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Doppler Shift Doppler Shift is defined as the rate of change in signal phase over time relative to the receiver.

In a LEO satellite system, Doppler shift can be introduced in the both uplink and downlink. In the uplink, the angle between the velocity vector of the satellite and the position vector of the transmitter directly impacts the level of Doppler shift seen at the receiver. In the downlink, the angle between the velocity vector of the satellite and the position vector of the receiver determines the amount of Doppler shift added to the signal. E uation !." defines this relationship. f = !." d v cos

In E uation !.", v is the velocity of the satellite, is the wavelength of the signal, and is the angle in degrees between the satellite velocity vector and transmitter #or receiver$ position vector. % receiver at the ground station would only need to consider the Doppler effect on the uplink because the receiver is stationary, so the Doppler effect on the downlink can be precisely calculated from the satellite ephemeris data and removed from the signal. &he Doppler fre uency shift on the uplink cannot be removed when the transmitted signal is being ac uired because the transmitter is mobile, and the location of the transmitter is typically unknown. If a prior position of the transmitter is known to the receiver, the correlator can estimate the Doppler shift from the last known position. &his method can significantly reduce ac uisition time if the transmitter has not moved too far between transmissions. Other methods of estimating the Doppler shift are presented in '"(,)*$. &he unknown Doppler shift in the received signal presents an ac uisition problem because the Doppler shift moves the signal away from the carrier fre uency. &he signal is arriving at the receiver with an unknown carrier fre uency. +urthermore, the Doppler shift may change the timing of the symbols. &he Doppler

fre uency is changing as the satellite moves across the sky. %s presented in ,hapter -, the satellite velocity is .."!) km/s0 the uplink fre uencies are "1"* 2 "1)1.! 345 and the downlink fre uencies are 16.! 2 .*!! 345. +or the 7lobalstar system, the Doppler fre uency offset in the uplink signal may transition from 2-" k45 to 8-" k45 in about "! minutes. &he transition is not linear0 the fre uency changes very little while the satellite remains near the hori5on, but the fre uency changes very uickly as the satellite approaches #and passes$ 5enith. &he range of fre uency offsets is a function of satellite position relative to the transmitter, as defined in E uation !.". &he ma9imum Doppler shift occurs when the satellite is on the hori5on at the time of transmission, resulting in a -" k45 fre uency offset. &he minimum Doppler shift is * 45, when the satellite is directly over the transmitter. &his gives a fre uency offset range of -" k45. 4owever, the Doppler shift can be either positive or negative in fre uency, doubling the fre uency range the receiver must search.