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Oral 2014

GLOBAL WARMING
INTRODUCTION

What Is Global Warming?


Global warming refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Natural events and human activities are believed to be contributing to an increase in average global temperatures. This is caused primarily by increases in greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2). A warming planet thus leads to a change in temperature which can affect weather in various ways.

IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING


The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole, and everywhere in between. Globally, the mercury is already up more than 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius), and even more in sensitive polar regions. And the effects of rising temperatures arent waiting for some far-flung future. Theyre happening right now. Signs are appearing all over, and some of them are surprising. The heat is not only melting glaciers and sea ice, its also shifting precipitation patterns and setting animals on the move. Some impacts from increasing temperatures are already happening.

Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earths poles. This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice. Researcher Bill Fraser has tracked the decline of the Adlie penguins on Antarctica, where their numbers have fallen from 32,000 breeding pairs to 11,000 in 30 years. Sea level rise became faster over the last century. Some butterflies, foxes, and alpine plants have moved farther north or to higher, cooler areas. Precipitation (rain and snowfall) has increased across the globe, on average. Spruce bark beetles have boomed in Alaska thanks to 20 years of warm summers. The insects have chewed up 4 million acres of spruce trees. Other effects could happen later this century, if warming continues.

Sea levels are expected to rise between 7 and 23 inches (18 and 59 centimeters) by the end of the century, and continued melting at the poles could add between 4 and 8 inches (10 to 20 centimeters). Hurricanes and other storms are likely to become stronger. Species that depend on one another may become out of sync. For example, plants could bloom earlier than their pollinating insects become active. Floods and droughts will become more common. Rainfall in Ethiopia, where droughts are already common, could decline by 10 percent over the next 50 years. Less fresh water will be available. If the Quelccaya ice cap in Peru continues to melt at its current rate, it will be gone by 2100, leaving thousands of people who rely on it for drinking water and electricity without a source of either. Some diseases will spread, such as malaria carried by mosquitoes.

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Ecosystems will changesome species will move farther north or become more successful; others wont be able to move and could become extinct. Wildlife research scientist Martyn Obbard has found that since the mid-1980s, with less ice on which to live and fish for food, polar bears have gotten considerably skinnier. Polar bear biologist Ian Stirling has found a similar pattern in Hudson Bay. He fears that if sea ice disappears, the polar bears will as well. Source for climate information: IPCC, 2007

IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING


Global warming is expected to have far-reaching, long-lasting and, in many cases, devastating consequences for planet Earth. For some years, global warming the gradual heating of Earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere was a topic of heated debate in the scientific community. But the overwhelming consensus of researchers today is that global warming is real and is caused by human activity, primarily the burning of fossil fuels that pump carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. In fact, a major report released Sept. 27, 2013, by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that scientists are more certain than ever of the link between human activities and global warming. Additionally, global warming is having a measurable effect on the planet right now.

Increase in average temperatures


One of the most immediate and obvious impacts of global warming is the increase in temperatures around the world. The average global temperature has increased by about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degrees Celsius) over the past 100 years, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Since recordkeeping began in 1895, the hottest year on record for the 48 contiguous U.S. states was 2012. Worldwide, 2012 was also the 10th-warmest year on record, according to NOAA. And nine of the warmest years on record have occurred since 2000.

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Extreme weather events


Scientists have found that the number and severity of extreme weather events record-breaking high or low temperatures, high rainfall events or intense storms are an effective measure of climate change and global warming. The U.S. Climate Extremes Index (CEI) was established in 1996 to track these events. The number of extreme weather events that are among the most unusual in the historical record, according to the CEI, has been rising over the last four decades, according to NOAA. Scientists project that extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts, blizzards and rainstorms will continue to occur more often and with greater intensity due to global warming, according to Climate Central.

Shift in climate patterns


Climate models forecast that global warming will cause climate patterns worldwide to experience significant changes. These changes will likely include major shifts in wind patterns, annual precipitation and seasonal temperatures variations. And because high levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are likely to remain high for many years, these changes are expected to last for several decades or longer, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In the northeastern United States, for example, climate change is likely to bring increased annual rainfall, while in the Pacific Northwest, summer rainfall is expected to decrease.

Snow and ice


Since 1970, the area of snow cover in the United States has steadily decreased, according to the EPA, and the average temperature of permafrost (soil that's at or below freezing temperature) has grown warmer.

One of the most dramatic effects of global warming is the reduction in Arctic sea ice: In 2012, scientists saw the smallest amount of Arctic ice cover ever recorded. Most analyses project that, within a matter of years, the Arctic Sea will be completely icefree during the summer months.

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Glacial retreat, too, is an obvious effect of global warming. Only 25 glaciers bigger than 25 acres are now found in Montana's Glacier National Park, where about 150 glaciers were once found, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. A similar trend is seen in glacial areas worldwide.

Rising sea levels


Melting polar ice in the Arctic and Antarctic region, coupled with melting ice sheets and glaciers across Greenland, North America, South America, Europe and Asia, are expected to raise sea levels significantly. And humans are mostly to blame: In the IPCC report released on Sept. 27, 2013, cimate scientists said they are at least 95 percent certain that humans are to blame for warming oceans, rapidly melting ice and rising sea levels, changes that have been observed since the 1950s. Global sea levels have risen about 8 inches since 1870, according to the EPA, and the rate of increase is expected to accelerate in the coming years. If current trends continue, many coastal areas where roughly half of the Earth's human population lives will be inundated. Researchers project that by 2100, average sea levels will be 2.3 feet higher in New York City, 2.9 feet higher at Hampton Roads, Va., and 3.5 feet higher at Galveston, Texas, the EPA reports. According to the Sept. 27 IPCC report, if greenhouse gas emissions remain unchecked, sea levels could rise by as much as 3 feet (0.9 meters) by 2100. That estimate is an increase from the estimated 0.9 to 2.7 feet (0.3 to 0.8 meters) that was predicted in the 2007 IPCC report for future sea level rise.

Ocean acidification
As levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increase, the oceans absorb some of that CO2, which increases the acidity of seawater. Since the Industrial Revolution began in the early 1700s, the acidity of the oceans has increased about 25 percent, according to the EPA. Because acids dissolve calcium carbonate, seawater that's more acidic has a deleterious effect on organisms with shells made of calcium carbonate, such as corals, mollusks, shellfish and plankton. If current ocean acidification trends continue, coral reefs are expected to become increasingly rare in areas where they are now common, including most U.S. waters, the EPA reports.

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Plant and animal impacts


The effects of global warming on the Earth's ecosystems are expected to be profound and widespread. Many species of plants and animals are already moving their range northward or to higher altitudes as a result of warming temperatures, according to a report from the National Academy of Sciences. Additionally, migratory birds and insects are now arriving in their summer feeding and nesting grounds several days or weeks earlier than they did in the 20th century, according to the EPA.

Warmer temperatures will also expand the range of many disease-causing pathogens that were once confined to tropical and subtropical areas, killing off plant and animal species that formerly were protected from disease. These and other impacts of global warming, if left unchecked, will likely contribute to the disappearance of up to one-half of the Earth's plants and one-third of animals from their current range by 2080, according to a 2013 report in the journal Nature Climate Change.

Social impacts
As dramatic as the effects of climate change are expected to be on the natural world, the projected changes to human society may be even more devastating. Agricultural systems will likely be dealt a crippling blow: Though growing seasons in some areas will expand, the combined impacts of drought, severe weather, lack of snowmelt, greater number and diversity of pests, lower groundwater tables and a loss of arable land could cause severe crop failures and livestock shortages worldwide. This loss of food security might, in turn, create havoc in international food markets and could spark famines, food riots, political instability and civil unrest worldwide, according to a number of analyses from sources as diverse as the U.S Department of Defense, the Center for American Progress and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

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The effect of global warming on human health is also expected to be serious: The American Medical Association has reported an increase in mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and dengue fever, as well as a rise in cases of chronic conditions like asthma, are already occurring, most likely as a direct result of global warming. Many of these expected impacts are the result of exhaustive scientific research and climate models, and the fact that most of them are already being observed gives additional credibility to the projected effects of global warming and climate change. This reference page was first published on May 31, 2013.

Top 10 Main Causes of Global Warming


Global warming is one of the major problems which is not divided by the boundaries of various countries. Global warming is the hottest topic that anybody learned can relate to. But for those of you who do not understand what is Global Warming, here we are, it is the rise in the average temperature of the atmosphere of Earth (in Lehman language) and youll be able to know its causes and effects after reading this write up. It is important to understand that the consequences of global warming are very significant. It must have not escaped or rather cannot escape our notice that devastations like tsunami, avalanches, landslides and some other significant changes like increasing average temperature across the globe and many more in-direct effects. The major cause of global warming is the developing number of industries in developing countries. But its better not to play the blame game rather join hands together and work together as one and fight against it so that we can save our planet from further damage. Recognizing the causes of global warming will be the first step for the universal cause. So here we bring to you Top Ten Causes of Global Warming 10.

Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse effect is the process in which the atmosphere of the Earth trap some of the heat coming from the sun, making the Earth warm but due to burning fuels, cutting trees, the concentration of heat on Earth is increased to abnormal levels making greenhouse effect as one of the major causes of global warming. Carbon Dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide are the greenhouse gases which helps to keep the Earth warm. It is a natural phenomenon that takes place with the adequate concentrations of the greenhouse gases. But when the concentration of these gases rises, they disturb the climatic conditions, making the Earth more warm. These

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gases are not able to escape, which is the cause of worldwide increase in temperature. So the balance of carbon dioxide and other gases should be maintained so that it does not become the major reason of global warming.

9.

Air Pollution

The harmful gases emitted from the vehicles and factories and the greenhouse gases cause pollution in the air and these gases get captured in the atmosphere. The smoke, gather up in the atmosphere forming clouds full of harmful gases which later on fall as acid rain which destroys the buildings and also lead to many dangerous diseases like cancer, skin burns and the death of plants. Plants provide us with the oxygen and if they die, the level of carbon dioxide will increase in the atmosphere which is a harmful gas. These gases also emit heat which increases the temperature of the Earth (following the same pattern as in the above paragraph) and causes global warming. 8.

Depletion of Ozone Layer

The ozone layer is the layer outside atmosphere which protects the surface of the Earth from the harmful Ultra-violet and infrared radiations causing dangerous diseases like skin cancer. Ozone layer depletion is also one of the causes of global warming; entering of harmful gases which helps in heating up the Earth but the other greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, that helps in heating up and also tears up the ozone layer making an Ozone Hole. Mostly the CFCs (chlorofluorocarbon) damages the ozone layer. So the ozone layer depletes due to these gases which allow the UV radiations to enter the Earth making the Earth more warm than normal and affects the temperature leading to global warming. It is interesting to note that Ozone Holes are created mainly on the poles which is the reason of melting glaciers, increase in the water level of the sea and of course significant rise in temperature. 7.

Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanic eruptions is also one of the major reason of global warming. These eruptions contain dust particles and gases like sulphur dioxide which stay in the atmosphere for years and block the sunlight from reaching the surface of the Earth making it cool. These dust particles affects the balance of the atmosphere and becomes a contributing factor of global warming. Though volcanic eruptions cannot be controlled but efforts can be made to decrease the sulphur dioxide levels. 6.

Melting of the Glaciers

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Melting of the glaciers is a natural phenomena. Large mountains of ice melt due to warmer temperature of the Earth so that new ice can accumulate. These ice mountains helps to equalize the temperature by beating up the heat. But there is excess melting of the ice due to the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases contribute to the melting of the ice at faster rate which leads to increased sea levels and eventually floods. If the temperature kept on rising then there is a chance that glaciers might disappear which will lead to flooding of earth and destruction of land resources.

5.

Deforestation

Plants give us oxygen which is the most important thing for our survival. They undergo a process of photosynthesis in which they give out oxygen and take carbon dioxide. Plants consume the air, sunlight and the carbon dioxide we breathe out to make food and oxygen. So if trees are cut, plants will not produce oxygen and the concentration of carbon dioxide will increase. Increase of carbon dioxide in the air is harmful for human beings and also disturbs the water cycle and hence the total imbalance of our ecosystem. So being one of the greenhouse gases it will lead to global warming. Its very much like not parking your car under a tree, the car gets excessively heated up, making it uncomfortable to sit in the vehicle. 4.

Industrial Advancement

More and more industries and factories are set up in this modern world to meet the needs of human beings. These big factories need large amount of fuels like coal, petroleum for power and electricity required by the machines to work. Burning of these fuels releases large amount of carbon dioxide which absorbs the harmful radiations from the sun making it warm, hence global warming. The smoke that is produced from these factories is mixed with the air, making it harmful for breathing. As written earlier developing countries are the major contributors towards this. 3.

Use of Chemical Fertilizers

The use of artificial chemicals for the crops has become one of the reason for global warming.These chemicals are very dangerous not only for Earth but also for human beings too. These fertilizers are rich in nitrogen oxide which is even more dangerous than carbon dioxide. These oxides of nitrogen destroys the ozone layer even more faster than any other greenhouse gas and hence let the harmful ultraviolet rays enter the atmosphere, making the Earth warm and leading to global warming. 2.

Burning of Fossil Fuels

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Fossil fuels are burnt on a day-to-day basis and they contain high percentage of carbon, coal and petroleum and many other gases. So burning of these fuels releases large amount of extra carbon which has been entombed inside the Earth millions of years ago. The carbon that is emitted by burning these fuels is the extra carbon which is not a part of the cycle. So carbon dioxide being the greenhouse gas is provided in excess in the atmosphere which again leads to global warming.

1.

Human Activities

It has been said that human activities are primarily responsible for global warming. These activities are destroying the Earth at a faster rate. The emission of carbon dioxide from the vehicles, the burning of the fuels, cutting down of trees and forest to build buildings and malls, the dumping of trash everywhere and not recycling it, excessive use of plastics, smoke from the factories, etcetra. All these activities performed by human beings are major factors of the polluted gases in the air and the warming up of the Earth which destroys the ecological balance of the nature leading to global warming.

Use Compact Fluorescent Bulbs Replace light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs. By using three CFBs, you will save 300 pounds of carbon dioxide and $60 a year. Fill the Dishwasher You dont have to run your dishwasher every time you eat. By filling it completely, you can save $40 and 100 lbs. of CO2 emission a year. Use Recycled Paper By using 100% post-consumer recycled printer paper, you can save 5 lbs. of carbon dioxide per ream of paper. Dont forget to invest in recycled paper towels and napkins as well! Adjust Your Thermostat If you move your thermostat down two degrees in the winter and two degrees up in the summer, you can save up to $98 and 2000 lbs. of CO2 per year. Think of the warm sweater or cool bathing suit you can buy with that money. Take Shorter Showers

Oral 2014
Did you know that showers account for 2/3 of all water heating costs? We knowits shocking. Cut your showers short and save $99 and 350 lbs. of CO2 per year. Carpool When You Can With gas prices burning a hole in everyones wallet, save some cash while saving 790 lbs. of CO2 by carpooling. If your car is too small to fit all of your BFFs then commute or ride your bike. Reduce Garbage Recycle paper, plastic and glass, and buy products with less packaging. This can save 1,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide a year.

Plant a Tree Show off your gardening skills and start planting. A single tree will absorb a ton (that's 2000+ lbs.) of CO2 over its lifetime. Conserve Energy Did you know that you are using a super huge amount of energy by keeping your electronics (phone charger, blow dryer, etc.) plugged in? Save over 1,000 lbs. of CO2 and $256 a year by unplugging everything. Wash your Clothes on the Cold Water Cycle and Air Dry Because the water isnt being heated, youll save energy. Air-drying your clothes will save 700 lbs. of CO2 and up to $75 a year. Ditch the Plastic Plastic bottles are biodegradable and can sit in landfills for over 200 years! With 2.5 million plastic water bottles thrown away every hour in the U.S., it is best to start using a reusable water bottle.

The world is temporarily affected by hot and cold climate periods. The industrial revolution which started in 1875 changed weather conditions. The world has a tendency to warm up. The industrialisation and the increasing population density are forcing governments to consume more fossil fuels and are affecting the artificial greenhouse gases' fluctuation.
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Even if the usage of fossil fuels could be prohibited, greenhouse gases extant in the atmosphere are going to remain for hundred years. The emission of greenhouse gases can't be stopped, but some

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precautions

From other sources Burning fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal, oil and gasoline raises the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and carbon dioxide is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect and global warming. You can help to reduce the demand for fossil fuels, which in turn reduces global warming, by using energy more wisely. Here are 10 simple actions you can take to help reduce global warming.
1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Do your part to reduce waste by choosing reusable products instead of disposables. Buying products with minimal packaging (including the economy size when that makes sense for you) will help to reduce waste. And whenever you can, recycle paper, plastic, newspaper, glass and aluminum cans. If there isn't a recycling program at your workplace, school, or in your community, ask about starting one. By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually. 2. Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning Adding insulation to your walls and attic, and installing weather stripping or caulking around doors and windows can lower your heating costs more than 25 percent, by reducing the amount of energy you need to heat and cool your home. Turn down the heat while you're sleeping at night or away during the day, and keep temperatures moderate at all times. Setting your thermostat just 2 degrees lower in winter and higher in summer could save about 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide each year. 3. Change a Light Bulb Wherever practical, replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs. Replacing just one 60-watt incandescent light bulb with a CFL will save you $30 over the life of the bulb. CFLs also last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs, use two-thirds less energy, and give off 70 percent less heat. If every U.S. family replaced one regular light bulb with a CFL, it would eliminate 90 billion pounds of greenhouse gases, the same as taking 7.5 million cars off the road. 4. Drive Less and Drive Smart Less driving means fewer emissions. Besides saving gasoline, walking and biking are great forms of exercise. Explore your community mass transit system, and check out options for carpooling to work or school. When you do drive, make sure your car is running efficiently. For example, keeping your tires properly inflated can improve your gas mileage by more than 3 percent. Every gallon of gas you save not only helps your budget, it also keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. 5. Buy Energy-Efficient Products When it's time to buy a new car, choose one that offers good gas mileage. Home appliances now come in a range of energy-efficient models, and compact florescent bulbs are designed to provide more natural-looking light while using far less energy than standard light bulbs.

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Avoid products that come with excess packaging, especially molded plastic and other packaging that can't be recycled. If you reduce your household garbage by 10 percent, you can save 1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide annually. 6. Use Less Hot Water Set your water heater at 120 degrees to save energy, and wrap it in an insulating blanket if it is more than 5 years old. Buy low-flow showerheads to save hot water and about 350 pounds of carbon dioxide yearly. Wash your clothes in warm or cold water to reduce your use of hot water and the energy required to produce it. That change alone can save at least 500 pounds of carbon dioxide annually in most households. Use the energy-saving settings on yourdishwasher and let the dishes airdry. 7. Use the "Off" Switch Save electricity and reduce global warming by turning off lights when you leave a room, and using only as much light as you need. And remember to turn off your television, video player, stereo and computer when you're not using them. It's also a good idea to turn off the water when you're not using it. While brushing your teeth, shampooing the dog or washing your car, turn off the water until you actually need it for rinsing. You'll reduce your water bill and help to conserve a vital resource. 8. Plant a Tree If you have the means to plant a tree, start digging. During photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. They are an integral part of the natural atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth, but there are too few of them to fully counter the increases in carbon dioxide caused by automobile traffic, manufacturing and other human activities. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime. 9. Get a Report Card from Your Utility Company Many utility companies provide free home energy audits to help consumers identify areas in their homes that may not be energy efficient. In addition, many utility companies offer rebate programs to help pay for the cost of energy-efficient upgrades. 10. Encourage Others to Conserve Share information about recycling and energy conservation with your friends, neighbors and coworkers, and take opportunities to encourage public officials to establish programs and policies that are good for the environment. These few steps will take you a long way toward reducing your energy use and your monthly budget. And less energy use means less dependence on the fossil fuels that create greenhouse gases and contribute to global warming.

CONCLUSION
Global Warming is one of many examples of how scientific beliefs sometimes get spread despite their lack of theoretical foundation. As with the belief propagated in the 1970's that the ice age was about to envelop the earth, and the belief that pouring cerebral fluid from one person's head into another would quickly move knowledge from one person to another, the anthropogenic global warming theory became popular only to loose credibility in the face of mounting evidence against it. As of this time, a number of nations are working to destroy their economies on the basis of this now discredited theory. Care in analyzing the reasons for holding beliefs, and not believing in things just because it is fashionable is once again vindicated.

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Human race .the most fit for survival ,has increased in numers greatly ,but on the same planet,with the same resources available when it evolved.We have consumed in a rate which made nature unable to replenish.Inside the air bubble the temperature had risen,carbon dioxide is begining to take the upperhand.It is now or never to stop polluting earth further Global warming is due to the increased carbon di oxide levels in air.this is for many reasons,especially due to air pollution WHICH IS CAUSED BY MAN. so, to reduce the global warming,man must respect nature. avoiding un necessary use of automobiles, making more use of non-conventional energy sources.finally the motto should be LIVE, LET OTHERS LIVE