal rights for homosexuals has been a more controversial issue. Although many states have passed laws banning discrimination against homosexuals, 24 states have laws prohibiting certain kinds of sexual activity. Conservatives, fearing thaft, tolerance of homosexuality undermines the nation's morality, applauded the 1986 Supreme Court decision that upheld the states' authority to make laws against homosexual acts. The political setting for the civil rights movements of minorities was one of liberalism. During the 1960s and early 1970s, the Supreme Court frequently made decisions which favored minorities. Many of the Court's decisions were considered controversial because they disrupted traditional social patterns. The Court, liberal reformers, and student activists became targets of many middle-class Americans who resented what they regarded as the federal government's excessive protection of the "undeserving." This so-called "Silent Majority" of the middle class demonstrated its presence at the polls, voting against homosexual rights and many federal programs that benefited minorities. Conservatives have been gaining influence in the 1980s. President Reagan was elected to two terms by a conservative majority. The various groups which make up the conservative movement are united in their desire to conserve traditional values and social patterns. Consequently, minorities are experiencing a less favorable political climate.

116

PART

Texts

I Am The Redman
/ am The Redman Son of the forest, mountain and 1 What use have I of the asphalt What use have I of the brick and concrete What use have I of the automobile Think you these gifts divine That I should be humbly grateful. I am the Redman Son of the tree, hill and stream What use have I of china and crystal What use have I of diamonds and gold What use have I of money Think you these from heaven sent That I should be eager to accept.
Hopi elder at work in his fields

I am the Redman Son of the earth, water and sky What use have I of silk and velvet What use have I of nylon and plastic What use have I of your religion Think you these be holy and sacred That I should kneel in awe. I am the Redman I look at you White Brother And I ask you Save not me from sin and evil Save yourself. Duke Redbird

My Lodge
Simple was my lodge of birch Pure was the water that I drank Swift was the canoe that carried me Straight was the arrow that protected me. Wild was the meat that fed me Sweet was the sugar maple. Strong were the herbs that sustained me Great was my mother, the Earth. Duke Redbird.

Redbird, Duke: American Indian poet.

MINORITIES

117

SPECIAL REPORT

By Sylvester Monroe

hey say you can't go home again. So when I returned to the Chicago housing projects where I grew up, it was with ambivalence. I was journeying back to my past, and I didn't know what I would find. It wasn't that I was afraid. I'd been back to the Robert Taylor Homes and Prairie Courts many times in the 20 years since I left in 1966. But this time I was returning as a reporter, to retrace my life and those of my friends. What had happened to us, to Half Man and Honk, Pee Wee and Billy, and what did it say about growing up black? Black men are six times as likely as white men to be murder victims. We are two and a half times as likely to be unemployed. We finish last in practically every socioeconomic measure from infant mortality to life expectancy. Through portraits of our lives together and apart, I thought, we might find some answers as to why black men in America seem almost an endangered species.

No middle name: When I left Chicago for St. George's School in the fall of 1966, through an outreach program called A Better Chance, all 11 of us were still in school. And at the wide-eyed age of 14 and 15, we still had dreams. I wanted to be a writer. I read F. Scott Fitzgerald and dreamed of authoring my own novel. I even started signing my name S. Vest Monroe, a bit miffed that my mother had not given me a middle name. The dream gave me hope. And my mother convinced me that without an education the dream was impossible. Having to leave the safety and familiarity of home to get it was as difficult a decision as I've ever made. If it had been entirely up to me, I might never have gone to St. George's at all. I was happy at Wendell Phillips High, making straight A's, running on the track team, hanging out with a gang called Satan's Saints and discovering the wonders of women. Now I was being told that I could do better, much better, but it meant leaving home to attend an all-boys boarding school in Newport, R.I. It might as well have been the other side of the universe. Not only would I be away from my family and friends, there wouldn't be any girls and barely any other blacks. In fact, when I arrived at the front steps of St. George's on a damp September night in 1966, I was one of only five blacks enrolled at the 200-student Episcopal school. It

118 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Sylvester Monroe

2. continued
was culture shock on a mammoth scale. The first person I met was Gil Burnett, my first faculty adviser. He was nice enough, but something seemed to bother him. "Do you have other clothes?" he asked, scanning my wide-brimmed Dunlop hat, dark glasses, Italian knit shirt, reversible-pleated baggy pants and brown and white StacyAdams wing tips. "Yeah," I said. "Just like this." The next day he took me in his Land-Rover to the AndersonLittle knitting mills in Fall River, Mass., bought me a blue blazer, two pairs of gray flannel slacks and a plain pair of black tie shoes. I was thankful for the new duds. They gave me the look of a preppy. But I still found myself wondering why I agreed to leave 39 th Street.

The main reason I was there, I reminded myself, was to please my mother and Leroy Lovelace, the schoolteacher largely responsible for getting me the scholarship. And my mother had given me an out, or so I thought. She said to me at the outset that I would never forgive myself if I didn't at least go and see what it was like; I could always come home. Secretly, I resolved to stay at St. George's exactly two weeks, long enough to make a show of it, then head for Chicago. Sick call: After roughly two weeks, I had what I thought was a stroke of luck: I got sick so sick, in fact, that I was admitted to the school infirmary. It was perfect. I'd call my mother, tell her what a godawful place boarding school was, and catch the first ride home. To make my pitch even stronger, I decided to find out exactly what was wrong with me.

"Hey, Doc, what've I got, anyway?" I asked. "Oh, I think you're suffering from a really bad case of nostalgia," she said. I hadn't the foggiest notion what that meant, but it sounded pretty serious to me. Wonderful, I thought. There's no way Mom won't let me come home now. I went to the phone, already planning my return. "Hey, Ma," I began. "Hey, how you doin'?" "Not so good. I'm sick as a dog, Ma. This place is always cold, the food is terrible, and now I'm in the infirmary." "What's the matter with you?" "I can't keep anything down," I said. "The doctor says I've got a bad case of nostalgia. I think I ought to come home, OK?" "Sure, you can come home but under one condition," she said.

MINORITIES 119

"What's that?" I asked. "The only way you're coming home before you're supposed to is in a box." It was one of the hardest things she'd ever done, she confided years later. But she also knew she had to. It was three months before I got home again, for Christmas vacation, and somehow I managed to survive. I even found myself actually beginning to like the place and its teachers, who tempered no-nonsense classes with a touch of compassion. My own capacity for learning hadn't been stunted by life in the Taylor Homes. In some ways, in fact, I was on an equal footing with my wealthier classmates. I had that love and support, that sense of self-worth, that can only come from the family. And as my mother proved, it could happen whether there was one parent or two, a few kids or a houseful. Faint disquiet: Looking back on it, I was pleased to show what black boys were capable of. Yet, there was a faint disquiet. What bothered me was thatseai_pcjple jf pasier tn prefenr] J /^ something_else. "We're colorblind here,"~~a well-meaning faculty member once told me. "We don't see black students or white students, we just see students." But black was what I was; I wasn't sure he saw me at all. Another St. George's teacher was surprised at my reaction when he implied that I should be grateful for the opportunity to attend

St. George's, far away from a place like the Robert Taylors. How could I be, I snapped back, when my friends, my family, everyone that I cared most about, were still there? But you're different, he continued. That's why you got out. I'm not different, I insisted. I'm just lucky enough to have been in the right place at the right time. What the teacher failed to understand was that my background was not something to be ashamed of. As in the old James Brown song of the '60s, I wanted to "say it loud: I'm black and I'm proud!" One of the greatest frustrations of my three years at St. George's , was that people were always trying I to separate me from other black [people in a manner strangely reminiscent of a time when slave owners divided blacks into "good Negroes" and "bad Negroes." Somehow, attending St. George's made me a good Negro, in their eyes, while those left in Robert Taylor were bad Negroes or, at the very least, inferior ones. Ever since through Harvard, through my 14-year career as a journalist I have found myself looking over my shoulder on occasion. My mother had been right: having worked hard, I'd caught the break I needed to get out of the ghetto. But the men of my family were right, too: race is an inescapable burden for every black man. Though economic-class divi-

sions are rapidly producing a nation of haves and have-nots, for blacks, race still tends to overshadow all else. It doesn't matter whether you are rich man, poor man, beggar or thief, if you are black, there's an artificial ceiling on your ambition. Many people still perceive blacks, especially black men, as less intelligent, less productive and generally more violent than the rest of society. I didn't have to go back to the Robert Taylor Homes to understand that. Recently, I waited 45 minutes one evening on Sixth Avenue in midtown Manhattan before a cab finally stopped for me. More than a dozen cabbies had passed me by for a "safer" white fare. It's the same in other cities, and it's not just cabdrivers. More than a few times, I've stepped into an elevator and noticed a woman clutch her purse a little tighter under her arm, or I've been walking on a deserted sidewalk with a black, male companion, when a white couple spots us and suddenly decides to cross the street. To be sized up, categorized and dismissed all within the space of a nervous glance solely on the basis of race is more than annoying; it's demeaning and damaging to the psyche of an entire people. Even among people of good will, race relations is old news, it seems unless somebody gets killed. Sometimes I get the feeling people are thinking, "Why are there still Negroes?" . . .

Robert Taylor Homes, Prairie Courts: public housing projects in Chicago. outreach program "A Better Chance": a program providing disadvantaged students with better educational chances. Fitzgerald, F. Scott (1896-1940): American author of novels (e.g. The Great Gatsby, Tender Is the Night, This Side of Paradise) and short stories. to make straight A's: always get the best marks (A's) at school. Episcopal school: school run by the Protestant Episcopal Church, an American church, which before 1789 was associated with the Church of England. Stacy-Adams wing tips: shoes with perforated parts covering the toes and sides. Harvard: prestigious private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, founded in 1636 by John Harvard (1607-38), an English Puritan clergyman in America.

120 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Jessie de la Cruz
one-family dwelling in Fresno. A small, well-kept garden is out front. "When I was a child growing up as a migrant worker, we would move from place to place. In between, I'd see homes with beautiful gardens, flowers. I always looked at those flowers and said: 'If I could only have my own house and have a garden.' We couldn't as migrant workers. Now, as you walk onto my porch, everything you see is green. (Laughs) I have a garden now." She has six grown children; the youngest is twenty-one. She is active in National Land for People. .. . She is fifty-nine.

I and my mother, we were living with my grandparents. My father went back to Mexico. . . . My happiest memories was when my grandfather had Sunday off. He would pick us up, wrap us in blankets, and put us around this big woodburning stove, while he went out to the store. He'd come up with oranges and apples and good things to cat, something we did not very often have. All the teachers were Anglos. They would have us say our name and where we lived, who we were. I-said: 'Jessie Lopez, American." She said: "No, you're Mexican." Throughout the years, teachers told me the same thing. Now all of a sudden they want me to say I'm an American. (Laughs.) I learned how to speak English and how to fight back. I think the longest time I went to school was two months in one place. I attended, I think, about forty-five schools. When my parents or my brothers didn't find any work, we wouldn't attend school because we weren't sure of staying there. So I missed a lot of school. . . . My children were picking crops, but we saw to it that they went to school. Maybe one or two of the oldest would stay away from school during cotton-picking time around December, so we could earn a little more money to buy food or buy them a pair of shoes or a coat that they needed. But we always wanted them to get an education. I musta been almost eight when I started following the crops. Every winter, up north. I was on the end of the row of prunes, taking care of my younger brother and sister. They would help me fill up the cans and put 'em in a box while the rest of the family was picking the whole row. In labor camps, the houses were just clapboard. There were just nails with two-by-fours around it. The houses had two little windows and a front door. One room, about twelve by fifteen, was a living room, dining room, everything. That was home to us. Eight or nine of us. We had blankets that we rolled up during the day to give us a little place to walk around doing the housework. There was only one bed, which was my grandmother's. A cot. The rest of us slept on the floor. Before that, we used to live in tents, patched tents. Before we had a tent, we used to live under a tree. That was very hard. This is one thing I

MINORITIES 121

hope nobody has to live through. During the winter, the water was just seeping under the ground. Your clothes were never dry. My husband was born in Mexico. He came with his parents when he was two and a half years old. He was irrigating when he was twelve years old, doing a man's work. Twelve hours for a dollar twenty. Ten cents an hour. 1 met him in 1933. Our first year we stayed in the labor camps. All farm workers I know, they're always talking: "If I had my own place, I'd know how to run it. I'd be there all the time. My kids would help me." This is one thing that all Chicano families talked about. We worked the land all our lives, so if we ever owned a piece of land, we knew that we could make it. Mexicans have this thing about a close family, so they wanted to buy some land where they could raise a family. That's what my grandfather kept talkin' about, but his dream was never realized. We followed the crops till around 1966. We went up north around the Sacramento area to pick prunes. We had a big truck, and we were able to take our refrigerator and my washing machine and beds and kitchen pots and pans and our clothing. It wasn't a hardship any more. We wanted our children to pick in the shade, under a tree, instead of picking out in the vines, where it's very hot. When I picked grapes, I could hardly stand it. I felt sorry for twelve-, thirteen-year-old kids. My husband said: "Let's go up north and pick prunes." We stopped migrating when Cesar Chavez formed a union. We became members, and I was the first woman organizer. I organized people everywhere I went. When my husband and I started working under a signed contract, there was no need to migrate after that. .. . We're in very marginal land. We survive by hard work and sacrifices. We're out of the Wcstland district, where the government supplies the water. There's acres and acres of land that if you go out there you can see green from one end to the other, like a green ocean. No houses, nothing. Trees or just cotton and alfalfa. It's land that is irrigated with taxpayers' money. These growers that have been using this water signed a contract that they would sell, within ten years, in small parcels. It's not happening. If the law had been enforced, we could be out there right now. It's the very, very best land. I worked it there. You could grow anything: tomatoes, corn, cantaloupes, vegetables, bell peppers. . .. I'm making it. It's hard work. But I'm not satisfied, not until I see a lot of farm workers settle on their own farms. Then I'll say it's happening. Is America progressing toward the better? No, the country will never do anything for us. We're the ones that are gonna do it. We have to keep on struggling. I feel there's going to be a change. With us, there's a saying: La esperanza muere al ultimo. Hope dies last. You can't lose hope. If you lose hope, that's losing everything. ...
Anglo: Anglo-American descended from an English family. Chavez, Cesar, born 1927, prominent Mexican-American, who organized the migrant farm workers in California into a union and led them- in a long, successful strike against vineyard owners.

122 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

LUCKY OL' SUN DOWNERS


In Sun City, Arizona, they do not grow old as we who are here grow old. Young people can't live there, the hospital has no maternity ward and nobody laughs at a real tryer. PETER BLACK paid a visit
ONE of the irritating things about growing old is that numerous pleasant physical activities, such as sunbathing, wearing bright clothes and sexual collisions, are deemed unsuitable, even for the vigorous. It is felt that the old cut unseemly figures at such pastimes. But this is only when the young are around, doing the same things and showing up the old by looking beautiful. There is something to be said for being able to take off your clothes on the beach without being obliged to make painful comparisons between yourself and the brown-skinned, flatstomached young insolently kicking beach balls about with their hard bare feet. Thinking less crudely along these lines, the ingenious hotel tycoon Del Webb created the first retirement resort town in the world out of 9,000 acres of cotton land 12 miles outside Phoenix, Arizona. ... From a helicopter one would look down on a vast expanse of streets and houses forming concentric circles, crescents, whorls, as regular as thumbprints, interspersed by big splashes of green (golf courses) and little ones of turquoise (pools). Cars move along the streets, overtaking what look like covered wagons without horses. At ground level the streets run between bungalows of varying size, and grandeur, and the covered wagons become golf buggies, luxurious toy versions of the hard necessity of less than a century ago. These things make up a lot of the traffic. One of them could contain a posse of the volunteer sheriff force on routine patrol, unarmed but uniformed, reporting to the county sheriff's office any unusual sight such as a loose dog, a gorilla on a bicycle, a children's nurse wheeling a pram, an alien from space, or a group of young people. Any of those would be equally improbable in this place. They would not fit Del Webb's central idea, that retired folk who wished to enjoy themselves actively would be more contented especially as they grew older, if competitive and potentially irritating age groups were kept way from them. Hence the rules against the young. One spouse in each couple must be at least 50. Residents undertake not to have children of school age living at home. These two regulations are enough to produce the uniformity of age. I asked my guide, tanned and bust-

ling Mildred Toldrin: 'Suppose a 50year-old man brought a 20-year-old wife here?' 'He wouldn't. She'd feel too much out of it.' 'What if she came anyway, and had a baby?' 'She'd think twice about that too, because they'd have to leave. If she wanted a family, she wouldn't want to live in Sun City. It isn't a suitable place for children to live in. They should be with their own age groups, it's not good for them to be always with older people. We've had five births in 18 years, all to visitors passing through.' As a clincher, she added that there were no schools in the city and no maternity wards in the Walter O. Boswell Memorial Hospital. (The Boswell family owned the land.) Mrs Toldrin was an old hand, a resident since 1960, widowed five years ago and energetically involved in promoting the place. She drove me round in one of those comfortable American cars, . . . to the Bell Recreation Centre, where you begin to see the point of Sun City. Ten buildings covered 27 acres. Inside them, well-matured men and women were at play on 19 pool tables, 16 lanes of ten-pin bowling, eight shuffleboards; or exchanging books (40,000 on the shelves) in the library; or up to their armpits in the therapeutic pool; or painting still life, carving wood, firing pottery, turning metal, weaving rugs and baskets, fashioning silver ornaments and sculptures. Outside, the sun beat down on the sun court, with its huge swimming pool, tennis courts and bowling greens. ... When phase one of the even larger Sun City West is complete, some 80,000 elderly people will have chosen this way of life. Similar devel-. opments exist, are being built or planned right across the winter sunshine belt of the US, all of them confidently predicted to earn high profits for their developers. We must assume that either many comfortably off Americans over 50 go barmy, or that these cities offer something older people need and enjoy.

MINORITIES 123

Sun City, Arizona If it seemed sad and bizarre to me at first, and I think these must be part of the first impressions of every visiting European, as though they were being conducted round a kind of Forest Lawn cemetery for the living, it was because the realism of the policy of separation contradicts so bluntly the sentimental picture of ideal old age most of us carry about. In this the old live as part of the family unit, respected for their wisdom and experience, fussed and petted by their grandchildren in whom they see reminders of their own golden time, their presence among the family emphasising how life is a continuing procession. But of course this is all rot, belonging to TV serials like 'The Waltons.' In the real world the old folks who live with their children's families get on everybody's nerves because they keep falling about, stepping on their teeth and glasses, handing out opinions nobody wants to hear; there is argument about which TV channel to watch, who gets the newspaper first, why don't they go for a walk, and must the children play that infernal gramophone. The only way to avoid this fate is to be rich enough to live in a huge house where there is one lavatory for every two residents. Even then the old will irritate the young. 'We enjoy having them as visitors,' said Mrs Toldrin. 'My grandchildren come to see me four times a year. I'm delighted when they come, and I'm delighted when they go. Anyway, there's nothing to stop me going to stay with them if I want to. They don't lock us in here, you know.' . .. There must be a lot to be said for a community where people are sympathetic because they face the same problems of coping with the separations and ailments of age and have a good many interests and challenges in common. It must be a bit like living on campus, except that a then uncertain future has been accomplished. And nobody laughs at anybody. It is one of the pleasant American virtues to admire anyone who has a go. . . . A loner would have a bad time, but a loner wouldn't consider going there. Some over-50s who go to look the place over recoil from the tightly structured life. (The metal-working shop, filled with burly old fellows in blue overalls, reminded me so much of a prison movie that I had to concentrate on asking: 'How long have you been here?' and not: 'How long are you in for?') There is no corner shop or local bar. A keen gardener who wants to raise vegetables rents a plot in the agricultural section. It is slightly against the social ethos of the place to have a private swimming pool. Deed restrictions bar putting up tacky outbuildings. The objective is to keep out untidiness and the unexpected, to combat at all times those lurking enemies of age, boredom and solitude. . .. Yet, as Americans joke about New York, Sun City is a great place to visit but I'd sure hate to live there. . ..

124 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

United States

Where There's Smoke


There's fire these days, as the crusade against public puffing heats up
AT THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, which has a keen sense of law-and-order. smokers now retreat to the photocopy ing rooms in order to relax with a soothing cigarette. And how does that affect working conditions? "We don't do any work here anyway," cracks one bureaucrat. At the Department of Transportation, where things are supposed to move, smokers can puff away in half the rest rooms and corridors, but at the State Department, which has never been known for -hasty decision making, nobody is quite sure where you can do it. "The air hasn't circulated in here in 20 years," sighs an inhabitant of Foggy Bottom who has not stopped lighting up. And at the Internal Revenue Service they are still trying to figure out what to do about both W-4 forms and cigarettes. Says an IRS watcher: "They always smoked compulsively over there." Thus the entire U.S. Government last week lurched into the era of the no-smoking sign. Although each agency head is authorized to designate certain areas for smoking hence the confusion new rules from the General Services Administration now restrict all smoking by the 890,000 federal employees in 6,800 federal buildings. The GSA joined what has become a nationwide crusade against smoking, particularly smoking in public. Indeed, not since Prohibition has the U.S. seen such a widespread attempt to change people's personal habits by regulation. .. . What accounts for such a fast-rising crusade against an activity that was once considered sophisticated and until recently had at least been politely tolerated? One thing that happened was that Betty Carnes, an ornithologist, returned home from a 1969 expedition and found that her best friend, a 29-year-old mother of two, was dying of lung cancer. Her last request to Carnes was to "try to make people aware of the dangers of smoking." Carnes helped persuade the commercial air carriers to begin segregating smokers in the early '70s. In 1973 she spear-headed a movement that prodded the Arizona legislature to pass the first state law limiting smoking in public places. "The time was right," she says now. "People w.ere becoming health conscious. Only thing was the majority of the nonsmokers were afraid to speak out: they thought they were in the minority." Today the leading antismoking crusader is Dr. C. Everett Koop, the bearded U.S. Surgeon General, who in 1984 called for a smoke-free society. Last December he proclaimed that smokers were hurting not just themselves but their nonsmoking neighbors, and cited studies indicating that "sidestream" smoke can be harmful to others. The evidence "clearly documents that nonsmokers are placed at increased risk for developing disease as the result of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke," he said. "The Koop report added enormous impact because it establishes the rationale for corporate liability,' says John Pinney, director of the Institute for the Study of Smoking Behavior and Policy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. "Tobacco is a dangerous substance, and an employer who doesn't do anything is likely to be sued." Says Koop: "We're sort of on a roll. When we first started talking about a smoke-free society, half the country smoked. Today only 29.9% smoke, and of those, 87% want to quit." Leaders of the crusade argue that government involvement is legitimate because the health of nonsmokers is at stake. "It's misguided to think that this is about rights at all," says Mark Pertschuk, the legislative director of Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights, and adds, "I even regret the name of my own organization." Still, smokers are beginning to feel that they are a persecuted minority. . . .

Courtesy of the American Lung Association

Prohibition: the period (1920-33) during which a law was enforced in the U.S., which forbade the manufacture, transportation, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages. Chicano: used of a Mexican American person.

L25

PART C Exercises
1. Interpreting Poems
"I Am The Redman"/"My Lodge"
1. Whom does the Indian poet address in his poem "I Am The Redman" and what is the message he wants to convey? 2. How does the structure of the poem "I Am The Redman" contribute to the poet's aim? 3. Which characteristics of Indian culture can be found in the poems? 4. What tense is the poem "My Lodge" written in and how do you account for the choice of this tense? 5. What do you think the American Indian can teach the white man? 3. Sylvester Monroe is one of the relatively few blacks who managed to get out of the black urban ghetto. Explain how this was facilitated by certain conditions and persons. 4. Why do you think he recalls the fact that he got new clothes at St. George's School? What importance was attached to those new clothes by his former faculty advisor and the other students? 5. Can you account for Mrs Monroe's reaction when her son wanted to leave St. George's School? How must Vest Monroe have felt after his mother's remark? 6. What did he find disquieting and frustrating about the way the whites treated him at St. George's School? What were his objections? 7. What kind of racial discrimination does Sylvester Monroe mention? 8. Have you heard of any examples of racial discrimination in the U.S. that confirm Sylvester Monroe's views?

2. Previewing
Brothers 1. According to the introduction to the "Special Report" of Newsweek, March 23, 1987, what aim did Sylvester Monroe have in mind when writing the report? 2. What do you think is the difference between this report and other reports Sylvester Monroe has written during his career as a journalist? 3. Why did Sylvester Monroe return to the Chicago housing projects with a feeling of ambivalence? 4. What is the exact socioeconomic data which he quotes about the situation of blacks today? He obviously would not have cited those statistics in the introduction if they had not been relevant. What kind of problems do you expect him to talk about in the following report? 5. What other problems do you know that black Americans have to deal with?

4. Comprehension
Jessie de la Cruz 1. It is one of the characteristics of oral history that events are not always reported in chronological order. Scan through the text to find the basic autobiographical data concerning Jessie's family name, maiden name present place of residence age education period of time spent as a migrant worker year of marriage children affiliation to a union. Jessie de la Cruz describes different stages in the living conditions of migrant workers. What stages does she mention and how does she characterize each of them? Describe Jessie de la Cruz's attitude towards America and the American government.

3. Text Analysis
1. Characterize this sort of text. How do the last four paragraphs differ from the rest? 2. Subdivide the text into different sections and find a headline for each section.

126 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

5. Discussion
Lucky 01' Sundowners
1. Which arguments for and against separate cities does Peter Black mention in his article? 2. Point out where Peter Black leaves the position of objective reporting and expresses his personal view. 3. What do you think about the concept of building separate cities for the elderly?

6. Dialogue Practice
Mildred Toldrin, who works for Sun City Information Agency, frequently has to answer phone calls from people who have heard of Sun City and are looking for a place to settle down when they have retired. Simulate such a phone call in which Brian Johnson, a Chicago businessman, aged 60, and his wife Jill, aged 55, are asking for information. They have made some notes beforehand in order not to forget the following important points: climate houses for sale sites available for a fairly luxurious bungalow plus swimming pool medical and therapeutical care opportunities to take part in social life Brian's hobbies: golf, woodwork and metalwork, gardening Jill's hobbies: swimming, tennis, pottery school for granddaughter Julia (her parents are planning to go to East Asia on business for half a year and have asked the grandparents to look after Julia during that time).

4. New restrictive regulations by the General Service Administration drastically reduce smoking in federal buildings. 5. Not even during prohibition did regulations try to interfere so much with people's personal habits. 6. The campaign against smoking was started in the 1970s by Betty Carnes, an ornithologist, who later died of lung cancer. 7. Betty Carnes was one of the first to successfully persuade the airlines to restrict smoking to special sections of the aircraft. 8. The present crusade, led by the U.S. Surgeon General, places special emphasis on the effect that smoking has on non-smokers. 9. According to the Koop report, employees can be sued if they do not follow the regulations. 10. Only 13 percent of all Americans who smoke do not think of giving it up.

8. Discussion
The American campaign against smoking makes smokers feel like a "persecuted minority." Compare the use of the term "minority" here with that of the other texts of this unit. Do you think smoking should be restricted in your country?

9. Interpreting a Cartoon
Interpret the following cartoon. ^_
THANKYOU FOR NOT SMOKING

7. Comprehension Where There's Smoke


Which of the following statements are true and which are false? Correct the false ones. 1. Employees at the Department of Justice hardly do any work at all. 2. Fifty percent of all restrooms and corridors at the Department of Transportation are free from smoke. 3. Employees at the State Department are not allowed to smoke at work.

"This weekend, I thought I'd pop over to Vegas and grab a smoke.

8 The Changing Bole

of Women

PART A Background Information


STATISTICS REVEAL Comparable statistics over the past years indicate important changes that have CHANGES FOR occurred in the employment rates, education levels, and family roles and WOMEN expectations of American women. More women are entering the labor force. In 1940 only 27.4 percent of all American women worked outside the home. By 1970 the figure had risen to 42.6 and by 1986, 54.7 percent. Projections indicate that by 1990 women will constitute more than half of the American labor force. More women have been attaining higher education levels. In 1960, of all persons aged 25 and older who had been in college four or more years, 39 percent were women. By 1975, the proportion had grown to 41 percent, and it reached 45 percent by 1980. Women are having fewer children. In the 1950s, the average mother had 3 or 4 children. In the 1980s, the average mother has 1 or 2 children. More young women are single. In 1970, the proportion of women from 25 to 29 who had never married was 10.5 percent. By 1985, the proportion of single (never-married) women between those ages was 26.4 percent. Women are marrying at a later age. The median age of females at first marriage rose from 20.6 in 1970 to 22.5 in 1983. Opinion polls reveal that women's attitudes toward family roles and child rearing are changing: The majority of women no longer favor traditional marriages. In 1974, 49 percent of American women said they favored traditional marriages in which the husband is the money-earner and the wife the homemaker and child rearer; however, in 1985, 57 percent of women were convinced that a better marriage is one in which the husband and wife share responsibilities of careers, housekeeping, and child rearing. Couples want to have fewer children. In 1941, when men and women were asked what they considered the ideal number of children to have in a family, the median ideal number was 3.7. That number dropped to 2.8 in 1986. These statistics on demographics and attitudes indicate that the role of women in American society is changing. Marriage and motherhood are no

128 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

SEX DISCRIMINATION

THE MODERN FEMINIST MOVEMENT

LEGISLATION FOR EQUALITY

PROFESSIONAL WOMEN

longer perceived as a woman's only areas of responsibility. Women now compete with men for professional training, employment, leadership positions, and political power. For many years, discriminatory laws and practices barred women from entering male-dominated spheres. Feminists have drawn attention to inequalities between the sexes and have succeeded in breaking down many of the barriers that kept women from professional and economic advancement. Although inequalities still exist, American women have many more rights than they did a hundred years ago. During the nineteenth century, women did not have many of the legal rights they take for granted today. They were not allowed to vote, buy liquor, hold certain jobs, file lawsuits on their own behalf, or retain custody of their children after a divorce. These laws were seen as necessary on the basis of "romantic paternalism," a concept held by men in power that it was their duty to protect women. This attitude persisted despite the women suffragists' campaign for the vote and other freedoms. Although the women's suffrage movement began in the 1830s, it was not until 1920 that a constitutional amendment was ratified, giving women the right to vote. In more recent decades, women have secured many rights as a result of the modern feminist movement, which gained momentum in the 1960s. When Betty Friedan (born 1921) wrote The Feminine Mystique in 1963, declaring that motherhood and housekeeping do not provide the fulfillment women want, she articulated a discontent that many women of her generation were feeling. With this book, Friedan became the standard bearer of the modern feminist movement. In 1966 she founded the National Organization for Women (NOW). Feminists demanded greater access to jobs and political power, equal pay for equal work, and an end to the condescending way in which men often treated women. The women's movement has helped bring about legislation that ensures greater equality of the sexes. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 guarantees that men and women filling the same jobs will receive the same pay. Job discrimination on the basis of sex was prohibited by the Equal Rights Act of 1964. In 1972, Congress barred gender-based discrimination in all federally supported education programs. The same Congress passed a law making it easier for women to qualify for loans and mortgages. A 1978 amendment to the Civil Rights Act protects pregnant women from job discrimination. Legislation prohibiting sex discrimination has benefited many women, especially those in professional or technical fields. Women have entered many male-dominated professions. In 1980 over 8 percent of the graduates of military academies for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard were women. More and more women are training to become accountants, doctors, or lawyers and are filling other high-salaried positions. In 1960 women made up only 16.4 percent of the nation's accountants, 3.3 percent of the lawyers and judges, and 6.8 percent of the doctors. By 1980 the proportion of women in these high-paid professions had risen considerably: 36.2 percent of the accountants, 12.8 percent of the lawyers and judges, and 13.4 percent of the physicians were women. Women are securing more leadership positions in business and industry.

THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN

129

Women in Institutional Leadership Positions, 1970 and 1980 TOTAL NUMBER OF POSITIONS3 Industry Banking Utilities Insurance Law Investments Mass media Foundations Universities Civic and Cultural Government Military Total 1970 1,543 1,189
476 362

NUMBER OF WOMEN 1970


3 2 0 3 12 3 9 9 11 70 10 0 132

PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN 1970 0.2


0.2 0 0.8 1.1 0.7 4.2 7.4 2.1

1980 1,499 1,095


668 783

1980
36 25 29 9 23 5 16 59 51

1980
2.4 2.3 4.3

1,076
417 213 121 656 438 227 24

6,733

1,259 550 235 402 481 536 258 17 7,783


a

1.1

1.8 0.9 6.8

14.7 10.6
9.0 7.7 0 4.1

45 20 0 318

16.0
2.5 0 1.9

Presidents, all corporate directors including officer-directors; senior partners in law and investment firms; governing trustees of foundations, universities, and civic and cultural organizations; secretaries, undersecretaries and assistant secretaries of federal executive branch, senior White House advisors, congressional leaders, and Supreme Court justices; four-star generals and admirals on active duty.

WOMEN IN POLITICS

Although woman's share of political representation is still small, the election or appointment of a woman to political office is becoming more common. Sandra Day O'Connor (born 1930) became the first female Supreme Court justice in 1981, and in 1984, Geraldine Ferraro (born 1935) made history when she ran on the Democratic ticket as the vice-presidential candidate.

25

Recent Increases in Women Elected Officials: Congress and State Legislatures

Women in the U.S. Congress Percentage of women state legislators

1971

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

130 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

PROGRESS FOR WOMEN

PERSISTENT DISPARITIES EARNINGS GAP

In addition to these professional and political gains, the heightened awareness of women's rights has brought progress in other areas. Corporations have redressed past sex discrimination by providing compensatory back pay to female employees. Federal agencies and other institutions have officially adopted non-sexist language. For example, the word "chairperson" replaces "chairman," and "mail carrier" is used instead of "mailman." In the area of education and scholarship, women's history has emerged as a new field of study. Within this discipline, scholars are reexamining the events of America's political and social history from a feminist perspective. Despite the progress the women's movement has achieved in many areas, many goals have not been reached, and new conflicts have surfaced. Discrimination and inequalities still persist. Even after the adoption of legislation such as the Equal Pay Act, the difference in earnings between men and women has not changed in more than forty years. On average, working women still earn only two thirds of the average male salary.
of Full-Time Women Workers as

Median Annual Earnings

Percentage of Men's Earnings (selected years 1955-1985) Annual 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 63.9 60.8 60.0 59.4 58.8 60.2 58.9 59.7 60.0 60.2 59.2 61.7 63.6 63.7 64.7

EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT

Even when men and women are doing similar work, the gap in earnings is wide. For example, although 81 percent of all elementary school teachers are women, the median teacher's salary is higher for males than for females. On average, female college graduates continue to earn less than male high school dropouts. While professional women have benefited from the new legislation regarding hiring and promotion practices, they represent a minority: most women are still paid less for equal work. The women's movement suffered a major setback when the states failed to ratify a constitutional amendment to guarantee equal rights to all, regardless of sex. Feminists argued that the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) would simplify the legal enforcement of equal rights and would provide more uniform legal protection for women. This amendment, however, encountered strong opposition from both men and women who vehemently disagreed with the goals and

THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 131

ANTI-FEMINISTS

PREDICAMENT OF WORKING WOMEN

assumptions of the women's movement. Well-known anti-feminists Phyllis Schlafly (born 1924) and Midge Decter (born 1927) argued that the ERA would disrupt family life, encourage homosexual marriages, and take away women's exemption from the draft. These anti-feminists defended traditional role divisions and asserted that taking care of children, husband, and household was rewarding. According to anti-feminists, the insistence on fulfillment through work and on equality with men in all spheres has placed a strain on the family. Furthermore, it has left women with the double burden of family and career. Some feminists, including Betty Friedan, have acknowledged the predicament of working women. It is difficult for a professional woman to become highly successful if she must divide her energies between duties at home and those at work. Women who choose a successful career instead of a family sometimes wish they could have both. Many women who do manage both careers and families complain they are overworked. In some families, working husbands and wives share the housekeeping and child-rearing duties. But statistics continue to show that most working women still do a greater share of the housework than their husbands. Arranging and affording child care is another burden on working parents. Day care centers for pre-school-age children are often expensive. Some corporations are responding to women's needs by adapting the workplace to meet the demands of working mothers. Some factories and companies now run child-care nurseries on their premises. In addition, many companies and federal agencies have established a new system of working hours called "flex time," which allows workers to arrange starting, quitting, and lunch hours according to individual and family needs. Many people feel that solutions such as these need to be more broadly instituted to relieve pressure on women and families.

132

PART Texts

SECOND THOUGHTS ON HAVING IT ALL


by TONY SCHWARTZ
WICE during the past month, colleagues approached 38-year-old Rebecca Murray and volunteered identical assessments of her life: "You are the woman who has everything," they told her. The notion staggered Rebecca. "I have never, ever thought of myself that way," she says. But it's not hard to see what her co-workers had in mind. For the past eighteen years, Rebecca has been married to the same man Robert, now 42 - and their marriage remains strong. Their five-year-old daughter is pretty and bright. Rebecca works as a records manager for a large financial institution and earns $40,000 a year - with plenty of potential to move up. Robert makes $43,000 a year as the business manager for a publishing house. Freelance writing brings in another $5,000 a year. He is a novelist, and although his advances have been small so far, that could change with a single success. The Murrays' combined income of nearly $90,000 is more than four times the salary earned last year by Robert's father, a construction supervisor in Florida, and a lot of money by nearly any standard. What's more, they pay just $450 a month for a rent-stabilized apartment on a pretty street on the Upper West Side. Among other things, they can afford the $8,500 a year it costs to send their daughter to a private day-care center where the ratio of children to teachers is four to one. But none of this compensates for what Rebecca feels is missing in her life. "Time," she says. "I don't have enough time for my child. I don't have enough time for myself, and I never have enough time for my husband. He gets whatever I have left at the end of each day, and usually that's nothing. I don't want to leave my child in the mornings - and she doesn't want me to go. I'm fine once I get to work, but once the day starts winding down, I get very anxious to rush to my kid. I can't wait, I want to be there in a second, and sometimes the subway is interminable. At the same time, I'm aware that I'm looking at an evening that's not going to be relaxing. Realistically, I'm facing three more hours of work the child care and I've already put in a full day at the office." Rebecca reached her breaking point on a subway during rush hour last summer. "I was standing on this miserable, crowded, hot train," she remembers, "coming from a job that doesn't give me all that much pleasure, to pick up my child, who'd been away from me the whole day, to go home to an apartment so small that my husband and I sleep in the living room on a futon mattress." That night, Rebecca made a decision. "There's such a thing as quality of life," she told her husband, "and this isn't it." . ..

THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 133

The Choices That

Brought Me Here
by Amanda Spake

M
A MONEY TO SECUR YOUR FU How Much Do You Make Other Nosy PLUSOur Guide

SPECIAL ISSUE: SMART MONEY

OPRAH, INC.

Mogul with A Mission

Recently, I went to an all-female dinner party in Washington on the occasion of a visit to town by Frances Farley, a woman with the important but unenviable task of running for Congress in the State of Utah. As Frances impressed the crowd with her tales of fighting a pro-ERA campaign in a Mormon state, my ear tuned in to a conversation about a different sort of modern female dilemma. "But do you really want to get married?" one woman asked a friend of mine. "I wouldn't mind," my friend responded sarcastically. "But I'm about to give up. I don't think there's a man left out there for me." This woman is a successful television reporter

for a primetime news show. She is attractive, well educated, and highly paid, respected in her field, 35 years old, and she has that same bitter tinge in her voice I've heard so often among a certain group of women. My group, to be specific. ... They are successful, achievement-oriented women, bom in the 1940s and early 1950s. Most of us came to adulthood in the 1960s and discovered the key to a "meaningful life" was not necessarily marriage. As one woman put it, "When I was growing up, having a husband and family was absolutely irrefutable, assumed for all women. The 'extra' that we would try for, was to have a career." We baby boomers were unique in that we were the first generation of American women to accept, on a mass scale, the awful truth that the traditional female roles we had been raised to emulate, wife and mother, would not be enough to sustain our lives - emotionally or economically. So we have developed a new set of nontraditional female values ambition, competitiveness, assertiveness, and the will to win values that fit neatly into our struggle for "meaningful work". I call it feminist determinism. . . . As it turns out, women's new marketplace values are antithetical to building the solid, interpersonal relationships between women and men we took for granted. Men, society, and often women themselves, still expect women to embody primarily "feminine" values - cooperation, nurturance, and impulse to yield. These are the same values traditionally used by women to attract, create, and sustain long-term relationships with men our own age. Men, that is, whose own interpersonal values and their resulting expectations about women - changed very little.
...

Mormon state: here: Utah, where the Mormon Church is predominant. It was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 and called itself the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints."

134 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

How to have a successful Christian Family


by Jerry Falwell
The greatest heritage Christian parents leave their children is the love and training they receive in a Christian home. Apart from our devotion to Christ, my wife, Macel, and I love and live for our children. Everything we talk about and plan around is for their benefit and welfare. The longer we live, the more we want to invest in them. They mean everything to us. Our first obligation is to rear godly children, for it is God who gave them to us. The greatest desire of our hearts for our children is that they each find God's will and live in it all their days. Families in search of religious freedom, determined to work and enjoy the fruits of their labor, tamed this wild continent and built the highest living standard in the world. Families educating their children in moral principles have carried on the traditions of this free republic. Historically the greatness of America can be measured in the greatness of her families. But in the past 20 years a tremendous change has taken place. There has been and continues to be a vicious assault upon the American family. More television programs depict homes of divorced or single parents than depict the traditional family. Nearly every major family-theme TV program openly justifies divorce, homosexuality, and adultery. Increased divorce has broken family loyalty, unity, and communications, with increased insecurity in children who are the victims. Many such children harden themselves to the possibility of real love, for fear they will be hurt again. ... A commentator from a major network once asked me, "What right do you Baptists have to promote your ideas about the family being the acceptable style for all of humanity?" I replied that it was not Baptists who started the family; it was God Almighty, and He is not a Baptist. The family is that basic unit that God

established, not only to populate but also .to control and contain the earth. The happiest people on earth are those who are part of homes and families where they are loved and shielded. When I have had a long, hard day, often in a hostile environment, it is great to walk into my home and know that there I will find my wife and children, who love me. Home is a haven to which I run from the troubles of this world. I am for the family. I am committed to helping families win the undeclared war that is ravaging American homes. Each family is a battleground for the conflict going on today. The consequences of defeat are tragic. In the war against the family today, the first weapon is the cult of the playboy; men (they say) do not have to be committed to their wives and children, but should be some kind of "cool, free swingers". Sexual promiscuity has become the lifestyle of America. Men satisfy their lustful desires at the expense of their families. No nation has ever been stronger than the families within her. When the family begins to falter, when that basic Christian unit is destroyed, we are on the precipice of real peril. ... No wonder we are raising up a generation of children with no respect for authority, civil or otherwise. They have been reared in homes where there is no authority and in which there is no guidance or leadership. Children need love, discipline, and parental example. When they grow up without ever learning what the Bible has to say, without ever learning what prayer is, and without ever having been brought into and trained by a good, Bible-believing, soulwinning local church, they become weak people who in turn reproduce weak homes. Another weapon against the family is the feminist revolution, the counterreaction to the cult of the playboy. Women say, "Why should I be taken advantage of by chauvinists? I will get out and do my own thing. I will stand up for my rights." Feminists say that self-satisfaction is more important than the family. Many women who lead in the feminist movement promote an immoral lifestyle. More than half the women in this country are currently employed. Our nation is in serious danger when motherhood is considered a task that is "unrewarding, unfulfilling, and boring". A woman's call to be a wife and mother is the highest calling in the world. My wife is proud to be called a housewife. She does not consider her lifework of making my life happy and of loving and shaping the lives of our precious children inconsequential or demeaning. Women who choose to remain in the home should never feel inferior to those working outside, but should know they are fulfilling God's command for the home. ...

THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 135

Families
Changing Faces Of Families
The profile of American families is rapidly changing. Over the past 15 years, the percentage of children under 18 living in families with three or more children has dropped by more than half. At the same time, the percentage of children living in female-headed households has almost doubled.
75 50 25

Three or more children

One child

Living with two parents

Living in female-headed household

Households: More . . . but Smaller


The U.S. population increased by 17 percent between 1970 and 1985. But the number of households grew more than twice as fast increasing 37 percent over the 15year period. The reason: more people are living alone and in smaller family units. The average number of people per household has dropped from 3.11 in 1970 to 2.75 in 1980 - to 2.69 in 1985.

Number of Households, 1970-1985


1970 63.4 Million 1985 86.8 Million

Other households (includes people living alone)

Singles: More ..

75

and Longer
o l d Percent Never Married, 1970 1982 25-29 Males 30-34 2 0 2 4 y e a r s 20-24 25-29 Females

A major reason why we have more and smaller households is 50 that there are more unmarried and more divorced adults. And people are marrying later. 25 In 1982, the Census Bureau reports, more than half of all women 20 to 24 years old had never been married. That same year, 23 percent of women aged 25 to 29 had never been married up from just 11 percent in 1970.

1970

30-34

1982

136 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

For Middle-Aged Man, A Wife's New Career Upsets Old Balances


Her Outside Preoccupation Can Leave Him Isolated At Time of More Leisure 'Might as Well be Roommate'
BY MARY BRALOVE 11/9/81

HUSBAND'S HAZARD

erbert Gleason's wife tried to warn him, but he was too busy to pay much mind. "I kept thinking nothing was going to change," the Boston attorney recalls. He was dead wrong. From a comfortable life in which Mr. Gleason's career success was balanced neatly by his wife's full-time support as homemaker, the Gleason family abruptly changed course. At age 39, after a 10-year hiatus, Nancy Gleason resumed her career as a psychiatric counselor. Quite unexpectedly, the emotional sands beneath the marriage shifted. "I really didn't anticipate how it would affect our attitudes toward each other." Herb Gleason says of his wife's return to her career eight years ago. "I thought she'd always be there just like before supportive, adjusting to my needs." For middle-aged men like Mr. Gleason, trying to accommodate to a wife's new career can be a confusing, bruising experience. These men are of a generation in which marriage was typically a one-provider, one-homemaker effort, not a professional joint venture. They are of an age when change tends to come gradually and predictably, not suddenly. And although the problems of younger two-career couples have been well-chronicled, these men of a different generation are left to flounder on their own.

THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 137

5. continued
"Difficult Transition" "People talk about women's problems all the time, but the adaptive stress men undergo when their wives take on a career has been virtually lost sight of," says Preston Munter, a psychiatric consultant to Itek Corp. "Even if you could postulate an ideal man and an ideal marriage, this would be a difficult transition to make." Although it may be cold comfort, an increasing number of men are attempting to negotiate such transitions. Today 24.5 million wives, or roughly 50% of the nation's married women, are working or looking for work. Some 6.2 million of them are between 35 and 44 years old, and a large portion of these are housewives who have only recently started new careers or revived old ones. As these homemakers seek out their professional fortunes, their husbands are left behind to struggle with a welter of conflicting emotions. They are proud of their wives' work accomplishments, yet are impatient with the demands of their wives' new jobs. They are grateful that their wives are financially self-sufficient, yet they resent their newfound independence. "I was the sole breadwinner, and then all of a sudden she could take care of herself," recalls Al Graubard, whose wife embarked on an airline career at age 46. "I felt deflated," he says. "She could get along without me. But in a way it was a relief. After all, I had been the only one bringing in the outside world."

Expressing Pain

Just how successfully an older man adjusts to his wife's pursuit of a career depends on such variables as the underlying strength of the marriage, each spouse's personality and the nature of the two careers. Yet the metamorphosis of homemaker into breadwinner sends tremors through every relationship. "The marriage for the man provided his one big outlet for expressing dependency, emotion and vulnerability," says Elizabeth Douvan, the director of the University of Michigan's Family and Sex Roles Program. "The wife, however, isn't as available for him." Mrs Douvan, who has conducted national surveys on Americans' attitudes and concerns, adds: "What we're seeing is men expressing a lot more unhappiness and pain."

138

AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

5. continued
While men may vent their feelings to a pollster, they are far more reticent when pressed to explain the sources of their discontent. Most agree it has little to do with sharing household chores. Tentatively, they speak instead of a newfound sense of isolation: of an emotional separation from a preoccupied wife who now seems to be more involved with the world than with husband, home and children. ... Many men are ill-equipped to grapple with the emotional ambiguities of an evolving relationship. "Men find it incredibly difficult to talk about feelings," says Marjorie Shaevitz, the co-director of the Institute for Family and Work Relationships in La Jolla, Calif. "They live lives of quiet desperation and isolation." Indeed, their silence on the subject is sometimes heartbreakingly eloquent. Asked about the adjustment he underwent when his wife returned to work, a New York oil executive begs off with the excuse of a heavy workload. Finally, after a long, still moment, he says quietly: "Look, I'll be honest with you. It's just too painful for me to talk about it."

"Honey, Pm home!"

"Honey, Pm home!"

139

PART C
1. Scanning

Exercises
5. Today this group of women finds that a) they can build up more solid relationships between men and women. b) men still seem to prefer the traditional "feminine" values in women. c) society still does not accept women as equal partners of men.

Second Thoughts on Having It All


Other people's assessments of Rebecca Murray's life are obviously not identical with her own. Find arguments in the text which support the notion of "Having it all," on the one hand, and "What is missing," on the other.

2. Comprehension
The Choices That Brought Me Here
Which way of completing each of the following sentences agrees with the original text? Some sentences may be completed in more than one way. 1. Frances Farley, a woman running for Congress in the state of Utah, a) impressed the Mormons. b) gave an all-female dinner-party in Washington. c) had a hard time fighting for equal rights for women in Utah. 2. A 35-year-old successful female television reporter a) does not think of getting married. b) would like to get married. c) is somewhat frustrated because she has not yet managed to find a man she could marry. 3. Quite a number of women born in the 1940s and early 1950s discovered that they could find a meaningful life a) only outside marriage. b) only in marriage. c) also in a career. 4. According to Amanda Spake, this group of feminists a) considered the traditional female roles of wife and mother to be too emotional. b) fought for new female values that were traditionally associated with men. c) were determined to be mothers and wives, on the one hand, and successful career women, on the other.

3. Comprehension
How to Have a Successful Christian Family
Number the paragraphs following Falwell's assumption that "the greatest heritage Christian parents leave their children is the love and training they receive in a Christian home" and match each statement below with the paragraph it summarizes. a) Anti-authoritarian education leads to the decay of the American family. b) God made the family the basic unit of society. c) Great families have traditionally been the source of American greatness. d) The high percentage of working mothers leads to a perverted image of motherhood. e) Love and shelter in families produce happy people. f) The playboy cult destroys the American family. g) The feminist movement, which regards selffulfillment higher than a family, destroys the traditional family. h) Conflict and undeclared war destroy the traditional family, i) The importance of the family has been undermined in recent years, j) The greatest concern for the author and his wife is the love of their children.

140 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

4. Functional Analysis
It is the author's aim to convince the reader of the importance of his initial assumption. The paragraphs of the text either support the assumption indicate how the assumption has been endangered lately give reasons for that danger. Determine which paragraph serves which function.

6. Discussion

I I

5. Reading Statistics
Families Which of the following statements are true and which are false? Correct the false ones. 1. There were about twice as many American families with three or more children in 1985 as there had been in 1970. 2. In 1985 almost twice as many children lived in female-headed households as in 1970. 3. Between 1970 and 1985 the number of children living with two parents decreased. 4. Within those 15 years the number of American households grew in proportion to the increase in population. 5. One reason for more households is the decrease in family size. 6. Another reason for more households lies in the tendency of people to marry at a later age. 7. In 1982 fewer women than men were married between the age of 20 and 24. 8. The increase of households other than families is at least partly due to the fact that men and women marry later.

i li ii
W-Xyesrs 27-36years 37-Kyms 47-56years 57 years arm over

j!g| It is more important for a wife to help her ' husband's career than to have one herself It is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever '""' outside the home and the woman takes care of home and family A working mother can establish just as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who does not work
Source: Surveys by NORC-GSS, 1985 and 1986 combined

Reprinted with permission of American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research

How do you account for the divergent answers to the opinion polls among different age groups? How does the role of women in your country relate to the roles described in the texts of this unit? How do you think the role of women should be defined?

THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN 141

7. Comprehension
For Middle-Aged Man, A Wife's New Career Upsets Old Balances
1. How are the traditional roles of husband and wife described in the text? 2. To what extent does the situation in 1981 correspond with these traditional role patterns? 3. What is the impact of a wife's new career on her husband's life? 4. Does, from a husband's point of view, a wife's new career also include positive aspects? 5. Why is it particularly difficult for a middleaged husband to cope with the changing role of his wife?

9 The Political System


PART A
FORM OF GOVERNMENT

Background Information
The United States is a representative democracy . All government power rests ultimately with the people, who direct policies by voting for government representatives. The nation's constitution defines the powers of national and state governments, the functions and framework of each branch of government, and the rights of individual citizens. All public officials of the national as well as state governments must swear to abide by the Constitution , which was created to protect the democratic interests of the people and government. The principle of limited government is basic to the Constitution. When the Constitution was first written about two hundred years ago, many Americans feared that government power could become concentrated in the hands of a few. Several features were created to guard against this possibility: 1) the federal organization of government; 2) the separation of powers among different branches of government; and 3) a system of checks and balances to restrict the powers of each branch. Under federalism, the principle of limited government was achieved by dividing authority between the central government and the individual states. The federal (national) government has powers over areas of wide concern. ( ) , ( ) For example, it has the power to control communications among states, borrow money, provide for the national defense, and declare war. The states possess those powers which are not given to the national government. For example, each state establishes its own criminal justice system, public schools, and marriage and divorce laws. There are certain powers, called concurrent powers, which both the federal and state government share. Examples include the power to tax, set up courts, and charter banks. ,

LIMITED GOVERNMENT
; )

FEDERALISM

SEPARATION OF POWERS LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

Besides the division of power between state and national governments, power is also limited by the separation of power among three branches legislative, executive, and judicial. In the United States, each branch has a separate function. The function of the legislative branch is to make laws. The legislative branch is made up of representatives elected to Congress. Congress is comprised of two groups, called houses: the House of Representatives (the House) and the Senate. L aw ma k ers fro m a ll of th e s ta tes are e le c ted to s erv e in the Hou s e of

Representatives.

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 143

DIVISION OF POWERS

) POWERS OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT To regulate foreign trade and commerce between states To borrow and coin money To conduct foreign relations with other nations To establish post offices and roads To raise and support armed forces To declare war and make peace To govern territories and admit new states To pass naturalization laws and regulate immigration To make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its powers CONCURRENT POWERS To collect taxes To borrow money To establish and maintain courts To make and enforce laws To provide for the health and welfare of the people POWERS RESERVED TO STATE GOVERNMENTS To regulate trade within the state To establish local governments To conduct elections To determine voter qualification To establish and support public schools To incorporate business firms To license professional workers To ratify amendments To keep all the "reserved powers" ; , ( ) not granted to the national government nor prohibited to the states POWERS DENIED TO STATE GOVERNMENTS To coin money To enter into treaties To tax agencies of the federal government To tax imports or exports

POWERS DENIED TO THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT To tax exports To suspend writ of habeas corpus
/ To change state

POWERS DENIED TO BOTH NATIONAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS To pass ex post facto laws To pass bills of attainder
To deny due

boundaries without consent of states involved To abridge t he Bill of Rights

process of law To grant titles of nobility


HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW

The number of representatives each state sends to the House depends upon the number of districts in each state. Each district chooses one representative. The number of districts in each state is determined by population. The most heavily populated states have more districts and, therefore, more representatives than the sparsely populated states. There are currently 435 representatives in the House. Each representative is elected to a two-year term. The Senate is the smaller of the two bodies. Each state, regardless of population, has two senators. The senatorial term is six years. Every two years, one third of the Senate stands for election. Each house of Congress is engaged in making laws, and each may initiate legislation. A law first begins as a "bill." Once a bill is introduced, it is sent to the appropriate committee. Each house of Congress has committees which specialize in a particular area of legislation, such as foreign affairs, defense,

144 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

EXECUTIVE BRANCH

POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT

JUDICIAL BRANCH

CHECKS AND BALANCES

banking, and agriculture. When a bill is in committee, members study it and then send it to the Senate or House chamber where it was first introduced. After a debate, the bill is voted on. If it passes, it is sent to the other house where it goes through a similar process. The Senate may reject a bill proposed in the House of Representatives or add amendments. If that happens, a "conference committee" made up of members from both houses tries to work out a compromise. If both sides agree on the new version, the bill is sent to the president for his signature. At this point, the bill becomes a law. The executive branch of government is responsible for administering the laws passed by Congress. The president of the United States presides over the executive branch. He is elected to a four-year term and can be re-elected to a second term. The vice-president, who is elected with the president, is assigned only two constitutional duties. The first is to preside over the Senate. However, the vice-president may vote only in the event of a tie . The second duty is to assume the presidency if the president dies, becomes disabled, or is removed from office. The Constitution gives the president many important powers. As chief executive, the president appoints secretaries of the major departments that make up the president's cabinet. Today there are 13 major departments in the executive branch: the Departments of State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, and Education. As chief executive, the president also appoints senior officials of the many agencies in the expansive bureaucracy. As head of state, the president represents the country abroad, entertains , foreign leaders, and addresses the public. As director of foreign policy, he appoints foreign ambassadors and makes treaties with other nations. The president also serves as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and as head of his political party. In the United States, the president and legislature are elected separately, housed separately, and they operate separately. This division is a unique feature of the American system. In the parliamentary systems that operate in most western democracies, the national leader, or prime minister, is chosen by the parliament. The third branch of government is the judicial branch, which is headed by the Supreme Court. Under the Supreme Court, there are many state and federal courts. An important function of the judicial branch is to determine whether laws of Congress or actions of the president violate the Constitution. The structure and functions of the judicial system are discussed more thoroughly in Unit 6. The division of government power among three separate but equal branches provides for a system of checks and balances. Each branch checks or limits the power of the other branches. For example, although Congress makes laws, the president can veto them. Even if the president vetoes a law, Congress may check the president by overriding his veto with a two-thirds vote. The Supreme Court can overturn laws passed by Congress and signed by the president. The selection of federal and Supreme Court judges is made by the other two branches. The president appoints judges, but the Senate reviews his candidates and has the power to reject his choices. With this system of checks and balances, no branch of government has superior power.

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

145

Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances

The President
Executive office of the president; executive and cabinet departments; independent government agencies

EXECUTIVE

Congress can change laws; initiate a constitutional amendment; restrict jurisdiction of courts to hear certain types of cases; create whole new court systems or abolish existing ones; expand or contract times and places that federal courts sit The Senate must confirm the president's judicial appointments; Congress can impeach and remove judges from office The Court can declare laws unconstitutional

The Congress HouseSenate


May reject each other's bills

The Supreme Court of the United States


Circuit Court of Appeals of the United States District Court

LEGISLATIVE

JUDICIAL

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION

By dividing power among the three branches of government, the Constitution effectively ensures that government power will not be usurped by a small powerful group or a few leaders. The basic framework of American government is described in the Constitution. However, there are other features of the political system, not mentioned in the Constitution, which directly and indirectly influence American politics. Groups and individuals have a variety of ways they can exert pressure and try to influence government policy. Many people write letters to elected officials expressing their approval or disapproval of a political decision. People sometimes circulate petitions or write letters to editors of newspapers and magazines to try to influence politicians. Organized interest groups, however, can generally exert influence much more effectively than can isolated individuals.

146 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

INTEREST GROUPS

LOBBYISTS

POLITICAL PARTY SYSTEM TWO-PARTY SYSTEM

MINOR PARTIES

Interest groups are organized by people who want to influence public policy decisions on special issues. There are many different types of interest groups in the United States. The largest organizations are labor unions, such as the AFL-CIO; business groups, such as the United States Chamber of Commerce; farm groups, such as the National Farmers' Union; and professional groups, such as the American Medical Association. There are many issue-oriented groups with broad concerns such as the environment, civil rights, and peace. Some interest groups focus on narrow issues such as the preservation of historic buildings or the control of neighborhood crime. What all the various interest groups have in common is the desire to sway public opinion and political policy. The press, radio, and television are the most obvious media through which interest groups may influence voters and politicians. Members of interest groups also write letters to government officials, make telephone calls, hold public meetings, and sponsor newspaper advertisements. To exert direct pressure on legislators in Washington or in state capitals, a major interest group may employ a professional lobbyist. A lobbyist, generally a lawyer or former legislator, is someone who not only specializes in the interest he or she represents, but also possesses an insider's view of the lawmaking process. Lobbyists work for interest groups by keeping them informed about proposed legislation and by talking to decision-makers about their group's concerns. The term lobbyist often has a negative connotation. Public officials and others sometimes resent lobbyists' interference. Yet lobbyists fulfill vital functions. Besides voicing the concerns of a special group in society, they fulfill important needs of decision-makers. Legislators and their staff frequently turn to lobbyists for valuable data they would otherwise have to gather themselves. During the committee stage in the legislative process, for instance, lobbyists are invited to appear before congressional committees to provide advice and information, albeit one-sided, which will help the committee make a decision. While they are not mentioned in the Constitution, organized interest groups and their lobbyists play a significant role in American democracy. The political party system is another important part of the political scene which is not described in the Constitution. Historically, three features have characterized the party system in the United States: 1) two major parties alternating in power; 2) lack of ideology; and 3) lack of unity and party discipline. The United States has had only two major parties throughout its history. When the nation was founded, two political groupings emerged-the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Since then, two major parties have alternated in power. For over one hundred years, America's two-party system has been dominated by the Democratic and Republican Parties. Neither party, however, has ever completely dominated American politics. On the national level, the majority party in Congress has not always been the same as the party of the president. Even in years when one party dominated national politics, the other party retained much support at state or local levels. Thus, the balance between the Democrats and Republicans has shifted back and forth. While minor parties, also called "third parties," have appeared from time to time, and continue to appear, they have been conspicuous in their inability to attract enough voters to enable them to assume power. Occasionally, a third

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

147

MAJORITY PARTIES IN CONGRESS AND PARTY OF THE PRESIDENT, 1861-1983


Years

House
R R R R R R R D D D R D D D R D D R R R R R R R R D D D D R R R R

Senate President
R R R R R R R R R D R R R R R R D R R R R R R R R R D D D R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R D D R R D D R R R R R R R R D D D D R R R

1861-1863 1863-1865 1865-1867 1867-1869 1869-1871 1871-1873 1873-1875 1875-1877 1877-1879 1879-1881 1881-1883 1883-1885 1885-1887 1887-1889 1889-1891 1891-1893 1893-1895 1895-1897 1897-1899 1899-1901 1901-1903 1903-1905 1905-1907 1907-1909 1909-1911 1911-1913 1913-1915 1915-1917 1917-1919 1919-1921 1921-1923 1923-1925 1925-1927

Years 1927-1929 1929-1931 1931-1933 1933-1935 1935-1937 1937-1939 1939-1941 1941-1943 1943-1945 1945-1947 1947-1949 1949-1951 1951-1953 1953-1955 1955-1957 1957-1959 1959-1961 1961-1963 1963-1965 1965-1967 1967-1969 1969-1971 1971-1973 1973-1975 1975-1977 1977-1979 1979-1981 1981-1983 1983-1985 1985-1987 1987-1989 1989-1991

House
R R D D D D D D D D R D D R D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

Senate President
R R R D D D D D D D R D D R D D D D D D D D D D D D D R R R D D R R R D D D D D D D D D D R R R R D D D D R R R R D D R R R R R

R D

Republican Democrat American Government: Principals & Practices, 1983, Merrill Publishing Company. Reprinted by permission of the publisher (updated)

148 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

ELECTION SYSTEM

DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS

party candidate will win a seat in Congress or in a state legislature. Seldom, however, have minor parties been successful for more than a short period of time. In most cases, minor parties have been assimilated by the larger two or have just faded away. Some current third parties in the United States are the Socialist Labor Party, the American Independent Party, the Libertarian Party, and the Peace and Freedom Party. The way candidates are elected explains why two major parties have come to dominate the American political scene. Elections are held according to the single-member district system, based on the principle of "winner take all." Under this system, only one candidate the one with the most votesis elected to a given office from any one district. Many people will not vote for a minor party candidate; they feel they are throwing away a vote since only one person wins. The Democratic and Republican Parties have supporters among a wide variety of Americans and embrace a wide range of political views.

POLITICAL AFFILIATION
Question: "In politics, as of Democrat, or an Independent?" R 26% National
Sex

, do you consider yourself a Republican, D


43 % 40 46 38 43 36 80 82 I 31% 33 29 34 29 35 13 13

R $15,000-$19,999 $10,000-$14,999 $5,000-$9,999 Under $5,000 Religion Protestant Catholic Jewish Occupation Professional & business Clerical & sales Manual worker Skilled Unskilled Farmer Non-labor force City Size 1,000,000 & over 500,000-999,999 50,000-499,999 2,500-49,999 Under 2,500,rural Central city Suburb Labor Union Labor union families Non-labor union families
33 23 20 23 17 40 29 22 26 22 19

D
42 44 50 56 42 48 54

I 36 30 28 25 28 32 34

Male Female Race White Southern Non-southern Non-white Non-southern Education College High school Grade school Region East Midwest South West
Age

27 25 28 28 29 7 5

?n 12

31 24 22

34 45 55

35 31 23

34 44 46 40 51 32 48

33 33 34 37 32 28 23

24 26 25 30

44 37 49 41

32 37 26 29

21 23 25 30 30 19 21

51 42 43 40 39 51 39

28 35 32 30 31 30 34

18-24 years 25-29 30-49 50 and older Income $25,000 & over $20,000-$24,999

21 24 24 31

38

3fl
43 47

41 40 33 22

33 27

34 41

33 32

?n 28

31 R-Republican

m 41

30

Survey taken October- December 1980


Source: The Gallup Opinion Index

D-Democrat l-lndependent

American Government: Principals & Practices, 1983, Merrill Publishing Company. Reprinted by permission of the publisher

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 149

KEY ISSUES

The parties tend to be similar. Democrats and Republicans support the same overall political and economic goals. Neither party seeks to shake the foundation of America's economy or social structure. Democrats and Republicans, however, often propose different means of achieving their similar goals. Democrats generally believe that the federal government and state governments should provide social and economic programs for those who need them. While Republicans do not necessarily oppose social programs, they believe that many social programs are too costly for taxpayers. They tend to favor big business and private enterprise and want to limit the role of government. A poll taken in 1986 by Louis Harris and Associates reveals how Americans perceive the stance of each party on certain key issues:

Builds up defenses Cuts federal spending Keeps economy prosperous Handles federal deficit Controls arms race Cuts unemployment Works for peace Controls defense budget Gives women a break Protects environment Helps elderly and poor

WHICH PARTY FARES BETTER ON THE


i46% ISSUES?
HI Republican "1 Democrat

99%

LACK OF IDEOLOGY

Because of these differences, Americans tend to think of the Democratic Party as liberal and the Republican Party as conservative. American party politics has been largely devoid of ideology. Several attempts at developing an ideological party were unsuccessful. The Populist Party of the 1890s and the Progressive Party of the early twentieth century gained only temporary support. Senator Barry Goldwater, the Republican candidate in the 1964 election, tried to imbue his party with the spirit and force of a conservative ideology. Yet the election resulted in a landslide victory for Democratic candidate Lyndon Johnson. These examples suggest that Americans tend to prefer somewhat vague party programs to the rigors of political ideology.

150 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

LACK OF PARTY UNITY

PARTY ORGANIZATION

PARTY MEMBERSHIP

LOW VOTER TURNOUT

A third characteristic of the American party system, which sometimes confounds foreign observers, is the lack of unity and discipline within each party. Disagreement among members of the same party is common. The voting records of Congressmen and Senators demonstrate a baffling lack of party unity. It is not uncommon for either a Democrat or a Republican to vote against the party line. There are conservative Democrats who agree with Republican ideas and liberal Republicans who agree with Democratic ideas. Personal views and the views of constituents often have priority over party views. The loose organization of America's political parties helps explain this lack of unity within American parties, which contrasts sharply with more tightlyorganized, ideologically-oriented western European parties. In the United States, parties are decentralized, with relatively few members. Parties are organized as loose confederations of state parties, which, in turn, are decentralized down to the local level. Local party committees, which are numerous, are relatively independent of each other. Only during national elections do party committees join together to clarify issues. Party leadership, insofar as it can be located, is in the hands of a few officials and other notables. The absence of an organized party structure and established hierarchy of leaders contributes to party disunity. Furthermore, candidates and elected officials are not held accountable for following the party line. Even at national party conventions, no formally binding party platform is drawn up. Party membership is equally undemanding. Republicans and Democrats undergo no official initiation, pay no membership dues, and have no obligation to attend meetings or even vote for the party. Identification with a particular political party has less significance in the United States than in most other western democracies. Political parties, interest groups, and elections are opportunities for citizens to participate in the democratic process. Many Americans, however, are politically uninvolved. Although every citizen has the right to vote, the percentage of the voting age population that participates in elections is quite low. Voter turnout for presidential elections is usually under 60 percent, and the percentage is even lower for state and local elections.
Political Participation in National Elections

Ill
.

f?

1964* 1966 1968* Percent who reported that they registered to vote

1970 1972* 1974 1976* .j. Percent who reported


that they VOted

1978

1980*

Presidential Election Year

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 151

Voter turnout in other democratic nations is much higher:


_L Percent of Voting Age Population

90 -

80 70

60 50

115
8

1965

1970

1975

1980

Several factors may contribute to these differences in voter participation: Unlike most of the nations shown on the graph, the United States requires early voter registration. Election campaigns tend to be much longer in the United States than in many other nations. After following campaigns that sometimes begin a year or more before the election, many Americans lose interest and do not vote. American elections are always held on Tuesdays, a normal working day, whereas elections in many other nations are held on weekends. The American two-party system may contribute to low voter turnout because voters' choice is limited. The other democratic nations shown on the graph have parliamentary systems, in which the outcome of the election determines both the executive and legislative branches of government. Voters in these countries may feel that their vote carries more weight. The United States Constitution established a system in which the people have the right, whether they exercise it or not, to influence the direction of government.

152

PART

Texts

Perspective of a Public Man


An Interview with Hubert Humphrey
The late Senator Hubert Humphrey was a leading figure in American government for more than 30 years. He served as mayor of Minneapolis, United States senator, vice president and was the Democratic party's candidate for president in 1968. He was an outspoken champion of civil rights, a strong advocate of nuclear disarmament and the author of much legislation on both domestic and foreign policy issues. In this interview with C\LOSE UP, conducted in 1977, Senator Humphrey discusses his long experience in public life and the importance of inspiration and motivation in effecting change. QUESTION All of the problems and policies that you have been discussing emphasize the need for leadership of the highest caliber in the halls of government. What are the qualities which make someone an effective leader of the people? Senator Humphrey: Motivation. The difference between a great president and just a president is whether or not he can motivate people to greater achievements. As Teddy Roosevelt said, "You have to make the White House a bully pulpit." You have to be a combination of educator and evangelist. You have to move people. What we need in our society today is a kind of clarion call. People also need to learn to have priorities, because you can't do everything. That's where leadership comes in. As a senator, I've always felt that my job is more than passing legislation. I see my role in politics as being the cutting edge of progress. I've spent most of my time out with the people, planting ideas by talking with hundreds of audiences. I've taken a lot of razzing for it, but I have my own methodology. I've tried to be a teacher as well as a senator. To do this you have to take your message out to the people. To be a teacher, you have to have more than a classroom, you've got to have students. You've got to have more than a rostrum, you've got to have people who will listen and you have to make your message sufficiently simple and yet profound. The good teacher is the one who knows how to simplify great, difficult problems and, at the same time, make them interesting so that he holds his audience. You have to recognize that it requires repetition. You must keep in mind that people can only absorb so much at any one session. You repeat, repeat, repeat with adaptation so that you make it interesting. It's like a song: Even the most beautiful classical music maybe has just two or three themes in it, repeated time after time in different variations. That is what a leader, what a teacher, has to do.

Hubert Humphrey

Another part of being a leader is being willing to run the risk of unpopularity. I don't like people in public life, particularly as presidents, mayors and governors, who can't make decisions. You have to make decisions. Sometimes people come to me and say, "Well, the reason I have to vote like this is that the Gallup poll showed this or that." The Gallup poll is a momentary, current, unscientific survey of what is called public opinion. The important question is, "What do you think is right?" Now you don't ignore public opinion, but if you have a strong conviction, you do it. I, for example, had a strong conviction about civil rights legislation. There wasn't much public opinion on my side I'll guarantee you thatand surely not among the political powerhouses. I ran right smack bang into all of them. But I felt I was right. And, if you feel you're right, you stay with it. Yet you also recognize that you can't get everything you want on day one. It may be a long, arduous process.

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 153

1. continued
QUESTION: What advice would you give to young people who mught be contemplating careers in politics, about the pitfalls and the rewards of public service? Senator Humphrey: When you are involved in anything, you have to expect criticism. You have to constantly ask yourself, am I prepared to do that? You can always run away from problems and hide out; many people do. If you are going to be involved, you must be willing to be criticized for your inadequacies and your limitations. This is especially true in public life, where you are constantly under examination. Some young people today feel that it isn't worth it. Why go through all the sweat? Why put up with it? Let somebody else do it. But they forget that politics is another word for people. Politics is the people's business, particularly in a democracy. If the people don't take care of their business by participating, by getting involved, then they will "get the business." While you may not think that your individual effort amounts to much, remember that every person sitting on the sidelines gives those that are involved that much more power. I always try to point out that while great decisions may carry the name tag of one or two leaders, in fact many more people are involved. Great decisions are the products of a kind of digestive process that takes place in the whole society, in which all individuals can express their feelings on new ideas and plans. In this process, we look to the younger generation, to those who are filled with the love of life and with bright ideals. They've got to contribute. If they are involved, then politics will really be the people's business.

Gallup poll: a special count of opinions done by questioning a representative section of the population. George Horace Gallup, born 1901, statistician, founded the American Institute of Public Opinion. Teddy Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) U.S. President 1901-1909.

Q A President's Mission
George Bush's Nomination Acceptance Speech (excerpt)
is to me the presidency provides an incomparable opportunity for "gentle persuasion." I hope to stand for a new harmony, a greater tolerance. We've come far, but I think we need a new harmony among the races in our country. We're on a journey to a new century, and we've got to leave the tired old baggage of bigotry behind. Some people who are enjoying our prosperity have forgotten what it's for. But they diminish our triumph when they act as if wealth is an end in itself. There are those who have dropped their standards along the way, as if ethics were too heavy and slowed their rise to the top. There's graft in city hall, the greed on Wall Street; there's influence peddling in Washington, and the small corruptions of everyday ambition. But you see, I believe public service is honorable. And every time I hear that someone has breached the public trust it breaks my heart. I wonder sometimes if we have forgotten who we are. But we're the people who sundered a nation rather than allow a sin called slavery - we're the people who rose from the ghettoes and the deserts. We weren't saints - but we lived by standards. We celebrated the individual - but we weren't selfcentered. We were practical - but we didn't live only for material things. We believed in getting ahead - but blind ambition wasn't our way. The fact is, prosperity has a purpose. It is to allow us to pursue "the better angels" to give us time to think and grow. Prosperity with a purpose means taking your idealism and making it concrete by certain acts of goodness. It means helping a child from an unhappy home learn how to read and I thank my wife Barbara for all her work in literacy. It means teaching troubled children through your presence that there's such a thing as reliable love. Some would say it's soft and insufficiently tough to care about these things. But where is it written that we must act as if we do not care, as if we are not moved? Well I am moved. I want a kinder, gentler nation. Two men this year ask for your support. And

154 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued
you must know us. As for me, I have held high office and done the work of democracy day by day. My parents were prosperous; their children were lucky. But there were lessons we had to learn about life. John Kennedy discovered poverty when he campaigned in West Virginia; there were children there who had no milk. Young Teddy Roosevelt met the new America when he roamed the immigrant streets of New York. And I learned a few things about life in a place called Texas. We moved to west Texas 40 years ago. The war was over, and we wanted to get out and make it on our own. Those were exciting days, lived in a little shotgun house, one room for the three of us. Worked in the oil business, started my own. In time we had six children. Moved from the shotgun to a duplex apartment to a house. Lived the dream - high school football on Friday night, Little League, neighborhood barbecue. People don't see their experience as symbolic of an era but of course we were. So was everyone else who was taking a chance and pushing into unknown territory with kids and a dog and a car. But the big thing I learned is the satisfaction of creating jobs, which meant creating opportunity, which meant happy families, who in turn could do more to help others and enhance their own lives. I learned that the good done by a single good job can be felt in ways you can't imagine. I may not be the most eloquent, but I learned early that eloquence won't draw oil from the ground. I may sometimes be a little awkward, but there's nothing self-conscious in my love of country. I am a quiet man - but I hear the quiet people others don't. The ones who raise the family, pay the taxes, meet the mortgage. I hear them and I am moved, and their concerns are mine.

George Bush

A president must be many things. He must be a shrewd protector of America's interests; and he must be an idealist who leads those who move for a freer and more democratic planet. He must see to it that government intrudes as little as possible in the lives of the people; and yet remember that it is right and proper that a nation's leader takes an interest in the nation's character. And he must be able to define - and' lead a mission. New Orleans, August 18, 1988

The Human Side of Congress


Representative Jim Wright
Representative Jim Wright (D-Tex.), a member of the House of Representatives since 1954, describes the "nuts and bolts" of congressional decision makingpeople and personalities. As majority leader, a post he has held since 1977, he works with the speaker and with committee chairmen to oversee party strategy and control the flow of legislation. After thirty years as a member of Congress, I am not an objective observer. I believe Congress is the most fascinating human institution in the world. It is bevond question the most criticized legislative assembly on earth, and yet it is the most honored. It can rise to heights of sparkling statesmanship, and it can sink to

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 155

3. continued
levels of crass mediocrity. In both postures, it is supremely interestingbecause it is human. The story of Congress is the story of people. Congress is a microcosm of the nation. It is a distillate of our strengths and weaknesses, our virtues and our faults. It is a heterogeneous collection of opinionated human beings. On the whole, members are slightly better educated and considerably more ambitious than the average American citizen. But members of Congress reflect the same human frailties and possess the same range of human emotions as their constituents. Senators and representatives are individualists, not easily stereotyped or categorized. If there is a single thread of similarity that unites most, it is that they are driven in their work. The average member of Congress works longer and harder than do members of any other professional or business group I have ever observed. The average one of my colleagues probably spends from twelve to fourteen hours on work in an average day. If a member of Congress were to expend the same amount of energy and time in furthering any soundly conceived business venture, I have no doubt that he or she would become rich. A member of Congress is not some inanimate cog in a self-propelling legislative wheel. He or she is a turner of the wheel, a decideralong with othersof the direction the vehicle will take. True, there is a mechanical process that makes the car function. It needs gasoline. It needs a battery, a working engine, tires, and a universal joint. But knowing the mechanics of a motorimportant as that knowledge isdoes not tell us where the car is going. Its direction and ultimate destination depend upon who is behind the wheel. That is why careful students of Congress will do well to pay attention to the personalities of decision makers. They will reflect on backgrounds, personal philosophies, religious persuasions, and economic and educational experiences of members of Congress. These elements determine how well legislators interact with their colleagues and how much they comprehend and even care about different issues. Constituency pressures and interests, political party affiliation, and results of public opinion polls are important factors, but not infallible prognosticators when it comes to understanding how the Congress operates. It is instructive to ponder how the typical member of Congress sees the job. It includes more than just passing laws. I would suggest that a U.S. representative is a tripartite personality. In the first place, members of Congress are required to be ombudsmen for their constituents. A less dignified term might be errand boy. A widow does not receive her survivor benefit check in the mail. A college

wants to apply for a federal grant. A student cannot find a bank for a student loan. One person wants out of the military service; another wants an emergency leave. The average representative may receive two hundred letters a day. Forty percent of them will deal with the individual problems of citizens enmeshed in the coils of government and looking to their representative as their intercessor. The ombudsman role should not be despised. If it takes a disproportionate share of representatives' time, it keeps them close to real people with real needs. If citizens are entitled to go through doors that they simply cannot find in the bureaucratic maze, by leading citizens to those doors, representatives perform necessary functions. Were government ever to become so remote and aloof that the average citizen had no intercessor it would be a sad thing indeed. In a second role, members of Congress serve as traveling salesmen for their districts. Each tries to see that his or her slice of America gets its share of the action. Members try to direct federal projects into their cities, contracts to their factories, and grants to their local institutions of learning. Anything that promotes business or employment opportunities in a member's district is fair game to be pursued with vigor.

Jim Wright

156 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

3. continued
The late Senator Robert Kerr (D-Okla.), ranking Democrat on both Public Works and Finance Committees, once was being chided by Senator Albert Gore (D-Tenn.). Gore gently upbraided Kerr for using his powerful posts to promote dams, highways, and public buildings for Oklahoma, while writing tax laws with "unintended benefits" for Oklahomans. Kerr replied that he wanted to offer only "one slight correction in the otherwise excellent recitation" of his colleague. "That is the point," said Kerr, "at which my friend refers to these as "unintended benefits." I want him to know that they are fully intended benefits. While I am a senator of the United States, I am a senator from and for the state of Oklahoma. I am not ashamed of that; I am proud of that." Scorn the "pork barrel" function as they may, purists in political science cannot wish it away. It is inherent in human nature. From the clash of conflicting parochial and economic interests, the Congress synthesizes an amalgam that serves the nation as a whole. In the third role, representatives are often statesmen. There is conviction among members, and courage. If the law makers, on the average, did not usually vote as most of their constituents found acceptable, they probably would not be very good representatives for their districts. They might not be representatives at all for very long. But occasions arise in the life of each when by reason of conviction deeply held or information not widely known, a law maker is impelled to vote in ways that are at least temporarily unpopular. This is when the mettle of the person is tested. A southerner voting for civil rights two decades ago, a midwesterner supporting the Panama Canal Treaty, someone from the Bi-

ble Belt resisting constituent pressures to breach the wall between church and statethese are examples of personal principle under pressure. In 1956, then Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson was in a fight for his political life on the Texas home front. Antagonists portrayed him as a turncoat, a traitor to the southern cause, a tool of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). Powerful epithets two years after Brown v. Board of Education! Johnson never waivered. "I am not going to demagogue on that issue," he once said to me. "If I have to try to prove that I hate Negroes in order to win, then I will just not win." It was a matter of conscience. All of the abovea mixture of servitude and conviction, servility and couragecombine to make up the human mosaic of the congressional decision-making process. Lyndon Johnson was a master of that process not because he knew the procedures better than others, but because he had an instinctive "feel" for people. He was persuasive with his colleagues because he understood them. He knew what made them tick, collectively and individually. As House Majority Leader, I am constantly trying to meld together a majority out of an assortment of minorities. It is often frustrating but always fascinating. Building coalitions in Congress is like being a peacemaker within a family. One must know the concerns and needs of the members and must be sensitive to their opinions and the uniqueness of their individual personalities. Sometimes I see my role as a combination parish priest, evangelist, and part-time prophet. Harmony among this mixture of strong-willed individualists is an elusive grail. Sometimes you cannot find it at all, but it is fun trying.

(From 1987 to 1989, Jim Wright was Speaker of the House of Representatives. This interview was given when he was House Majority Leader. He has since resigned in disgrace.) (D-Tex.): Democrat/Texas. majority leader: party member directing the activities of the majority party on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives. speaker, the presiding officer of the U.S. House of Representatives. pork barrel: refers to the practice of using political office to further the interests of one's supporters. Panama Canal Treaty: in the Panama Canal Treaties, ratified under President Carter, the United States agreed to hand over the canal to the Republic of Panama on December 31, 1999, and to make the canal a neutral waterway open to all shipping after 1999. Bible Belt: those sections of the U.S., chiefly in the South and the Midwest, noted for religious fundamentalism. NAACP: civil rights organization, founded in 1909.
Brown v. Board of Education: see pages 109 and 113.

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

157

Lobbyists and Their Issues


American Israel Public Affairs Committee
Thomas Dine, executive director The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) is the only American Jewish organization registered to lobby Congress on legislation affecting Israel. Headquartered in Washington, AIPAC is the nationwide American organization that has worked to strengthen U.S.-Israeli relations for more than 25 years. AIPAC has spearheaded efforts to defeat the sale of sophisticated American weaponry to hostile Arab regimes, and has helped to protect and defend foreign aid requests to Israel of more than $2.2 billion annually. On a daily basis, AIPAC lobbyists meet with representatives, senators and their staffs to provide useful material, monitor all relevant legislation and anticipate legislative issues affecting Israel. In this way AIAPC lobbyists serve an invaluable function in the American political process. They are a vital informational and creative resource for members of Congress, helping them to deal with the multitude of issues that confront them every day. In addition, AIPAC is active on university campuses, educating and involving pro-Israel students in the American political process and sensitizing America's future policymakers to Israel's strengths and needs. Once a year all 34,000 members of AIPAC, including students, are invited to Washington to meet with their U.S. representatives and to formally approve AIPAC's policy statement, which serves as the organization's guide throughout the year. of all federal landsnational forests, national parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas and the lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Although the Wilderness Society is a non-profit organization and not a lobby in the traditional sense, it is active in the arenas where public debate shapes federal policy. Primarily the Wilderness Society seeks to educate and influence decision-makers in a variety of ways. Sometimes it lobbies directly on specific legislation, talking with members of Congress or their staffs to persuade them to support a particular bill. The Society also seeks to educate the public about important public land issues by maintaining close contact with the news media. The Society recognizes that reporters and editorial writers who are well-educated about important issues are very likely to turn around and inform their readers about these same issues. In addition, the Society's staff discusses proper regulation and management of public lands with key government officials; sponsors workshops to teach citizens how to become involved in the policymaking process; analyzes and comments on new preservation and management proposals; testifies at congressional hearings in support of or in opposition to public land measures; and establishes cooperative programs with other conservation organizations. Occasionally the Society's staff has conducted original research. When the administration wanted to search for oil and gas deposits in wilderness areas, the Society, using federal data, found that despite claims by the administration, only a negligible amount of oil and gas exists in wilderness areas. The fairest public policy is developed when a variety of viewpoints are considered. The Wilderness Society considers that its role is to bring to the process of public policy formation a well researched and clearly articulated point of view that reflects the interests of the publicthose concerned and those unawarewho depend on the federally-owned lands to provide recreation, to protect the air and water supplies, to protect wildlife and fragile ecological areas and to ensure a sustained yield of renewable resources like trees and grasslands.

The Wilderness Society


Rebecca K. Leet, director of education The Wilderness Society is a 65,000-member conservation organization founded in 1935 to ensure the preservation of wilderness and the proper management of all federally-owned lands. It is the only national conservation organization whose sole focus is the protection

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

157

Q Lobbyists and Their Issues


American Israel Public Affairs Committee
Thomas Dine, executive director The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) is the only American Jewish organization registered to lobby Congress on legislation affecting Israel. Headquartered in Washington, AIPAC is the nationwide American organization that has worked to strengthen U.S.-Israeli relations for more than 25 years. AIPAC has spearheaded efforts to defeat the sale of sophisticated American weaponry to hostile Arab regimes, and has helped to protect and defend foreign aid requests to Israel of more than $2.2 billion annually. On a daily basis, AIPAC lobbyists meet with representatives, senators and their staffs to provide useful material, monitor all relevant legislation and anticipate legislative issues affecting Israel. In this way AIAPC lobbyists serve an invaluable function in the American political process. They are a vital informational and creative resource for members of Congress, helping them to deal with the multitude of issues that confront them every day. In addition, AIPAC is active on university campuses, educating and involving pro-Israel students in the American political process and sensitizing America's future policymakers to Israel's strengths and needs. Once a year all 34,000 members of AIPAC, including students, are invited to Washington to meet with their U.S. representatives and to formally approve AIPAC's policy statement, which serves as the organization's guide throughout the year. of all federal landsnational forests, national parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas and the lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Although the Wilderness Society is a non-profit organization and not a lobby in the traditional sense, it is active in the arenas where public debate shapes federal policy. Primarily the Wilderness Society seeks to educate and influence decision-makers in a variety of ways. Sometimes it lobbies directly on specific legislation, talking with members of Congress or their staffs to persuade them to support a particular bill. The Society also seeks to educate the public about important public land issues by maintaining close contact with the news media. The Society recognizes that reporters and editorial writers who are well-educated about important issues are very likely to turn around and inform their readers about these same issues. In addition, the Society's staff discusses proper regulation and management of public lands with key government officials; sponsors workshops to teach citizens how to become involved in the policymaking process; analyzes and comments on new preservation and management proposals; testifies at congressional hearings in support of or in opposition to public land measures; and establishes cooperative programs with other conservation organizations. Occasionally the Society's staff has conducted original research. When the administration wanted to search for oil and gas deposits in wilderness areas, the Society, using federal data, found that despite claims by the administration, only a negligible amount of oil and gas exists in wilderness areas. The fairest public policy is developed when a variety of viewpoints are considered. The Wilderness Society considers that its role is to bring to the process of public policy formation a well researched and clearly articulated point of view that reflects the interests of the publicthose concerned and those unawarewho depend on the federally-owned lands to provide recreation, to protect the air and water supplies, to protect wildlife and fragile ecological areas and to ensure a sustained yield of renewable resources like trees and grasslands.

The Wilderness Society


Rebecca K. Leet, director of education The Wilderness Society is a 65,000-member conservation organization founded in 1935 to ensure the preservation of wilderness and the proper management of all federally-owned lands. It is the only national conservation organization whose sole focus is the protection

158 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

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THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

159

"If Conservatives Cannot Do It Now. . . "


Interview with Irving Kristol Authority on Political Trends
At the beginning of the Reagan administration, Irving Kristol, a noted political expert, said that with the rise of conservatism, Republicans had their best chance in fifty years to become the country's "natural majority party" again. Professor Kristol, what are the chances that President Reagan can mobilize conservative resources to forge an enduring coalition for governing the nation? A I think his chances are very good. And if he can establish that coalition, there is no reason why the Republican Party cannot again be the natural majority party in the country. This is the best chance conservatives have had in 50 years to create such a coalition. If they cannot do it now, one has to assume that they cannot do it at all. Would conservatism then come to dominate politics as liberalism did after the 1930s? A I think so. People will have confidence in their government and its programs as long as they perceive that it's working in a vigorous way toward the solution of their problems. If President Reagan can generate the kind of economic growth that his policy forecasts, the American people will be perfectly satisfied. Which elements in the conservative movement will President Reagan have to bring together into his governing coalition? A I'd say there are perhaps four main elements: One certainly is the Moral Majority that is, the basically Christian-oriented, patriotic Americans who feel that the government has become too intrusive and the United States has been too weak in its foreign relations. Then you have what you might call the Establishment conservatives namely, the governmental types who have been serving in various Republican administrations and who are cautious, prudent men of the middle. You also have the neoconservatives with whom I am usually classified who are really the people within academe, the media and the intellectual community generally who have become conservative over the past 15 years. The fourth component, I suppose, would be the traditional right-wing organizations, like the American Conservative Union, that are close to the Moral Majority but are also interested in such issues as right-to-work legislation. ... Q Can the Moral Majority element emphasizing religious intervention in controversial issues fit into a stable coalition? A Sure. Look, if Franklin D. Roosevelt could fuse the Southern-conservative vote and the Northernliberal-union vote into a single coalition, then Reagan should have no trouble fusing the existing conservative groups into a coalition. They're far less disparate in their interests than the coalition established by FDR. True, moral issues such as abortion can be very disruptive because it's hard to compromise on them. It's too bad that the Supreme Court made the abortion issue a national issue instead of leaving it to the states. There doesn't seem to be much possibility at the moment that it will revert to the states, so we'll just have to negotiate it as best we can. ... What role will people like you play in the coalition-building process? A A crucial role, in my opinion. Every political movement needs its intellectual wing these days. It's the age of higher education and the media, and a movement can succeed only temporarily unless it has an intellectual segment to go along with its popular appeal and an interest group to articulate what the movement is up to. . . . Q What will be Reagan's most difficult challenge in translating conservatives ideas into government policy?

160 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

5. continued
A Foreign affairs, by far. He came into office with a very coherent and fully articulated economic policy, and he's going to get it through with the coalition entirely behind him. But he also took office with a set of attitudes on foreign policy, not a coherent, well-worked-out set of policies. Witness the controversy over the grain embargo within the administration. This lack of coherence is going to be a very serious problem for the administration. Let me put it this way: We have no conservative counterpart in foreign policy to "supply side" economics in economic policy something which is identifiably ours. ... A To some degree, yes. Mainly, however, I think it results from the fact that a ruling party eventually hits a crisis which it cannot cope with, as happened to the Republicans with the Great Depression. Then people will turn to the other party almost regardless of what it has to offer.

Now that liberalism seems to be declining, can it avoid the stagnation that typified conservatism for so long after 1932?

As a student of politics and ideas, do you see the dramatic rise of conservatism as part of a cyclical pattern in the ascendancy of rival political philosophies?

A There is a cyclical pattern yes which to some degree is simply natural. Namely, a party becomes powerful, holds office until it makes mistakes, exhausts its agenda, then another party takes its place. But this, in a way, is simply a function of retrospection. There is a natural cycle in the sense no one ever expects any party to dominate forever in a democracy. I don't know that there's more of a cycle than that. Does the

cycle shorten or lengthen according to how well the party out of power sees new situations emerging and develops new and persuasive ideas for meeting them?

A Well, what liberals have to do is to come up with an agenda. That is not going to be easy, because, to begin with, they enacted most of their agenda. Parts of it will be repealed or cut back, but most of their agenda will remain the law of land. No one's going to repeal medicare or medicaid. Certainly no one's going to repeal Social Security or unemployment insurance. That being the case, it's hard to see what the Democratic agenda can be. My own guess is that the Democratic Party will find its agenda on the left, because unless this administration behaves in a very stupid and inept manner, there will be no room on the right for liberals. Therefore, they will probably have to go into the wilderness for a few years before coming out with an agenda perhaps something that sets the goal of total equality, with more state intervention and an emphasis not on job creation, which is Reagan's program, but on job retention that sort of thing.

Kristol, Irving: professor of social thought at New York University, co-editor of Public Interest and senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute. Great Depression: see page 73. Social Security: government measures providing economic assistance to persons faced with unemployment, disability, or old age.

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161

Inflation

Where we were
Four years ago, America faced the greatest challenge in our post-war history. Our nation's defenses were dangerously weak. We had suffered humiliation in Iran, and we had lost the respect of other nations. Our nation lacked leadership. Our elected officials failed to trust in the courage and character of Americans, attributing our problems to a national "malaise." Years of government overspending and overtaxing had left our economy in ruins. In the last half of the '70s, taxes doubled; yet, federal spending increased even more. Inflation rose to over 12 percent in 1980. Interest rates were over 21 percent. Productivity, industrial production and workers' earnings were down. The only things going up were prices, unempbyment, taxes and the size of government.

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leading advocate of peace and freedom in the world. As President Reagan has said, "We know the tide of the future is a freedom tide, and that America's new strength and sense of purpose will carry hope and opportunity far from our shores."

The unfinished work


d us to move forward again, to unite behind four great goals to America free, secure and at peace for the '80s: 1. Ensure steady economic growth: President Reagan will continue his program of tax relief and steady economic growth. 2. Develop space, America's next frontier: Presi dent Reagan has proposed the construction of a per manent manned space station. 3S t h u traditio _ our traditional values: President Reagan wffl continue to promote a renaissance in the traditional values of faith, family, work and neighborhood. 4. Build a meaningful peace: President Reagan has proposed substantial reductions in nuclear weapons through genuine arms control.

Wn-ttteadersliip

America is hack
Americans were ready to make a new beginning. So we elected President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George Bush to lead us into a more promising future. We have come a long way. We have new confidence in our leaders, in our institutions and in ourselves. As President Reagan has said, "America is back,"

The choice is clear. We can I return to the failed policies of I the past. Or we can move for-1 ward together with President ji;*^^ I Reagan s leadership to build a fuu in pace, fre dom and prosperity abound, not only for all Ameri b f ll l ~e future in which peace, freeperity a b u , ll Americans, but " fa all pe oples.

Leadership

Economic recovery

to 1961, President Reagan offered a plan for economic recovery, and it has worked. Real after-tax income is up. Interest rates | have been cut in half. New homes are being built and sold. Consumer spending is rising. Over four million Americans found jobs last

humiliation in Iran: on November 4, 1979, Iranian revolutionaries invaded the American embassy in Teheran. The diplomats and their staffs were taken hostage. In this situation neither diplomatic efforts nor economic pressure accomplished anything. President Carter's attempt in April 1980 to free the hostages through a surprise midnight raid failed, and it was not until more than a year later that the hostages were returned to the U.S.

162 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Keynote Address
by Governor Cuomo
to the Democratic National Convention
(Excerpts)
San Francisco, July 16, 1984

. .. So, here we are at this convention to remind ourselves where we come from and to claim the future for ourselves and for our children. Today, our great Democratic Party, which has saved this nation from depression, from fascism, from racism, from corruption, is called upon to do it again this time to save the nation from confusion and division, from the threat of eventual fiscal disaster and most of all from a fear of a nuclear holocaust. That's not going to be easy. . . . You're exactly right, it won't be easy. And in order to succeed, we must answer our opponent's polished and appealing rhetoric with a more telling reasonableness and rationality. We must win this case on the merits. We must get the American public to look past the glitter, beyond the showmanship to the reality, the hard substance of things. And we will do that not so much with speeches that sound good as with speeches that are good and sound. Not so much with speeches that will bring people to their feet as with speeches that will bring people to their senses. We must make the American people hear our "tale of two cities." We must convince them that we don't have to settle for two cities, that we can have one city, indivigible, shining for all of its people. ... Remember that unlike any other party, we embrace men and women of every color, every creed, every

orientation, every economic class. In our family are gathered everyone from the abject poor of Essex County in New York, to the enlightened affluent of the gold coasts of both ends of the nation. And in between is the heart of our constituency. The middle class, the people not rich enough to be worry-free but not poor enough to be on welfare, the middle class, those people who work for a living because they have to, not because some psychiatrists told them it was a convenient way to fill the interval between birth and eternity. White collar and blue collar. Young professionals. Men and women in small business desperate for the capital and contracts that they need to prove their worth. We speak for the minorities who have not yet entered the mainstream. We speak for ethnics who want to add their culture to the magnificent mosaic that is America. We speak for women who are indignant that this nation refuses to etch into its governmental commandments the simple rule "thou shalt not sin against equality", a rule so simple I was going to say and I perhaps dare not but I will it's a commandment so simple it can be spelled in three letters: e.r.a.! We speak for young people demanding an education and a future. We speak for senior citizens who are terrorized by the idea that their only security, their Social Security, is being threatened. We

speak for millions of reasoning people fighting to preserve our environment from greed and from stupidity. And we speak for reasonable people who are fighting to preserve our very existence from a macho intransigence that refuses to make intelligent attempts to discuss the possibility of nuclear holocaust with our enemy. They refuse because they believe we can pile missiles so high that they will pierce the clouds and the sight of them will frighten our enemies into submission. .. . Of course, we must have a strong defense! Of course, Democrats are for a strong defense. Of course, Democrats believe that there are times when we must stand and fight. And we have. Thousands of us have paid for freedom with our lives. But always, when this country has been at its best, our purposes were clear. Now they're not. Now our allies are as confused as our enemies. Now we have no real commitment to our friends or to our ideals, not to human rights, not to the refuseniks, not to Sakharov, not to Bishop Tutu and the others struggling for freedom in South Africa. ... We Democrats still have a dream. We still believe in this nation's future. And this is our answer to the question this is our credo: we believe in only the government we need, but we insist on all the government we need. We believe in a government that is characterized by fairness and

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM 163

reasonableness, a reasonableness that goes beyond labels, that doesn't distort or promise to do things that we know we can't do. We believe in a government strong enough to use words like "love" and "compassion" and smart enough to convert our noblest aspirations into practical realities. We believe in encouraging the talented, but we believe that while survival of the fittest may be a good working description of the process of evolution, a government of humans should elevate itself to a higher order. We our government should be able to rise to the level where it can fill the gaps that are left by chance or a wisdom we don't fully understand. ... We believe, as Democrats, that a society as blessed as ours, the most affluent democracy in the world's history, one that can spend trillions on instruments of destruction, ought to be able to help the middle class in its struggle, ought to be able to find work for all who can do it, room at the table, shelter for the homeless, care for the elderly and infirm, and hope for the destitute. And we proclaim as loudly as we can the utter insanity of nuclear proliferation and the need for a nuclear freeze, if only to affirm the simple

truth that peace is better than war because life is better than death. We believe in firm but fair law and order, we believe proudly in the union movement, we believe in privacy for people, openness by government, we believe in civil rights, and we believe in human rights. We believe in a single fundamental idea that describes better than most textbooks and any speech that I would write what a proper government should be. The idea of family. Mutuality. The sharing of benefits and burdens for the good of all. Feeling one another's pain. Sharing one another's blessings. Reasonably, honestly, fairly, without respect to race, or sex, or geography or political affiliation. ... For 50 years we Democrats created a better future for our children, using traditional democratic principles as a fixed beacon, giving us direction and purpose, but constantly innovating, adapting to new realities. ... Democrats did it and Democrats can do it again. We can build a future that deals with our deficit. Remember this that 50 years of progress under our principles never cost us what the last four years of stagnation have. And we can deal with that deficit intelligently, by

shared sacrifice, with all parts of the nation's family contributing, building partnerships with the private sector, providing a sound defense without depriving ourselves of what we need to feed our children and care for our people. We can have a future that provides for all the young of the present by marrying common sense and compassion. We know we can, because we did it for nearly 50 years before 1980. And we can do it again. ... And, ladies and gentlemen, on Jan. 20, 1985, it will happen again. Only on a much, much grander scale. We will have a new President of the United States, a Democrat born not to the blood of kings but to the blood of pioneers and immigrants. We will have America's first woman VicePresident, the child of immigrants, and she will open with one magnificent stroke a whole new frontier for the United States. It will happen, if you and I make it happen. And I ask you now, ladies and gentlemen, brothers and sisters for the good of all of us, for the love of this great nation, for the family of America, for the love of God. Please make this nation remember how futures are built. Thank you and God bless you.

Cuomo, Mario: Governor of New York State since 1982. national convention: formal meeting of party delegates to adopt platforms and party rules and select presidential and vice-presidential candidates. refusenik: a citizen of the Soviet Union who has been refused permission to emigrate from his/her country. Sakharov, Andrei: (19211989) Russian physicist and dissident, won the Nobel Peace Prize 1975. Bishop Tutu: Anglican bishop in South Africa opposing apartheid. a new President of the United States: reference to Walter Mondale, Democratic presidential candidate in 1984. America's first woman Vice-President: reference to Geraldine Ferraro, Democratic vicepresidential candidate in 1984.

164 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

The Washington Post


Americans Vote For Divided Government
By David S. Broder
good to have one party in control." THE AMERICAN voters gave Scholars of presidential elections George Bush and the Republican said they were sure that in-depth Party a pattern-breaking presiden46 analysis of the unprecedented mass tial victory Tuesday but blurred the S4 : of polling data this election genimport of their decision by cautierated will demonstrate that peace ously opting once again for divided ilili! and prosperity were the fundagovernment in Washington. The mental forces behind Bush's victory. outcome of the long and expensive Six years of sustained economic struggle signaled little more than growth, low inflation and declining the start of a new round of political unemployment, coupled with imwarfare, one in which the White proving relations between the House and Congress will wrestle United States and the Soviet Union, for control of the policy agenda and boosted President Reagan's popboth parties will search for answers ularity back up from its Iran-Contra to vexing problems - like the lows. And as Reagan's standing budget deficit - which the candirose, so did support for his loyal dates sidestepped on the stump. vice president. .. . the evidence suggests that BEFORE AND AFTER THE William Galston, a professor of the preference for divided govern1988 ELECTION public affairs at the University of ment with Democrats looking Maryland and adviser to past Demafter domestic needs in Congress ocratic presidential candidates, and the state capitols while RepubHOUSE said, "All year long, the voters felt licans manage the economy, dethe tension between general satis1/8 257 fense and foreign policy from the faction with the present and vague White House may have had as 175; but pervasive anxiety about the much to do with the outcome as future. In the end, the present any impressions created by the trumped the future." of ten-venomous campaign. An REPUBLICANS That left the question of mandate NBC News-Wall Street Journal poll open to interpretation. Paul Weyjust before the election found voters rich, a leading conservative stratby a 5-to-3 margin thought it better egist, argued that "if the Democrats for different parties to control the DEMOCRATS take the policy initiative on the White House and Congress. Ken basis of their projected Senate Adams, 35, a tire-store owner in gains, they will probably get someClarkston, Ga., and pro-Bush Demwhere with it. They could say voters ocrat, spoke for many when he were deliberately tying Bush's said Tuesday, "I'd rather have a hands because they were worried little argument going to work things what he might do." . . . out." Echoed Karen Ekegren, 54, a Chicago office worker, "It's not Iran-Contra: SENATE a reference to a scandal of the Reagan presidency when it was discovered that the U.S. had sold arms to Iran and illegally diverted the profits to the contra rebels fighting the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.

165

PART C Exercises
1. Comprehension
Perspective of a Public Man
Which of the following statements about Hubert Humphrey's ideas is correct? In some cases, more than one statement applies. 1. According to Hubert Humphrey, a great president a) must be able to spur people on to act to the best of their abilities. b) must be both a teacher and a preacher. c) must make sure that he attaches equal importance to all fields of politics. 2. As a senator Hubert Humphrey a) found that working as a legislator kept him away from the people. b) took up a second job as a teacher. c) believed that explaining politics to the people was more important than passing laws. 3. The message that politicians convey to the public a) must be simplistic. b) is necessarily repetitive and boring. c) must be simplified but nevertheless interesting. 4. Hubert Humphrey likes political leaders who a) are prepared to make unpopular decisions. b) base their decisions on opinion polls. c) value their personal conviction higher than public opinion. 5. Hubert Humphrey advises prospective young politicians a) to avoid becoming involved in problems that invite criticism. b) to expect unfair personal criticism. c) to be prepared to put up with criticism. 6. In a democratic society decisions ought to be made a) by a few leading personalities. b) after a long discussion process that involves as many people as possible. c) by young people with bright ideas.

2. Analysis of a Speech
A President's Mission
1. In this excerpt from the nomination acceptance speech, delivered at the Republican National Convention, George Bush defines a president's mission. Which aspects of his mission does he mention? 2. This speech must be seen in the context of the 1988 election campaign. During this campaign the Democrats accused the Republicans and the Reagan administration of showing little regard for ethnic minorities, of caring only for the rich and neglecting the poor and of letting officials violate people's trust in public service. How does George Bush deal with these accusations? 3. A cartoon is a satirical drawing commenting on current events or politics. Describe this cartoon and explain the point the cartoonist wants to make.

AUTH COPYRIGHT 1988 Philadelphia Inquirer. Reprinted with permission of Universal Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.

4 During the campaign George Bush was frequently reproached for his prosperous social background and for his lack of eloquence. How does he react to these attacks in this speech?

166 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

3. Questionnaire
The Human Side of Congress
High school students in Ohio have been discussing the structure of Congress and the legislative process. Two of the students have received a grant for an educational trip to Washington, where they will be given the chance to interview a member of Congress. The class has prepared the following questionnaire for this interview. How would Jim Wright answer these questions? 1 Does Congress really represent a cross-section of the American people? 2. How does a member of Congress compare with the average American citizen? 3. Is a member of Congress an active factor in the decision-making process or is he/she only part of a machine? 4. Members of Congress are subject to all kinds of pressure from their constituencies, their parties, the opinion polls, and their own convictions. How can they possibly represent such conflicting interests? 5. How much time does a member of Congress devote to the actual needs of his/her constituents? 6. What can a member of Congress in Washington do for his/her home district? 7. If a representative is strongly convinced that he/she ought to vote against the wishes of constituents, what can he/she do? 8. What is the function of a majority leader?

5. Simulation of a Debate
Considering what you know about the Wilderness Society and with reference to the information about the "Use of Federally Owned Land" carry out a debate on the following issue:
Federal Lands should be Opened to Energy Developers

In this debate, environmentalists of the Wilderness Society and representatives of the coal industry and oil companies defend their viewpoints. Use of Federally Owned LandThe Department of the Interior controls 510 million acres of federal land, roughly one-seventh of the nation's land area. Underneath that land is estimated to be 80 percent of the nation's oil shale deposits, 35 percent of its uranium, and 60 percent of its low-sulfur coal... For years many people have looked upon resources located on protected federal lands as reserves for the long-term future. During the 1980s, however, many people began to feel that the government should open up federal land for private development, particularly since the country's energy needs had become more urgent... Environmentalists urge caution in the government's granting of development rights to any federal lands or waters. Many endangered animals, such as the grizzly bear, live in these lands, and the building of roads and the clearing of forests would disrupt their habitats. Furthermore, development can damage water quality and increase soil erosion. Either would have a severe impact on fish. Other critics of developing federally owned resources argue that those resources should be saved for future crises, such as war or a minerals embargo. Those who support development point out that the country has had to import large amounts of oil and strategic minerals, such as chromium and cobalt, which could have been taken from federal lands. Considering the costs of energy dependence and our large trade deficit, the nation cannot afford to ignore resources in its own backyard, say development supporters. Moreover, they contend, the search and development of these resources must begin now; otherwise, when an emergency arises, there will not be time to extract them.

4. Scanning
Lobbyists and Their Issues
Quickly read through the presentations of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee and The Wilderness Society and find out about the type and size of the organizations the basic issues their activities on Capitol Hill other activities.

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

167

6. Writing Newspaper Articles


Since PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat addressed the United Nations on the subject of Palestinian rights, the question has been discussed whether the U.S. should recognize the PLO as the official representative of Palestinian refugees. Imagine that the Minnesota Daily, a newspaper published by and for students at the University of Minnesota, has asked people to write articles covering the different viewpoints of the issue under the heading "Should the U.S. negotiate with the PLO?" Write such an article from the point of view of either an active AIPAC member or a proPalestinian. Use the information boxes below for reference. IsraelIsrael was formed from part of the Palestinian Mandatethe territory of Palestine that had been taken from the Turkish Ottoman Empire after its defeat in World War I and mandated to Great Britain by the League of Nations. Palestine then included areas now comprising Jordan, Israel, and Israeli-occupied territories on the west bank of the Jordan River (the West Bank). Israel itself is only about the size of Massachusetts. Modern Israel grew out of Zionism, a political movement founded in 1897 to establish a Jewish national homeland free from anti-Jewish persecution. Twenty years later in the Balfour Declaration, the British government agreed in principle to the establishment of a Jewish homeland. Tens of thousands of Jews immigrated to Palestine, joining Jews who had lived there for centuries. While the Balfour Declaration was a significant step, the major drive to establish a Jewish state grew out of the Holocaustthe attempted extermination of theJewish people by the Nazis. Thousands of homeless Holocaust survivors headed to Palestine in the postwar years. In 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan proposed that two statesone Arab and one Jewishbe established on the section of Palestine west of the Jordan River. On May 14, 1948, the Jewish state of Israel declared its independence. The United States was one of the first nations to recognize the state of Israel. U.S. support for Israel was an outgrowth of American cultural and religious ties to Jews, the feeling of a moral obligation to help the Jews establish a homeland after the Holocaust, and the belief that the new Israeli government would likely be democratic. Todaythe United States continues to look to Israel as its most reliable ally in the Middle East. Despite its having only four million citizens, Israel has the strongest military force in the region and is also the only working democracy there.

The PalestiniansThe Palestinians are a people without a homeland. In 1921 the British gave twothirds of Palestine to a non-Palestinian, Arab king. This land is now the kingdom of Jordan. When the western third of Palestine was partitioned after World War II, areas that were supposed to form a separate Palestinian Arab state were instead absorbed by Egypt and Israel and annexed by Jordan. That left the Palestinians without a country. Approximately four million Palestinians have been affected by the conflicts in the Middle East. They are now scattered throughout the region, many living in refugee camps in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and the Israeli-occupied West Bank. Others fled to Europe or North America. The Palestine Liberation Organization was founded in 1964 to lead the struggle for a Palestinian state. Its methods have included both terrorism and diplomacy. In 1974 the United Nations granted the PLO observer status, which allows it to participate in the United Nations General Assembly, although it may not vote. The United States has refused to recognize the PLO until it renounces its charter, which calls for the destruction of Israel. The PLO says it will not recognize Israel until the Palestinians have a state of their own. The military power of the PLO has greatly diminished since the Israelis pushed them out of southern Lebanon and pro-Syrian elements of the PLO overran the forces of PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat in 1983. However, Arafat's PLO forces are being rearmed by Iraq and are training in Jordan and Iraq. From these bases Arafat is struggling to keep the PLO the sole representative of the Palestinian people. Arafat's strongest support is among the 1.2 million Palestinians who still live in the Israeli-occupied West Bank or Gaza Strip.

7. Global Comprehension "If Conserv atives Cann ot Do it No w . . . "


Decide which of the three answers best applies to Irving Kristol's views: 1. The Republican Party's chances of keeping power in conservative hands over a long period are: poor/fairly good/better than ever before. 2. Solving economic problems will lead to little/nwre/complete acceptance of the whole government. 3. The different groups making up the conservative coalition are less divergent than/as divergent as/more divergent than those that Franklin D. Roosevelt established.

168 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

4. The moral issues in this coalition are the easiest/fairly easy/the most difficult to solve. 5. The role intellectuals play in the conservative movement is negligible/of some importance/very important. 6. Reagan's ideas about foreign policy are not very clear/fairly well-structured/profound. 7. There is a natural cyclical pattern according to which a governing political party loses/ maintains/increases its impact on the people after some years. 8. In a severe crisis the dominant party will lose/keep/gain members. 9. The conservatives are going to improve/retain/do away with most of the social achievements made under Democratic Party rule. 10. The Democratic Party will have a chance to regain power by becoming right-wing/ moderate/left-wing.

5. Of course, one would not expect such a pamphlet to admit any failures or shortcomings. Are there any problems not explicity mentioned here that have not been satisfactorily tackled and solved by the Reagan administration? If so, are they identical with the future tasks envisaged in the pamphlet?

9. Writing a Newspaper Article


Keynote Address by Governor Cuomo to the Democratic National Convention
Imagine you are a reporter for a small daily paper and you have been sent to San Frandscc to cover the Democratic National Convention. You have listened to Governor Cuomo's speech and taken the following notes. In the left hand margin you have indicated the main ideas for the different paragraphs of your article. Now write such an article. Find a suitable headline and begin with a paragraph that not only presents the keynote of Governor Cuomo's speech but also arouses the interest of the reader.
- fitmovuxtic Padu AaotdL nattim.J*om, diptt&um,, utmaudtu. "Ji - thiA bmt /. >., arj. durtAitm.,, 1 rf p.

8. Text Analysis
Reagan-Bush '84Leadership You Can Trust
1. After taking a first glance at this pamphlet explain why you think it was issued. 2. Describe the layout of this pamphlet and explain the purpose of the structure the headlines the photos the diagrams the quotation with Reagan's signature. 3. According to the pamphlet, what changes were brought about in the following fields of politics between 1980 and 1984? self-confidence of the people and confidence in government defense nuclear arms control foreign affairs social policy economy: taxes; inflation; interest rates; government spending; production; (un-)employment. 4. According to the pamphlet, which policies of the Reagan administration were particularly successful?

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THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

169

10. Comprehension
Americans Vote for Divided Government
Find the missing words by choosing from the pairs in the list below. Although the American voters gave Bush and the Republican Party a presidential victory, they again divided government in Washington. The White House and Congress will for control of the agenda and both parties will search for answers to problemslike the budget deficitwhich the candidates discussing during the campaign. The for divided government is due to the voters' that Democrats should look after <C> needs while a Republican president and his would be more at dealing with the economy, defense and foreign policy. According to an poll just before the election, the of voters found it better for parties to control the White House and Congress. Scholars of presidential elections said they were that peace and prosperity were the forces behind Bush's victory. Six years of economic growth, low inflation and unemployment, with improving relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, C" President Reagan's popularity after its Iran-Contra lows. And as Reagan's O> rose, so did support for his loyal vice-president. nouns faith/belief majority/minority reference/preference politics/policy reputation/isolation opinion/reason community/cabinet

adjectives essential/mysterious continuous/conscious separate/combined domestic/static absent/certain superficial/critical identical/different increasing/decreasing competent/composed verbs prevented/avoided struggle/compromise raised/dropped preferred/related

11. Comparative Study


1. Assess the degree of bias (Republican, Democrat, neutral) in the Irving Kristol interview, the Reagan-Bush pamphlet, the address by Governor Cuomo, and the article from the Washington Post"Americans Vote for Divided Government." 2. Judging from these four texts where do you see the basic differences in the political agendas of the two main parties? 3. Between the Irving Kristol interview and the Washington Post article there is a time span of about eight years. In light of the 1984 and 1988 elections, to what extent did the new conservatism envisaged by Kristol in 1981 as part of a cyclical pattern of political philosophies become the dominant factor in American politics? 4. How do the political philosophies of the two major parties compare with those of the main parties in your country?

America's Global Role


PART A Background Information
SUPERPOWER INFLUENCE

MILITARY STRENGTH

As a global superpower, the United States exerts wide-reaching political, military, and economic influence. It has strong political and military ties to democratic governments in Western Europe and in other areas of the world. As the leading power of the western hemisphere, the United States plays an active role in Latin America. America's political and military alliances are backed by its formidable military and nuclear forces.
SUMMARY OF MAJO MILITARY FORCES: 1980 1985
R
[As of Sept. 30] 1984 16 155 135 4 8,926 639 63 24 3 1985 17 159 127 4 9,025 669 63 24 3 DESCRIPTION Navy:-Con. Marine aircraft combat squadrons: Fixed-wing squadrons ........................... Rotary-wing squadrons ......................... Aircraft, number ................................... Air Force: ICBM launchers .................. Selected aircraft squadrons................... Strategic................................................ Airdefense............................................. Tactical (excluding air-lift)...................... Aircraft, number 2 .................................
2

DESCRIPTION

1980

1980 1984 30 24 4,861 1,054 125 26 6 93 10,116

1985

Army: Divisions...................................... 16 168 Maneuver battalions ............................... 154 3 Air defense battalions/batteries............... 8,731 Special forces groups ............................ 538 61 Aircraft, number ..................................... 22 3 Navy: Ship operating force ..................... Tactical air squadrons............................. Antisubmarine air squadrons '................ Marine divisions......................................

31 28 35 33 5,002 5,039 1,031 1,023 124 21 124 21 5 98 5 98 10,297 10,427

Does not include patrol squadrons.

Excludes foreign government-owned aircraft.

NATO

Over 2 million men and women are members of the armed forces. About one fourth of the United States military personnel serve overseas. The United States operates military bases in strategic areas throughout the world, including Africa, the Middle East, Central America, Southeast Asia, and Australia. Most of its overseas forces, however, are concentrated in Western Europe under provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This military alliance, which includes the United States, Canada, Greece, Turkey, and most Western European nations, guarantees the defense of member nations against Soviet attack. Since 1949, when the alliance was created, the United States has acted as Western Europe's military leader. While American military involvement has given European nations security against Soviet attack, it has also made them dependent, in many respects, on American foreign policy. Often excluded from superpower arms talks, Western

AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE

171

ECONOMIC STRENGTH

leaders must rely on the United States to negotiate settlements that serve Europe's security interests. A U.S. decision to withdraw troops or missiles from Europe puts pressure on European leaders to strengthen their nations' defense. America's political and military strength is generated, in turn, by a powerful economy. The U.S. economy surpasses all other economies in overall production. Although it is neither the world's largest nor most populous nation, its economic output, measured by gross national product (GNP), is twice the Soviet Union's, three times Japan's, and six times West Germany's.
A World Power... although it is neither first in size nor in population: World Position All figures 1983/1984 16 8,51 1,66

Land area (million km2)

1.
22, 4

2. 9,98

3. 9,74

4. 9,36

S.

U.S.S.R.

CANADA 150

ER.ofCHINR

U.S.A.

BRAZIL

E.E.C.

Population (million)

750

[275

ER. of CHINA

Gross national product U.S. $ (billion) Gross industrial production U.S.$ (billion)

x-------- \363 0
U.S.A. /'- 50

INDIA

1
2250

~[273

~|237

------

__

ca.1650

U.S.S.R.

U.S.A.

FOREIGN TRADE

The United States is not only the world's leading producer, but also the world's greatest importer and exporter of goods. Other nations rely heavily on trade with the United States.
U.S. FOREIGN TRAPE BY REGIONS 1982

E.E.C.

o"
E.E.C.

U.S.S.R.

1235

E.E.C.

JAPAN
/

620

U.S.A.

------

^.ca.800

^-v 500

ER. of GERMANY

-------

U.S.S.R.

JAPAN

FR. of GERMANY

South Asia Southeast Asia East Asia (except Japan)

Exports in billions of US $ Imports in billions oT US $

172 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

America's economic influence is also extended through foreign investment. American businesses and industries operate all over the world. American investment boosts the economies of these nations by providing employment, technology and new products.

American Firms in Foreign Countries


U.SJnvestment Abroad 1982
according to economic other 34% sectors industry 141% petroleum 25% according to regions and countries
3% other 11% Japan Western Europe 45%

250
in billions U.S. $

21

200

| u.s Investment Abroad


/ 124

>
If

2 1

250 200

150
100

1) 11 f 68
/

150

50

75 /

100

Asia 7% (except Japan)

50

3 i;

Latin America 14% Canada 20%

\ 28 --------- \ ----------\

Foreign Investments in the U S A

THE ROLE OF THE DOLLAR

TECHNOLOGY

Also contributing to America's economic power is the status of the dollar as the world's chief international currency. The dollar is used for most international trading, and for practically all lending and borrowing transactions. The pre-eminence of American currency is observed in Latin American and Eastern European countries, where the dollar has become accepted as a second currency. As a leading producer and exporter of technology, the United States contributes to worldwide economic growth. It exports more computer systems and electric machinery and invests more money in technological research than any other country.

Still Leading in High Technology Percentage of world exports of high technology


U.S.A. 37 Great other 11 Britain 10

West Germany 17 Japan 25 GLOBAL ECONOMIC INFLUENCE

Given the huge volume of production, trading, and investment, the American economy is bound to have a global economic influence. Foreign investors, traders, and lenders closely watch conditions in the American economy such as the balance of trade, the value of the dollar, interest rate levels, and American investment policies.

AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE

173

THE BALANCE OF TRADE

PROTECTIONISM

MARKET INSTABILITY

INTEREST RATES INFLUENCE ON THE THIRD WORLD

ECONOMICS AND POLITICS

U.S. FOREIGN POLICY

FROM ISOLATIONISM TO INTERVENTIONISM

In the past years, the United States has experienced massive trade deficits, which meant it was importing more goods than it was exporting. This trade imbalance has promoted growth in the rest of the world: other countries have been able to sell more of their products to the United States, and these sales have provided them with export surpluses. While the U.S. trade deficit has benefited foreign economies, it has created severe economic distress for the American economy. The markets of American manufacturers have been diminished both at home and abroad owing to increased foreign competition. Many American business and labor groups have called for the United States to adopt a protectionist trade policy. Import restrictions would boost the sale of American goods and reduce the trade imbalance. On the other hand, foreign economies, dependent on export sales to the United States, would suffer. The high volatility of the American dollar in recent years has created instabilities on worldwide trade markets. Fluctuations in foreign currency rates and the prices of stocks and precious metals are due in part to the dollar's instability. Because dollars are used for borrowing and lending, U.S. interest rates and dollar values are of particular concern to foreign debtor nations. Third World countries were severely affected by high interest rates charged in the early 1980s. Many developing countries could not afford to pay the interest on their loans. Third World countries rely heavily on American investment to stimulate employment and industrial growth. These countries' economic gains, however, are accompanied by the loss of economic power and independence. In developing countries, where economic conditions are backward, American firms play a dominant role. Firms can use their economic power to influence foreign governments into adopting policies that serve American political and economic interests rather than local interests. In industrial countries as well, the United States has often used its economic power to achieve its political aims. Economic aid and economic sanctions are frequently used to implement foreign policy goals. Understanding the power and influence of the American economy is crucial to understanding America's role in global affairs. America's economic power is what ultimately underlies its political power and gives substance to foreign policy. American foreign policy, or the set of goals that determines America's relations with other governments and its stance on international issues, has been guided by several principles. First, American foreign policy serves a moral aim in promoting and protecting democratic systems and democratic values such as individual freedom and human rights. This ideal is often referred to as "making the world safe for democracy." Second, American foreign policy is committed to the practical principle of protecting America's political and economic interests. Third, American foreign policy is directed toward maintaining the balance of international power. These principles have guided U.S. policies since the early part of the century when the nation began playing an increasingly important role in international affairs. In the years between the First World War and the Second World War American foreign policy developed from isolationism to interventionism. Before its involvement in the First World War, the United States had remained aloof from the political conflicts of European powers. It had concentrated

174 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

WORLD WAR II

COMPETING SPHERES OF INFLUENCE

THE COLD WAR

CONTAINING THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM

instead on expanding territories and influence in the western hemisphere. When the First World War broke out, most Americans clung to this old idea of staying out of Europe's quarrels. Yet by this time, the United States had become the leading industrialized nation and could scarcely remain unaffected by world events. In 1917, the United States entered the war as an ally of France and Great Britain, breaking the long tradition of neutrality and diplomatic independence. After the war ended, the United States tried to return to its policy of isolationism. When war broke out again in Europe in 1939, the United States declared its neutrality. As the conflicts in Europe escalated and entry in war seemed inevitable, Americans were divided on the issue of isolationism versus interventionism. The Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor settled the issue. America entered the war as an Allied power, committing its entire military and economic resources to defeating Germany and Japan. The Second World War brought the American economy to unprecedented levels of industrial production. Large-scale factories were constructed to produce war materials, and billions of dollars went into technological research for advanced weaponry. The United States spent $2 billion on the development and testing of the atomic bomb. After the Second World War, the global balance of power became permanently altered and the role of the United States in world affairs changed dramatically. With the defeat of Germany and Japan, a "power vacuum" was left in Europe and another in Asia. Only two great powers remained in the world the United States and the Soviet Union. Competing spheres of influence, communist and democratic, soon emerged. The Soviet Union set up communist regimes in Eastern Europe, and the Chinese later began to spread communist influence throughout Asia. Meanwhile, the United States helped restore democracy in Western Europe and Japan, thereby establishing its own spheres of influence. To consolidate power and discourage encroachment, both the United States and the Soviet Union established military alliances. The United States and the western democracies, and later Greece and Turkey, coordinated defense in the NATO alliance. The Soviet Union and its eastern satellite nations formed the Warsaw Pact. The years following the Second World War, known as the "cold war" period, were characterized by mounting tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. During this period, each side tried to establish political strongholds in Europe and Asia. In some instances, armed conflict resulted. At the same time, both powers built up vast military defense arsenals which relied heavily on nuclear weapons. During the cold war, American foreign policy, known as containment, focused on protecting democracy and containing the spread of communism. Immediately after the Second World War, the United States implemented this policy by supplying both military and economic aid to war-devastated countries that were susceptible to communist takeover.

Pearl Harbor: in a surprise attack on December 7, 1941, Japanese warplanes destroyed American airfields and aircraft and dropped bombs on the ships of the U.S. Navy in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii causing the greatest disaster in American military history.

AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 175

ECONOMIC AID

MILITARY FORCE

THE NUCLEAR THREAT

THE VIETNAM WAR

In 1947 the United States responded to communist pressures in Greece and Turkey by sending millions of dollars in military aid. To ensure the stability of western European democracies, the United States began a massive four-year program of economic reconstruction known as the Marshall Plan. Altogether the United States spent over $12 billion in economic aid. The plan brought remarkable recovery. By the end of 1950, Europe's industrial production was up 64 percent, economic activity was well above prewar levels, and communist strength among voters was dwindling. The United States introduced a similar economic recovery plan in Japan. Both economic programs achieved the American foreign policy objectives of restoring democracy and containing the spread of communism. During the cold war decades of the 1950s and 60s, the United States frequently used military force to support pro-western governments which were being threatened by communist invasion. One such use of force was in Korea. When the communist-backed North Korean army invaded South Korea in 1950, the United States sent troops to defend South Korea. Similar perceptions of a communist threat led to U.S. intervention in Guatemala in 1954, in Lebanon in 1958, in Cuba in 1961, in the Dominican Republic in 1965, and in Grenada in 1983. During this period, cold war tensions were increased because of the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Each country used new developments in nuclear and space technology to produce weapons of devastating destructive capabilities. In 1962, fears of nuclear confrontation reached a climax. The United States discovered that the Soviets were beginning to install nuclear missiles in Cuba, where they would be able to reach American cities within minutes. President Kennedy imposed a blockade on Cuba and prepared for nuclear retaliation if the Soviets refused to dismantle the site. Soviet Premier Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return for an American promise not to invade Cuba. The Cuban missile crisis proved that the United States was prepared to use nuclear force, if necessary, to respond to a direct Soviet threat to American security. Throughout the 1950s and 60s, the United States tried to curb Soviet influence by channeling economic aid to unstable governments in impoverished regions of the world such as Africa, Latin America, and Asia. In Vietnam, however, a U.S. policy which began as an economic and military aid program gradually escalated into full-scale war. Under Presidents Truman and Eisenhower, the United States sent aid to establish and maintain a pro-western democratic influence in Vietnam. Aid was increased to contain the spreading communist influence in the region. Gradually, America became even more involved. Between 1961 and 1963 President Kennedy sent thousands of military advisers. President Johnson favored direct intervention. By 1968, 500,000 American troops were fighting, and bombs were being dropped on North Vietnamese
Marshall Plan: Secretary of State George Marshall (1880-1959) proposed a plan in 1947 to help Europe overcome the economic, social and political deterioration after the Second World War through substantial financial aid. The Marshall Plan was signed into law by President Truman in 1948. Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich (1894-1971): Soviet statesman, first secretary of the Communist Party (1953-64); premier of the Soviet Union (1958-64).

176 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

DTENTE .

ARMS CONTROL TALKS

RENEWED HOSTILITY

CENTRAL AMERICA

targets. President Johnson's policy was continued by President Nixon, who increased bombing raids and sent American soldiers into Cambodia. Faced with a slim prospect of immediate victory and increasing public opposition to American involvement in the war, President Nixon ended up withdrawing American troops in 1973. In 1975, South Vietnam's resistance broke. In the case of Vietnam, America's use of force to achieve foreign policy goals was neither popular nor successful. By the early 1970s cold war tensions had eased and the United States began to pursue a policy of detente ("relaxation of tensions") with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. President Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger met frequently with Soviet and Chinese leaders to make agreements that would minimize conflict and encourage trade. Between 1972 and 1974 U.S. and Soviet leaders signed eleven separate agreements to enhance cooperation in space exploration, agriculture, environmental protection, and other fields. During the period of detente, the Soviet Union and the United States began a series of negotiations to limit strategic weapons. Two major agreements were reached. The first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), signed in 1972, limited each country's defensive weapons and put a five-year restriction on the making of several types of offensive weapons. The 1979 SALT II treaty, signed by President Carter and Premier Brezhnev, placed restrictions on longrange bombers and missiles. However, the U.S. Senate failed to ratify the treaty because many senators believed the treaty made too many concessions to the Soviets. Relations between the two nations became hostile again in 1979 when Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan. President Carter responded with harsh economic measures. He imposed a grain embargo and called for the American boycott of the Moscow Olympics. He also strengthened the military by reimposing draft registration and increasing defense spending. President Reagan also used economic measures to express disapproval of Soviet policies. When martial law was declared in Poland in 1981, President Reagan imposed economic sanctions not only against Poland, but also against the Soviet Union. Although President Reagan sometimes used economic measures to achieve foreign policy goals, he believed that the most effective way of dealing with the Soviet Union and other communist governments was through the projection of military force. In Central America, President Reagan advocated military involvement to stop the spread of communism. In the early 1980s, President Reagan asked Congress to provide aid to the Salvadoran government to stop communist forces from taking over. In 1983, the United States invaded Grenada to prevent a left-wing government from coming to power. President Reagan considered the left-wing Sandinista government of Nicaragua a threat to U.S. national security. Through Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities and military
Kissinger, Henry: born 1923, professor in government at Harvard University, National Security Adviser to the President from 1969 to 1975, Secretary of State from 1973 to 1977, Nobel Peace Prize 1973. Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich (190682): Soviet statesman, general secretary of the Communist Party (1966-82). Sandinistas: a leftist political force, named after Cesar Augusto Sandino, one of the leaders of the rebellion against the United States Marines from 1927 to 1933.

AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE

177

INCREASED DEFENSE SPENDING

aid, the United States supported anti-Sandinista rebels in their fight to overthrow the communist government in Nicaragua. Many Congressional leaders, however, opposed President Reagan's policies in Central America, fearing that increased involvement might lead to war. In order to project a stronger military presence, President Reagan increased defense spending to an unprecedented level. Between 1981 and 1986, the defense budget rose 45 percent.
DEFENSE SPENDING
In billions of 1982 dollars, fiscal years

DEFENSE BUILDUP
Fiscal years

Surface ships

1981:201 1987:222

Submarines

1981:128 1987:139
ICBM's

1981:1,054 1987:1,000
Bombers

1981:376 1987:315
Tanks

1981:12,821 1987: 14,296

7980

1981

1982

1983 1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

'includes expenses for joint services and for the office of secretary of defense

ARMY OTHER*

NAVY

AIR FORCE

Defense outlays for all services, including the secretary's office,have increased by $89 billion, or nearly 45%

SPACE-BASED MISSILES

RENEWED ARMS TALKS

As part of his plan to increase U.S. military strength, President Reagan also proposed the development of a new space-based defense, known as the Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars"). This system would be able to shoot down Soviet missiles before they could reach the United States. Critics, including the Soviets, argue that the plan can never be completely effective and fear that development of space-based missiles will only escalate the arms race. Despite sharp differences on arms control, the two nations reopened arms talks under the Reagan administration. Progress, however, was slow. The Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) were begun in 1982 but ended when the Soviets walked out a year and a half later in response to the NATO deployment of Pershing missiles in West Germany.

178 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

THE MIDDLE EAST

U.S. RESPONSIBILITY

In 1985, the United States and the Soviet Union resumed arms control talks in Geneva, Switzerland to discuss medium-range, long-range, and spacebased missiles. Progress toward arms reduction was finally reached in 1987, when President Reagan and Premier Gorbachev signed a tentative agreement to limit intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) in Europe. Since 1947, conflicts arising out of rivalry between the two superpowers have dominated world affairs. In recent decades, however, global power has become somewhat less polarized as other nations and regions have gained power and influence. Both the Soviet Union and the United States acknowledge a degree of dependence on the Middle East, which supplies most of the world's oil. The delicate conflicts of this region have become an important focus of American foreign policy. The United States has become involved in Middle East conflicts for several reasons: First, the United States wants to protect the world's oil supply. Second, it wants to maintain a friendly relationship with Israel, its most reliable ally in the region. Third, the United States wants to limit the influence of the Soviet Union in the area. These interests are difficult to secure. By supporting Israel, the United States may anger Arab oil-producing states. By seeking good relations with Arab states, it compromises its support for Israel. Nevertheless, the United States has attempted to represent its interests by negotiating peace settlements, supplying arms, and sending military forces. As a negotiator, the United States helped Israel and Egypt reach an historic peace agreement in 1979. American leaders have tried to gain favor with Saudi Arabia and Jordan, two moderate nations in the region, by selling advanced military weapons. The sale of arms to Arab nations was controversial because it meant that the United States was helping sustain Arab-Israeli conflict by appearing to support both sides. In 1982, the United States tried to control fighting in Lebanon by sending military troops to keep peace and distance between feuding factions. This military effort was unsuccessful, and troops were withdrawn in 1984. In 1987, America increased its involvement in the Iran-Iraq War when it sent warships to escort oil tankers through the besieged Persian Gulf. Global affairs continue to be dominated by the United States and the Soviet Union. Even in the Middle East, where conflicts have little to do with democracy versus communism, the actions of the two superpowers can help decide whether peace or conflict reigns. Because of its military and economic power, the United States has the potential to impose solutions by the use of force. Yet global interdependence and the threat of nuclear confrontation increase the importance of diplomacy to American foreign policy. The United States bears an important global responsibility as it balances its national security interests with the need for international stability and peace.

Gorbachev, Mikhail: born 1931, Soviet statesman, general secretary of the Communist Party since 1985.

179

PART

Texts

Principles & Pragmatism


HENRY KISSINGER
Unique among the nations of the world, America was created as a conscious act by men dedicated to a set of political and ethical principles they believed to be of universal applicability. Small wonder, then, that Santayana concluded: "To be an American is of itself almost a moral condition." But this idealism has also been in constant tension with another deep-seated strain in our historical experience. Since Toqueville, it has been frequently observed that we are a pragmatic people commonsensical, undogmatic and undoctrinaire, a nation of practical energy, ingenuity and spirit. We have made tolerance and compromise the basis of our domestic political life. We have defined our fundamental goals justice, liberty, equality and progress in open and libertarian terms, enlarging opportunity and freedom rather than coercing a uniform standard of conduct. America has been most effective internationally when we have combined our idealistic and our pragmatic traditions. ... America - and the community of nations today faces inescapable tasks: We must maintain a secure and just peace. We must create a cooperative and beneficial international order. We must defend the rights and the dignity of man. Each of these challenges has both a moral and a practical dimension. Each involves important ends, but ends that are sometimes in conflict. When that is the case, we face the real moral dilemma of foreign policy: the need to choose between valid ends and to relate our ends to means. Peace is a fundamental moral imperative. Without it, nothing else we do or seek can ultimately have meaning. Averting the danger of nuclear war and limiting and ultimately reducing destructive nuclear arsenals is a moral as well as a political act. In the nuclear age, power politics, the struggle

America & the World:

Henry Kissinger

AMERICA has perennially engaged in a search of its conscience. How does our foreign policy serve moral ends? How can America serve as a humane example and champion of justice in a world in which power is still often the final arbiter? How do we reconcile ends and means, principle and survival? Today the challenge of American foreign policy is to avoid the illusion of false choices: we must live up to this nation's moral promise while fulfilling the practical needs of world order. From its beginning, Americans have believed this country had a moral significance that transcended its military or economic power.

180 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

for marginal advantages, the drive for prestige and unilateral gains must yield to an unprecedented sense of responsibility. History teaches us that balances based on constant tests of strength have always erupted into war. Common sense tells us that in the nuclear age history must not be repeated. Every President, sooner or later, will conclude with President Eisenhower that "there is no alternative to peace". But peace cannot be our only goal. To seek it at any price would render us morally defenseless and place the world at the mercy of the most ruthless. Mankind must do more, as Tacitus said, than "make a desert [and] call it peace." There will be no security in a world whose obsession with peace leads to appeasement. But neither will there be security in a world in which mock tough rhetoric and the accumulation of arms are the sole measure of competition. We can spare no effort to bequeath to future generations a peace more hopeful than an equilibrium of terror. In the search for peace we are continually called upon to strike balances between strength and conciliation; between the need to defend our values and interests and the need to consider the views of others; between partial and total settlements. America's second moral imperative is the growing need for global cooperation. We live in a world of more than 150 countries, each asserting sovereignty and claiming the right to realize its national aspirations. Clearly, no nation can fulfill all its goals without infringing on the rights of others. Hence, compromise and common endeavors are inescapable. The growing interdependence of states in the face of the polarizing tendencies of nationalism and ideologies makes imperative the building of world community. We live in an age of division between East and West and between the advanced industrial nations and the developing nations. Clearly, a world in which a few nations constitute islands of wealth in a sea of despair is fundamentally insecure and morally intolerable. Those who consider themselves dispossessed will become the seedbed of upheaval. But the tactics of confrontation with which some of the developing nations have pursued their goals are as unacceptable as they are unproductive.

1. continued

The objectives of the developing nations are clear: economic development, a role in international decisions that affect them, a fair share of global economic benefits. The goals of the industrial nations are equally clear: widening prosperity, an open world system of trade, investments and markets and reliable development of the resources of food, energy and raw materials. The process of building a new era of international economic relationships will continue through the rest of this century. If those relationships are to be equitable and lasting, negotiations and mutual regard among diverse and contending interests will clearly be required. On the part of the industrial nations, there must be a moral commitment - now, while there is still time for conciliation - to make the sacrifices necessary to build a sense of community. On the part of the developing nations, there must be an end to blackmail and extortion - now, before the world is irrevocably split into contending camps - and a commitment to seek progress through cooperation. Our third moral imperative is the nurturing of human values. It is a tragedy that the very tools of technology that have made ours the most productive century in history have also served to subject millions to a new dimension of intimidation, suffering and fear. Individual freedom of conscience and expression is the proudest heritage of our civilization. All we do in the search for peace, for greater political cooperation and for a fair and flourishing international economy is rooted in our belief that only liberty permits the fullest expression of mankind's creativity. Technological progress without justice mocks humanity; national unity without freedom is a hollow triumph. Nationalism without a consciousness of human community and human rights is likely to become an instrument of oppression and a force for evil. As the world's leading democracy, it is our obligation to dedicate ourselves to assuring freedom for the human spirit. But responsibility compels also a recognition of our limits. Our alliances, the political relationships built up with other nations, serve peace by strengthening regional and world security. If well conceived, they are not favors to others, but a recognition of common interests. They should be withdrawn when those interests change; they should not, as a general rule, be used as levers. . . .

Kissinger, Henry: see page 176. Santayana, George (18631952): Spanish-bom American philosopher and poet. Tocqueville, Alexis de (1805-59): French statesman and historian who traveled through the United States for eight months in 1831. His Democracy in America is one of the most important books about America.

AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE

181

American Policy in Vietnam: Peace Without Conquest


,

Lyndon B. Johnson
Excerpt from a speech delivered at John Hopkins University, April 7, 1965

I have come here to review once again with my own people the views of the American government. Tonight Americans and Asians are dying for a world where each people may choose its own path to change. This is the principle for which our ancestors fought in the valleys of Pennsylvania. It is a principle for which our sons fight tonight in the jungles of Vietnam. Vietnam is far away from this quiet campus. We have no territory there, nor do we seek any. The war is dirty and brutal and difficult. And some four hundred young men, born into an America that is bursting with opportunity and promise, have ended their lives on Vietnam's steaming soil. Why must we take this painful road? Why must this nation hazard its ease, and its interest, and its power for the sake of a people so far away? We fight because we must fight if we are to live in a world where every country can shape its own destiny, and only in such a world will our own freedom be finally secure. This kind of world will never be built by bombs or bullets. The world as it is in Asia is not a serene or peaceful place. The first reality' is that North Vietnam has attacked the independent nation of South Vietnam. Its object is total conquest. And it is a war of unparalleled brutality'. Simple farmers are the targets of assassination and kidnapping. Women and children are strangled in the night because their men are loyal to their government. And helpless villages are ravaged by sneak attacks. Large-scale raids are conducted on towns, and terror strikes in the heart of cities. Over this war and all Asia is another

The misery of Vietnam

reality: the deepening shadow of Communist China. The rulers in Hanoi are urged on by Peking. This is a regime which has destroyed freedom in Tibet, which has attacked India and has been condemned by the United Nations for aggression in Korea. It is a nation which is helping the forces of violence in almost every continent. The contest in Vietnam is part of a wider pattern of aggressive purposes. Why are these realities our concern? Why are we in South Vietnam? We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since 1945 ever} American President has offered support to the people of South Vietnam. We have helped to build, and we have helped to defend. Thus, over many years, we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence. And I intend to keep that promise. We are also there to strengthen world order. Around the globe from Berlin to Thailand are

182 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

people whose well-being rests in part on the belief that they can count on us if they are attacked. To leave Vietnam to its fate would shake the confidence of all these people in the value of an American commitment and in the value of America's world. The result would be increased unrest and instability, and even wider war. Our objective is the independence of South Vietnam and its freedom from attack. We want nothing for ourselves only that the people of South Vietnam be allowed to guide their own country in their own way. We will do everything necessary to reach that objective. And we will do only what is absolutely necessary. In recent months attacks on South Vietnam were stepped up. Thus it became necessary for

2. continued

us to increase our response and to make attacks by air. This is not a change of purpose. It is a change in what we believe that purpose requires. We do this in order to slow down aggression. We do this to increase the confidence of the brave people of South Vietnam who have bravely borne this brutal battle for so many years with so many casualties. And we do this to convince the leaders of North Vietnam and all who seek to share their conquest of a very simple fact: We will not be defeated. We will not grow tired. We will not withdraw, either openly or under the cloak of a meaningless agreement. We will use our power with restraint and with all the wisdom that we can command. But we will use it. . . .

Vietnam: see page 15. valleys of Pennsylvania: allusion to the War of Independence.

Top Dogs and Underdogs


J. William Fulbright
AMERICA is top dog in the world and, although we may be convinced that we are good top dogs, most people around the world are convinced that there is no such thing. Because we are rich, we are perceived as voracious; because we are successful, we are perceived as arrogant; because we are strong, we are perceived as overbearing. These perceptions may be distorted and exaggerated, but they are not entirely false. Power does breed arrogance and it has bred enough in us to give some substance to the natural prejudices against us. Much to our puzzlement, people all over the world seem to discount our good intentions and to seize upon our hypocrisies, failures and transgressions. They do this not because we are Americans but because we are top dogs and they fear our power. They are frightened by some of the ways in which we have used our power; they are frightened by the ways in which we might use it; and most of all, I suspect, they are frightened by the knowledge of their own inability to withstand our power, should it ever be turned upon them. They are, so to speak, tenants in the world at our sufferance, and no amount of good will on our part can ever wholly dispel the anxiety bred by the feeling of helplessness. VVhat do these feelings about American power have to do with the war in Vietnam? They go far, I think, to explain why our war policy commands so little support in the world. Anxiety about America's great power predisposes people, even against their better judgment, to take satisfaction in our frustrations and

AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE 183

our setbacks. The French, for example, who well understand the importance to themselves of America's weight in the world balance of power, nevertheless seem to derive some satisfaction from seeing more than half a million Americans fought to a stalemate or worse by a ragtag army of Asian guerrillas. Seeing the Americans cut down to size like that is balm for the wounds of Dien Bien Phu, salve for the pride that was lost in the days of the Marshall Plan, when France survived on American generosity. If our military failures in Vietnam have this effect on the French, as I believe they do, think what they must mean to the real underdogs of the world, to the hundreds of millions of Asians, Africans and Latin Americans who can easily identify themselves with the Viet Cong guerillas but could never see themselves in the role of the lordly Americans. There may even be people in our own country who feel some sneaking respect for a resourceful enemy, an enemy who, in a curious and purely emotional way, may even remind them of the ragtag American revolutionaries who humbled the mighty British Empire almost 200 years ago. Such attitudes, it will be argued, are irrational and unfair; and so, in large measure, they are. People, it will be said, should be rational and should act on their interests, not their emotions; and so, indeed, they should. But they don't. I might be able to think up some good reasons why elephants should fly, but it would not be rewarding; elephants cannot fly and there is nothing to be done about it. So it is with men; they ought to be cool and rational and detached, but

3. continued

they are not. We are, to be sure, endowed with a certain capacity for reason, but it is not nearly great enough to dispel the human legacy of instinct and emotion. The most we can hope to do with our fragile tool of reason is to identify, restrain and make allowance for the feelings and instincts that shape so much of our lives. That brings me to one of the most important of the many flaws in our war policy in Vietnam its failure to take account of people's feelings and instincts, especially those pertaining to top dogs and underdogs. American policy asks people to believe things that they are deeply reluctant to believe. It asks them to believe that the world's most powerful nation is not only strong but motivated by deeply benevolent and altruistic instincts, unrelated even to national interests. Even if that were true and on occasion it probably has been true nobody would believe it, because nobody would want to believe it. . . . Rich and powerful though our country is, it is not rich or powerful enough to shape the course of world history in a constructive or desired direction solely by the impact of its power and policy. Inevitably and demonstrably, our major impact on the world is not in what we do but in what we are. For all their worldwide influence, our aid and our diplomacy are only the shadow of America; the real America and the real American influence is something else. It is the way our people live, our tastes and games, our products and preferences, the way we treat one another, the way we govern ourselves, the ideas about man and man's relations with other men that took root and flowered in the American soil.

Marshall Plan: see page 175. Viet Cong: cf. Vietnam War, page 15. ragtag: badly-behaved. Fulbright, ]. William: born 1905, American educator and political leader, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1959-74).

184 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Published by American Enterprise Institute Feb/March 1986

^ 4 ^ _ _ _ ____

11 a

I
\C

X;

Exporting American Culture

Our Music, Movies, Campaign Techniques, Our Values plus more in Opinion Roundup, page 30

AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE

185

Exporting American Culture


Richard Burt, our young-at-heart ambassador to West Germany, recently startled the diplomatic community there with his rendition of two rock and roll classics, "Teenager in Love" and "Tell Me"both sung in a West Berlin recording studio to the accompaniment of a local group called the "Subtones." Surprising as such a performance was to German diplomats, it actually played to an American strength. American popular culture, in fact, may be an emissary as important as Ambassador Burt himself or any ambassador for that matter. Around the world, people hum American tunes, line up for American movies, and demand American television programs, even as they deride them. Clint Eastwood packs them in in France, and Bruce Springsteen brings them to their feet in Germany. Alexis Carrington is loved and loathed from London to Monaco. And after the movies, or between miniseries, citizens abroad can lace up their Nikes and jog off to the local McDonald's or Burger King for a hamburguesa and a shake. Or, if it's a leisurely continental breakfast they want in, say, Thailand, they can hole up in any of fifteen Dunkin' Donuts shops with a cup of coffee and a good book What They Don't Teach You at Harvard Business School, perhaps, the best seller in Bangkok. Much as some nations deplore what has been called the "Coca-colonization" of their cultures, their citizens adore Coca-Cola itselfand its major competitor, Pepsi. For those who demand a little culture from American culture, there are Artistic Ambassadorsyoung American pianists who play newly commissioned pieces of American music. Add to these the Fulbright scholars, the political consultants, and the foreign exchange students, and you have a collection of some of the best traveling salesmen around. These expressions of America are explored by Richard Grenier, Tim Page, John Russonello, and Jack Valenti in the pages that follow. More on the American cultural roadshow appears in Opinion Roundup, pages 30-35.
PUBLIC OPINION, FEBRUARY/MARCH 1986 VAS and KHK

Burt, Richard: born 1947, American journalist and diplomat, ambassador to West Germany from 1985 to 1989. Eastwood, Clint: born 1930, American movie star. He became known through the CBS Western series Rawhide and gained international recognition in Sergio Leone's trio of Italian-made Westerns.
Springsteen, Bruce: see page 242.

Carrington, Alexis: character in the TV series "Dynasty." Nike: tradename of sport shoes. Fulbright scholar: recipient of a U.S. government scholarship sponsored by Senator J.W. Fulbright for graduate study abroad.

186

PART C Exercises
1. Text Analysis
America & the World: Principle & Pragmatism
1. Kissinger discusses idealism and pragmatism. Define these terms according to the information given in the text. 2. In his essay, Kissinger deals with war, disorder and conflict on the one hand, and with peace, order and appeasement on the other. Find the various words and expressions which are characteristic of these polarizing fields. 3. Among the stylistic and rhetorical figures used by the author, we find metaphors, antitheses, parallelism and accumulation. What is the function of these devices? Make a list of examples. 4. Make a list of all the words and phrases used in order to describe violence and aggression in Asia in the fourth and fifth paragraphs. What is the effect the speaker wants to achieve by this enumeration of expressions of violence? 5. At the end of the third paragraph, Johnson points out that a free and secure world "will never be built by bombs and bullets." Later on, however, he speaks about American air raids. How does he justify those attacks? Do you find his way of arguing convincing?

3. Comprehension
Top Dogs and Underdogs
Determine which of the following statements agree with the text. Correct the false statements. 1. The way Americans see themselves is markedly different from the way they are seen by others. 2. The distortions and exaggerations which can often be found in the perceptions of Americans by people all over the world cannot be substantiated at all. 3. The underdogs' fear of the top dogs' power makes many people dwell on the negative sides of Americans. 4. It is the anxiety of the less powerful rather than rational consideration that makes people derive satisfaction from the plight of the Americans in Vietnam. 5. Only the French, who suffered a similar defeat in Dien Bien Phu, do not show some kind of malicious joy when half a million American soldiers do not stand a chance of winning the war against the Asian guerillas. 6. The Viet Cong guerillas arouse more sympathies among the underdogs of the world than the American soldiers. 7. The fight of the American soldiers in Vietnam is sometimes even compared with that of the American revolutionaries 200 years ago.

2. Text Analysis
American Policy in Vietnam: Peace Without Conquest
1. Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the U.S. from 1963 to 1968, delivered this speech, which was broadcast nationwide, at Johns Hopkins University on April 7, 1965. This was a few months after American military involvement had increased dramatically, when U.S. bombers had raided North Vietnam. What, do you think, was the main purpose of the President's speech in this situation? 2. In his address, Johnson defines America's role in Southeast Asia. Read through the text again and find out all the reasons he gives for America's commitment in Vietnam. How are these reasons related to each other? 3. Johnson was obviously aware of the fact that his military policies did not meet with approval from all Americans. Show how he uses rhetorical devices like comparison, images and parallelism to convince the audience that his policy is right.

AMERICA'S GLOBAL ROLE

187

8. Although at present the attitude towards Americans is largely emotional and irrational, in the long run, rational thinking will get the upper hand. 9. If American politicians had considered the psychological implications of the relationship between top dogs and underdogs, they would have understood the criticism America's involvement in Vietnam aroused outside the U.S.A. 10. Senator Fulbright argues that Americans should exert an influence on others not by displaying their power abroad but by setting a positive example through their way of life at home.

6. Interviewing
Many of the cultural influences mentioned in the introduction to Public Opinion are rather accidental. A more comprehensive impression of American culture is left on foreigners who have actually been to the United States. Among the numerous exchange programs for young
people, American Field Service International (AFS) and Youth for Understanding (YFU) are especially

4. Visual Comprehension
Exporting American Culture
In its February/March 1986 issue, the American magazine Public Opinion dealt with "Exporting American Culture." Have a look at the collage shown on the front page and identify as many facets of American culture as possible.

well known. AFS was founded in 1947 and organized 10,000 student exchanges among 70 countries in 1985. YFU, founded in 1951, hosted 4,000 foreign high school students in America and sent 2,500 American high school students abroad in 1986/7. Try and find somebody who has taken part in a student exchange with the United States or has lived there for some time. Ask him/her about the aspect of American culture that he/she found and still finds most striking.

5. Discussion
Which aspects of American culture can you find in your own city or country? What do your friends think about the American cultural influence in your country? How do you personally feel about it?

Education
PART A Background Information
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE Every American is entitled to an education. School attendance is compulsory for all children. Students attend school five to seven hours a day, five days a week for nine months each year, from September to June. Public education from kindergarten through grade 12 is tax-supported; no tuition is required.

The System of Education in the U.S.A.


HIGHER EDUCATION
Postgraduate Studies Graduate Studies "Doctor's Degree (e.g. Ph.D.)

Technical Institute

Private Career School

Junior College

Master's Degree (e.g. M.A., M.S.) """Bachelor's Degree (e.g. B.A., B.S.) Undergraduate Studies High School Diploma

SECONDAR Y EDUCATION

4-year High School

Senior High School Junior High School

ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

Elementary School

Kindergarten Nursery School

Grade (= School Year)

Age

EDUCATION

189

About 85 percent of American children attend public schools. The other 15 percent choose to pay tuition to attend private schools. Most private schools are run by religious organizations and generally include religious instruction. Since 1940, the education system in the United States has made significant advances in educating an ever greater proportion of the population. A 1985 Census Bureau study reported that in 1940 only 38 percent of those between the ages of 25 and 29 had received a high school diploma and only 6 percent had college degrees. In 1985, 86 percent of those surveyed said they had high school diplomas and 22 percent said they had college degrees. A 1981 survey showed that almost 32 percent of Americans 25 years or older had at least some college education. This contrasts with 17.3 percent of East Germans, 17.2 percent of Canadians, 15.5 percent of Swedes, and 14.5 percent of Japanese. Percent of High School Graduates (18-24 years old) Enrolled in College
I Hispanics 1984 Blacks Whites 1980

1974

20%
VARIED OPPORTUNITIES

30%

40%

Educational opportunities in the United States are highly varied. High school students at the same grade level do not take the same courses. Students who do not plan to go to college may be enrolled in classes such as basic accounting, typing, or agricultural science, along with "core" curriculum courses such as mathematics, social studies, science, and English. College-bound students may be enrolled in college-preparatory courses such as chemistry, political science, or advanced writing. Which courses a student takes depends on his or her abilities and future goals, but also on the particular course offerings of the school. Some elementary schools offer computer and foreign language courses. Courses in scuba diving or Russian are available at some high schools. In higher education, the wide variety of degree programs is remarkable. Besides colleges and universities which offer degrees in traditional fields of scholarship, there are also small arts colleges which grant degrees to students who concentrate in specialized fields such as ballet, film-making, and even circus performing. Besides the diversified course offerings at all levels, variety also exists in schools' academic standards and reputations. The standards students must meet to attain a high school diploma are rigorous in some schools and lax in others. The same is true for college admission standards. Highly reputable

190 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

DECENTRALIZED FUNDING AND ADMINISTRATION

CURRICULUM

DEMOCRATIC IDEAL

INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATION

PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S GREAT SOCIETY

colleges such as Harvard and Yale accept only students of exceptional ability. At the other end of the spectrum are less desirable institutions, sometimes negatively referred to as "degree factories," which accept practically any high school graduate. The main reason for such diversity in course offerings and standards is that there is no national education system in the United States. In public schools, decisions about school curriculum, teacher certification, and student achievement standards are made by boards of education at the state and/or district level. Spending for public education is also determined by state and local education leaders. Accordingly, education standards and requirements differ from state to state. For example, New York administers standardized competency tests to students. In some states, the selection of textbooks is decided by local officials, whereas in other states, textbook selection is made by state education officials. Some school systems require that a high school student complete three years of mathematics before graduation. The national average, however, is lower. Although there is no national curriculum, certain subjects are generally taught in all public school systems across the country. Almost every elementary school instructs children in penmanship, science, mathematics, music, art, physical education, language arts (which includes reading, writing, and grammar), and social studies (which includes geography, history, and citizenship). Most secondary schools require students to take English, mathematics, science, social studies, and physical education. In addition to this "core" curriculum, students choose "elective" courses in their areas of interest. Traditionally, the American educational ideal has been to offer equal opportunity for education to all citizens. The education system can boast that now more than 95 percent of all fourteen- to seventeen-year-olds attend high school compared with only 50 percent in 1930, and that America produces proportionately more college graduates than any industrial nation. Yet the education that each student receives is by no means equal. The fact that public schools receive the bulk of their funds from local property taxes creates inequalities. Rural farming communities and poor innercity districts have less money available for school buildings, learning materials, and teacher salaries. More money is spent for the education of a child living in a wealthy district than a child living in a poor community. The democratic ideal of providing equal education for all citizens has been hard to satisfy. To eliminate inequalities, the federal government has increased its share of school financing and now contributes between 10 and 15 percent. Despite this injection of federal money, spending per pupil varies considerably, from $1,300 a year in Mississippi to $2,400 a year in Massachusetts. The first major contribution of federal aid for education was in 1965 when President Lyndon B. Johnson proposed new programs as his instrument for realizing his liberal hope for a "Great Society" of greater equality and less poverty. His new federal programs, backed by 1.3 billion dollars, were initiated to provide remedial schooling for children from poor families. One plan that was established in the spirit of equality was the Economic Opportunity Act, which provides money for adult literacy programs and pre-school education for poor children. Another was the Higher Education Act, which offers government scholarships to needy college students.

EDUCATION

191

Children being "bussed" to school in Boston. Opposition in the local white community was so strong that police were brought in from other states. DESEGREGATION

The discrimination against blacks which prohibited black children from attending white schools was finally declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Subsequent court decisions ordered schools to begin desegregation immediately. During the 1960s, Congress passed laws denying federal aid to school districts that failed to comply with the ruling. Another measure introduced to speed up integration was the compulsory "bussing" of black children to schools in white areas and white children to schools in black neighborhoods. Before the Brown case, schools for blacks were not only separate but unequal. Three times as much money was spent per pupil in white schools as in black schools. In the deep South, it was five times as much. The attempts of the last 30 years to achieve fully integrated schools have resulted in successes and failures. In some cities, compulsory bussing has worked. Yet in many areas, people reacted strongly against it. When bussing was first introduced as a way to achieve integrated schools, whites began sending their children to private schools or moved to the suburbs. Although progress has been slow, integration has succeeded in narrowing the education gap between blacks and whites. The dropout rate among black high school students has declined significantly. U.S. Census Bureau statistics show that the dropout rate among blacks declined from over 22 percent in 1970 to 16 percent in 1980 and to 12.6 percent in 1985.
Brown v. the Board of Education: see page 113.

Court in the 1954 landmark case, Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka.

bussing: carrying students by bus to a school in a different area where the pupils are of a different race, especially as a compulsory integration measure.

192 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

PROTECTING THE HANDICAPPED

NEED FOR QUALITY EDUCATION

A NATION AT RISK

In the 1970s, measures to protect minorities from discrimination were extended to handicapped children. Because public schools were ill-equipped to handle their special needs, handicapped children used to have to attend expensive private schools. In 1971, federal courts ruled that public schools should take measures to accommodate handicapped children. Aside from the schools' task of socializing and equalizing youngsters of different social, cultural, and economic backgrounds, schools have the obvious task of providing quality instruction. The public's concern for better schools and more learning is increasing as results of standardized tests show a continual decline in students' academic achievement. The 1983 report, A Nation at Risk, by the National Commission on Excellence in Education asserted: "The education foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity. " The following statistics of the report bear out this claim: 13 percent of all seventeen-year-olds in the United States are functionally illiterate; among minority teenagers, the figure may be as high as 40 percent; average achievement of high school students on most standardized tests is lower than in the mid-1950s; reading, writing, and math skills are so poor among young people that employers have spent millions of dollars on remedial education and training programs for their employees. The commission's recommendations for improving student achievement, widely supported by the public, include the following points: 1. stronger academic curricula, with a back-to-basics emphasis on reading, writing, math, and science; 2. stricter standards for students, including a heavier homework load and higher grading standards; 3. higher salaries to attract and keep talented, well-qualified teachers. By its democratic standard, America has succeeded in educating the many and has made gains in evening out inequalities. The challenge for American education today is to improve the quality of learning without sacrificing these gains.

193

PART

Texts

American Educational Philosophies


by Diane Ravitch.
SINCE THE MIDDLE 1940S, AMERICAN schools have been at the center of a tug of war between competing educational philosophies. With striking regularity, educational policy has swung from domination by "progressives" to domination by "traditionalists" in roughly ten-year periods. ... Progressivism in the late 1940s was called "life adjustment education" by friend and foe alike. . . . It judged every subject by its everyday utility, substituting radio repair for physics, business English for the classics, and consumer arithmetic for algebra. Under the rubric of life adjustment education, schools were encouraged to merge traditional subjects like English and history with health and guidance to create "common learning" courses, in which students could examine their personal and social problems. Beginning in 1949, critics complained that "how-to" courses and socio-personal adjustment had been substituted for history, science, mathematics, foreign languages, and literature. Life adjustment education was condemned by some because it was anti-intellectual, and by others because it aimed to teach group conformity. ... many of the critic's worst complaints about the softness of American education. ... During the late 1950s and early 1960s, educators shifted their focus from "meeting the needs of the whole child" to "excellence". Programs were developed to identify talented youth at an early age and to speed their way through rigorous courses in high school and college. ... The political climate, typified by the brief presidency of John F. Kennedy, also stimulated the popular belief that the identification of talent and the pursuit of excellence were appropriate educational goals. Part of Kennedy's image was the idea that youth, talent, intelligence, and education could right society's problems. The drive for excellence was in high gear during the early 1960s, and enrollment in advanced courses and foreign languages rose steadily, along with standardized test scores. The sudden and remarkably quiet disappearance of the "pursuit of excellence" in the mid-1960s showed how dependent it was on the sociopolitical climate. A series of cataclysmic events shook national selfconfidence: violence against blacks and civil rights workers in the South; Kennedy's assassination; the rediscovery of poverty; American involvement in Vietnam. By 1965, the nation's competition with the Soviets for world supremacy had lost its motivating power. As the Cold War appeared to fade, students in elite universities the

After the Russians orbited Sputnik in 1957, the national press was filled with indictments of American schools for ignoring science and mathematics. The Russian's feat served as evidence for

194 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

1. continued presumed beneficiaries of the postSputnik years protested against technology, against the middle-class values of their parents, and against the meritocratic pressures of an achievement-oriented society. ... Responding to changes in the social and cultural milieu, educators sought to adapt the schools to the new conditions and to placate their numerous critics. The innovation that had the most influence in the public schools was the open education movement. The open education philosophy answered perfectly the need for a set of educational values to fit the countercultural mood of the late 1960s; it stimulated participatory democracy; it justified the equal sharing of power between the authority figure (the teacher) and the students; it made a positive virtue of nonassertive leadership; and it insisted that children should study only what they wanted. At the high-school level, the open philosophy led to dropping of requirements, adoption of mini-courses, schools-without-walls, and alternative schools. On paper, open education was ideal. Once it was put into practice, the problems

appeared. Many schools removed classroom walls, hired open educators, sent their veteran teachers to workshops to be retrained, and provisioned classrooms with the obligatory gerbils and sensory, tactile materials. Despite their training, some teachers couldn't handle the open-ended situation; children wandered about aimlessly, got into fights, demanded that the teacher tell them what to do. In some districts, parents complained bitterly that their children couldn't read, that the classroom was chaotic, and that there was no homework. By the mid-1970s, the open education movement had gone into decline. ... The swing away from open education was hastened by the public reaction to the news in 1975 that score on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) had dropped steadily since 1963. Regardless of explanations blaming such factors as Vietnam, Watergate, drugs, the effect of television, and working mothers, a substantial part of the public believed that the decline of standards in the school was primarily responsible for lower test scores. The College Board's 1977 report on the score drop confirmed that part of the drop was in fact due to lowered standards, grade inflation, absenteeism, and the widespread decline of critical reading and careful writing.

Ravitch, Diane: associate professor of History and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. Scholastic Aptitude Test: (SAT), standardized admission test for college. Watergate: see page 29.

EDUCATION 195

What Makes Great Schools Great


A Tough School Pays Off

8:01 a.m. at the inner-city campus of Thomas Jefferson High School, students already have learned the first lesson about attending classes here: Be on time. Starting at 7:30, Principal Francis Nakano is standing by to greet the school's nearly 2,000 predominantly Hispanic and black students as they arrive. Promptly at 8, Nakano locks the gates to keep out unwanted visitors. Tardy students are screened by security personnel and sent to a holding room to wait for one period so that they won't disrupt classes for others. Students who are late three times in one month are assigned to 20 minutes of work cleaning up the campus. "Now, we have students running to classes," says Alberta Moss, who heads the tardiness program. From February, the monthly number of late students dropped from 1,049 more than half of the school to 430 in May. Getting students to school on time is only one of the disciplinary measures adopted by the 46-year-old Nakano that have changed the fortunes of a troubled campus. When Nakano, a third-generation Japanese American, came to Jefferson High two years ago, he found a graffiti-marred campus that openly showed its latest scars: The blackened hulls of three administrative offices gutted by fire. Students freely roamed halls that crackled with an ever present threat of gang violence about to explode. "Climate for learning." Nakano immediately masterminded an overhaul of the buildings. "When people feel safe, you have a climate for learning," he says. The burned-out area was sealed from view, and a new $85,000 full fire-and-security alarm system was installed. An aging sprinkler system was repaired, bringing back green grass and fresh plants to the campus. Students felt proud of their school again. There have been no gang fights on campus for 18 months, observes Eric Parker, who becomes studentbody president this fall. Unlike before, he says, "I'm not

^^^^^^ LOS ANGELES By

afraid any day I go to school. Dr. Nakano is trying to make school a good place." With physical changes has come a renewed attention to learning. Top scholars are recognized at an annual academic banquet where they receive Olympic-style medals for their efforts. Honors programs were started last year at each of the three grade levels in English. Still, serious academic problems remain. Standardized test scores remain low, although the percentage of students scoring in the bottom quarter has steadily declined. "Sixty percent of our 10th graders read at fifth-grade level below," says Barbara Shealy, head of the English department. "But we're getting kids who care more about school and are willing to work."

Principal Nakano has brought order to Jefferson High School.

196 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

About 225 sophomores with low scores will enter the 8-month-old School Within a School program this fall. Participants sign learning contracts in which they accept responsibility for their own progress in exchange for special individual instruction. More parents are coming to once sparsely attended school meetings, and local business is actively lending its support. Last spring, Hughes Aircraft Company provided a "quality circles" training program to help teachers identify and propose solutions to school problems. The Knudsen Corporation, a large dairy 3 miles from campus, provides on-site internships to students and donates dairy products for school fund-raising events. One morning when school officials needed paint to cover graffiti, the dairy delivered it within an hour. In a school once plagued by fear and hopelessness, teachers, students and the community again believe that anything is possible.

2. continued

Going First Class


iGLENVIEW, Glenbrook South High School is a microcosm of the successful suburban Chicago community that surrounds it. According to 1980 Census Bureau figures, Glenview, with a population of about 31,000, boasted the ninthhighest median income of all cities in the country. Large corporations based here, such as Zenith and publisher Scott Foresman, further boost the local tax base. As a result, per pupil spending at Glenbrook South is nearly $6,000 about twice the state and national average. "If there's a lesson to be learned here," says Harry Gottlieb,

a 1983 graduate now attending Brown University, "it's that putting money into education is worthwhile." The district has spared little expense in making learning attractive. The sleek two-story structure offers an indoor swimming pool and a greenhouse for its 2,100 students. The curriculum guide, which exceeds 100 pages, offers more than 200 courses, ranging from automotive repair to a special program of advanced study in English, social studies and foreign languages. A full time studentactivities co-ordinator surveys students annually to see which extracurricular clubs should be expanded or dropped. Ready funding also has enabled the school to be at the forefront of educational innovations. The first computer was installed at Glenbrook South in 1968. Today, the school has a microcomputer lab with 22 computers, a minicomputer with 24 terminals and one of the few advanced-placement computer-science courses in the nation. Students can even use computers to compose music or simulate scientific experiments. "There is something here for every student," says Associate Principal David Smith. "We put as much emphasis on the lower-level student as on the gifted student." Success-oriented. Like the community in which it is located, Glenbrook South is geared toward success. More than 80 percent of last year's graduates went on to two and four-year colleges. "The kids are achievers because their parents are all achievers," says senior Stephanie Cotell. "Everybody is really motivated." The emphasis on achievement at home and school presents problems for many students in their first year. To help young people cope, the school since 1973 has offered a peer-group counseling program in which upperclassmen help freshmen deal with personal and academic adjustments. More than two thirds of the freshmen participate. Students also appreciate the individual attention many teachers give. Says Lisa Kivirist, student-council president: "A teacher I had for freshman history still keeps in touch with me and asks how I'm doing. I like that." Because of the bounteous working environment and an attractive to/> salary of about $42,000 for teachers, the staff turnover rate is low. But an emphasis on innovation, with the financial wherewithal to support it, keeps staff stability from turning stale. "Things are constantly changing around here," says English teacher Tom Valentin. "There's always a new approach, a new program. We're always aiming a little higher, pushing for improvement."
By LUCIA SOLORZANO witr JUANITA R HOGUE, SARAH PETERSON, DOUGLAS LYONS and MICHAEL BOSC

mm -...-^ ^. Innovations at Glenbrook South make classes stimulating.

U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT, Aug. 27, 1984

honors program: special program for more academically-minded students.

EDUCATION 197

An American Senior High School


An American student talks about his high school

Quincy Senior High School, Quincy, Illinois Quincy, Illinois, is a typical midwestern town of about 50,000 inhabitants. It is.situated 120 miles north of St. Louis, the nearest big city. Quincy Senior High with a student population of 1,900 is the only public senior high school in the town and it also draws students from the surrounding region. Q: Alan, which high school do you attend? A: I attend Quincy Senior High School m Quincy, Illinois. I've been there for four years, and I'm in the twelfth grade. 0: What are the subjects required in your four years of high school? A: Well, in my four years of high school I have to complete twenty credits, one in math, three in history, three in English, three and a half in P.E., a half in health and one year of science. And that adds up to twelve credits. The other eight were optional and I could take more of any one subject such as math, history or I could take other subjects such as psychology or computers, or so on. Q: And what are your subjects now? A: My present subjects now are math, English, German, computers, business law and one study hour which normally would be P.E. But I run track after school and so therefore I take a study hall instead of P.E. Besides sports there are also several other activities after school such as band, drama club, theater, chess club, many other clubs such as German club and Spanish club and so forth. Q: What does your schedule look like? A: Well, I attend school between Y^O and 2.20 every day and in that time period I have" six hour-classes and a thirty-minute break for lunch. And between each class I've five-minute breaks. Q: Can you tell me anything about the tests and examinations at your school? A: Well, we have many different kinds of tests. Usually we have essay tests, multiple choice tests. Then there are other tests such as quizzes and oral examinations such as book reports and speeches and such. Q: What about homework? A: It's different with every teacher. Some teachers like to give lots of homework and others don't give that much. !t just depends upon their teaching style. Q: How do teachers evaluate the performance of students? A: Well, usually a teacher evaluates^the performance by written tests equalling fifty per cent of the grade, oral tests and quizzes as forty per cent and homework as ten per cent. And then usually we write a large paper twice a year called the term paper and that also adds mto the grade.

198 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

3. continued
0: Is there a strict code of conduct at your school? 0: A: Each student receives a detailed student handbook which therein has the rights and responsibilities A: governing smoking, lavatory use, language obscene or vulgar - what may and may not be brought to school, such as radios or weapons or drugs. There are also rules concerning absenteeism Q: and tardiness to class and the penalties such as A: detention, in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension and expulsion. I know these rules sound really strict, and they are a bit, but for the most part they're common sense. And

the atmosphere isn't as bad as it sounds. It is not a prison. It's actually quite relaxed and quite friendly. Well, as a whole I like Quincy High a lot and if I could change one thing, it would probably be the breaks between class. I think they are too short. Five minutes isn't enough time to get from one class to the other. What do you like best about your school? Well, I like Quincy High a lot. I like the teachers the best. They're good teachers and they're easy to get along with. I also like the fact that Quincy is a bigger school because that gives me more opportunities in sports and in the variety of classes that I can take.
What part of the school life at Quincy would you be critical of?

Attendance Policy & Procedures


Quincy Senior High Attendance Policy for 198485
Improved attendance is a major goal for Quincy Senior High School because it means students should learn more and get better grades. The efforts of the past school year on the part of students, parents and school staff yielded a decrease in absences from 9.3% in 1983 to 7.3% in 1984. In actual days this means that the average student missed 16.3 days in 1983 and 12.8 days in 1984 [...] We are very happy about this trend, but we know we can do better. Even our current improved record wouldn't be acceptable to employers. Poor attendance affects learning and earned grades the most for those students who miss 20 days or more during the school year. With this in mind, our attendance policy in 1984-85 insists that students attend class a given number of days before credit in the course is allowed. Our faculty feels strongly that students who miss class excessively miss so much content that it is very difficult to make up outside class. ... When a student reaches 12 class absences in a semester at Quincy Senior High, we believe that too much class time has been missed to justify granting credit for the course. When a student has 12 absences or more, his or her grade will become "incomplete". This means that credit is suspended until certain requirements are met. To change this "incomplete" to a credit-bearing grade will require much responsibility on the student's part to change the attendance pattern and meet other obligations set by the school, students and parents. Of course, there will be some special circumstances where exceptions will need to be made in the interest of fairness. The Illinois School Code, in Section 122:26-1, gives school officials the right to excuse a student temporarily. Within the guidelines of the school code, this policy will be implemented fairly for students who have medical excuses from a doctor and other extenuating circumstances which contribute to absences which can't be avoided. The following reasons for absences are included in the 12 absence limit. These are classified as excused absences as far as makeup work is concerned. Most students should miss less than 6 days a year for these reasons. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Illness of the student. Serious illness in the family. Death in family. Approved emergency needs at home. Absences which have been arranged by parents prior to the student's absence.

Tardiness, or being late to class, is also a bad habit for students to develop. When a student is tardy three times, it will be counted as a one-day absence. Skipping classes or being unexcused is a more serious type of absence. These absences count more heavily toward the 12-day limit. Each class absence for skipping or an unexcused reason counts the same as 3 days excused absence toward the limit of 12. . . .

EDUCATION

199

In a 1984 opinion poll student leaders were asked to qualify the public schools in the U.S.A. The statistics show their answers to five key questions.
What letter grade would you give to The single most important action

the overall quality of education you are receiving at your school?

my school could take to improve my education is:

A (excellent)...................................28.1% (good).........................................57.2% (average)....................................13.4% D(fair)............................................ 1.1% F(poor) .......................................... 0.2%

Raise the quality of teachers ............50.0% Make classwork more challenging ..................................26.3% Improve discipline ...........................14.0% Extend the school day...................... 2.3% Other ...............................................12.3%

What letter grade would you give to ^J the overall quality of your teachers? A (excellent)...................................14.1% B(good).........................................55.3% (average)....................................26.2% D(fair) ............................................ 4.2% F(poor) .......................................... 0.3%

The biggest problem with the quality of teachers today is:

They fail to make subject matter interesting ....................................56.1% They do not challenge students to work harder in class......................22.2% They cannot maintain discipline in the classroom...............................10.6% They do not have a good grasp of their subject matter....................... 8.7% Other ...............................................13.1%

More money could be spent best in my school by:

Buying better textbooks and instructional materials...................47.3% Raising all teachers' salaries ............23.2% Raising the salaries of a few superior teachers ........................ 18.1% Extending the school day ................ 2.6% Other .............................................. 12.9%

Note: Percentage totals may exceed 100 because some students gave more than one response to certain questions.

200 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

UNIVERSITIES IN TRANSITION
By David Riesman
The following text is taken from an essay in the Wilson Quarterly which deals with some fundamental changes at American universities during the 1970s. Although the explosive activism on university campuses during the 1960s gave that decade the greatest press coverage, Professor Riesman claims that the 1970s have brought about a more significant change in higher education. He sees the reasons for this in the large-scale tuition subsidies granted by Congress in 1972 and the active recruitment of blacks and other minorities which have brought eleven million students of all races and social backgrounds into U.S. universities.

Students at Bostcm University

he sheer diversity of American higher education, so baffling to foreigners, baffles many Americans as well. There were, at last official count, 3,075 accredited colleges and universities in the United States. Many of them have their own separate lobbies in Washington: the community colleges, the land-grant schools and other state universities, the former teachers' colleges and regional state universities, the predominantly black schools, the private colleges. Not to mention women's schools and Catholic schools, and schools affiliated with dozens of other religious denominations. . .. At the end of World War II, approximately half of the 1.5 million college and university students in the United States were educated in private institutions, the other half in state or locally supported schools. Today, private colleges educate barely one-fifth of the 11 million American students. . . . it is not simply tuition that has taken private schools out of the market, for inflation spreads its penalties and windfalls all too evenly. There are still millions of Americans who have enough, could save enough, or could safely borrow enough to send their children even to the most expensive private college. ... At the heart of the problem is the fact that, as our culture becomes "democratized", the idea of attending a private school has come to

EDUCATION 201

seem unnatural and anachronistic to many people. . .. Among one group of victims of this egalitarianism - the exclusively private single-sex colleges panic has been spreading since the late 1950s. . . . It has become an increasingly idiosyncratic choice to attend the few single-sex schools that remain. One element of American diversity is thus being lost as is an opportunity for some young people who would benefit, for a time, from not having to compete /ith or for the opposite sex. Yet opportunity to choose is supposed to be one of the very essentials of democratization. ... Advocates of public higher education claim that there is virtually no innovation to be found in the private sector that cannot also be duplicated in the public sector. And indeed, the public schools are often less monolithic than is often thought. The University of California, with its eight campuses, offers students everything from smallcollege clusters in rural settings of great natural beauty (Santa Cruz) to large urban universities (Los

6. continued

Angeles). And Evergreen State College, begun 10 years ago in Olympia, Washington, is more avowedly experimental than most private colleges. Yet an important difference remains: Private colleges, and (with such exceptions as Northeastern and New York University) most private universities as well, are on average far smaller than public ones. And while small size is not necessarily a virtue, it often is, particularly insofar as it continually reminds the sprawling public campuses that "giantism" may itself be a deformity. I am inclined to believe that, in the absence of the private model, state colleges and universities would never have sought to create enclaves of smallness. ... . . . private schools were the first actively to seek re-cruitment of minority students. Private colleges have also in fact (though by no means universally) possessed a somewhat greater degree of academic freedom and autonomy than public ones. Sheltered from the whims of angry governors and legislators, they set a standard for academic freedom and non-inter-

ference that the public institutions can and do use in defending themselves. State university officials recognize the importance of maintaining a private sector. State pride is a factor here. The state universities of Michigan and Texas, of Illinois and Indiana, Virginia and North Carolina, Washington and California all want to be world-class institutions on a level with private universities like Stanford, Chicago and Yale, and they use these private models as spurs to their legislative supporters and beneficent graduates. They have even been able to maintain some selectivity, shunting those students with less demonstrable ability to the growing regional branches of central state universities. These regional state colleges and universities are now large and well established. Given the general egalitarian temper of the times, these schools have no qualms about competing for state money with the older, more prestigious parent campuses. The ineluctable, if not immediately perceptible, consequence is that of "leveling".

Riesman, David: born 1909, professor of social sciences at Harvard University and author of The Lonesome Crowd, the most celebrated and widely translated study of American character in the twentieth century.

202

PART C

Exercises
4. Comprehension
What Makes Great Schools Great
When you have read the two texts, compare the situation at Thomas Jefferson and that at Glenbrook South High School. Make two columns and look at each of the following aspects: a) size of school; b) ethnic and social background of students; c) forces and efforts that make the school outstanding; d) problem areas and how they are tackled; e) parent support; f) community support.

1. Global Comprehension
American Educational Philosophies
1. Diane Ravitch distinguishes between three clearly identifiable periods in American educational policy: -the late 1940s to 1957; 1957 to the mid 1960s; -the mid 1960s to the mid 1970s. Which period(s) does she regard as progressive and which as traditional? Find names for each of the three
2.

corresponding educational movements.

2. Text Analysis
1. Describe the characteristics of each educational movement. 2. What kind of criticism did each movement evoke? 3. Show how American educational philosophies respond to changes in the social and political climate.

5. Interpretation and Discussion


1. If you compare both schools, it is obvious that they are very different in type. Judging from the descriptions of these two schools, which factors do you think mainly determine the character of a school? 2. Besides the forces that constitute the "greatness" of both schools, are there any other aspects of school-life not mentioned in the text that you would regard as important? How would you characterize your own school?

3. Discussion and Comment


1. Diane Ravitch's analysis of educational history finishes in 1977. Taking into account the information about the 1983 report "A Nation at Risk" do you think that it is still true that policies swing from progressivism to traditionalism? 2. The controversy between progressives and traditionalists is basically about the question of whether education should be more childcentered, i.e. centered around the indivi dual's capacities, interests and habits or more society-oriented, i.e. geared to the special needs and requirements of society. Find arguments for both sides and discuss them in class.

EDUCATION 203

6. Dialogue Writing and Interview Practice


1. Imagine NBC wants to produce a radio program featuring different types of outstanding American schools. On the basis of the information given in the preceding articles, write an interview between the NBC-reporter and a student, teacher, or parent involved in the life of one of the two schools. 2. Now imagine that NBC has planned to broadcast another program on schools in other countries. Among others, your school is going to be featured, and a student has been selected to answer the reporter's questions. In pairs, work out the structure of the interview, formulate the questions the reporter wants to ask, and then carry out the interview with one of you as the interviewer and the other the interviewee.

9. Comprehension Attendance Policy and Procedures


1. What are the reasons for the Quincy Senior High attendance policy? 2. Read the attendance regulations carefully and consider the following case: Stephen Brown has been in grade eleven of Quincy Senior High for two months. So far he has missed three days because his mother was taken to hospital and he had to stay at home to take care of his little sister. He has been late five times because he overslept, and he has skipped his math class once because he had arranged to meet his girlfriend at that time. What are Stephen's prospects for the rest of the school year? 3. How often and for what reasons have you missed classes at your school? How often have you been late? What would your record mean at Quincy Senior High School?

7. Text Production An American Senior High School


Write a short newspaper article about Quincy Senior High School based on the information provided by the interview.

10. Comment and Discussion


Find out about the attendance policy of your school and compare it with the Quincy Senior High regulations. Which regulations do you consider appropriate?

8. Discussion and Comment


Would you like to participate in a student exchange program and attend an American senior high school? Discuss the various aspects of such a venture.

11. Text Production What Students Think About Their Schools


Write a newspaper commentary in which you interpret the findings.

204 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

12. Comprehension
Universities in Transition
To make sure that you have understood the main points of this article find out whether the following statements are true or false. 1. The total number of 3,075 accredited colleges does not include church affiliated colleges. 2. There are now about three times as many students attending private colleges and universities as at the end of the Second World War. 3. The tuition fees are the main reason for the relative decline in the number of students undergoing private education. 4. The idea of private education is not in accordance with a democratic society which guarantees equal rights to everybody. 5. Panic which has broken out in some exclusive single-sex schools has led to a number of victims. 6. Riesman believes that the decrease in the number of single-sex schools is a step towards equality of educational opportunities for young people. 7. There are as many innovations and experiments to be found in public schools as in the private sector. 8. Private colleges are much smaller than public colleges and universities can ever be. 9. The academic freedom and independence of private colleges served as a model for public colleges. 10. State universities are often proud to be able to compete with famous private univer sities. 11. Regional branches of state universities attract equally qualified students. 12. Regional state colleges and universities cannot compete with their parent campuses because they get less financial support.

13. Text Analysis


1. What can you deduce from this text about David Riesman's personal attitude towards private colleges and universities? 2. What advantages and disadvantages of private universities does he mention?

14. Discussion
1. Can you think of any other points for or against private schools and universities which Riesman does not mention? 2. Do you think private schools and universities should have a place in a democratic society?

12 Religion
PART A Background Information
HIGH DEGREE OF RELIGIOUS PARTICIPATION In most western societies, modernization has been accompanied by a marked decline in religious observance. America, in contrast, has remained unusually religious. Church buildings representing an astonishing variety of faiths line residential streets, outnumbering even the gas stations. Sunday morning traffic is typically congested as people drive to Sunday School and church. Most bookstores have an entire section of religious books and report a tremendous volume of sales of books about Christianity and Christian living. Bibles continue to be the nation's best-selling books. Religiousness is conspicuous. Billboards, T-shirts, and bumper stickers bear messages such as "Jesus Saves." There are even a few Disneyland-type tourist parks, such as South Carolina's "Heritage USA," devoted entirely to religious themes. These visible reminders of America's religious activity are accompanied by impressive statistics: More than nine out of ten Americans say they believe in God One third claim they are born-again Christians More than four out of ten attend church or synagogue at least once a week Two thirds are members of a local church or synagogue

RELIGION AND POLITICS

Interest in religion is high even among young people, whose religious activity has typically been less regular than that of their parents and grandparents. A Gallup poll indicates that young Americans are far more religious than their counterparts in most other countries. About741 percent of America's young people feel that religion should be "very important" in life, a percentage far greater than in Australia, Britain, France, Japan, Sweden, and West Germany. Although the Constitution declares the separation of Church and State, religion has always pervaded American political life. The motto of the seal of the United States carries the biblical words, "Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God." When the pledge of allegiance to the American flag is recited, the two words "under God" receive emphasis. American currency bears the inscription "In God We Trust." Almost all American presidents have claimed affiliation with an established church. During inaugural ceremonies, U.S. presidents take their oath of office on the Bible. Every session of Congress opens with a prayer. Politicians frequently make reference to God and the Bible in their speeches. Religion is bound to have an influence on politics in a society where so many people value religion. Gallup poll: see page 153.

206 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Religious Information
Census of Religious Groups in the U.S.
Source: 1987 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches The 1987 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches reported a total of 142,926,363 members of religious groups in the U.S.59.3 percent of the population; membership fell half a percent from the previous year. Comparisons of membership statistics from group to group are not necessarily meaningful. Membership definitions vary e.g., Roman Catholics count members from infancy, but some Protestant groups count only "adult" members, usually 13 years or older; some groups compile data carefully, but others estimate; not all groups report annually. The number of churches appear in parenthess. Asterisk (*) indicates church declines to publish membership figures; (**) indicates figures date from 1977 or earlier. Group Adventist Christian Ch. (368) ........................... Primitive Advent Christian Ch. (10) ................. Seventh-day Adventists (4,009) ................... American Rescue Workers (20) ....................... Anglican Orthodox Church (40) .......................... Baha'l Faith (1650) ........................................... Baptist churches: Amer. Baptist Assn. (1,641) ............................ Amer. Baptist Chs. in U.S.A. (5,814) ............. Baptist General Conference (753) ................ Baptist Missionary Assn. of America (1,367) . Conservative Baptist Assn. of America Duck River (and Kindred) Assn. of Baptists Members 28,830 546 651,954 2,700 6,000 100,000 225,000 1,559,683 132,546 227,720 Group Eastern Orthodox churches; Albanian Orth. Diocese of America (10) ....... American Carpatho-Russian Orth Greek Catholic Ch. (70) ....................................... Antiochian Orth Christian Archdiocese of No. Amer. (120) ................................................. Diocese of the Armenian Ch. of America (66) ............................................... Bulgarian Eastern Orth. Ch. (13) ..................... Coptic Orthodox Ch. (28) ............................... Greek Orth. Archdiocese of N. and S. America (535) .............................................. Orthodox Ch. in America (440) ..................... Patriarchal Parishes of the Russian Orth. Ch. in the U.S.A. (38).......................................... Romanian Orth. Episcopate of America (34) . Serbian Eastern Orth. Ch. (78) ..................... Syrian Orth. Ch. of Antioch (Archdiocese of the U.S.A. and Canada) (22) ..................... Ukrainian Orth. Ch. of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) (28) ........................................ Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the U.S.A. The Episcopal Church in the U.S.A. (7,274) __ 2,739,422 American Ethical Union (Ethical Culture Movement) (23) ................................................ Evangelical Church of North America (138) __ Evangelical Congregational Church of America Members 5,250 "100,000 280,000 "450,000 "86,000 115,000 1,950,000 1,000,000 9,780 60,000 97,123 30,000 25,000

(1,140) ...................................................... (85) ............................................................

225,000
217, 838 300,839

Free Will Baptists (2,548) .............................. Gen. Assn. of Regular Baptist Chs. (1,571) .. Natl. Baptist Convention of America (11,398) ...................................................... Natl. Baptist Convention, U.S.A. (26,000) __ Natl. Primitive Baptist Convention (606)........... No. Amer. Baptist Conference (258) ............ Seventh Day Baptist General Conference (60) .......................................... Southern Baptist Convention (36,898) ............ Brethren (German Baptists): Brethren Ch. (Ashland, Ohio) (122) .............. Christian Congregation (la Follette, IN) Fellowship of Grace Brethren (301) .............. Old German Baptist Brethren (52) ................ Brethren, River: Brethren in Christ Ch. (185) ............................ Buddhist Churches of America (100) ................ Christadelphians (850) ..................................... The Christian and Missionary Alliance Christian Catholic Church (4) .............................. Christian Churches and Churches of Christ Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (2,340) .. Christian Nation Church U.S.A. (5) .................... Christian Union (114) ........................................ Churches of Christ (13,150) ............................... Churches of Christ in Christian Union (260) __ Churches of God: Chs. of God. General Conference (353) ....... Ch. of God (Anderson, Ind.) (2,291) ................ Ch. of God (Seventh Day), Denver, Col. Church of Christ, Scientist (3,000) Church of God by Faith (105) .............................. Church of the Nazarene (4,989) ....................... Conservative Congregational Christian Conference (163) ............................................

**8,632

"2,668,799 "5,500.000 "250,000 42,863 5,008 14,477,364 14,229

(107) ............: ............................................. "87,745

(1,441) ......................................................

103,990
41,733 5,254

3,500 12,591 95,722

16,783 100,000 "15,800

(1,646) ......................................................... (5,487) ..........................................................

227,846

2,500

718,922 226 6000 1,604,000 11,400 34,870 185,593

1,051,469

(135)...........................................................

5,830
"4,500 522,082 28,624

Evangelical Free Church of America (880) ....... Evangelical associations: Apostolic Christian Chs. of America (80)......... Apostolic Christian Ch. (Nazarean) (48) ....... Christian Congregation (1,441) ...................... Friends: Evangelical Friends Alliance (217) ..................... Friends General Conference (505) ................. Friends United Meeting (536) ....................... Grace Gospel Fellowship (52) ............................ Independent Fundamental Churches of America (1,019) ................................................ Jehovah's Witnesses (8,220) .............................. Jewish organizations: Union of Amer Hebrew Congregations (Reform) (804) ........................................... Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (1,700) ......................................... United Synagogue of America (Conservative) Latter-day Saints: Ch. of Jesus Christ (Bickertonites) (53) ............. Ch. of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) (8,396) ........................................ Reorganized Ch. of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (1,101) .............................................

(566)..............................................................

85,150

16,916 2,799 103,990 24,095 31,600 57,443 4,400 120,446 730,441 1,300,000 1,000,000

(800) ..........................................................

1,250,000
2,654 3,860,000 192,082

RELIGION 207

Group Lutheran churches: American Lutheran Ch. (4,940) ...................... Ch. of the Lutheran Brethren of America (108) ............................................................ Ch. of the Lutheran Confession (67) ................ Assn. of Evangelical Lutheran Chs. (272) __ Evangelical Lutheran Synod (116) ................ Assn. of Free Lutheran Congregations (156) . Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church of America (59) ............................................... Lutheran Ch. in America (5,817) .................... Lutheran Ch.-Missouri Synod (5,876) .............. Protestant Conference (Lutheran) (9) .............. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (1,179) ........................................................ Mennonite churches: Beachy Amish Mennonite Chs. (83) ................ Evangelical Mennonite Ch. (25) ................... General Conference of Mennonite Brethren Chs. (128) .................................................. Hutterian Brethren (77) ................................... Mennonite Ch. (989) ..................................... Old Order Amish Ch. (598) ........................... Old Order (Wister) Mennonite Ch (38) ............ Methodist churches: African Methodist Episcopal Ch. (6,200) ........ African Methodist Episcopal Zion Ch.

Members 2,332,316 11,374 8,910 110,934 19,850 18,205 13,576 2,898,202 2,638,164 959 415,389 5,862 3813 16,942 3,988 91,167 34,000 9,731 2,210,000

Group Pentecostal churches: Apostolic Faith (Portland, Ore.) (54) ............... Assemblies of God (10,761) ......................... Bible Church of Christ (6) ............................... Bible Way Church of our Lord Jesus Christ World Wide (350) ........................................ Church of God (Cleveland. Tenn.) (5,346) ... Church of God of Prophecy (2,051) ............... Congregational Holiness Ch. (174) .............. Gen. Council. Christian Ch. of No. Amer. Intl. Ch. of the Foursquare Gospel (1,185) . . . Open Bible Standard Chs (290) ................... Pentecostal Assemblies of the World (560) ... Pentecostal Church of God (1,142) .............. United Pentecostal Ch. Intl. (3,408) .............. Pentecostal Free Will Baptist Ch. (130) Plymouth Brethren (1,150) ................................. Polish Natl. Catholic Church of America (162) .. Presbyterian churches: Associate Reformed Presbyterian Ch. (Gen Synod) (172) ................................................ Cumberland Presbyterian Ch. (818)................ Evangelical Presbyterian Ch. (100) .............. Orthodox Presbyterian Ch. (171) .................. Presbyterian Ch. in America (878) ............... Presbyterian Ch. (U.S.A.) (11,572) ................ Reformed Presbyterian Ch. of No. Amer (71) . Reformed churches: Christian Reformed Ch. in N. America (650)___ Hungarian Reformed Ch. in America (31) __ Protestant Reformed Chs. in America (21) ... Reformed Ch. in America (926)....................... Reformed Ch. in the U.S. (34) ...................... The Roman Catholic Church (24,251) ............. The Salvation Army (1,088) .............................. The Schwenkfelder Church (5) ........................ Social Brethren (40) ............................................ Natl. Spiritualist Assn. of Churches (142) ......... Gen. Convention, The Swedenborgian Church Unitarian Universalist Assn. (948)....................... United Brethren: Ch. of the United Brethren in Christ (256) ... United Christian Ch. (11) .............................. United Church of Christ (6,408) ......................... Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Chs. (230) .............................. Vedanta Society (13) .......................................... Volunteers of America (607) ............................. The Wesleyan Church (1,714) ............................

Members 4,100 2,082,878 4,350 "30,000 505,775 73,952 8,347 177,787 46,351 "4,500 89,506 500,000 10,700 98,000 "282,411 36,543 98,037 27,000 18,502 177,917 3,092,151 5,146 219,988 11,000 4,544 342,275 3,778 52,654,908 427,825 2,881 "1,784 5,558 171,838 26,869 421 1,683,777 34,000 1,500 36,634 109,541

(104) ..........................................................

13,500

Evangelical Methodist Ch. (126) ..................... 9,040 Free Methodist Ch. of North America (1,048) . 72,223 Fundamental Methodist Ch. (14)...................... 700 Primitive Methodist Ch., U.S.A. (87) ................ 9,978 Reformed Methodist Union Episcopal Ch. 3,800 (18) .............................................................. Southern Methodist Ch. (150) ....................... 7,231 United Methodist Ch. (37,990) ...................... 9,266,853 Moravian churches: Moravian Ch. (Unitas Fratrum), Northern Province (fOO) ............................................... 32,415 Moravian Ch. in America (Unitas Fratrum). Southern Province (56) ................................... 21,714 Unity of the Brethren (27) ............................... 3,006 Moslems ........................................................... 2,000,000 + New Apostollic Church of North America (457) .. 33,068 North American Old Roman Catholic Church Old Catholic churches: Christ Catholic Ch. (6) ..................................... Mariavite Old Cath. Ch. Province of North America (166) .............................................. No. Amer. Old Roman Cath. Ch. (Schweikert) (130).............................................................

(6,057) ......................................................

1,202,229

(49) ............................................................

2,245

(130)...........................................................

62,380

1,269 357,927 62,380

208 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

Major Christian Denominations: How Do They Differ?


Italics indicate that area which, generally speaking, most distinguishes that denomination from any other.
Denomination Baptists Origins In radical Reformation objections to infant baptism, demands for church-state separation; John Smyth, English Separatist in 1609; Roger Williams, 1638, Providence, R. I Among evangelical Presbyterians in Ky. (1804) and Penn. (1809), in distress over Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor. Organized 1832. Organization Congregational, I.e., each local church is autonomous. Authority Scripture; some Baptists, particularly in South, interpret the Bible literally. Special rites Baptism, after about age 12, by total immersion; Lord's Supper.

Church of Christ (Disciples)

Congregational.

"Where the Scriptures speak, we speak: where the Scriptures are silent, we are silent"

Adult baptism, Lord's Supper (weekly)

Epis- Henry VIII separated English copal- Catholic Church from Rome, ians 1534, for political reasons. Protestant Episcopal Church in U.S. founded 1789. Lutherans Martin Luther in Wittenberg. Germany, 1517, objected to Catholic doctrine of salvation by merit and sale of indulgences; break complete by 1519.

Bishops in apostolic succession, are elected by diocesan representatives: part of Anglican Communion, symbolically headed by Archbishop of Canterbury. Varies from congregational to episcopal: in U.S. a combination of regional synods and congregational polities is most common. Conference and superintendent system. In United Methodist Church, general superintendents are bishopsnot a priestly order, only an office who are elected for life. Theocratic; all male adults are in priesthood which culminates in Council of 12 Apostles and 1st Presidency (1st President, 2 counselors). Synods of bishops in autonomous, usually national, churches elect a patriarch, archbishop or metropolitan. These men, as a group, are the heads of the church. Originally a movement, not a formal organization, Pentecostalism now has a variety of organized forms and continues also as a movement. Highly structured representational system of ministers and laypersons (presbyters) in local, regional and national bodies (synods). Hierarchy with supreme power vested in Pope elected by cardinals. Councils of Bishops advise on matters of doctrine and policy. Congregational; a General Synod, representative of all congregations, sets general policy.

Scripture as interpreted by tradition; esp, 39 Articles (1563); not dogmatic. Tri-annual convention of bishops, priests, and laymen. Scripture and tradition as spelled out in Augsburg Confession (1530) and other creeds. These confessions of faith are binding although interpretations vary. Scripture as interpreted by tradition, reason, and experience.

Infant baptism, Holy Communion, others, Sacrament is symbolic, but has real spiritual effect.

Infant baptism, Lord's Supper. Christ's true body and blood present "in, with, and under the bread and wine." Baptism of infants or adults, Lord's Supper commanded. Other rites, inc. marriage, ordination, solemnize personal commitments

Metho- Rev. John Wesley began dists movement, 1738, within Church of England. First U.S. denomination Baltimore, 1784.

In visions of the Angel Moroni by mons Joseph Smith 1827, in New York, in which he received a new revelation on golden tablets: The Book of Mormon

The Bible, Book of Mormon and other revelations to Smith, and certain pronouncements of the 1st Presidency.

Adult baptism, laying on of hands (which confers the gift of the Holy Spirit), Lord's Supper. Temple rites; baptism for the dead, marriage for eternity, others. Seven sacraments: infant baptisrrand anointing, Eucharist (both bread and wine), ordination, penance, anointing of the sick, marriage. Spirit baptism, esp, as shown in "speaking in tongues": healing and sometimes exorcism: adult baptism. Lord's Supper. Infant baptism, Lord's Supper; bread and wine symbolize Christ's spiritual presence.

Orthodox

Original Christian proselytizing in 1st century; broke with Rome, 1054, after centuries of doctrinal disputes and diverging traditions.

Scripture tradition, and the first 7 church councils up to Nicaea II in 787. Bishops in council have authority in doctrine and policy.

Pentecostal

In Topeka, Kansas (1901), and Los Angeles (1906) in reaction to loss of evangelical fervor among Methodists and other denominations.

Scripture, individual charismatic leaders, the teachings of the Holy Spirit.

PresIn Calvinist Reformation in 1500s; byter- differed with Lutherans over ians sacraments, church government. John Knox founded Scotch Presbyterian church about 1560. Roman Traditionally, by Jesus who Catho- named St. Peter the 1st Vicar; lies historically, in early Christian proselytizing and the conversion of imperial Rome in the 4th century. United Church of Christ By ecumenical union. 1957, of Congregationalists and Evangelical & Reformed representing both Calvinist and Lutheran traditions.

Scripture

The Pope when speaking for the whole church in matters of faith and morals, and tradition, which is partly recorded in scripture and expressed in church councils. Scripture.

Seven sacraments: baptism, contrition and penance, confirmation, Eucharist, marriage, ordination, and anointing of the sick (unction). Infant baptism, Lord's Supper.

RELIGION 209

Practice Worship style varies from staid to evangelistic. Extensive missionary activity.

Ethics Usually opposed to alcohol and tobacco; sometimes tends towards a perfectionist ethical standard.

Doctrine Wo creed; true church is of believers only, who are all equal.

Other

Denomination

Since no authority can stand Baptists between the believer and God, the Baptists are strong supporters of churchstate separation.

Tries to avoid any rite or doctrine not explicitly part of the 1st century church. Some congregations may reject instrumental music.

Some tendency toward perfectonism; increasing action programs.

Simple New Testament faith; avoids any elaboration not firmly based on Scripture.

Highly tolerant in doctrinal and religious matters; strongly f supportive of scholarly education.

Church o Christ (Disciples) Episcopalians

Formal, based on Book ol Common Prayer (1549); services range from austerely simple to highly elaborate. Relatively simple formal liturgy ,vith emphasis on the sermon.

Tolerant; sometimes permissive; some social action programs.

Apostles Creed is basic; otherwise, considerable variation ranges rom rationalist and liberal to acceptance of most Roman Catholic dogma. Salvation by faith alone through grace. Lutheranism has made major contributions to Protestant theology. No distinctive theological development; 25 Articles abriged from Church of England's 39 not binding.

Strongly ecumenical, holding talks with all other branches of Christendom,

Generally, conservative in personal and social ethics; doctrine of "2 kingdoms" (worldly and holy) supports conservatism in secular affairs. Originally pietist and perfectionist; always strong social activist elements.

Though still somewhat divided along ethnic lines (German, Swede, etc.), main divisions are between fundamentalists and liberals.

Lutherans

Worship style varies widely by denomination, local church, geography.

In 1968, United Methodist Church Methojoined pioneer English- and dists German-speaking groups. UMs leaders in ecumenical movement.

Staid service with hymns, sermon. Secret temple ceremonies may be more elaborate. Strong missionary activity.

Temperance; strict tithing. Combine a strong work ethic with communal self-reliance.

God is a material being; he created the universe out of preexisting matter; all persons can be saved and many will become divine. Most other beliefs are traditionally Christian. Emphasis on Christ's resurrection, rather than crucifixion; the Holy Spirit proceeds from God the Father only.

Mormons regard mainline churches as apostate, corrupt. Reorganized Church (founded 1860) rejects most Mormon doctrine and practice except Book of Mormon. Orthodox Church in America, orginally under Patriarch of Moscow, was granted autonomy in 1970. Greek Orthodox do not recognize this autonomy.

Mormons

Elaborate liturgy, usually in the vernacular, though extremely traditional. The liturgy is the essence of Orthodoxy. Veneration of icons. Loosely structured service with rousing hymns and sermons, culminating in spirit baptism. A simple, sober service in which the sermon is central.

Tolerant: very little social action; divorce, remarriage permitted in some cases. Priests need not be celibate; bishops are.

Orthodox

Usually, emphasis on perfectionism with varying degrees of tolerance. Traditionally, a tendency toward strictness with firm church- and self-discipline; otherwise tolerant.

Simple traditional beliefs, usually Protestant, with emphasis on the immediate presence of God in the Holy Spirit Emphasizes the sovereignty and justice of God; no longer doctrinaire.

Once confined to lower-class Pente"holy rollers," Pentecostalism now costal appears in mainline churches and has established middle-class congregations. While traces of belief in predestination (that God had foreordained salvation for the "elect") remain, this idea is no longer a central element in Presbyterianism. Roman Catholicism is presently in a period of relatively rapid change as a result of Vatican Councils I and II. Pres byterians

Relatively elaborate ritual; wide variety of public and private rites, e.g., rosary recitation, processions, novenas.

Theoretically very strict; tolerant in practice on most issues. Divorce and remarriage not accepted. Celibate clergy, except in Eastern rite. Tolerant: some social action emphasis.

Highly elaborated. Salvation by merit gained through faith. Unusual development of doctrines surrounding Mary. Dogmatic.

Roman Catholics

Usually simple services with emphasis on the sermon.

Standard Protestant; Statement of Faith (1959) is not binding.

The 2 main churches in the 1957 union represented earlier unions with small groups of almost every Protestant denomination.

United Church of Christ

210 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

THREE MAJOR FAITHS

RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY

Religion in America today is built primarily on the structure of Protestantism, Catholicism, and Judaism. Within each of these groups there is great diversity. Among Protestants alone, there are 186 different organizations. Besides the three major groupings of Protestants, Catholics, and Jews, there are about 1,500 major and minor sectarian churches. Among these sects are established groups such as the Quakers and Mormons. There are also bizarre groups such as the Holiness Church, which is a snake-handling cult. The degree of religious diversity in America becomes evident when one compares the religious composition of American society with that of its neighbors. Mexico's population is 96 percent Catholic. Canada's three largest denominations, Roman Catholic, Anglican, and the United Church of Canada, account for 86 percent of total membership. To account for 86 percent of America's total church membership, it is necessary to add together 19 separate denominations. The First Amendment to the Constitution prohibits an established national religion and protects the individual's right to practice the religion of his or her choice.
RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE Major Faiths and Denominations 1981
Baptist Catholic

Methodist

Jewish E. Orthodox Other None Denomination undeslgnated Lutheran

Presbyterian Episcopalian Mormon

Other Protestant denominations

Based on national surveys and approximately 29,000 interviews

PROTESTANTS

The immigrants who first came to America from countries all over the world brought a variety of religions. Many came with the express purpose of establishing communities where they could practice their own form of worship without interference or fear of persecution. Although the official separation of Church and State provided a climate for these diverse religious practices to flourish, Protestantism, because of numbers and influence, has until recent decades occupied a dominant position in American society.
First Amendment: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."

RELIGION 211

PURITANS

MAINSTREAM PROTESTANTISM

CATHOLICS

JEWS

CHANGES IN THE RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE

The first settlers of Massachusetts were members of a radical Protestant group called Puritans. Puritans thought of themselves as God's chosen people. They believed that God had elected, or "predestined," only certain persons to be saved. Devoting themselves to work as a way of pleasing God, they viewed their prosperity as an outward sign that God counted them among the saved. Many people trace the American drive for success through hard work to this Puritan, or Protestant, work ethic. Among the immigrants to America were Protestants of many denominations from all over Europe, including Presbyterians from Northern Ireland, Lutherans from Scandinavia and Germany, Episcopals from England, and members of various European Reformed Churches. Along with the Congregationalist Church, which is the denomination established by the early Puritans, the Presbyterian, Lutheran, Episcopal, and Reformed churches constitute what is referred to as "mainstream Protestantism" in America. Baptists and Methodists, once peripheral sects, are now usually considered part of mainstream Protestantism as well. Other Protestant denominations, such as Mennonites, Pentecostals, and Southern Baptists, are sometimes referred to as "radical" Protestants. Worship services of radical churches are less formal and liturgical than services of mainstream Protestants. Many radical churches encourage "speaking in tongues," faith healing, and "born-again" conversion experiences. Mainstream churches tend to be middle or upper class, while radical churches usually consist of lower-income groups. In 1985, 57 percent of the population named Protestantism as their religious preference. Catholics constitute the second largest religious group. In 1985, 28 percent of Americans surveyed identified themselves as Catholic. The first Catholics in America were missionaries from Spain, Portugal, and France. In the sixteenth century they set up churches in what is now Texas, New Mexico, California, and Florida. In the seventeenth century Catholics from England settled the colony of Maryland. But the greatest influx of Catholics to America occurred in the nineteenth century. Catholics emigrated to the United States from Ireland, Germany, and France between 1830 and 1880 and from eastern and southern Europe during the 1880s. During the nineteenth and into the twentieth century, American society, however, was predominantly white Protestant. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) set the basic character of national life and were often intolerant of Catholics. Jews constitute 2 percent of the population. Many Jews came to America during the nineteenth century to escape persecution in Europe. Like the Catholics, Jews frequently encountered hostility and resentment. Since the 1960s, America's religious landscape has undergone major transformations, the most significant being the declining influence of the mainline Protestant churches. They have suffered sizable membership losses, such that the Protestant majority in America decreased from 67 percent of the population to 57 percent in 1985.
Puritan: see page 13. Speaking in tongues: prayer characterized chiefly by incomprehensible speech practiced in ecstatic forms of worship. WASP: see page 13.

212 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

PROTESTANT DECLINE

LIBERAL VS. CONSERVATIVE CHURCHES

TRENDS IN THE CATHOLIC COMMUNITY

INCREASING PLURALISM

Many observers link the decline of the major Protestant churches in America to the permissiveness of the 1960s. Mainline churches have tended to be liberal in social outlook and theology. In contrast to more radical churches, mainstream Protestant churches have not insisted on strict obedience to a particular code of behavior. During the liberal social climate of the 1960s, many mainstream members abandoned churchgoing altogether. Today, however, there seems to be a growing desire for spiritual direction. An important pattern has emerged. While liberal Protestant churches have lost members, conservative fundamentalist Protestant churches have been steadily attracting members. In the late 1960s and 70s, strict, evangelical and fundamentalist bodies such as the Seventh-Day Adventists, the Church of the Nazarene, Assemblies of God, and Southern Baptists grew at phenomenal rates. By drawing rigid behavioral boundaries, returning to traditional values, and offering absolutist moral teachings, these churches seemed to fill the needs of many Americans who were frustrated by the lack of direction in modern life. To attract members, mainline Protestant churches have been shifting away from their relaxed, liberal stance towards a more conservative theology. Membership has begun to stabilize. The Catholic community has experienced conflicts and developments of its own, as well as a similar shift to conservatism. American Catholics, though increasing in population, do not participate as actively in church activities as they once did. Between 1958 and 1982, the percentage of Catholics attending weekly mass declined sharply from 74 percent to 51 percent. The American Catholic Church has also had to cope with widening differences with Pope John Paul II, whose conservative stance on issues such as birth control, celibacy for priests, and women in the priesthood provoke dissidence and disobedience. American bishops have been outspoken on political issues, challenging nuclear strategy and criticizing the presuppositions and policies of economic and political leaders. In the past decades, America's Protestants, Catholics, and Jews have become less divided. The decline of mainstream Protestant influence has been accompanied by the rise in status of Catholics and Jews. Anti-Catholicism and antiSemitism are now mainly confined to radical right-wing groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the John Birch Society. In the years after the Second World War, Catholics made spectacular gains in education and income, such that their overall status levels now equal those of Protestants. American Jews, once treated like outsiders, are now more readily accepted. Their acceptance has been facilitated by many immigrant Jews' willingness to discard those practices that made Judaism seem exotic. Intermarriage between Jews and Christians has also helped to create an atmosphere of tolerance towards Jews. Between 40 and 50 percent of all Jews marry non-Jews. A significant trend in American religious life is one towards increasing pluralism. Coexistence among America's diverse religious groups and sects is stressed. The trend towards pluralism has not only meant that Catholics and
Ku Klux Klan: a secret society organized in the South after the Civil War to re-establish white supremacy with methods of terrorism. John Birch Society: an ultraconservative anti-Communist organization founded by Robert Welch in 1958.

RELIGION 213

SECTS AND CULTS

RISE OF THE EVANGELICAL MOVEMENT

POLITICAL ACTIVISM

Jews are gaining acceptance in American society. In addition, tolerance is extended to an even broader range of religious groups, including Eastern religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism. While open religious prejudice is not as pronounced as it used to be, Americans show little tolerance towards some cults. The Moonies, the Hare Krishnas, and the followers of Bhagwan Rajneesh are commonly regarded as bizarre and potentially dangerous. Their methods of attracting and holding members are controversial. Critics accuse the cults of manipulating and brainwashing their members. One event which intensified the controversy over cults was the 1978 mass suicide that occurred at a commune in Jonestown, Guyana. By persuasion and at gunpoint American cult leader Jim Jones led more than 900 members of his Peoples' Temple commune to commit suicide by drinking a mixture of fruit juice and cyanide. Religious fanaticism exists, but events such as these are not characteristic of all cults. Many observers argue that not all sects should be condemned for the abuses of some. Besides the increasing visibility of cults and sects, there has been another recent development in American religious life: the rise of the evangelical, or fundamentalist, movement, and its offspring, the electronic church. This movement has arisen so quickly and has acquired so much influence that it has drawn much national attention. The term evangelical is applied across all Christian denominations to religious alliances that share the belief that a true Christian must have a born-again experience, that the Bible is the authoritative word of God, and that a personal relationship with Jesus is at the center of every Christian's life. Evangelicals also share a desire to convert others to their way of believing. The evangelical movement, which has quietly existed for a long time, derived new momentum from the anti-modern, conservative countercurrents that were flowing in the 1960s. In the 1960s, while most churches were experiencing declining memberships, evangelical churches were gaining members and influence. Representing the right-wing of the political spectrum, evangelicals attacked "secular humanism" and crusaded for moral issues, focusing attention on the family and schools. These conservative Christian leaders did not limit their crusades to the pulpit; they gained immediate attention by their involvement in politics and their media skills. Despite the constitutional separation of religious and secular life, conservative fundamentalists actively lobbied for anti-abortion legislation and for a constitutional amendment permitting prayer in schools. Fundamentalist minister Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority has been the most influential political lobby of the new Religious Right since the late 1970s. The Moral Majority's political agenda, based on moral absolutism, opposes homosexuality, pornography, abortion, and the teaching of evolution in schools. In 1986, Falwell merged his Moral Majority with the Liberty Alliance, a conservative lobby group, to form Liberty Federation, a religious-political lobby with an even broader appeal. In the 1980 presidential elections, the evangelical right gave Ronald Reagan and many conservative senators strong support. In the 1980s, evangelist leaders successfully extended their spheres of influence far beyond the church. Some, like T. V. evangelist Pat Robertson, who was a candidate for the 1988 presidential election, have crossed the boundary between religion and politics altogether.

214 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

THE ELECTRONIC CHURCH

What has enabled the evangelical movement to take off with such speed and gain a powerful sphere of influence in American society is its skillful use of television. Every Sunday morning, millions of Americans tune in to elaborate television broadcasts of popular preachers such as Jerry Falwell, Robert Schuller, Jimmy Swaggart, and Pat Robertson. With their show-biz flair, gospel entertainment, and sermons designed to tug at viewers' emotions, these preachers resemble commercial television show hosts more than ministers. Religious broadcasting has exploded into a multi-million dollar business. More than 1,300 radio and television stations devote all their time to religion. Gospel programs that buy time are proliferating.
RELIGIOUS TELEVISION PROGRAM VIEWING BY SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS: 1983
VIEWERS GROUP Confirmed frequent 18.0 5.3 Other Nonviewers GROUP VIEWERS Confirmed frequent her Nonviewers

Total: .......................................... Age 18-29 years old............

42.9
34.6 60.2

30-49 years old...........

50-65 years old............ Over 65 years old.......... Sex Male.............................. Female.......................... Race White ............................ Non-White..................... Region Northeast ...................... Southeast ..................... Education Less than high school .. High school graduate... Some college and more

11.9 27.7 32.8 16.1 19.3 16.3 26.3 16.1 19.9 29.2 16.9 11.8

44.6 43.7 46.0 41.2 43.6 40.8 53.5 34.4 50.9 45.5 44.1 39.6

43.5 28.6 21.2 42.7 37.1 42.9 20.1 49.4 29.2 25.3 39.0 48.6

Household income: Under $15,000 ..................... $15,000 to $24,999 .............. $25,000 to $35,000 ............. Over $35,000 ...................... Importance of religion: Very important...................... Important .............................. Not very important ................ Not important at all ............... Denomination: Southern Baptist................... Other Baptist ........................ Lutheran ............................... Methodist.............................. Presbyterian ........................ Catholic ............................... Church attendance: Once a week or more .......... Less than once a week......... Local annual contributions: None .................................... Under$120 .......................... $120 to $300 ........................ $301 to over $1,200 .............

25.9 17.4 13.0 9.3 25.3 9.3 1.4 2.5 21.8 28.4 15.2 18.4 11.9 8.4 22.8 12.2 9.7 14.6 16.9 23.7

45.5 46.6 39.0 36.7 49.0 39.2 17.5 12.3 55.4 50.3 42.0 48.4 45.9 31.4 47.6 37.0 25.7 42.0 43.8 43.3

28.6 36.1 48.0 54.1 25.8 51.5 81.1 85.2 22.8 21.3 42.9 33.2 42.3 60.2 29.6 50.8 64.6 43.4 39.3 27.0

Includes other denominations, not shown separately.

The appeal of the so-called electronic church and its evangelical preachers to so many Americans is not just a matter of technique. They provide moral anchorage to many Americans by emphasizing the individual's personal responsibility and unswerving commitment. In a sophisticated modern world, when connections between life and faith seem vague, this is the message many people desire.

215

PART

Texts

Sunday in Hope

UNDAY in Hope is a day very largely shaped by Christian faith and social convention. Hope is not a Sabbatarian town. It is, however, a churchgoing town, and for all but its two hundred-odd Roman Catholics, services usually begin with Sunday School (classes for both adults and children), at nine-thirty; followed by Morning Worship, at ten forty-five; followed by an afternoon Church Training Program; followed, at seven o'clock, by Evening Worship. Almost everybody in Hope old or young, white or black attends at least one of these services, and there are some who attend them all. I chose, on the second Sunday of my stay, to attend Morning Worship at the First Baptist Church. The nave of the First Baptist Church seats six hundred and fifty people in comfortably cushioned pews, and there is room for over two hundred more in a balcony. When I arrived and was shown to a place, the nave looked almost full, and there were also people in the balcony. Most of the worshippers were families with one or more (well-behaved) children. It was a congregation of Sunday suits and Sunday bests. There were no turtlenecks, no pantsuits, not even, as far as I could tell, any sports jackets: all the men wore business suits, and all the women wore dresses. An organ and a piano flanked the pulpit, and there was a large choir. Dr. Richard Stiltner, the pastor, a youthful-looking man with an expressive face, wore a dark suit. After the opening prayer, we sang "O Worship the King," and after the Invocation and another prayer we sang "Rock of Ages, Cleft for Me." Dr. Stiltner's sermon was one of a series on the Ten Commandments. It was entitled "The Sanctity of

Life," and dealt with the Sixth Commandment. "This commandment is commonly taken to read, 'Thou shalt not kill,'" he said. "A more careful rendering of the Hebrew is 'Thou shalt not murder.' " He said that the Old Testament accepts the right of a soldier to take a human life in war, and it accepts the right of society to inflict the death penalty. We sang a final hymn, "Something for Thee," and received the Benediction. Dr. Stiltner waited in the vestibule to greet the departing congregation. I saw Hulan White, immaculate in a tan summer suit, and a dozen other familiar faces. And half an hour later, at the ritual Sunday dinner in the restaurant at the Quality Inn, I recognized several of my fellow worshippers. Most of my fellow diners began their meal with the usual aperitif of the region a cup of coffee.

Sabbaterian: strictly observing the Sabbath, in Christian churches the Sunday, as the day of rest.

216 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

I Have a Dream
Martin Luther King (19291968), a Baptist minister, was the outstanding leader of the nonviolent Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s. On August 28, 1963, he led the "March on Washington", which culminated in the meeting of 200,000 people in front of the Lincoln Memorial. Commemorating the Emancipation Proclamation, King reminded his audience in a carefully prepared speech that even 100 years after Abraham Lincoln had declared the slaves free, the black people were far from being free but found themselves segregated, discriminated against and impoverished within American society. Halfway through his speech, he was carried away by the enthusiastic reaction of the crowd and, drawing on his experience as a minister, began to improvise. This part of his speech is covered by the following text.

Martin Luther King at the Lincoln Memorial

RELIGION 217

I say to you today, my friends, even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day down in Alabama with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plains, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation

into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning, "My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of pilgrims' pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring." And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvacious slopes of California! But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and mole hill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring, and when this happens, When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God almighty, we are free at last!"

218 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

RELIGION

WAR AND PEACE


by Paul Bock

BREAKING NEW GROUND ON

"The American Catholic Church has made a striking change in its historic attitude toward war."

Cardinal Bernardin: "If you take a strong stand against abortion as the unjust taking of human life, then you cannot remain indifferent to nuclear warfare."

N May, 1983, the National Conference of Catholic Bishops met in Chicago and, after making some revisions, they adopted the final draft of the "Pastoral Letter on War, Armaments and Peace." The second draft discussed by the bishops in November, 1982, in Washington, D.C., aroused an incredible amount of public attention, and many people waited with eagerness to see what the final draft would say. Although some of the forthright statements of the second draft were toned down, the final document still breaks new ground, taking positions that are quite different from earlier American Catholic statements on war. It states that massive retaliation on populated areas should never be allowed; that there should be a halt in the testing, production, and deployment of new nuclear weapons systems; that a "first-strike" policy must be challenged; that a limited nuclear war is not likely to stay limit-

Dr. Bock Associate Religion Editor of USA Today, is associate professor of religion. Doane College, Crete, Neb

ed; that vigorous steps should be taken toward multilateral disarmament; and that serious questions must be raised about the morality of deterrence. Consistent with their heritage, the bishops worked extensively with the "just war" theory which has been the prevailing view in Catholic thought on war since Augustine developed it around 400 A.D., thereby departing from the pacifist view which was dominant during the first three centuries of the church's history. The just war theory states that a war may be justified only if it meets certain conditions: it must be a last resort; it must be declared by a proper governmental authority; there must be a just cause such as defense against aggression; it must be fought with the right attitude (no revenge); it must be carried on with discrimination aiming at military and not civilian targets; and it must follow the principle of proportionality that is, it must do more good than harm. Although often used in the past to justify particular wars, the theory is now being used to challenge military policies. The bishops drew

heavily on the principles of discrimination and proportionality nuclear war would not discriminate between military and civilian personnel, and it certainly would not do more good than harm. There are several very remarkable things about the pastoral letter and the procedure followed in developing it. First of all, it is amazing to see how much public attention it received, especially from the government. It is hard to remember an occasion when a church document aroused such interest, as reflected in the cover-page story in Time magazine. Nor can one remember an occasion when the government felt so challenged by a church document as to cause it to intervene in the development of the statement. National Security Advisor William P. Clark sent a seven-page letter to the bishops, saying that, in its second draft, the pastoral letter reflected a misunderstanding of government policy in regard to the bombing of populated areas. Something is happening when the government seeks to defend its morality to church leaders.

RELIGION 219

3. continued
Second, there is something quite unusual about the procedure used in drafting the document namely, the wide consultation. Extensive hearings were held and experts were invited to testify. These included top government officials as well as theologians, and the theologians included Protestants as well as Catholics. Footnotes to the letter include Protestant authorities on war and peace, and among them is a Mennonite. Each draft took into account suggestions received through the mail - of which there were many as well as those made at meetings and hearings. The Catholic bishops have never engaged in so much consultation before, and the procedure followed may set a pattern for the future. Third, there is something special about the style of the letter. It does not command obedience or dictate what is right. It should be pointed out that the letter has two audiences - American Roman Catholics and the public. However, even in addressing the Roman Catholics, it does not command, but rather invites the faithful to think with the bishops on the issues raised. One reason for this approach is that there is no authoritative teaching on some aspects of nuclear deterrence, whereas there is on subjects such as abortion. Essentially, the bishops are saying, "Come let us reason together. Are not the current government policies in violation of the Catholic teaching on the just war?" Fourth, it is apparent that the American Catholic Church has made a striking change in its historic attitude toward war. In American history, Catholics have often been superpatriotic in wartime. This is partly because, as late immigrants suspected of having beliefs incompatible with democracy, they felt a need to prove how loyal they were. An example of superpatriotism is Francis Cardinal Spellman being photographed behind a machine gun in Vietnam and being quoted as saying. "My country, right or wrong." A very specific example of the changed outlook is seen in the attention given in this document to the pacifist position. It is only since Vatican II that the Roman Catholic Church has regarded conscientious objection as a valid position. Before that, only the just war view was recognized. .. .

Augustine, Saint (354430): early Christian Church father and author. Mennonite: member of an Evangelical Protestant Christian sect opposed to taking oaths, holding public office, or performing military service.

220 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

RELIGION

Power, Glory And Politics


Right-wing preachers dominate the dial

T WAS PART POLITICAL caucus, part camp meeting, part trade show and all barn burner. As the crowds of 4,000 milled through the Sheraton Washington Hotel in the nation's capital last week, Gospel singers crooned, video-equipment salesmen hawked their wares, and media consultants prowled the meeting rooms for new talent. Dozens of Senators and Congressmen made it their business to turn out for the cameras and lights, cementing alliances and buffing up images. Jeane Kirkpatrick and Jesse Jackson were there. President Reagan, appropriately, sent a message on videotape. The occasion was the convention of the National Religious Broadcasters. This is a group whose most resonant names - and recognizable faces - are the televangelists, the stars of the electronic church, the pastors of "Pray TV." And at one session after another, cheered on by such honored elders of the field as Billy Graham and Oral Roberts, these powerhouse preachers strutted their stuff. Jimmy Swaggart roared that the Supreme Court is "an institution damned by God Almighty" for allowing abortions. Jerry Falwell argued that "theologically, any Christian has to support Israel, simply because Jesus said to." Even White House Communications Director Patrick Buchanan drew audience cries of "Amen!" and "Praise the Lord!" when he exhorted Republicans to "tap into the spiritual revival that is going in the country."

Pat Robertson If Buchanan sounded downright evangelical for a politician, one evangelist in particular sounded mighty like a politician. He was Marion Gordon ("Pat") Robertson, 55, head of the Christian Broadcasting Network and a fixture on CBN's four-times-aday The 700 Club. Robertson, a Southern Baptist, has been transmitting signals that he might join the race

RELIGION 221

4. continued
for the Republican nomination to succeed Reagan. Political pros are uncertain how big a factor he could be in the primaries, let alone the convention, but they are convinced that he could energize the Christian right and siphon votes from other candidates. True believers are tingling at the prospect. As ROBERTSON IN 1988 buttons blossomed, the amiable Virginian took the N.R.B. platform to denounce the evils of abortion, homosexuality and school violence, all to be overcome by a flood tide of moral regeneration. "We are going to see a change in this nation," he promised his listeners, "and you are going to be a part of it." Perhaps they are already. Preachers like Robertson command audiences that form, if not a true Moral Majority, at least several potent and readily mobilized minorities. Robertson's following provides much of CBN's $233 million annual income. In a year, viewers of The 700 Club log 4 million prayer calls to 4,500 volunteers manning telephone banks in 60 counseling centers. Such motivated constituencies can - and do - bestow blessings aplenty, in the form of money and votes, upon candidates who win their favor.

The fact that a Robertson is even a potential candidate confirms the extraordinary power and influence amassed in the past decade by the shrewd, colorful headliners of Gospel TV. While impressing some as shallow and vulgar popularizers, they bring real inspiration and solace to others. Their past struggles in low-paid Gospel circuits bespeak a deep commitment, whatever skepticism might be aroused by their present enjoyment of stardom's rewards. They have changed the face of television; they may be gradually altering the very nature of American Christianity. .. . Dynamic and high-profile achievers, every one, yet none of these preachers can compare to Robertson as a TV entrepreneur. Robertson pioneered the first religious TV station, the first religious network and the first Christian programming to use a talk-show format, as well as a number of now widely imitated viewer-response and fund-raising techniques. He was also the first Christian broadcaster to sign up commercial sponsors, a development that appears to be the trend of the 1980s. His 24-hour CBN network reaches 30 million subscribers, making it not only the largest Christian cable operation but the fifth largest of any kind .. .

RATING THE REVERENDS


TV households reached per month, in millions Frequency of TV show

Pat Robertson

daily

16.3 9.3 7.6 5.8 5.8 5.6

Jimmy Swaggart weekly Robert Schuller Jim Bakker Oral Roberts Jerry Falwell weekly daily weekly weekly

CBN's viewership has tripled since 1981, when Robertson switched from an all-religion schedule to a family entertainment approach, combining Christian shows with wholesome reruns {Flipper, Father Knows Best), westerns, old movies and game shows. Two weeks ago the network premiered CBN News Tonight, a regular evening newscast produced in Washington, with special emphasis on right-wing issues . .. During the programs, 800 numbers continually flash onscreen, encouraging viewers to phone in their requests, comments, prayers or pledges ...

222 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

SCHOOL PRAYER
National Religious Broadcasters President Reagan's remarks at the Association's Annual Convention, January 31, 1983 . . . I've always believed that this blessed land was set apart in a special way, that some divine plan placed this great continent here between the two oceans to be found by people from every corner of the Earth people who had a special love for freedom and the courage to uproot themselves, leave their homeland and friends to come to a strange land. And, when coming here, they created something new in all the history of mankind a country where man is not beholden to government, government is beholden to man. I happen to believe that one way to promote, indeed, to preserve those traditional values we share is by permitting our children to begin their days the same way the Members of the United States Congress do with prayer. The public expression of our faith in God, through prayer, is fundamental as a part of our American heritage and a privilege which should not be excluded from our schools. No one must be forced or pressured to take part in any religious exercise. But neither should the freest country on Earth ever have permitted God to be expelled from the classroom. When the Supreme Court ruled that school prayer was unconstitutional almost 21 years ago, I believe it ruled wrong. And when a lower court recently stopped Lubbock, Texas, high school students from even holding voluntary prayer meetings on the campus before or after class, it ruled wrong, too. Our only hope for tomorrow is in the faces of our children. And we know Jesus said, "Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for such is the kingdom of God." Well, last year we tried to pass an amendment that would allow communities to determine for themselves whether voluntary prayer should be permitted in their public schools. And we failed. But I want you to know something: I'm determined to bring that amendment back again and again and again and again, until [applause] . . .

223

PART C
Sunday in Hope

Exercises
2. How does the church attendance in Hope compare with the figures in the chart above? 3. Interpret the statistics on religious beliefs. What strikes you most when you compare religious beliefs in the different parts of the world? Carry out an opinion poll in your class and compare the results with the figures in the chart.
RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
U.S. Western Latin Afric Far Europe i Americ East "Do you believe in God?" 94% 78% 96% 95% 89% Yes 3% 16% 3% 2% 6% No 3% 6% 1% 3% 5% Don't know "How important to are your religious beliefs?" 56% 27% 62% 73% 76% Very important 30% 32% 18% 13% 13% Fairly important 8% 26% 11% 7% 9% Not too important 5% 13% 7% 4% 2% Not important 1% 2% 1% 3% -Don't know

1. Comprehension
Explain how the author tries to show the close link between Christian faith and social conventions by referring to: the number of church activities on a Sunday church attendance clothes the contents of the pastor's sermon.

2. Discussion
1. How do religious activities and experiences in your country differ from those in the
Connecticut Mutual Life Report on American Values in the 1980s?
Religious Activities and Experiences
How frequently do you do each of the following? Feel that God loves you Number of Respondents

Engage in prayer

3. Analysis of a Speech
I Have a Dream
1. Martin Luther King says that his dream "is deeply rooted in the American dream." What does the American dream mean to him? 2. Quoting from the Bible (Isaiah 40,4), King proclaims that his dream will come true as a result of the revelation of God's glory. How does he combine this religious conviction with his political hopes? 3. This speech has been called a masterpiece of rhetoric. Listen to the speech and have a closer look at the rhetorical devices which King uses. a) The most striking device is repetition. Give examples and explain the effect on the audience. b) When he contrasts injustice and oppression with justice and freedom, he uses the device of antithesis. Find more examples.

Attend religious services

41% religious experience 34%

Have something you call a

Participate in a church social activity 37% i 38%

Encourage others to turn to religion


43%

Frequently Occasionally

Listen to religious broadcast

224 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

c) Show how he draws his images from nature and religion. d) Describe the interaction between the speaker and his audience. Would you agree that the speech leads to a kind of hymnal climax?

7. Text Analysis
School Prayer
1. How did the Supreme Court rule on school prayer? 2. Why does President Ronald Reagan disagree with this decision and why would he like to permit school prayer again? 3. What exactly did the President do to reintroduce school prayer? 4. Why does he mention the Members of the U.S. Congress and the court decision at Lubbock, Texas? 5. Whom is he addressing and how does he try to gear his speech to his audience?

4. Note Taking
Breaking New Ground on War and Peace
The article is clearly subdivided into seven paragraphs. Take notes under each of the following headings: 1. Adoption of the Catholic bishops' "Pastoral Letter on War, Armaments and Peace" 2. New Catholic positions 3. The "just war" theory 4. Public reactions 5. The procedure of drafting 6. The style of the letter 7. A changed attitude towards war.

8. Letter Writing
You have read the remarks the President made at the Annual Convention of National Religious Broadcasters. Now write a letter to an American penfriend expressing your amazement about a constitutional amendment to allow voluntary prayer in public schools and ask your friend about his/her opinion. You want to include the following ideas: amazement at the President's support of school prayer the President's attempt to override the First Amendment prohibition against government advancement of religion. fear that even voluntary school prayer would foster certainbut not allreligious practices . and beliefs suspicion that the argument of traditional values is only used to hide the true motives, for example, the attempt to secure the support of the right-wing evangelical movement.

5. Discussion
According to the First Amendment to the Constitution, church and state are strictly separate. Discuss whether, in your opinion, the Catholic bishops should comment on political issues.

6. Scanning
Power, Gloryand Politics
Go quickly through the text to extract information on the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What is the occasion covered by this story? Why did politicians take part in the event? Who are the stars of the electronic church? Which of the political issues that Pat Robertson stands for are mentioned in the text? What is his power and influence based on? Why can Robertson rightly be called a TV entrepreneur? What has he done to attract larger audiences? How does Robertson manage to get the viewers involved in his programs?

13 The Arts
PART A Background Information
COMMITMENT TO THE ARTS One stereotype of the United States is that of a culture where television, sports and other forms of popular entertainment overshadow the arts. In fact, Americans are deeply committed to the arts. Not only do more people today attend arts events than sports events, but almost as many people go to art museums as to pop concerts. Louis Harris's Americans and the Arts poll reveals a surge of artistic activity in America from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s. During this period, attendance at arts events increased: the number of people who attended movies rose from 70 percent to 78 percent attendance at theatrical performances rose from 53 percent to 67 percent the number of people attending dance performances rose from 23 percent to 34 percent attendance at live performances of classical or symphonic music went up from 25 percent to 34 percent between 1980 and 1984, attendance at live performances of operas or musicals rose from 25 percent to 30 percent. The same poll also reveals that more people are participating as amateurs or professionals in the arts: from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, the number of people involved in painting, drawing, or the graphic arts rose from 22 percent to 29 percent; the number of adults who play musical instruments went up from 18 percent to 31 percent; participation in local theater groups increased from 3 percent to 7 percent; the number of people who write stories and poems almost doubled, going from 13 percent to 25 percent; participation in ballet and modern dance increased significantly from 9 percent to 21 percent. To accommodate the public's increasing demand for the arts, many new cultural facilities are being built; the architectural trend towards expansive, imposing new designs for museums and theaters suggests the elevated status of the arts in America today. The media, particularly television, have generated a broad base of interest and enthusiasm for the arts through regular promotion and coverage of cultural events. The reach of the arts extends in sizable numbers to people of all ages, almost all economic groups, and all regions of the country.

INCREASING ATTENDANCE AT CULTURAL EVENTS

MORE PARTICIPANTS IN THE ARTS

MORE FACILITIES

MASS APPEAL

226 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

The Guggenheim Museum, New York MINIMAL GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

MIXTURE OF STYLES

The cultural explosion is all the more remarkable when one considers the relative lack of government support of the arts. Promotion of the arts through private and commerical funding rather than government funding is a firmly established tradition in the United States. Recently, however, the government's role in supporting the arts has increased. The National Endowment for the Arts, a government agency created in 1965, has been contributing to the advancement of the arts. B} 1985, the federal government was spending $163 million a year on this endowment; the annual spending of state governments reached $160 million. Still, all government arts spending remains small compared with private arts contributions, which exceeded $4 thousand million in 1985. Moreover, the arts still receive proportionately less government funding in the United States than in any other major Western nation. Even without the security of government subsidies that the arts in other countries traditionally enjoy, the arts in America have flourished. As American culture evolved, American artists began to create their own art forms. The styles of American art are as diverse as the people. Just as there is no single ethnic group, there is also no single American style. American artists have been inspired by a variety of influences, including folk primitivism and European sophistication. Painters, sculptors, musicians, and innovators in other fields have won fame both at home and abroad.

THE ARTS 227

THE VISUAL ARTS

Until the 1940s, America's visual artspainting and sculpturewere primarily influenced by European trends. American art developed mainly through subject matter and skills, as artists imitated the established styles of the European masters. The most significant developments in American art emerged in the years following the Second World War.

if*

Flowers, Mary's Table

(1971) Willem de Kooning

Mobiles by Alexander Calder

228 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM

SCULPTURE

MIXED MEDIA

POP ART

OPART RECENT TRENDS

AMERICAN MUSIC

RAGTIME

BLUES

JAZZ

Abstract expressionism, which was begun by a group of New York artists in the 1940s, became the first American art movement to command the attention of artists abroad. Revolting against traditional graphic styles, the artists of this movement sought to remake the goals and methods of art. Abstract expressionists rejected traditional subject matter, such as the human body, still life, or rural scenes. Instead, they focused on such things as the utilization of space, dimension, and surface texture, and the interrelationship of colors. The international influence of America's abstract expressionists was so great that the painting center of the world shifted from Paris to New York. Among the movement's leaders were Jackson Pollack (1912-54), who is famous for his turbulent paint-splattered canvases; Willem de Kooning, who used savage brush strokes and intense colors; and Mark Rothko, who is known for the bold blocks of color that dominate his huge canvases. During this period, American sculptors developed new styles of their own. Alexander Calder (1898-1976) designed the mobile. David Smith (1906-65) was the first sculptor to work with welded metals. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, young artists reacted to abstract expressionism to produce works of "mixed" media. Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns integrated everyday objects such as photographs and newspaper clippings into their paintings. The reaction to abstract expressionism continued with a movement called "pop art" ("pop" is short for "popular"). The members of this movement attempted to produce works of art that would reflect the pervasive influence of mass marketing, mass media, and other trends in American popular culture. Important in the pop-art movement were Andy Warhol (193087), famous for his multiple rows of soup cans and multiple portraits of Marilyn Monroe; and Roy Lichtenstein, recognized for his mimicry of well-known comic strips. "Pop" was followed by "Op" art, based on the principle of optical illusion. Recent trends in art emphasize variety and innovation. Movements of the 1970s and 80s include performance art, earth art, conceptual art, graffiti art, neo- and figural-expressionism, and neo-geo art. Unique forms and styles of music have developed in America. Ragtime, blues, jazz, country-western, rock 'n' roll, and the musical are all Americanborn. The black American music tradition has produced and influenced a variety of genres. Ragtime was the first black American music to gain wide popularity. Composer Scott Joplin (18681917) helped develop ragtime from simple parlor piano music into a serious genre. Ragtime is most important for its association with the blues, which then inspired jazz, America's most original music form. The blues evolved from African folk songs and church music. Sung by soloists or featuring solo instruments, blues music often expresses disappointment or regret. Jazz, now recognized as a world-wide art form, originated around the turn of the century among black musicians in the American South. The music was inspired by African culture but evolved directly from spirituals, ragtime, and blues. Jazz is characterized by improvisation and a lively attention to rhythm,

de Kooning, Willem: born 1904, Dutch-American painter. Rothko, Mark (190370): Russian-born American painter.

THE ARTS 229

COUNTRY-WESTERN MUSIC

THE MUSICAL

ROCK MUSIC

something famous jazz musician Duke Ellington (18991974) called "swing." By 1920, jazz had spread from the South, and in the 1930s, it reached its heyday of mass popularity as big band music. Louis Armstrong, (1900-71) a trumpeter and soloist, was one of the first well-known jazz singers. Other early jazz leaders were Duke Ellington, "Dizzy" Gillespie and Charlie Parker. Although the improvisational style of early jazz still survives today, jazz has moved on to new frontiers. In the 1960s and 70s, jazz musicians began combining the rhythms of rock 'n' roll and electronic instruments with traditional elements of jazz to form a blend of music called "fusion." Today, jazz is extremely popular in America and abroad. Jazz concerts draw thousands of listeners every year. The influence of jazz is found in many types of American music. The music of George Gershwin (1898-37), one of America's most popular song writers and composers, was strongly influenced by jazz. The concerto "Rhapsody in Blue" and the opera "Porgy and Bess" were two of his works which incorporated jazz. Another popular type of music which came out of the American South is country-western. However, its cultural origin and musical sounds are totally different from jazz. The style of country western music has its roots in the folk songs and ballads of the early Scottish and English settlers in the southern colonies. The music developed over a long period with melodies and lyrics reflecting rural life in the Southeast and Southwest. The distinctive sound of country music depends on the guitar, banjo and fiddle. Lyrics generally focus on the sorrows of love or the economic hardships of poor whites. In the 1940s, the appeal of country music extended beyond the rural South, and the music began to attract nationwide attention. Weekly music ratings indicate the continuing popularity of this type of music. In the 1930s another native American-born art form emerged. The musical was a new form of entertainment which combined acting, music, and ballet. The musical was inspired by the Anglo-Irish musical theater, the central European operetta, and the American vaudeville minstrel show. Basically entertaining in character, most early screen musicals were lavish and glamorous escapist fantasies. Dreams of success came true for characters who overcame hardships by faith and hard work, with some spectacular singing and dancing along the way. Later musicals, such as Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Oklahoma" and Sondheim and Bernstein's "West Side Story," included serious themes and social criticism. "A Chorus Line," first performed in 1975, is still one of the most popular musicals today. Rock music has dominated the popular music scene ever since America was inundated with the new sound in the 1950s. Rock 'n' roll developed as a

Ellington, Edward Kennedy ("Duke") 1899-1974: American jazz composer, pianist and bandleader. Rodgers, Richard (1902-79): American composer. Hammerstein, Oscar, II (1895-1960): American librettist and songwriter. Sondheim, Stephen: born 1930 American composer and lyricist. Bernstein, Eeonard: born 1918, American conductor, pianist and composer.

230 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

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THE HILARIOUS LOWDOWN ON HIGH LIFE!

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THE ARTS 231

MODERN DANCE

mixture of black blues and white country-western. The music quickly won intense and sustained appeal with young people not only in America, but all over the world. Early rock musicians such as Elvis Presley and Bob Dylan were idolized by millions of teenagers. In the 1970s and 80s, rock 'n' roll became heavily commercialized. Hundreds of bands copied the formula of success and went into recording studios to make money rather than innovative music. Some rock musicians, however, have emerged from the studio with unique sounds and messages in their music. Among these artists are guitarist-songwriter Bruce Springsteen and singer Stevie Wonder. Closely tied to developments in American music was modern dance, which emerged in America as a new art form early in the century. The creators of modern dance rejected the artificial formality of classical ballet. Instead, they sought to convey the innermost feelings of the human mind and body in simple, flowing dance movements. The first and most influential leader of the movement was Isadora Duncan (1878-1927). Martha Graham's New York-based group became the best known modern dance company. America's newest generation of modern dance choreographers includes Alvin Ailey whose style features African dance elements and black music, and Twyla Tharp, who experiments with new areas for dance such as video and films. In the past three decades, dance, both ballet and modern, has been the most rapidly developing performing art in the nation. New York City has become the dance center of the world.

Modern Dance: The American Ballet Theater

232 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

HOLLYWOOD FILMS

INFLUENCE OF TELEVISION

Born in Hollywood after the turn of the century, the motion picture became the monumental popular art form of the century. In Hollywood's golden age during the 1940s, the major studios were turning out over 400 movies each year. Like most businessmen, motion picture executives and entrepreneurs wanted to develop products that had mass appeal. Once they found a successful formula, they repeated it in film after film. Westerns, gangster films, comedies, and musicals were some of the popular films that emerged as distinct genres. Hollywood films were tailored to an American audience and appealed to its tastes by reinforcing traditional myths, values, and beliefs. The western fused violence and rugged individualism into larger, mythical themes of taming the frontier, curbing lawlessness, and forging a nation. Entertaining comedies and musicals carried messages of aspiration and optimism. In film director Frank Capra's (born 1897) It Happened One Night (1934), the poor boy who fell in love with a rich girl managed to win her heart. Class divisions were healed and everyone lived happily ever after. Audiences were charmed. During these decades of Hollywood's golden age, films, movie stars, and even the architecture of the theaters were glittering and glorious. The movies have changed since television intervened. Film attendance declined sharply, conglomerates bought up studios, and Hollywood's old monopoly on stardom and American style was lost. Today's moviegoers are mostly teenagers. Their parents prefer television entertainment. The major film studios have adapted to the new viewing patterns by cutting back on production, targeting films to the younger audience, and creating new markets. Studios have recaptured television audiences by renting their feature films to television networks and by producing low-budget made-for-TV movies and television series. Video cassettes have also created new markets for film studios. Although the golden age is past, films remain a popular and profitable form of entertainment in America. Innovations in these varied artistic fields have enriched America's cultural life and have made an impact on the rest of the world. The flourishing of the arts in America today signals a continued momentum for new developments in American art in the future.

233

PART

Texts
a radical shift in the kinds of plays produced and the kinds of writers nurtured. In fact, America finally has a national theater, although it is not the kind of national theater one associates with the National Theatre of England or the Moscow Art Theater or the Comedie Frangaise. Instead, it is a loose network of theaters presenting material that both reflects and illuminates American society, a society that continues to be a melting pot full of energy and variety. No longer dominated by the tyranny of Broadway moguls, American theater now includes around 400 professional not-for-profit companies in cities across the country. Most of these have evolved over the last 20 years, since the establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts. Therefore, American theater is now made up of both commercial and nonprofit interests. In New York City itself, for example, the theater world is divided between the commercial producers of Broadway and the scattered, smaller, not-for-profit theaters known as "off- road way." Although For more than a century Broadway was a stable and profitable community. Originating its own shows, which some would describe as manufacturing its own products, Broadway produced show business. Broadway producers tested their wares out-of-town in one of the major northeastern cities (Boston, Philadelphia, Washington or New Haven), opened in Manhattan, and then, depending upon a play's success or failure as determined by the New York newspaper critics, toured the country, sometimes with the original cast, more frequently with a second company. That patAlthough Broadway did not produce only one kind of play for all

Toward a National Theater


By Howard Stein
Today no major playwrights dominate the Broadway stage in the way the giants of past decades once did: from 1920 to 1940 Eugene O'Neill and Clifford Odets, from 1940 to I960 Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller and William Inge. Since I960 there have been no playwrights quite on the level of these, although many talented writers have emerged, such as Edward Albee, Sam Shepard and Neil Simon. In the past quarter century the focus has increasingly shifted away from Broadway to distant regions of the country, and energy, poetic imagination and vitality have sparked the American theater in a host of institutions across the country. Two significant changes have taken place: first, the decentralization of theatrical activity, which has resulted in a nation of theaters rather than a nation whose theater is housed in the few square blocks in Manhattan, New York City, known as Broadway; and second, the encouragement of writers throughout the nation to develop plays rather than to write scripts which are then presented to a Broadway producer for final judgment. These two changes in the pattern of playmaking in the United States have caused

234 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

1. continued
those years, there was a significant similarity in Broadway playwrights' work. Those plays, for the most part, were devoted to social realism, to the family, to middle-class people talking in middle-class language about middle-class problems problems that centered around marriage, raising children, extramarital affairs, divorce, business and personal integrity. The fact remains that a more authentic picture of the country would be one of a nation comprised of far more than middle-class families, a nation of significant variety and geography whose character is perhaps too vast to capture in the theater, certainly in the theater of Manhattan. America is a nation of no single background, heritage, culture, language, interest or set of values. The strength and identity of the nation is in its diversity and boundless energy. The theater of the last 25 years has succeeded in reflecting that diversity and that energy; this nation of theaters offers the entire world a much more realistic image of America than the old Broadway ever did.

Long Day's Journey into Night. Odets, Clifford (190663): actor and playwright who became famous by the production of his one-act play Waiting for Lefty, dealing with a taxi strike. Miller, Arthur: born 1915, author of All My Sons, Death of a Salesman (Pulitzer Prize) and The Crucible.

Stein, Howard: professor and chairman of Columbia University's Hammerstein Center for Theatre Studies. O'Neill, Eugene (1888-1953): His plays won him the Pulitzer Prize several times and earned him the Nobel Prize in 1936. Among his plays are the trilogy Mourning Becomes Electra, the New England folk comedy Ah, Wilderness*, and the autobiographical tragedy

Inge, William (1913-73): wrote plays about seemingly ordinary Midwestern people. Picnic earned him the Pulitzer Prize. Albee, Edward: born 1928, author of The Zoo Story, The American Dream and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Shepard, Sam: born 1943, author of Buried Child (Pulitzer Prize), True West and Fool for Love. Simon, Neil: born 1927, American playwright and television writer, author of highly successful comedies like Barefoot in the Park, Star Spangled Girl, and The Prisoner of Second Avenue, which reflect his ability to see the comic incongruities of everyday life. National Endowment for the Arts: part of the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities, an independent agency of the U.S. government, founded by Congress in 1965. It was established to foster the growth and development of the arts in the United States

THE ARTS 235

A Dozen Outstanding Plays of the Past Quarter Century

WIto's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

Streamers Indians

Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962) by Edward AlbeeWith this searing portrait of a marriage seemingly based on fantasies, infidelities and alcohol, Edward Albee, then 33, achieved instant fame. "The quality and the character of his writing alerted the theater," writes critic Stuart Little, "and excited and challenged his contemporaries. He had opened a new vein of dramatic writing." The Old Glory (two parts of this trilogy first produced in 1964; the third in 1968) by Robert Lowell Commissioned by an off-Broadway theater dedicated to new works, this play by the late, eminent poet Robert Lowell is based on three stories by 19th-century writerstwo by Nathaniel Hawthorne and one by Herman Melville. "The title, The Old Glory," said Lowell in 1976, "has two meanings: it refers both to the flag and also to the glory with which the Republic of America was started." The Great White Hope (1968) by Howard SacklerThis drama, one of the first to transfer directly from a regional theater to Broadway, is based on the life of black prizefighter Jack Johnson, who challenged early 20th-century racial attitudes. At a time when civil rights was a major issue in national politics, The Great White Hope, according to critic Ethan Mordden, "made a breakthrough for black theater, acclimatizing the public to racial drama in which rage would be explained rather than exploited, and black culture might be explored."

Indians (1969) by Arthur KopitA fantastical representation of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, this play is also a reconsideration of the treatment of American Indians during the settling of the West. "Indians," wrote critic Otis Guernsey, "reached its climax and fulfillment not in the events onstage... but out in the auditorium, where we were forced to reexamine some of our value judgments through a crack in our beloved national epic of the West." House of Blue Leaves (1971) by John GuareProduced off-Broadway, this black comedy about a middleaged zookeeper who longs to write songs for the movies is the work of one of America's most idiosyncratic playwrights. Sometimes criticized for failing to restrain what critic Ross Wetzsteon called "the wild inventions and weird mutations of his imagination," Guare maintains that the theater is "the last refuge for poetry." Streamers (1976) by David RabeWith this study of violence set in a military training camp, and two earlier plays. The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel and Sticks and Bones, Rabe became "the first American playwright to write unflinchingly about Vietnam," said David Richards in The Washington Star. Two of these plays were nurtured at Joseph Papp's influential Public Theater in New York. Photographs by Martha Swope

236 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued

House of Blue Leaves

Uncommon Women and Others (1977) by Wendy WassersteinFirst staged when its author was a student in Yale University's prestigious playwriling program, this effervescent comedy focuses on a group of graduates from an elite women's college. Wasserstein's work, wrote Michiko Kakutani in The New York Ti mes, concerns itself with "the choices facing contemporary women and the additional pressures created by feminist ideals." Fifth of July (1978) by Lanford WilsonAn oddly assorted group of survivors from the turbulent 1960s try to build new lives in their old Missouri hometown. First produced at the Circle Repertory Company in New York, the play was revived on Broadway in 1980, where New York Times theater critic Frank Rich praised it as "Wilson's own morning-after-Independence-Day dream of a democratic Americaan enlightened place where the best ideals can bloom." Buried Child (1978) by Sam ShepardShepard writes plays that take place, as critic Ronald Bryden has written, "in an eternal present haunted fry an unknown past. "In the Pulitzer-prizewinning Buried Child, first staged at San Francisco's Magic Theatre, a young man returns to his family's midwestern farm to find that no one recognizes him.

Children of a Lesser God (1979) by Mark MedoffCentering on a voice teacher and the strongminded deaf student he loves and marries, this play was developed at the Mark Taper Forum in Los Angeles and later triumphed on Broadway. John Beaufort said in The Christian Science Monitor: "Children is not merely about the plight of physical impairment. It is about the human condition and the struggle to communicate across daunting barriers." Sister Mary Ignatius Explains It All for You (1979) by Christopher DurangIn this satiric comedy about parochial education and authority figures, former students confront the righteous nun who taught them. "Anyone can write an angry play," wrote Frank Rich in praise of Durang, who continues to work off-Broadway, "but only a writer of real talent can write an angry play that remains funny and controlled even in its most savage moments." ASoldier's Play (1981) by Charles FullerDeveloped at the Negro Ensemble Company, this Pulitzer prizewinner is a murder mystery in which, as Walter Kerr wrote in The New York Times, "the excitement comes not from tracking down the criminal, but instead from tracking down the identity of the victim." Investigating the character of the victim, a vicious black sergeant on a southern military base in 1944, allows Fuller to explore the uneasy contradictions of racism,, both black and white.

THE ARTS 237

DIALOGUE

JACK NICHOLSON
From FILM COMMENT After a decade of low-budget films, Jack Nicholson achieved movie stardom in 1969 with the unheralded hit Easy Rider. Since then, he has created a variety of menacing yet oddly sympathetic characters in such movies as Chinatown, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and The Shining. Unlike many stars, Nicholson has never sought a glamorous screen image or insisted on leading roles. In fact, in Terms of Endearment (1983) he played a seedy, out-of-shape astronaut, yet he won all major movie awards for supporting actor. This risk-taking independence is evident throughout Nicholson long movie career, in his directing and screenwriting as well as his acting. As the producer of his recent film, P.rizzi's Honor, says, "He is prepared to do whatever the part requires, and anything he does becomes in itself interesting. "Here, Nicholson talks unth journalist and screenwriter Beverly Walker about the challenges inherent in Hollywood filmmaking. Tell me about your beginnings. I got out of school [in New Jersey] a year early, and though I could've worked my way through college, I decided I didn't want to do that. I came to California where my only other relatives were; and since I wanted to see movie stars, I got a job at MGM, as an office boy in [he cartoon program. For a couple of years I saw movie stars, and then I was nudged into a talent program. From there I went to the Players Ring Theatre, one of the l i t t l e theaters in Los Angeles at the time. I went to one acting class before I was taken to Jeff Corey's class. Up until then I hadn't cared about much but sports and girls and looking at moviesstuff vou do when you're 17 or 18. But Jeff Corey's method of working opened me up to a whole area of Study. Acting is lifestudy, and Corey's classes got me into looking at life asI'm still hesitant to sayan artist. They opened up people, literature. I met loads of people I s t i ll work with. From that point on, I have mainly been interested in acting. I think it's a great job, a fine way to live your life.... It's been said that you gave yourself 10 years to become a star. Is that true? No. Corey taught that good actors were meant to absorb life, and that's what I was trying to do. This was the era of the Beat Generation and West Coast jazz and staying up all night on Venice Beach. That was as important as gettingjobs, or so it seemed at the time. At the beginning, you're very idealistically inclined toward the art of the thing. Or you don't stick because there's no money in it. And I've always understood money; it's not a big mystical thing to me. I say this by way of underlining that it was then and is still the art of acting that is the wellspring for me. In that theoretical period of my life I began to think that the finest modern writer was the screen actor. This was in the spirit of the '50s where a very antiliterary literature was emerging. I kind of believed what Nietzsche said, that nothing not written in your blood is worth reading; it's just more pollution of the airwaves. If you're going to write, write one poem all your life, let nobody read it, and then burn it. This is very young thinking, I confess, but it is the seminal part of my life. This was the collage period in painting, the influence of Duchamp and others. The idea of not building monuments was very strong among idealistic people. I knew film deteriorated. Through all these permutations and youthful poetry, I came to believe that the film actor was the great "litterateur" of his time. I think I know what I meant.... The quality of acting in 1..A. theater then was very high because of the tremendous number of actors who were flying back and forth between the East Coast and Hollywood. You could see anybodyanybody who wasn't a starin theaters with 80 seats. But it always bothered me when people came off stage and were told how great they were. They weren't, really, in my opinion. It was then I started thinking that, contrary to conventional wisdom, film was the artful medium for the actor, not the stage.

238 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

3. continued

The stage has a certain discipline. But the ultimate standard is more exacting in film, because you have to see yourself and you are your own toughest critic. I did not want to be coming off the stage at the mercy of what somebody else told me I did...
You obviously saw Easy Rider [1969] before knowing the critical and public response. Did you have any clue it would become such a hit?

there before, and I understood the audience and its relative amplitudes. I believe I was one of the few people sitting in that audience who understood what was happening. I thought, "This is it. I'm back into acting now. I'm a movie star."...
Since Easy Rider, by what criteria do you select projects?

Yes, a clue. Because of my background with Roger Gorman, I knew that my last motorcycle movie had done $6 to $8 million from a budget of less than half a million. I thought the moment for the biker film had come, especially if the genre was moved one step away from exploitation toward some kind of literary quality. After all, I was writing a script [Head] based on the theories of Marshall McLuhan, so I understood what the release of hybrid communications energy might mean. This was one of a dozen theoretical discussions I'd have every day because this was a very vital time for me and my contemporaries. When I saw Easy Rider, I thought it was very good, but it wasn't until the screening at the Cannes Film Festival that I had an inkling of its powerful superstructural effect upon the public. In fact, up to that moment 1 had been thinking more about directing, and I had a commitment to do one of several things I was interested in. Which I did. Immediately after Easy Rider, I directed Drive
He Said. But at Cannes my thinking changed. I ' d been Did you think it would make you a star?

I look for a director with a script he likes a lot, but I'm probably after the directors more than anything. Because of the way the business is structured today, I have sometimes turned down scripts that I might otherwise have accepted had I known who was directing them.
You've taken more risks with subject matter, supporting roles or directors than any American star of recent memory. Is the director central in your taking risk?

Yes. There are many directors in the middle range who've made mostly successful pictures, and then there are a few great directors who've had some successes and some failures. I suppose my life would be smoother if I wasn't almost totally enam ored of the latter category __
Do you enjoy directing? I love it.

Jack Nicholson in Easy Rider

Let me put it this way: both as an actor and a viewer, what I look for in a director and a movie is vision. I wasn't mad about Roman's Pirates script, but because it's Roman [Polanski] I know it's going to be a great movie. Roman is top five; the same for Stanley [Kubrick] as well as John Huston. The imagery of a movie is where it's at, and that is based upon the director's vision. Everybody's always talking about script. In actuality, cinema is that "other thing"; and unless you're after that, I'd just as soon be in the different medium. If it's going to be about script, let it be a play. The quality of a scene is different if it's set in a phone booth or in an ice house, and the director has got to know when he wants one or the other. Scenes are different when the camera sits still or if it's running on a train. All these things are indigenous to the form. There's someone I know who keeps a book of drawings made by guests to her home. She asks everyone to make a drawing with two elements of her choosing: a heart and a house. The wildest one in the book was made by Steven Spielberg, and it shows exactly why he's a great movie director. This is what he drew: a big paper heart as if it were a hoop, busted open, through which was coming a car pulling a trailer home behind it. Motion...movement...explosion are all there in that one little Rorschach of a draw-

Why?

THE ARTS 239

ing. Everybody in town's in that book. If I were the head of a studio and I looked through the book, I'd stop right there and say, "This boy here is a movie director." So why do I want to direct? Well, I think I have special vision. If you ask anybody who was in college during the period ot Drive, He Said [1971], they'll tell you it was the peer-group picture of the time. But it cost me because it was very critical of youth. I did not pander to them. I ' m very proud of my two movies, and I think they have something special. Otherwise, I have nothing to offer. I don't want to direct a movie as good as Antonioni, or Kubrick, or Polanski or who ever. I want it to be my own. I think I've got the seed of it and, what's more, that I can make movies that are different and informed by my taste. Since that's what I'm looking for when I'm in the other seat, I wonder why others aren't....Well, obviously be cause I make 'em a lot of money as an actor___ Have you been doing any other writing in recent years? The last credit I see on your filmography is for Head [1968]. I've contributed to other things, such as Goin' South [1978] and the scene on the bluff with my father in Five Easy Pieces. I love writing, but I stopped because I felt I was more effective approaching filmmaking from a different vantage point. At this moment, I suppose I can do more for a script as an actor than as a writerin the film sense. I wrote right up to Easy Rider, at which time I became someone who could add fuel to a project as an actor. I've always approached film as a unit, but you have to work your own field....

Do you feel the more auteur-oriented directors are generally smart enough to incorporate a star into their own vision? Yes. The people I work with are auteurs in the sense that if they want something a certain way, they'll get it. I don't argue with them past a certain point. But I feel it's myjob to attempt to influence their thinking. OK, the director makes the movie. But some movies can't get made without someone like me in them. Looking over all of it, the single most obvious thing to me, in all we read and all we write about films, is this: people fear the creative moment. That's why they talk so long about a given scene. But the creative moment is happening when the camera is turned on and stops when it's turned off. First time...this time...only now...never again to be that way again. That's it. One person cannot be in charge of all that. The director says when to turn on the camera, whether to do another take, and he selects which of the moments he thinks is worthwhile. Prom a collage point of view, he is primary. But in that sense, you can't separate out the actor. I always try to get into whatever mold a director has in mind, but in all honesty, in the real action of it, they don't know. They want you to deliver "it." They hire someone like myself because they hope I ' l l do something beyond whatever they have in mind. Bring something they didn't write. They've created everything up to that moment when they turn on the camerathe clothes, the day, the timebut when that rolls, they're totally at the mercy of the actor.

MGM: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Hollywood movie studio. Beat Generation: young people who, after the Second World War, had lost faith in Western cultural traditions and rejected conventional norms of dress and behavior. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1844-1900): German philosopher, poet, and critic. Duchamp, Marcel (1887-1968): French painter. Corman, Roger: born 1926, motion picture producer, director and distributor. McLuhan, Marshall (191180): Canadian cultural historian and mass-communication theorist. Rorschach, Hermann (18841922): Swiss psychiatrist, invented a psychological test of personality. auteur: (French = author); here: film director who is regarded as the true author of a film.

240 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

FILM
Literary Hollywood
By Stanley Kauffmann From THE NEW REPUBLIC The most commercially successful director-producer in the world history of film has directed and produced a virtually all-black film. The landmark juncture of Steven Spielberg and a black subject in The Color Purple reflects current American society, but in this case there's an extra dimension. Spielberg has become a golden eminence not just through talent, which he certainly has, but also, perhaps especially, because he is not the least bit shrewd. He is open and self-gratifying. Spielberg makes us feel that, as producer or producer-director, he makes films that he himself wants to see. He apparently operates on the assumption that if he wants to see it, the international film public will also want it, an assumption that is now pretty well validated. So it's significant that he wanted to see, thus wanted to make, a film of Alice Walker's novel The Color Purple. If Spielberg is a congenital vicar for an immense public, which he seems to be, then an immense public is ready for a black film that offers some unpleasant views of black American life. Walker's novel won a Pulitzer Prize and an American Book Award in 1983 and has been read by millions. (This is no guarantee of film success; the past is strewn with failed film transcriptions of best sellers.) Except for one salient episode, The Color Purple is not about black-white relations: it is about blacks. Specifically, it is about the mistreatment, the abuse, of black women by black men. Walker's novel is often affecting, but at a somewhat elemental level. The

book is composed of letters, most of them written in so-called black English that in itself evokes pathos. Celie, the heroine, addresses letters to God. (Later there are more literate and much less moving letters from her sister who escapes from rural Georgia to become a missionary in Africa.) "Dear God," begins the book, "I am fourteen years old." Then come two crossed-out words. Then: "1 have always been a good girl. Maybe you can give me a sign letting me know what is happening to me." That salutation, those crossedout words, the bewildered appeal launch the book at once on its accessible way. God gives Celie plenty of signs of what is happening to her, most of them oppressive, but Celie endures, with taciturn courage. The story follows this Georgia farm girl from 1909 to 1931. Her stepfather twice gets Celie pregnant, then takes the babies away. She doesn't know where they are. Then he hands her over for marriage to a widower who had come to ask for Celie's sister. Her husband tyrannizes her and taunts her with his passion for a band vocalist. Celie, continually jeered at as ugly, is first told otherwise by the singer. Celie matures, achieves independence and at last is reunited with her missionary sister, who also brings Celie's children home. The book might have been written for Spielberg. He and Walker are both genuine, both skilled practitioners of popular art. It seems inevitable that this should be the book to switch him, temporarily anyway, from space sagas and kid stories. Allen Daviau has photographed the film in colors that are the visual equivalent of Quincy Jones's lush music: Spielberg apparently feels that the flooding music and color transcend artifice because of the authenticity they
Stanley Kauffmann is film critic for The New Republic Reprinted by permission of The New Republic. 1986, The New Republic, Inc.

THE ARTS 241

4. continued
adorn. Moreover, Spielberg keeps the camera below eye-level a good deal of the time, often near floor-level, looking upward as if to assert that he feels the story is epic. For Celie, Spielberg, with his usual good instincts, chose comedian Whoopi Goldberg. She is a solo performer of sketches she herself creates. Her Broadway appearance last year demonstrated that her performing talent is better than her writing. As Celie, Goldberg is perfect. Danny Glover, as the widower who weds Celie reluctantly, goes from strength to strength as an actor. Up to now, he has played sympathetic roles notably, the field hand Moses in Places in the Heart. Here he plays a brute who mellows with the years. Glover makes the younger man both terrifying and understandable, and

makes the mellowing as credible as anyone could do. Two women are outstanding. Oprah Winfrey is Sophie, a plump proud woman who pays grievously for her pride. Margaret Avery is Shug (short for Sugar), the singer who bewitches Celie's husband but whose love turns out to be the liberation of Celie's spirit. Avery is worldly wise, yet warm and lovely. The film travels a bit errantly and sluggishly toward the happy ending we know it must have, whether or not we've read the book, but Spielberg's convictions carry it through: his conviction that this is now the moment for a mass-appeal film on these aspects of black life and his conviction about happy endings. Clearly he believes that happy endings are integral to film, that they are what film is for. These two convictions, of instance and of principle, sustain The Color Purple.

Danny Glover and Whoopi Goldberg in The Color Purple


1985 Warner Brothers Company

242 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

The Chairman and the Boss


The first great American superstar singer, and the latest Voices for whole generations. Musicians who can sculpt in song an entire interior landscape of American dreams played out in latenight bars or on empty midnight highways. Jukebox visionaries. World-class artists. Frank Sinatra and Bruce Springsteen have a lot more in common than their native state of New Jersey. They dwell in the same kind of spiritual territory: a world of loneliness, romantic retribution, hard pride and tenuous triumph where a song can be a testament or a talisman. Even their most sweeping upbeat numbers have an undertow from the outer darkness. Their music moves to different beats. That is obvious. But whether Sinatra swings or Springsteen rocks, they both sound like they are singing about lives in the balance. Their audiences do not overlap. Not many kids Born in the U.SA. want to have it My Way, and those who have hoisted One for My Baby may not feel they are Born to Run. Could Sinatra cover Cover Me} Could Springsteen get behind Spring Is Here} No matter. They share the same solitary spirit. Sinatra's greatest record and his self-acknowledged favorite is the 1958 album Only the Lonely, in which the haunted force of his singing transforms romantic abandonment into an elegant paradigm of spiritual despair straight up, no chaser. Springsteen has never been better than on 1980's The River, a tworecord set full of blind alleys, dashed dreams and rave-ups that sound like last stands. The protagonists of Springsteen's songs all stand and fall by themselves. In Sinatra's most indelible performances, the singer makes a compact between the will and the heart, and desolation is what is left after the thrill is gone. They share some of the same background too. Despite Springsteen's Dutch surname, his lineage is halfItalian. The Sinatra bloodlines have been evokecl to place him squarely within such varying Mediterranean traditions as bel canto and the Mafia. It may be, however, that the Mob mythology surrounding Sinatra is simply part of the public projection of his nightshade personality, based on the same kind of willed misperception that twisted Springsteen into a Fenderbender Rambo. The same perceived darkness is present in Presley and Dylan, Dean and Brando. Americans like their superstars with an edge of danger and a whiff of sulfur. Sinatra has been happy to oblige. Springsteen plays his private life close, but Sinatra's has been up for grabs since he wowed the bobby-soxers at the Paramount Theatre in 1944, Springsteen's effect on an audience can be just as devastating, but a great part of his appeal is the impression of a private man going public. Each concert becomes a ritual celebration, just as a Sinatra performance, even today, is a renewal of old ties and a reconfirmation of old values. The Chairman of the Board, with his unforced, slightly ironic ease, and the Boss, who has the stage force of some as yet unclassified natural phenomenon, are both peerless showmen, and they both got their moves down in the same neighborhood. The rock clubs all around the Jersey shore are not so very different now from jazz joints like the Rustic Cabin (Route 9W, Alpine, N.J.), where Sinatra spent 18 months in the late '30s, learning his craft and occasionally waiting tables. Springsteen's sense of himself and of the redemptive power of the songs

Bruce Springsteen he sings has translated into political statement (as in his participation in Steve Van Zandt's antiapartheid Sun City project) and political action (as with his quiet contributions, in each of his U.S. concert venues, to local charities like food banks). Sinatra, whose music usually avoided political matters, was also, in his time, an outspoken populist. The singer who now entertains at the White House and at Sun City also staged John Kennedy's inaugural, appeared at plenty of civil rights benefits and was one of the first movie figures to try formally to break the I lollywood blacklist with his hiring clout. That has changed now. Springsteen's own changes may be different, but what will likely remain constant with him, as it has with Sinatra, is the primacy of the music. They are both like separate swift currents in the American musical mainstream that has flowed around the world. There would be a pleasing symbolism in the fulfillment of one Springsteen friend's longcherished dream of having Sinatra record the Boss's grand melodrama Meeting Across the River. However it turned out such a recording would be an irresistible confluence of myths. And something more. It would do both Springsteen and Sinatra proud. Just in fact as they have done us.
By Jay Cocks

Frank Sinatra

the Chairman, the Boss: nicknames of Frank Sinatra and Bruce Springsteen. Dean, James (1931-55): American actor. Brando, Marlon: born 1924, American actor. Paramount Theatre, Hollywood movie studio. Steve van Zandt, former guitarist in Springsteen's band.

243

PART C

Exercises
3. Comprehension An Interview with Jack Nicholson
Which ways of completing the following sentences are correct? There may be more than one possibility. 1. After leaving school Jack Nicholson a) went straight to college. b) went to California to become a movie star. c) became an office boy in a California film company. 2. Due to Jeff Corey's influence, Jack Nicholson a) became interested in sports, girls and seeing films. b) tried to live an intensive life. c) learned that acting requires an intensive insight into life. 3. Already at the beginning of his career as an actor a) money played such a crucial role that he almost gave up acting. b) he strongly believed in acting as a literary art form. c) he considered scriptwriters to be the greatest literary artists of the time. 4. Comparing film-acting and acting on the stage, Jack Nicholson a) regarded the stage as the true medium for an actor. b) believed that screen-acting was the higher art form. c) thought that second-rate actors were to be found on the stage. 5. Jack Nicholson is of the opinion that criticism a) from the theater audience helped him a lot. b) after a theater performance was not always fair. c) of acting is done best by the actor himself.

1. Structural Outline Toward a National Theater


Provide the missing information about the change undergone by the American theater.
Before the 1960s Since the 1960s

domination of the stage by few major playwrights decentralization and regionalization of theatrical activities toward a national theater censorship in playwriting by Broadway producers expansion of the theatrical scene by around 400 non-profit theaters similarity of Broadway plays through middleclass orientation

2. Scanning A Dozen Outstanding Plays of the Past Quarter Century


Describing American drama before the 1960s, Howard Stein says, "Those plays, for the most part, were devoted to social realism, to the family, to middle-class people talking in middle-class language about middle-class problemsproblems that centered around marriage, raising children, extra-marital affairs, divorce, business and personal integrity." Scan the survey of recent plays, and show how, in the choice of themes and main characters, these plays differ from the traditional pattern.

244 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

6. Jack Nicholson anticipated that Easy Rider was not going to be a failure because a) the motorcycle film he had done before had been a success. b) he had given up trying to reach a kind of literary quality with this film. c) he was familiar with the basic ideas of this film. 7. The success of Easy Rider at the Cannes Film Festival a) made Nicholson think of directing films himself for the first time. b) showed Nicholson that he was at his best as an actor. c) caused him to give up all plans of directing films. 8. When choosing a new project, Nicholson believes that a) the script is the most important criterion. b) the director is more important than the script. c) only great directors guarantee the financial success of a film. 9. Jack Nicholson enjoys directing because he thinks a) he can do it as well as Antonioni, Kubrick or Polanski. b) there are always excellent scripts to rely on. c) he has the special vision that is needed to produce the right images. 10. Jack Nicholson gave up writing because he a) never really liked it. b) felt that he was not effective enough as a writer. c) thought he could contribute to a film more through acting than through writing.

4. Interview Practice Literary Hollywood


Journalists such as Stanley Kauffmann often work in different media. Imagine he is going to be interviewed on a live radio morning show. The interviewer at the radio station has read the review in The New Republic and, as he has neither seen the film nor read the novel, is basing his five-minute interview almost entirely on the review. Put yourself into the position of the interviewer and, based on an analysis of the review, prepare questions which both interest the listeners and can be answered informatively by Stanley Kauffmann. Then conduct the interview in pairs, the interviewee relying on a few notes which he or she has made to each of the questions before.

5. Comparative Study The Chairman and the Boss


1. List what the author of this article says about Frank Sinatra, the Chairman of the Board, and Bruce Springsteen, the Boss. Pay particular attention to the impact of their music on American people and culture the spiritual character of their music their audiences their best albums the protagonists of their songs their (ethnic) backgrounds their personalities their performing powers their political commitments. 2. Where does the author see parallels and where does he see differences? 3. Pick a few songs from both superstars. Categorize them and say whether you agree with the description the author gives of their songs.

14 SportS
PART A Background Information
A SPORTS-LOVING NATION

MEDIA COVERAGE

PRIVATE AND INSTITUTIONALIZED ACTIVITIES

Whether they are fans or players, the millions of Americans who participate in sports are usually passionate about their games. There is more to being a baseball fan than buying season tickets to the home team's games. A real fan not only can recite each player's batting average, but also competes with other fans to prove who knows the answers to the most obscure and trivial questions about the sport. That's dedication. Dedication short of madness is also what inspired hundreds of thousands of football fans to fill Denver's stadium in dangerously freezing temperatures, not to watch an exciting game but just to demonstrate team support in a pre-Superbowl pep rally, days before the actual contest. And it is with passion that Americans pursue the latest fitness fad, convinced that staying fit requires much more than regular exercise and balanced meals. For anyone who claims a real desire to stay healthy, fitness has become a science of quantification involving weighing, measuring, monitoring, graph charting, and computer printouts. These are the tools for knowing all about pulse and heart rates, calorie intake, fat cell per muscle cell ratios, and almost anything else that shows the results of a workout. The immense popularity of sports in America is indicated by the number of pages and headlines the average daily newspaper devotes to local and national sports. The emphasis on sports is evident in local evening news telecasts, too. Every evening for five to seven minutes of the half-hour local news show, the station's sports analyst, whose territory is exclusively sports, reports on local, regional, and national sports events. Television has made sports available to all. For those who cannot afford tickets or travel to expensive play-offs like baseball's World Series or football's final Superbowl, a flick of the television dial provides close-up viewing that beats front row seats. Although estimates vary, the major networks average about 500 hours each of sports programming a year. Recently, the emergence of several cable channels that specialize in sports gives viewers even more options. The foremost of these channels, ESPN, runs sports shows at least 22 hours a day and is now received by 37 million American homes, or nearly half of the 86 million homes with television sets. Opportunities for keeping fit and playing sports are numerous. Jogging is extremely popular, perhaps because it is the cheapest and most accessible sport. Aerobic exercise and training with weight-lifting machines are two activities which more and more men and women are pursuing. Books, videos,
Superbowl: the championship game of the National Football League. pep rally: an assembly intended to inspire enthusiasm.

246 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

American football

and fitness-conscious movie stars that play up the glamour of fitness have heightened enthusiasm for these exercises and have promoted the muscular, healthy body as the American beauty ideal. Most communities have recreational parks with tennis and basketball courts, a football or soccer field, and outdoor grills for picnics. These parks generally charge no fees for the use of these facilities. Some large corporations, hospitals, and churches have indoor gymnasiums and organize informal team sports. For those who can afford membership fees, there is the exclusive country club and its more modern version, the health and fitness center. Members of these clubs have access to all kinds of indoor and outdoor sports: swimming, volleyball, golf, racquetball, handball, tennis, and basketball. Most clubs also offer instruction in various sports and exercise methods.

SPORTS 247

AMERICAN SPORTS

VIOLENCE AND SPORTS

COMMERCIAL ASPECTS

Schools and colleges have institutionalized team sports for young people. Teams and competitions are highly organized and competitive and generally receive substantial local publicity. High schools and colleges commonly have a school team for each of these sports: football, basketball, baseball, tennis, wrestling, gymnastics, and track, and sometimes for soccer, swimming, hockey, volleyball, fencing, and golf. Practices and games are generally held on the school premises after classes are over. High schools and colleges recognize outstanding athletic achievement with trophies, awards, and scholarships, and student athletes receive strong community support. Football, baseball, and basketball, the most popular sports in America, originated in the United States and are largely unknown or only minor pastimes outside North America. The football season starts in early autumn and is followed by basketball, an indoor winter sport, and then baseball, played in spring and summer. Besides these top three sports, ice hockey, boxing, golf, car racing, horse racing, and tennis have been popular for decades and attract large audiences. Although many spectator sports, particularly pro football, ice hockey, and boxing, are aggressive and sometimes bloody, American spectators are notably less violent than are sports crowds in other countries. Fighting, bottle throwing, and rioting, common elsewhere, are not the rule among American fans. Baseball and football games are family affairs, and cheerleaders command the remarkably non-violent crowd to root in chorus for their teams. For many people, sports are big business. The major television networks contract with professional sports leagues for the rights to broadcast their games. The guaranteed mass viewing of major sports events means advertisers will pay networks a lot of money to sponsor the program with announcements for their products. Advertisers for beer, cars, and men's products are glad of the opportunity to push their goods to the predominantly male audience of the big professional sports. Commercial businesses enjoy the publicity which brings in sales. The networks are glad to fill up program hours and attract audiences who might perhaps become regular viewers of other programs produced by those networks, and the major sports leagues enjoy the millions of dollars the networks pay for the broad-casting rights contracts. Many sports get half of their revenues from the networks. National Football League (NFL) teams, for example, get about 65 percent of their revenues from television. The networks' 1986 contract with the NFL provided each of the 28 teams in the league with an average of $14 million a year. Just as in any business, investments are made and assets are exchanged. Team owners usually sign up individual players for lucrative long-term contracts. Star quarterback Joe Namath was invited to play for the New York Jets, one of the NFL teams, for $425,000 in 1965. Coveted baseball player Kirk Gibson recently signed a three-year contract with the Detroit Tigers for $4.1 million. More often in the past than now, team owners traded players back and forth as items for barter. Any business operator hopes to get a good deal. However, the network sports industries have not been faring well lately. They have experienced financial setbacks mainly caused by the oversaturation of sports programming on networks and competing cable channels. Networks claim they are now losing money on once-lucrative telecasts. Ironically, the slump in business is occurring at a time when sports shows are drawing larger audiences than in recent years. Part of the problem is that advertising costs got too high, and the

248 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

PROFESSIONAL SPORTS

COLLEGE SPORTS

STUDENT ATHLETES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

WINNING

industries that traditionally buy adsbeer and car companies are not paying the high prices. Networks, dependent on advertising for revenue, are hoping that the market will change before they have to make drastic reductions ir sports programming. The commercial aspects of American professional sports can make or break an athlete's career. Young, talented athletes make it to the top because they are exceptionally talented, but not in every case because they are the best. In women's tennis, for example, an aspiring young tennis star must not only possess a winning serve and backhand, she must also get corporate agents on her side. Without agents who line up sponsors and publicity, a player has a very difficult time moving from amateur to professional sports. To get the endorsement of corporate advertising sponsors, a talented young tennis player has a much better chance for success if she is also attractive. Sales-conscious tennis sportswear companies pay large sums of money to tennis pros who promote their products. Many top players earn more money a year in productendorsement fees than in prize money. Competition and success in sports, then, is not only a matter of game skill, but marketability as well. College sports lost its amateurism years ago. Teams and events are institutionalized and contribute to college publicity and revenue. Sports bring in money to colleges from ticket sales and television rights, so colleges like having winning teams. The better the team, the greater the ticket sales and television coverage, and the more money the college can channel back into athletics and other programs. Football and basketball are the most lucrative college sports because they attract the most fans. Other college sports, particularly women's sports, are often neglected and ignored by spectators, the news media, and athletic directors who often disregard women's sports budgets and funnel money for equipment and facilities into the sports that pay. On the other hand, top college teams get a lot of attention. In 1986, the Division 1 college football programs had a budget of nearly $1 billion, while entertaining millions of spectators and television viewers. To recruit student athletes for a winning team, many colleges are willing to go to great lengths, providing full academic scholarships to athletes, and sometimes putting the college's academic reputation at risk. The tacit understanding shared by college admissions directors as well as the potential sports stars they admit is that athletes do not enroll in college to learn, but to play sports and perhaps use intercollegiate sports as a springboard for a professional career. The situation often embarrasses college administrators, who are caught between educational ideals and commercial realities, and infuriates other students, who resent the preferential treatment given to athletes. Of late, some universities, such as the University of Michigan, have initiated support programs to improve academic performance and graduation rates of athletes. Increasing commercialization of college sports is part of a larger trend. American sports are becoming more competitive and more profit-oriented. As a result, playing to win is emphasized more than playing for fun. This is true from the professional level all the way down to the level of children's Little League sports teams, where young players are encouraged by such slogans as "A quitter never wins; a winner never quits," and "never be willing to be second best." The obsession with winning causes some people to wonder whether sports in America should be such serious business.

249

PART

Texts

Interview: High School Sports


Q: Steve, you graduated from high school in Quincy, II, and afterwards went to school in Germany for almost a year. As far as school sports are concerned, do you think there is a great difference between Germany and the U.S.A.? A: Yes, a large difference, actually. In Germany, school sports mean P.E., whereas in the U.S. the school sports program has a double role, with the P.E. program on one side and organized competitive sports on the other. In Germany, the function of the competitive sports is taken over by non-school sport clubs, which exist only in small numbers in the U.S. Q: Let's first talk about physical education or P.E., as it is commonly called. What role does it play in the curriculum? A: Well, it's a requirement, which means that every student must be enrolled in a P.E. course, and the courses meet five times a week for one hour a day. Q: What kinds of sports are offered? A: There's usually a period right at the beginning of each semester where a general physical fitness program is done, and, after that, the students get to choose between various team and individual sports ranging from basketball, football and baseball to tennis, weight lifting and aerobics. Q: Let's turn to competitive sports now. What were the most popular teams at your school, and how important were they for the school? A: The biggest team at QHS is by far the boy's basketball team, and then the other teams are heavily dependent on success. For instance, in the last couple of years, the girls' volleyball team has had some success, and, of course, that means a more popular following for the team, although the basketball team has always had a cult following, through thick and thin. Q: So, obviously, the home games of the top teams are the important events in the life of the school, aren't they? A: Yes, they are. The basketball games attract a large, diverse audience. They're played at the senior high gym, and it's always packed to capacity. Another thing, if the basketball team were to go to the state tournament, the students would be released from school early so that they would have the opportunity to travel with the team. And we can't forget the financial implications: the games generate revenue for the school. Q: What other things beside the actual competition on the field add to the atmosphere of the game? A: At the very beginning of the game, when the players are introduced, the mascot from Quincy comes out dressed as a blue devil. The high school team is called the Blue Devils. He walks out with a flaming pitchfork, and he goes around the gym, which is divided into sections, and, with his back to the crowd, he covers himself in his cape. All of a sudden, he turns around, throwing open his cape, and everybody in that section stands up and cheers as loud as they can, with the student section generating the loudest screams. On top of that there's a band to add to the pre-game and intermission carnival atmosphere, and there's the omnipresent cheerleaders for the same purpose. Q: What do you understand by cheerleaders? A: These are girls, organized into squads, who perform various chants and acrobatics to hype up the crowd. Q: Do they wear special clothes? A: It's the lack of clothes more than the clothes. They wear very provocative outfits. Q: To what extent does the community become

250 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

1. continued
involved and interested in those games? Do you remember incidents that would illustrate this interest? A: The community has always been very much behind the basketball program at QHS. For example, when we went to the state tournament in 1981, a local printing company distributed posters, and, driving around town, you could see these posters with this huge blue devil staring out at you on just about every house, and then many Quincians went to the tournament to support the team. And during the regular season, the games are always broadcast on the radio, and, like I said before, the gymnasium is always filled to capacity, so there is a very big grass roots support, and that multiplies when the team is successful. For example, when a team returns from state tourney, it goes to the mall, gets on board an old fire truck and parades around town before going to the gym for a victory rally, which is like a large party for the players and fans. Q: I guess the members of the top basketball team are very popular with the other students and with the girls. A: Yeah, they're the stars of the high school community, and, as long as they don't get too arrogant, they're highly regarded by the major portion of the high school population. The girls find the guys to be quite sexy, but the guys at the high school tend to lean toward the cheerleaders rather than the basketball players. Q: Imagine a student wants to join the basketball team. How does he go about it? A: Well, the basketball team in Quincy is very selective, and there's quite a competition for membership, but it's pretty well all decided by the time the people are playing at the junior high. The other teams are more open to entrance later on. Q: What do they do to train?

High-school basketball game

A: As with any sport, a major portion of time is devoted to callisthenics, just general physical fitness, and the rest of the time is spent on tactics, teamwork and basic skills. Q: How would you describe the role of the coach? A: The coach is of major importance for the team, as he determines their success to a large extent. Coaches are hired by the school board as coaches first and as teachers second. And when a coach's luck runs out, he's gone as a coach, but he's retained as a teacher. The community at large stands behind the coaches when they have a winning record; for instance, one fan in Quincy gave a basketball coach a brand new Corvette, just for being a good coach.

tourney, tournament.

SPORTS 251

SPORTS IN AMERICA:
by James A. Michener
The athletic programs of American colleges and universities have come in for a great deal of criticism but there does not seem to be a chance to alter the system. James A. Michener gives background information and comments on the problems. First, the United States is the only nation in the world, so far as I know, which demands that its schools like Harvard, Ohio State and Claremont assume responsibility for providing the public with sports entertainment. Ours is a unique system

COLLEGES & UNIVERSITIES


which has no historical sanction or application elsewhere. It would be unthinkable for the University of Bologna, a most ancient and honorable school, to provide scholarships to illiterate soccer players so that they could entertain the other cities of northern Italy, and it would be equally preposterous for either the Sorbonne or Oxford to do so in their countries. Our system is an American phenomenon, a historical accident which developed from the exciting football games played by Yale and Harvard and to a lesser extent Princeton and certain other schools during the closing years of

College football

252 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

2. continued
the nineteenth century. If we had had at that time professional teams which provided public football entertainment, we might not have placed the burden on our schools. But we had no professional teams, so our schools were handed the job. Second, if an ideal American educational system were being launched afresh, few would want to saddle it with the responsibility for public sports entertainment. I certainly would not. But since, by a quirk of history, it is so saddled, the tradition has become ingrained and I see not the remotest chance of altering it. I therefore approve of continuing it, so long as certain safeguards are installed. Categorically, I believe that our schools must continue to offer sports entertainment, even though comparable institutions throughout the rest of the world are excused from doing so. Third, I see nothing wrong in having a college or a university provide training for the young man or woman who wants to devote his adult life to sports. My reasoning is twofold: 1) American society has ordained that sports shall be a major aspect of our national life, with major attention, major financial support and major coverage in the media. How possibly can a major aspect of life be ignored by our schools? 2) If it is permissible to train young musicians and actors in our universities, and endow munificent departments to do so, why is it not equally legitimate to train young athletes, and endow them with a stadium? Fourth, because our schools have volunteered to serve as unpaid training grounds for future professionals, and because some of the lucky schools with good sports reputations can earn a good deal of money from the semi-professional football and basketball teams they operate, the temptation to recruit young men skilled at games but totally unfitted for academic work is overpowering. We must seriously ask if such behavior is legitimate for an academic institution. There are honorable answers, and ! know some of them, but if we do not face this matter forthrightly, we are going to run into trouble.

BASEBALL
were at first unprotected. Consequently, they stood back at a distance from home plate and caught pitched balls on the bounce, but the introduction of the large, round, well-padded mitt or "pillow glove" and the face mask enabled them to move up close behind the plate and catch pitched balls on the fly. Players wear shoes with steel cleats and, while batting and running the bases, they use protective plastic helmets. The game is played on a field containing four bases placed at the angles of a 90-ft. (27.4 m.) square (often called a diamond): home plate and, in counter-clockwise order, first, second, and third base. Two foul lines form the boundaries of fair territory. Starting at home, these lines extend past first and third base the entire length of the field, which is often enclosed by a fence at its farthest limits. The object of each team is to score more runs than the other. A run is scored whenever a player circles all the bases and reaches home without being put out. The game is divided into innings, in

aseball is a nine-a-side game played with bat, ball, and glove, mainly in the U.S.A. Teams consist of a pitcher and catcher, called the battery, first, second, and third basemen, and shortstop, called the infield, and right, centre, and left fielders, called the outfield. Substitute players may enter the game at any time, but once a player is removed he cannot return. The standard ball has a cork-and-rubber centre wound with woollen yam and covered with horsehide. It weighs from 5 to 5 1/4 oz. (148 g.) and is from 9 to 9 1/2 in. (approx. 23 cm.) in circumference. .. . The bat is a smooth, round, tapered piece of hard wood not more than 2 3/4 in. (approx. 7 cm.) in diameter at its thickest part and no more than 42 in. (1.07 m.) long. Originally, fielders played barehanded, but gloves have been developed over the years. First basemen wear a special large mitt, and catchers use a large, heavily-padded mitt as well as a chest protector, shin guards, and a metal mask. Catchers

SPORTS 253

3. continued

each of which the teams alternate at bat and in the field. A team is allowed three outs in each halfinning at bat, and must then take up defensive positions in the field while the other team has its turn to try to score. Ordinarily, a game consists of nine innings; in the event of a tie, extra innings are played until one team outscores the other in the same number of innings. The players take turns batting from home plate in regular rotation. The opposing pitcher throws the ball to his catcher from a slab (called the "rubber") on the pitcher's mound, a slightly raised area of the field directly between home and second base. ... Bases are canvas bags fastened to metal pegs set in the ground. The batter tries to reach base safely after hitting the pitched ball into fair territory. A hit that enables him to reach first base is called a "single," a twobase hit is a "double," a three-base hit a "triple," and a four-base hit a "home-run." A fair ball hit over an outfield fence is automatically a home run. A batter is also awarded his base if the pitcher delivers four pitches which, in the umpire's judgement, do not pass through the "strike zone" that is, over home plate between the batter's armpits and knees; or if he is hit by a pitched ball; or if the opposing catcher interferes when he swings the bat. To prevent the batter from hitting safely, baseball pitchers deliver the ball with great speed and accuracy and vary its speed and trajectory. Success in batting, therefore, requires courage and a high degree of skill.

After a player reaches base safely, his progress towards home depends largely on his team mates' hitting the ball in such a way that he can advance. ... Players may be put out in various ways. A batter is out when the pitcher gets three 'strikes' on him. A strike is a pitch that crosses the plate in the strike zone, or any pitch that is struck at and missed or is hit into foul territory. After two strikes, however, foul balls do not count except when a batter 'bunts' lets the ball meet the bat instead of swinging at it and the ball rolls foul. A batter is also out if he hits the ball in the air anywhere in fair or foul territory and it is caught by an opponent before it touches the ground. He is out if he hits the ball on the ground and a fielder catches and throws it to a player at first base, or catches it and touches that base, before the batter (now become a base runner) gets there. A base nnner may be put out if, while off base, he is tagged by an opposing player with the hand or glove holding the ball, or if he is forced to leave his base to make room for another runner and fails to reach the next base before an opposing player tags him or the base; or if he is hit by a team mate's batted ball before it has touched or passed a fielder. An umpire-in-chief "calls" balls and strikes from his position directly behind the catcher at home plate, and one or more base umpires determine whether runners are safe or out at the other three bases.

254 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

HEALTH

Running for your Life


A Harvard study links exercise with longevity

HE hordes of Americans who roll out of bed, slip into their Reeboks and run for an hour in the face of snarling dogs, potential muggers and hordes of Americans heading in the opposite direction on their Schwinn 10-speeds must wonder sometimes whether it's worth the aggravation. After all, if a rash of recent books and articles like "The Exercise Myth" can be believed, the evidence that physical activity leads to a longer and healthier life is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect. It isn't that exercise prolongs life, the argument goes, it's just that people who engage in sports and active occupations are healthier in the first place. But the fitness buffs should not put their rowing machines in dry dock just yet. According to a long-term study involving nearly 17,000 loyal sons of Harvard, it now seems that athletic effort is far from a waste of time. Moderate exercise, said a report in last week's New England Journal of Medicine, can add up to two years to a person's life. In the mid-1960s Dr. Ralph S. Paffenbarger Jr. and his colleagues at the Stanford University School of Medicine recruited the Harvard graduates, 35 to 74, and asked them to answer detailed questionnaires about their general health and living habits. Followups carried out until 1978 showed that men who expended at least 2,000 calories per week through exercise had mortality rates one-quarter to one-third lower than those burning up fewer calories. The lifeprolonging level of activity cited in the report is the equivalent of five hours of brisk walking, about four hours of jogging or a shade more than three hours of squash. More exercise meant a better chance at a long life - up to a point. A regimen that burned more than 3,500 calories tended to cause injuries that negated most of the benefits derived from exercise. Countering disease: During the survey, 1,413 of the men died: 45 percent from heart disease, 32 percent from cancer, 13 percent from other "natural causes" and 10 percent

Jogging for health

from trauma. While previous studies indicated that exercise protects against heart disease, Harvard's is the first to show a favorable effect of exercise on mortality from all diseases. As would be expected, smoking, high blood pressure and a familial history of death at an early age were associated with an increased mortality risk. But, according to the study, exercise played a significant part in countering even these major factors. For example, hypertensive men who exercised had half the mortality rate of their counterparts who remained sedentary. Among smokers, exercise reduced deaths by about 30 percent. Harvard men who were varsity athletes while in college and were thus presumed by the researchers to have been starting out life with basically strong bodies - had no advantage over their classmates in terms of survival rates. Indeed, lettermen who subsequently turned soft and sedentary increased their mortality risk. "It's not the kind of activity that you did in college . . . but the amount of contemporary activity that's associated with the long survival," says Paffenbarger.
MATT CI.ARK with KAREN SPRING^N

Reeboks: trademark of jogging shoes. Schwinn 10-speed: trademark of racing bicycles.

lettermen: people who have been awarded a letter, the initial of their school, for outstanding performance especially in sports.

SPORTS 255

Anything wrong?"

256 AMERICA IN CLOSE-UP

LOUSY AT SPORTS
don't make it a boy." He'll insist that I play ball with him, take him to Yankee Stadium and engage in the sports rituals so necessary for healthy male bonding. It was a girl, and I was saved. But only for a while. Three and a half years later, Jonathan was born. When he was 8 years old, I forced the poor kid to go to a park in New York, where I would lob softballs his way, demanding that he hit them back to me. I saw, almost at once, that Jonathan had inherited my disease. He was lousy at sports, too. Even after three marriages, three children, and some in-between love affairs, plus the sure knowledge that I adore women, I still feel, from time to time, that, somehow, I must be lacking in the right male genes. When I first came to New York in the 1940s, I had been a newscaster and announcer at a San Francisco radio station. Gotham was tough for a newcomer. I was hungry, anxious and in need of work. I auditioned for everything. One day, I was called in by radio station WOR and told there was an opportunity to audition for the job of host of a panel game. "What sort of game?" I asked politely, although I knew that whatever it was, I would grab it if I could. "It's a sports quiz," the executive explained. I felt the blood leave my face. "We were hoping to make Jack Dempsey the host," he went on, "bui when we put a microphone in front of Jack's face, he froze. So what we want is for Dempsey to sit at your side to give the program authenticity, but you'll be the real moderator. We've lined up the best sportswriters i