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The NLP Mini Course

Copyright Charles Steed & UserFriendlyBooks.co !isit" User Friendly Books #ark Persuasion Techni$ues Scienti%ic Study Method &'erco e Procrastination No(
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Table Of Contents
*hat Is NLP1...........................................................................................................................2 The Presuppositions 3f NLP...................................................................................................4 5stablishing 6apport...............................................................................................................7 6epresentational !#stems... Modalities................................................................................88 6epresentational !#stems and !peech Patterns.................................................................89 6epresentational !#stems and Language.............................................................................89 5#e +ccessing Cues................................................................................................................8: 5#e +ccessing Chart...............................................................................................................82 0od# +ccessing Chart.............................................................................................................84 5#e +ccessing Cue 5xercises.................................................................................................8; Calibration..............................................................................................................................8< Cues &or =isual Calibration..................................................................................................87 Cues &or +uditor# Calibration..............................................................................................87 +nchoring................................................................................................................................98 !ubmodalities.........................................................................................................................9> Changing + "isturbing 5xperience.......................................................................................92 !%ish Pattern 5xercise..........................................................................................................94 !lingshot =ariation 3f The !%ish Pattern...........................................................................9; Ne% 0ehavior ?enerator.......................................................................................................9< &ast Phobia Cure....................................................................................................................97 The Circle 3f Po%er...............................................................................................................>@ +ppendix.................................................................................................................................>9 =isual *ords A Predicates....................................................................................................>9 =isual Phrases........................................................................................................................>> +uditor# *ords A Predicates................................................................................................>> +uditor# Phrases....................................................................................................................>: Binesthetic *ords A Predicates............................................................................................>2 Binesthetic Phrases................................................................................................................>4 Common NLP Terminolog#....................................................................................................>;

The NLP Mini Course

What is Neuro-Linguistic Programming


CDan attitude %hich is an insatiable curiosit# about human beings, %ith a methodolog# %hich leaves behind it a trail of techniques.C 6ichard 0andler, co(creator of NLP + s#stem, %hich categori.es, sorts and classifies the subtleties of subEective human behavior and communication so %e ma# reference and use them to ma e useful distinctions in our da#(to(da# lives. These distinctions allo% for more accurate and rich communications %ith ourselves and others. + technolog# for accuratel# eliciting the desired s ills and behaviors of others$ FmodelingG and the methodolog# for teaching these strategies to others in such a %a# as to effect positive changes. +n approach to human enrichment based on proven methods that %or . !ince the beginning of the practice of NLP in the 87;@s, the founders maintained the attitude that if a particular method %as ineffective, then tr# something else.

Presu!!ositions of NLP
-ntil a little more than 2@@ #ears ago it %as presumed that the earth %as flat. 0efore Columbus, all explorers venturing out to sea needed to be sure and not sail too close to the edge of the %orld, or else suffer the consequences. *e might sa# it %as 'presupposed) that doing so %as dangerous. NLPHs founders and others have done much the same %ith their assumptions about humans and our behavior. The presuppositions of NLP havenHt necessaril# been proven in a hard and fast scientific environment, #et the# have been found to be useful in a great number of their applications. +nd as long as a concept %or s in some context, %e have use for it. The follo%ing are the basic Presuppositions of NLP.

"# The Ma! is Not the Territor$


+s humans %e experience the %orld through our five senses. Io%ever, %e filter all information through the physical limitations of our senses, our beliefs, values, and previous experiences. This ma es for the perception of the experience being quite different than the actual realit# of the experience. !o, %e can sa# that our perceptions of the experience represent the map, %hile the actual experience represents the territor#. This assumption allo%s us to understand ho% and %h# another personHs perceptions of realit# differ from ours. &or example, sa# #ouHre standing on one corner of a four(%a# intersection and suddenl# a grinding collision occurs right in front of #ou. +fter the dust scene is cleared of %rec s the police question #ou along %ith three other %itnesses, each of %ho %ere standing on the other three corners of the same intersection. It shouldnHt be at all surprising to hear four ver# different versions, or maps of the actual event.

%# Peo!le &es!on' (ccor'ing To Their Ma!s


3nce %e understand the MapJTerritor# distinctions, it is safe to sa# that an individualHs map is made up of attitudes, morals, beliefs, values, memories, and other subEective input. The %ide variet# of behavior exhibited b# human beings is a result of the %ide diversit# of experience.

)# The Meaning of *our Communication is the &es!onse it +licits


+ large part of our responsibilit# as human beings is a%areness of our surroundings. It is to our advantage to evaluate behaviors that serve us, and those that donHt. &or example, if #ou complemented someone on having a 'hot car.) +nd the# became enraged, chances are good, the# interpreted #our comment to mean something other than %hat #ou intended. Ma#be to them a hot car implied that it %as stolen.

,# -n (n$ S$stem The +lement .or !erson# With The Most Fle/ibilit$ +/erts The Most -nfluence
&lexibilit# in a situation helps to create choice for the individual or the flexible component. *ith regard to the technolog# of NLP, flexibilit# refers almost exclusivel# to choices in methods of communication. The more options one has in communications, the greater li elihood of a successful outcome. This assumption is fairl# self(explanator# in that the degree to %hich a person is open and responsive, %ill directl# correspond to the level of cooperation the# experience.

0# -f *ou (ren1t 2etting The &es!onse *ou Want3 Tr$ Something Different
0andler and ?rinder, NLPHs original founders, studied the philosophies and techniques of man# schools of ps#chological theor# and found that in some context, almost all treatment modalities %or ed. The problem %as, that even in cases %here little or no progress %as made, the therapists persisted. This basic NLP precept goes against the established grain.

4# +5er$ 6eha5ior -s Useful -n Some Conte/t


This, of course, is not to sa# that all behavior is correct. 6egardless of ho% sill#, destructive, %eird or unusual a behavior ma# seem to us, it ma es some sense to the person doing it, and ma# be a useful resource. To arrive at the 'useful) aspect of a particular behavior, it is often necessar# to chun , or, to learn the Meta(level value.

7# There -s No Failure3 Onl$ Fee'bac8


+ll actions on the part of humans produce some outcome. If the end result is something other than %hat the individual %as after, heJshe might be %ise to examine the circumstances surrounding the outcome and ma e appropriate adEustments in the strateg#. This philosoph# is related to the presupposition stating that, If #ou arenHt getting the response #ou %ant, tr# something different.

9# The &esources (n -n'i5i'ual Nee's To +ffect Change (lrea'$ +/ist Within :im
If an individual has accomplished a goal in a particular context, or, if the# can vividl# relate to someone %ho has, the# can gain access to the resources that %ere used and appl# them in a different context. This is perhaps the most useful of all presuppositions of all because understanding its potential full# allo%s a great deal of flexibilit# in replacing un%anted behavior %ith resourceful behavior.

;# -f One Person Can Learn To Do Something3 (n$one Can


0arring certain mental or ph#sical limitations, under normal circumstances all behaviors can be studied and modeled b# others to produce similar results.

"<# (n$ Tas8 Ma$ 6e (chie5e' -f 6ro8en -nto Small +nough Chun8s
6ome %asnHt built in a da#. +nd it certainl# %asnHt built b# a single individual. ItHs been proven that large tas s are best tac led b# brea ing them into smaller pieces and addressing each component individuall#.

""# &esistance -n'icates ( Lac8 of &a!!ort


People continuousl# offer feedbac as to the effectiveness of our communications %ith them. Iesitance and resistance is the feedbac put for%ard b# an individual telling us that our communication is brea ing do%n and that %e need to regain rapport.

"%# The Min' (n' The 6o'$ (re (s!ects Of The Same S$stem
This statement might serve to describe the holistic medicine movement. Mental processes affect bodil# functions and ph#sical functions can have profound effects on an individualHs state. &or example, h#pogl#cemia has been no%n to cause metal irritabilit# and even paranoia.

&a!!ort
6apport is the understanding and appreciation of another human beingHs model of the %orld and communicating that understanding bac to them in a %a# that trust is established. 6apport does not mean #ou are in agreement %ith the individual, though #ou ma# be. 6apport comes %hen people are ali e. 3ften this li eness is noticed b# the unconscious mind %ith little or no ac no%ledgment b# the conscious. IsnHt it easier to get along %ith someone #ou have something in common %ith1 In establishing rapport, %e tend to relate to people %ho are li e us not onl# in obvious %a#s but those not so obvious.

2aining &a!!ort
Pacing 6apport is achieved b# pacing. Pacing is the practice of one person emulating another personHs experience of the %orld b#K Matching their external behavior. This ma# be accomplished b# breathing %ith the same depth and rh#thm as the individual. Matching their mood. Matching their posture, gestures, and expressions. 5mulating language patterns. This consists of closel# duplicating tonalit#, cadence, volume and predicates. &inding common ground %ith regard to beliefs, opinions, social and leisure activities, current events, etc. This is not to sa# that #ou should pretend to share opinions %hen #ou donHt. Insincerit# serves onl# to destro# rapport. 9

Though it sometimes doesnHt seem that %a#, our societ# is one of harmon#. Next time #ou are at a social gathering or restaurant, loo at the people around #ou interacting. ItHs relativel# eas# to tell %hoHs in rapport and %ho isnHt. !ince speech patterns, language, and ph#sical actions are often the first things %e notice about people, letHs see ho% %e can gain rapport simpl# being a%are of %hatHs going on around us. Fast-Track Rapport Tips: The more you are like a person, the more they like you. A quick rapport builder is to repeat back the last part of a persons sentence paraphrasin! or, as Richard "andler says, #$arrot $hrasin!.% $ace, pace, pace(lead. or

"reathin! is the most po&erful of all physical rapport skills. 'mulate breathin!.

&eal Worl' +/ercise= Next time #ou find #ourself in a conversation %ith another person, tr# thisK Casuall# as the person for hisJher opinion on various subEects. +s the# respond, notice their ph#siolog#, their tonalit#, tempo, and rh#thm of speech. +re the# enthusiastic about the topic or calm and casual1 A !ood &ay to do this is by becomin! a !ood listener. Notice %hat t#pes of verbs or predicates the# use. +fter the#Hve made a point, confirm %hat the#Hve said b# as ing, '!o %hat #ouHre sa#ing here is,D) then restate the point made using their phrasing. +s #ou listen, assume a posture li e theirs. -se the same gestures the# use. *hen spea ing, emulate their enthusiasm, or lac of it as %ell as their volume and tempo. +s #ou do this #ouHll find that #ou are breathing at a similar rate and depth. 0# no%, #ou %ill have established a strong level of rapport. +t this point #ou %ill find that b# closel# emulating posture, breathing and speech #ou can probabl# miraculousl# predict %hat the person is about to sa#. 10

3nce a strong level of rapport is established #ou ma# %ant to brea rapport b# completel# mismatching the personHs mannerisms, speech, tone of voice etc. FI suggest #ou tr# this onl# %ith a friend %ho %ill later be receptive to #our explanation of the exerciseG

&e!resentational S$stems> Mo'alities


6epresentational !#stems, or 6ep !#stems for short, is a fanc# sounding term for our five senses. The representational s#stems are also no% as sensor# modalities or simpl# modalities and often abbreviated to =+B3? or the :(tuple. =irtuall# all of the information %e receive comes to us through our five senses. The developers of NLP found that %e give signals or clues about ho% %e are processing information. In other %ords, people often unconsciousl# tell us %hat sensor# s#stem the# are using, or most often use, to ma e sense of the input the# are receiving. Learning to recogni.e these clues is useful in gaining rapport, tailoring a program for learning, effective communications, persuasion and man# other purposes. The primar# %a#s that people ma e sense of the %orld areK ? ( @ O 2 =isual +uditor# F!oundG Binesthetic FTouch, emotional feelingsG 3lfactor# F!mellG ?ustator# FTasteG

*e constantl# alternate among the rep s#stems as %e ma e our %a# through various dail# experiences. Io%ever, for most of us one s#stem tends to be dominant Fprimar#G. In the -nited !tates approximatel# 42 percent of the population processes visuall#, >2 percent auditoril#, and 2 percent inestheticall#.

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3ne sure %a# to get insight to an individualHs rep s#stems is b# becoming familiar %ithK &e! S$stems & S!eech Patterns ?isual + person %ho processes information visuall# often spea s rapidl#. The# often have a stream of images in their head and construct language based on these pictures. The# are no%n to sometimes use rapid and animated hand movements. =isual people can also become impatient or bored %ith people %ho spea slo%l#. (u'itor$ +uditor# fol s are usuall# quite comfortable %ith language. The# often have a rich vocabular# and enEo# tal ing. The# spea some%hat slo%er than visual people. The# have harmonious speech and ta e the time to find Eust the right %ords. @inesthetic Binesthetic people spea %ith feeling and emphasis. The# too use hand movements and gestures, but more for dramatic effect and to accent the %a# the# feel. Binesthetic fol s ma# sigh a lot %hile spea ing. Their speech can be ver# slo% and deliberate.

&e! S$stems an' Language


People offer clues as to ho% the# process information. If someone said the# felt their future %as bright, %eHd probabl# understand that statement to mean the# felt their future prospects %ere good. 0ut their use of language is li el# to be far more revealing. *hat once might have been considered colorful or metaphorical language is no% recogni.ed as an indicator to an individualHs rep s#stem L to one %ho has been trained to loo listen and feel, that is. &or example, notice the differences in the %a# a car salesperson might describe this classic car to a prospective client. The language patterns in the follo%ing paragraphs might be an indication of the salespersonHs primar# rep s#stem or carefull# tailored descriptions deliberatel# designed b# the salesperson to appeal to the rep s#stems of various prospects. 12

,ouHll notice the %arm inner glo% as #ou grasp the firm %heel in #our hands. ,ouHre a%are of the solid, stead# handling as #ou ma e #our %a# along the boulevard. The controls are sensitive to #our touch. The# respond easil#. The feeling of utter pride radiates throughout #our entire bod# sending chills do%n #ou spine. ,ou start #ou ne% car and listen as it gentl# purrs. ,ou sit for a moment in silence, telling #ourself that #ouHve made it. ,ouHll be the tal of the to%n as #ou express #our success quietl#, #et %ithout question. ,our friends ma# squa% , the# ma# tal , the# ma# even shout %hen the# hear that #ouHve received an honorable mention in the %hoHs %ho of classic car histor#. Picture #ourself in this spotless, spar ling, beaut# driving along the main drag. +ll of #our friends %ill notice #ou as #ou sit behind the %heel beaming %ith pride. The blinding gleam shining off the bright chrome bumper %ill reflect the loo in #our e#es as people stop to stare as #ou pass. These examples ma# seem a bit over(emphasi.ed to #ou and I. ,et one or more of them could quite possibl# ma e the difference to someone considering the purchase of a classic car. + savv# salesperson %ith Eust a little NLP training %ould be able to subtl# detect her prospectHs primar# rep s#stem and address him accordingl#. Io%1 Loo at the examples again. The telling %ords and phrases are highlighted for emphasis. Picture #ourself in this spotless, spar ling, beaut# driving along the main drag. +ll of #our friends %ill notice #ou as #ou sit behind the %heel beaming %ith pride. The blinding gleam shining off the bright chrome bumper %ill reflect the loo in #our e#es as people stop to stare as #ou pass. )otice all the *isually oriented &ords and phrases( ,ou start #ou ne% car and listen as it gentl# purrs. ,ou sit for a moment in silence telling #ourself that #ouHve made it. ,ouHll be the tal of the to%n as #ou express #our success quietl#, #et %ithout question. ,our friends ma# squa% , the# ma# tal , the# ma# even shout %hen the# hear that #ouHve received an honorable mention in the %hoHs %ho of classic car histor#. )otice all the auditory references(

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,ouHll notice the %arm inner glo% as #ou grasp the firm %heel in #our hands. ,ouHre a%are of the solid, stead# handling as #ou ma e #our %a# along the boulevard. The controls are sensitive to #our touch. The# respond easil#. The feeling of utter pride radiates throughout #our entire bod# sending chills do%n #our spine. This one is loaded &ith kinesthetic su!!estions( 3ne sure %a# to become a%are of an individualHs rep s#stem is to listen for language indicative of the rep s#stem. +nother %a# to get insight to rep s#stems is b# becoming familiar %ithK

+$e (ccessing Cues


Perhaps NLP is most %ell no%n to the general public because of the attention that has been put on e#e accessing cues. *ithout conscious a%areness, people are constantl# giving others clues as to ho% the# are processing information at an# given time. 6eading e#e accessing cues is more an art than a science. This is because there is no guarantee a particular person is processing 8@@ percent according to the chart. The chart on the Mfollo%ing page usuall# holds true for right(handed people. &or left( handers, the reverse ma# be accurate, though sometimes left(handed people follo% the same patterns as right(handed fol s. The most effective %a# to determine ho% #our subEect is processing is b# observation and calibration. In addition to e#e accessing people send messages %ith ph#sical movement. Iand gestures, ph#sical positioning and spatial placement are also indicators of ho% someone is processing.

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+$e (ccessing Cue +/ercises


+/ercise " In groups of three, designate +, 0, and C participants. + begins b# as ing 0 the follo%ing questions. + ma es careful observations as to the e#e movements of 0 as sJhe ans%ers. C stands beside + to corroborate +Hs observations. "iscuss briefl# and proceed %ith a round robin. ?isual &emembere'= *hat does NNNNNNNloo li e1 *hat is the color ofNNNNNNN1 Can #ou pictureNNNNNNNNNN1 ?isual Constructe'= *hat color %ould #ou li e #our next car to be1 Imagine #our friend in a #ello% and pin tuxedo. +nimal heads A bodies Imagine the head of a NNNNN on the bod# of a NNNNN. Can #ou imagine becoming a NNNNNNNN1 (u'itor$ &emembere'= Can #ou recall the sound ofNNNNNN1 6ecall #our favorite teacherHs voice. *hat is something #ou sa# to #ourself1 Can #ou hearNNNNNN1 (u'itor$ Constructe'= Can #ou hear the sound ofNNNNchanging toNNNN1 Combine the sound ofNNNN%ithNNNNN. Can #ou hear the sound of NNNN and NNNNNat the same time1

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@inesthetic= Can #ou recall the feeling ofNNNN1 Io% doesNNNNNfeel to #ou1 &eel the sensation ofNNNNN. +/ercise % This exercise authenticates the conclusion dra%n from the first. If #our findings %ere correct in the previous exercise, #ou should see li e patterns in this one. *ith the same participants, 0 role(pla#s as a teacher, customer spouse, brother, sister, etc. and tal s to + for five minutes about something pertinent to the character. &or example, a customer might tal about her experience in a department store. +s before, C stands beside + to corroborate the observations. 5ach 'stor# teller) should ma e a conscious effort to include each of the rep s#stems. 0e sure to include %hat #ou see, hear and feel as #ou relate the experience. The listener ma# as brief questions to clarif# an#thing the stor#teller is sa#ing. 6ound robin, and discuss observations.

Calibration
In simple terms, calibration describes our a%areness of another personHs subtle mannerisms or unconscious ph#siolog#. &or example, I once %or ed for a man %hose upper lip began to t%itch %hen he had to assign unpleasant tas s to people. I came to understand that this %as an indication he %as nervous. It certainl# didnHt mean that ever#one %hose lip t%itches is nervous, but it certainl# did for him +ensory acuity is the terminolog# %e use to describe ho% sharp our senses are. 3ur senses can become finel# tuned so %e notice man# of the fine distinctions people displa# giving us clues to their internal states. -sing calibration, %e are able to discover the relationship bet%een external behavior and internal states. The rep s#stems %e use to calibrate behavior are visual and auditor#. 3bviousl#, I noticed m# bosses lip t%itching b# loo ing at him. 0ut there ma# have been other clues that he %as uncomfortable. Ma#be his nec became red or his face flushed. Iis tone of 18

voice might have changed. Iis speech might have become more rapid. 0eing a%are of changes li e this in a personHs ph#siolog# can tell us a lot. 0ut, it is important to note that such distinctions are for that person onl#. Cues For ?isual Calibration Posture 5#e Movements 0ilateral Cues !#mmetrical or not Particular movements, t%itches Muscle Tension &acial tension 0reathing F6ate, Pauses, =olume, 3bserve mouth, diaphragm A lo%er abdominal movementG ! in Color Lip !i.e Pupil "ilation

Cues For (u'itor$ Calibration =olume !peed, Tempo Pitch Intonation

Calibration +/ercise In this exercise %eHll be visuall# calibrating to each otherHs li e A disli e in groups of three. 8A Calibrate to li8eA + tells 0 'Thin of someone #ou reall# li e a lot.) + and C calibrate to visual cues %ithout comment.

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%A )A

Se!arator StateA F0rea the mood %ith a funn# stor#, sill# song, etc.G Calibrate to 'isli8eA + tells 0 'Thin of someone #ou disli e.) + and C calibrate to visual cues %ithout comment.

,A 0A

Se!arator State Testing + as s comparative questions such as, '*hich of these t%o people is taller1) Folder, richer, has dar er hair, lives closest, is better loo ing, sa% most recentl#, etc. 0 ans%ers b# nodding. FThis is also a good exercise for noticing e#e accessingG 0 gives immediate feedbac L #es or no. Continue until + has four or five right in a ro%. If + has difficult#, bac up to the beginning and recalibrate.

(u'itor$ Calibration "o the same exercise, but + and C close their e#es and as 0 to ans%er different questions. &or example, %ith e#es closed + as s 0 '*hich of the t%o lives closer to #ou1) 0 responds b# sa#ing, 'IHm thin ing of the person %ho lives closer to me.) -sing auditor# calibration, + and C are to determine %hether 0 is tal ing about the person sJhe li es or disli es. 0rea state bet%een questions. "iscuss the differences in enthusiasm, tonalit#, etc.

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(nchoring
+n anchor is a specific stimulus that evo es a consistent response from an individual. Is there a favorite piece of music or photograph that evo es certain feelings in #ou1 The music or photo is an anchor to the feeling. +nchors occur in all rep s#stems. ?isual (nchors &acial 5xpressions Iand ?estures 5mblems F&lags, logos, etcG Internal and 5xternal Pictures and Photographs (u'itor$ (nchors Music F,our favorite song, '3ur song)G !chool 0ell The !ound of the "entistHs "rill !creen "oor !lamming The !ound of Thunder +dvertising !logans The !ound of the Car in the "rive%a# @inesthetic (nchors The Touch of a Loved 3ne + !pan ing Cool, Clean !heets + 0ac 6ub Olfactor$ (nchors !mell of Lilacs &resh Cut ?rass + Iospital Treatment 6oom ,our &avorite "ish 21

+nchors can be useful to us in man# %a#s. Thin of a time #ou %ere completel# and totall# confident. *ouldnHt it be great if #ou could have access to this resource %henever #ou needed it1 ,ou canO

Setting an (nchor
?aining access to a resourceful state is as simple as eliciting the state and at or near the height of the experience, setting the anchor. This is %here calibration s ills become essential. ,ou %ill need heightened sensor# acuit# to gauge the optimal time for setting the anchor. The most important factors to consider %hen setting an anchor areK Timing Fset near pea stateG -niqueness Fshould be some%hat out of the ordinar#G Intensit# Foptimal, passionate height of stateG Purit# of the !tate Fstrive for maximum state experienceG

(nchoring +/ercise 8. In groups of four, + accesses and anchors three different positive states Fsense of humor, Eo#, love, a%areness, etcG in 0. 0rea state before 22

proceeding to the next. 9. Test each anchor. Calibrate carefull# to each state. " FmetaG notices if + is getting clean states. >. + randoml# fires off one anchor at a time, brea ing state bet%een each anchor. :. C determines %hich state is being elicited. Continue until C ans%ers correctl# four times in a ro%.

Submo'alities
!ubmodalities could be described as the %a# %e code our experiences through our senses. &or example, thin of a special birthda# #ouHve had. Perhaps it %as a da# %hen ever#thing Eust seemed to go great. *hen thin ing of this event, do #ou see pictures, hear sounds or music, experience a feeling or sensation in a particular part of #our bod#1 !ubmodalities describe the qualities of the image, sound or feeling. &or example, if #ou sa% a picture of a group of children gathered around the itchen table of #our house, the qualit# of the picture %ill have a direct influence on #our memor# of the event. Consider the distinctions %ith regard to the !ubmodalities in the maEor rep s#stems. ?isual Thin of a particular event from #our past. +re #ou in the picture FassociatedG or loo ing at the scene from another vantage point FdissociatedG1 Is the picture in color or blac A %hite1 *here is the picture located1 Is the picture a snapshot or panoramic Fcontinuous, life(si.edG1 Is the picture flat or three(dimensional1 23

Is it a still scene or moving1 Is the picture up close, or distant1 *hat shape is the picture1 *hat is the clarit#, contrast and brightness of the picture1

(u'itor$ Thin of the sound of a familiar voice, piece of music or sound effect. Is the sound in stereo or mono1 *hat is the location of the sound in space1 *hat is the volume1 *hat is the tone1 *hat is the speed of the sound1 *hat is the clarit# of the sound1 *hat is the duration and pitch of the sound1

@inesthetic Thin of a familiar sensation. *here is the feeling or sensation located1 *hat is the intensit# of the feeling or sensation1 Is there an# pressure involved %ith the feeling or sensation1 *hat is the densit# of the feeling or sensation1 Could the feeling or sensation be described as having area or volume1 Could the feeling or sensation be described as having texture or %eight1 Io% long does the feeling or sensation last1 "oes the feeling or sensation have a temperature1 "oes the feeling or sensation move around1 24

Changing ( Disturbing +/!erience


The advantages of understanding !ubmodalities are that %e can revie% our experiences and adEust them, and change the feelings the# produce. &or example, if #ouHve had an unpleasant experience %ith someone L an experience that bothers #ou, thin of it no%. Io% is it represented1 If itHs a picture, is it close, bright, in color1 +re #ou in it or %atching1 If itHs close, move it out into the distance and notice ho% #ou feel about the experience. If itHs in color and panoramic, tr# ma ing it blac and %hite and a snapshot. If #ou find that #our memor# has #ou in the scene, tr# loo ing at is as a spectator. +nd for even more disassociation, have #ou, the spectator move outside and loo at the spectator %atching the original scene. "oing this 'removes) the intensit# of experience because #ou no% recall it from a 'distant) perspective. &or most people shrin ing the picture, ma ing it more distant, changing it to blac and %hite and dissociating from it decreases the intensit# of the memor#, thus changing its meaning. The same thing goes for sounds and feelings. If the experience is one %here a person is shouting and angr#, in a thunderous voice, tr# changing the voice to that of a cartoon character. If #ou have a song that empo%ers #ou, tr# using it as bac ground music for this scene. If #ou find #ourself feeling %eighed do%n b# the gravit# of the situation, feel #ourself being lighter. Fast-Track +ubmodality Tips: To enhance experiences =isuall#K Associate into the scene. +ee it throu!h your o&n eyes. ,To chan!e your experience of an unpleasant situation, dissociate from it. -atch it from a distance.. /ma!ine there are control knobs like a tele*ision and ad0ust contrast, clarity and bri!htness. "rin! the ima!e closer. 1ake the scene close and panoramic &ith rich *ibrant color. )otice the location in your ima!ination of other pleasant experiences and place the sub0ect situation in that place.

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To enhance experiences +uditoril#K 1ake the sounds or &ords louder or softer. +peed it up or slo& it do&n. Add your fa*orite music. ,To repro!ram an unpleasant experience, add music that &ould be completely out of context such as a nursery rhyme or party music.. Try makin! it totally silent. 2han!e the tonality

To enhance experiences Binestheticall#K Add li!htness. Add a pleasant odor or fra!rance. Add a pleasant temperature. /ma!ine &hat &ould be pleasant to the touch. /ncrease stillness or mo*ement.

SBish Pattern +/ercise


This !%ish Pattern is extremel# effective in changing un%anted behavior and letting go of non(supportive or unpleasant memories. 0efore using the !%ish pattern it %ill be important to get an understanding of the subEectHs situation. +s them ho% the# experience the event. &or the !%ish pattern to be most effective, the subEect %ill need to be able to visuali.e the experience. !ince some people feel the# are not good at visuali.ing, #ou %ill need to gentl# lead them to the understanding that the# are in fact, good at it. This is best accomplished b# telling the subEect to pretend, or act as though the# are a great visuali.er. 3ften, nothing more than this is necessar#. "etermine the various !ubmodalities. Is the picture flat or >("1 Is it in color or blac and %hite, etc1 The follo%ing steps outline the process. Thin of an unpleasant memor# #ouHd li e to neutrali.e or change. 8. Iave the subEect associate into the non(supportive experience and isolate a single frame from the scene. 9. Then have him store that picture a%a# in his memor# %here it %ill be easil# accessible.

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>. Iave the subEect imagine himself FdissociatedG %ith all of the resources that %ould be needed to experience the situation %ithout the non(supportive aspects. :. Isolate a single frame from this ne% supportive experience. 2. No% have him bring bac the first frame. +s that he bring it up close. Then have the second picture Fthe supportive oneG rapidl# expand blo%ing the first non( supportive image out of sight. 4. &or effect, the practitioner can ma e a 's%ishing) sound as the pictures are s%itching. ;. 6epeat the process five times L faster each time. <. &uture pace to be sure the non(supportive experience is gone.

CSlingshotD ?ariation of the SBish Pattern 8. Iave the subEect associate into the non(supportive experience and isolate a single frame from the scene. 9. Then have him store that picture a%a# in his memor# %here it %ill be easil# accessible. >. Then have the subEect imagine himself dissociated F%atching himself rather than 'being) the subEectG, %ith all of the resources that %ould be needed to experience the situation %ithout the non(supportive aspects. +mong the resources might be confidence, authorit#, courage or others. In other %ords, have him see the negative experience having ta en place %ith perfect results instead of the %a# it actuall# happened. :. No%, have him bring up the non(supportive image and shrin it to a tin# blac and %hite snap shot. Then %al up him and tell him that #ou have a po%erful slingshot %ith the rubber bands attached to his ears. ,ou then place the image of the positi*e outcome into the sling and pull it %a# bac . 2. Iave the subEect place the non(supportive frame directl# in front of him. 4. 6elease the positive image having it shatter the non(supporting. ;. 6epeat the process five times L faster each time. <. &uture pace to be sure the non(supportive experience is gone.

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NeB 6eha5ior 2enerator


Man# of us have habits and behaviors that simpl# donHt serve us. The Ne% 0ehavior ?enerator is a quic method for changing non(supportive conduct and replacing it %ith actions that provide us desirable outcomes. Ste! One= 8. Identif# an un%anted behavior. *hen the subEect has done this calibrate nonverbal cues. 9. Identif# a ne% or desired behavior. >. !pecif# the context %here the ne% behavior %ill be useful. Calibrate nonverbal cues. a.G Io% %ould it be to beNNNNNNNN1 *hen %ould it be appropriateNNNNNNNN1 *ith %homNNNNNNNN1 *here %ould #ou li e to use this1 *hat %ould it be li e1 :. Identif# a role model. This is someone the subEect believes uses the desired behavior. This ma# be a famil# member, friend, public figure, celebrit#, athlete, etc. 2. The subEect is to evaluate the role model FdisassociatedG using the desired behavior in the context as above. In other %ords, the subEect imagines the role model involved in the circumstances that usuall# produce the un%anted behavior$ only, the role model performs exquisitely usin! the ne& desired beha*ior. F+n effective %a# to accomplish this is to see the action pla#ing on a movie screen %ith the subEect having the abilit# to control the movieG. Ste! TBo 8. The subEect free.es the frame of the movie at the height of the activit# and assumes second position of the role model. 9. The subEect is instructed to absorb the resources of the role model. F&eel %hat the#Hre feeling, thin %hat the#Hre thin ing, see %hat the#Hre seeing, etc.G >. The subEect then runs the scene from the beginning FassociatedG using the resources 'borro%ed) from the role model.

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Test 8. Iave the subEect imagine the situation in the future using the ne% behavior. Calibrate nonverbal cues

Fast Phobia Cure


+ phobia is nothing more than an irrational reaction to a stimulus L usuall# a frightening stimulus. !ince the fear response %as installed in an instant, the same fear response can be altered virtuall# as fast. Io%ever, %e must understand that the part of us that created the phobia %as simpl# doing its Eob Fpreserving the organismG. *e %ant to preserve its abilit# to protect us in the future %hile refining its abilities. 8. +ccess the phobic state. +s the subEect, 'Io% do #ou no% #ou have a phobia1) +s , '*hat happens %hen #ou become phobic1) +s , *hen %as the last time #ou had a phobic response1) Calibrate to cues. This %ill be important later in testing. 9. Iave the subEect imagine himself sitting in the theater at the movies. Iave him see a still, blac and %hite picture of himself on the screen. Then, have them float out of the spectator them Fthe one sitting in the theater seatG and ta e a seat in the proEection box. 5ssentiall#, %e have the subEect FproEection boxG %atching the subEect Fin the seatG %atching the subEect on the screen. This is called Three(Place "issociation. >. Iave him run a blac and %hite movie of the phobic incident. !tart before the incident began and have it continue %ell past the end L to the time %hen ever#thing %as o a# again. :. Instruct him to %atch and listen as the #ounger '#ou) goes through the experience as a detached observer L as though it happened to someone else. 29

*hen heHs finished and safe, stop and hold the final scene as a still picture. Instruct him, 'Let me no% %hen #ouHre there.) 2. No%, have the t%o observers integrate and have that integrated self step into the free.e frame. 6emind them that the# are the #ounger them at the end of the experience. +ssociated, and starting %ith the final scene, run the entire thing backwards in color, in two seconds or less. ,ou ma# repeat this t%o or three times. 0e sure to go bac to the time before the phobic experience Fsafet#G. Iave them see, feel and hear ever#thing thatHs happening. Calibrate to cues. 4. Test the process b# doing an#thing that might access the phobic response, no% and in the future. If #ou still get the phobic response or a partial response, ma e sure that #ouHve done the procedure properl#. If so, repeat steps three through five. +dvise the subEect that caution should be used %ith regard to approaching situations %here the stimulus ma# be present. This %ill give the subEect time to integrate the ne% learning.

The Circle Of PoBer


The circle of po%er is a technique designed to install an# number of positive qualities in an individual. The beaut# of it is, the subEect can simpl# 'borro%) and then eep the particular qualit# from someone %ho alread# has it. This can be performed either %ith the guidance of a practitioner or b# the subEect alone. ItHs best done in a tranquil environment %ith e#es closed. 8. &irst have the subEect identif# the qualit# he %ishes to have. ThereHs no need for him to share the information %ith the practitioner. 3nce identified, as him if he no%s an#one personall# or in the public arena %ith the qualit#. !uggest that he chooses someone %ho demonstrates the qualit# profoundl#. 9. 3nce this part is complete have the subEect imagine he is standing comfortabl# in a room. ThereHs a door in the far corner of the room and the subEect has his bac to 30

the door. Iave him imagine he hears the door opening follo%ed b# light footsteps. +fter a second or t%o the subEect sees the individual he identified %ith the qualit# he desires. >. The individual %ith the qualit# smiles gentl# and as s if the subEect %ould li e to have the qualit# as a gift. The subEect should ans%er in the positive. The individual possessing the qualit# then closes his or her e#es. 0efore long, the individual begins to be surrounded in a circle of colored light. ThereHs no need to mention the color as the subEectHs imagination %ill suppl# that. :. &irst the light is faint but it graduall# intensifies until finall# it is rich and beaming %ith po%er. There is so much po%er coming from the light the subEect can feel if from %here he stands. Then the individual %ith the desired qualit# steps out of the light and invites the subEect to step in. The subEect gladl# does. 2. +t this point the practitioner %ill encourage the subEect to drin in the po%er offered b# the light, to feel it permeating ever# fiber, ever# cell of his being, to absorb the po%er, to feel it and breath it in. These suggestions should be offered until the subEect is sho%ing signs of accepting the po%er. The practitioner %ill be %atching for ph#siolog# such as facial expressions and bod# language indicating acceptance of the qualit#. 4. +t this point the practitioner %ill as the subEect to step out of the circle and allo% the giver of the po%er to step bac in. +s the individual steps bac into the circle the colored light fades. Iave the subEect than the giver of the po%er. Iave the giver %ish the subEect %ell and leave through the door.

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(!!en'i/
?isual Wor's & Pre'icates

+dmire +ppear 0ehold 0lind 0lurred 0lush 0right 0rilliant Clear Cloud# Colorful Conceal "ar "a%n "isappear "ispla# "ra% "im

"ull 5nvision 5xhibit 5xamine &adeFdG &lash &ocus &ogg# ?a.e ?lance ?lare ?leam ?limpse ?listen ?lo% ?raphic Ia.# Illuminate

"emonstrate Illustrate Image Imagine Inspect Li eness Loo Luster Mur # Neat Notice 3bserve 3versight Peer Perspective Picture Portra# Previe%

6eflect 6eveal !cene !ee !ho% !ight !par le !p# !tare !tud# !trobe !unn# -gl# =ie% =isible =ision =ista =ivid

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?isual Phrases
Loo at this Ta e a loo +ppears to me Ta e a pee Illustrate m# point Clear cut In light of Light at the end of the tunnel 0irdHs e#e vie% 5#e to e#e In light of Paint me a picture "ra% a conclusion Ma e a scene MindHs e#e Prett# as a picture 0right prospect 0right future

!hed some light on it Tunnel vision !ight for sore e#es 0e#ond a shado% of a doubt ?lo%ing 6evie% Loo into the matter xxxxxx

(u'itor$ Wor's & Pre'icates


+nnounce +ns%er +rgue +rticulate +s +ssert +ttune 0abble 0laring "eaf "eclare "escribe "iscuss 5cho 5xplain 5xpress 5xpression ?roan Melodious Mention Moan Mumble Mutter Nois# 3rchestrate 3utspo en 3rder !a# !cream !hout !hrill !igh !ilence !ounds !pea !peech

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0ooming Call Chatter Chat Cheer Chime Clatter Command Comment Complain Conversation Cr# 3ut

?ro%l ?rumble Iarmoni.e Iarsh Iear Iiss Ium Inquire Insult Lecture Listen Loud

Praise Purr Puiet 6ecite 6emar 6epl# 6esound 6ing 6equest 6esonance 6umor !ang

!qua% Tal Tell Told Tone Tune Translate -tter =erbali.e =ocal =oice ,ell

(u'itor$ Phrases
!ounds good to me I hear #ou IHm all ears Purrs li e a itten 6ings a bell Loud and clear Lend an ear *ord for %ord Manner of spea ing Iold #our tongue =oice #our opinion +rgue the point LetHs tal it over -nheard of !tate #our purpose "escribed in detail The silent treatment Chime in an#time *eHre in harmon# 5cho their sentiments It rings true Tongue(tied -nheard of Iidden message

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@inesthetic Wor's & Pre'icates


+bsorb +ngle +ttach +ttac 0ac ing 0alance 0end 0rea 0rush Carr# Clums# Cold Comfortable Compress Concrete Connect Crouching Cram Crumble Cut 5lectric &ear &eel &irm &lat &lop &orce &lush &umble ?rab ?rapple ?rasp ?rind Iard Iold Iot Iug Iurt Inhale Irritate Itch Lin Pinch Plush Point Pressure Probe Pull Push 6agged 6each 6elaxed 6esist 6ough 6ub 6ugged !cramble !crape !ei.e !ense !ha # !hoc ing !huffle !tretch !tuffed !turd# !uffer !upport !%eep Tac le Ta e Tender Tension Thro% Tic le Tight Touch Trample Tremble T%ist -nbalance -ncomfortable -nfeeling -nite

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5xciting 5xhale 5xtend &all &asten

Manipulate Massage Merge Movement Nervous

! ip !olid !pi e !table !tead#

*arm *ash *eigh *or *orr#

@inesthetic Phrases

It feels right IHve got a feeling + concrete idea ?et a feel for Too hot to handle %ith +ll %ashed up Beep #our shirt on Pull some strings !lipped m# mind Connect %ith Measure the impact

IHm not comfortable + solid concept + solid base Ma e the connection Come to grips Control #ourself !tart from scratch !mooth operator 0ac up #our claim

?et the drift *al ing a thin line &irm foundation ?et in touch %ith Iands on ?et a hold of !harp as a tac Tap into Turn around

Meeting of the minds Tic led pin Point it out Moment of panic

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Common NLP Terminolog$


(ccessing Cues Ta ing notice of the %a# %e use our bodies. Through observation of e#e movements, breathing, changes in s in color, posture, and hand and bod# movements %e can both gain access to the state of others, as %ell as improve our o%n inner communications. (s--f-Frame To pretend a particular thing is so in a given, real or imagined situation. This greatl# enhances certain methods of problem solving b# using the imagination to see past the perceived obstacle. (nchoring The lin ing of a particular state %ith some outside stimulus. +nchors ma# be visual, auditor#, inesthetic, gustator# or olfactor#. +ccessing the feeling of love one felt for another b# hearing a particular piece of music is an auditor# anchor. +nchoring is useful in gaining access to desired states either b# using existing anchors or creating ne% ones. (ssociation To imagine or re(live an experience in the first person. 3pposite of "issociation. (u'itor$ The sense of hearing. 6eha5ior +ll activit# both ph#sical and mental 6eliefs The subEective generali.ations %e ma e about the %orld. Iumans assign values, understanding, and meaning to all of their experiences. It is beliefs that guide us in our perceptions of realit#. NLP offers a %ide range of interventions to help people alter beliefs the# feel to be non(supportive. Calibration -sing oneHs sensor# acuit# to observe subtle ph#sical and non(verbal changes in another. &or example, one might ta e note of e#e accessing cues, along %ith a change in s in color and come to the conclusion that a person is recalling an embarrassing event. Chun8ing +ccessing ascending or descending levels of perception. Chun ing up elicits an individualHs higher ideals or levels of abstraction. &or example, %e might as %hat smo ing does for a person. The# repl#, 'it reduces stress in social situations.) *eHd follo% 37

%ith, 'and %hat does that do for #ou1) The repl#K '+llo%s me to feel accepted.) '+nd %hat does that do for #ou1) 6epl#K 'I guess then I feel loved.) Chun ing up can help us to get to the higher value or belief often driving the behavior. Chun ing do%n allo%s us to become more specific or brea tas s into manageable pieces. Congruence *hen a personHs internal representations are in alignment %ith their out%ard behavior %e sa# the# are congruent or displa#ing congruence. &or example, #ou receive an unusual birthda# gift and proclaim ho% much #ou love it, but #our %ords are not congruent %ith #our tonalit# or bod# language. 3pposite of Incongruence. Conscious *a ing state of a%areness. Iumans process seven QJ( bits of information at an# given time %hile conscious. Content The specific details of an event. Conte/t The setting in %hich an event ta es place and provides meaning for content. Cue.s# 0oth verbal and non(verbal information people relate unconsciousl# %hich allo%s others to have access to their internal processing. 0reathing, e#e movement and voice tonalit# might all serve as cues. Dissociation To imagine or re(live an experience from 'outside) of the perspective of an# of the pla#ers. To %atch from a safe perspective. Distortion To represent outside realit# in terms of our individual neurolog#. 0ecause of the limitations of our senses and of personal interpretations of our experiences, distortion of realit# becomes a certaint# in man# cases. "istortion accounts for the man# different e#e%itness accounts of the same event. "isarm +colog$ Ta ing into account the necessar# balance, %hich must be maintained %ithin the self, the people in our lives, and %ith our actual ph#sical environment. &or change to be lasting and effective it must be ecological for ourselves internall# as %ell as for those in our sphere of influence. +licitation To produce a particular state of consciousness in an individual b# providing certain stimuli. 0# eliciting certain behaviors %e can learn both ho% to produce and reproduce desired states, as %ell as gain the understanding needed to%ards neutrali.ing non(productive ones. 38

+$e (ccessing Cues The movement of the e#es in particular directions, %hich indicates the subEectHs use of visual, auditor#, or inesthetic internal processing of images, feelings or sounds. Frame Context, situation, or perspective Future Pace To mentall# rehearse an event. &uture pacing is often done to test the effectiveness of an NLP intervention. &or example, 3ne %ould %ant to future pace an encounter %ith a spider after experiencing the &ast Phobia Cure. 2eneraliEation The relation %e ma e bet%een a ne% person, place, thing, or experience and a familiar one. &or example, #ou ma# never have driven a 6olls 6o#ce, but %ould probabl# assume, based on experiences %ith other cars, that to start one #ou %ould use a e#, to stop, the bra es, etc. ?enerali.ations save us from having to re(learn lifeHs experiences each time %e encounter them. Ma ing inaccurate generali.ations can be the source of difficulties depending on circumstances 2estalt + series of experiences or memories emotionall# connected. -ncongruence *hen a personHs internal representations are out of alignment %ith their out%ard behavior %e sa# the# are congruent or displa#ing incongruence. 3pposite of congruence. -nstallation The process of establishing ne% behaviors %ithin the mind so the# become automatic. This is achieved through gaining rapport, anchoring, h#pnotic language, future pacing and through the use of other techniques. -nternal &e!resentations +ll of the inner processing occurring in our minds as a result of internal dialog, sights, sounds and sensations. @inesthetic 5xternal tactile sensations consisting of feelings, a%areness of balance, gut(level sensations, and abstract emotional a%areness of sentiment, Eo#, loss, etc. leading to direct another to%ard a certain t#pe of action b# first altering #our o%n behavior to emulate theirs, then subtl# changing to the desired behavior. Ma! +n individualHs perception of hisJher realit# as represented via internal representations.

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Matching +dopting the characteristics of another in an effort to establish rapport. Meta +bove, about, be#ond, a higher position. Meta Position To assume the position of an observer. Meta!rograms 0eliefs, habits and behaviors, %hich are dominant over all others. The %a# a person guides and directs other mental processing. Metaprograms refer to internal preferences presiding over motivation, and man# of the %a#s a person sees himJherself. Mirroring 6eflecting a ph#sical behavior bac to its originator. &or example, if #ou %ere sitting directl# across from another person and the# reached up %ith their right hand and scratched their left ear, #ou %ould reach up %ith #our left hand and scratch #our right ear. To simpl# match the movement, #ouHd need onl# to reach for #our ear and scratch it %ith #our right hand. Mismatching To offer an opinion, attitude, belief, or other observation contrar# to the prevailing thought at the moment. Mismatching ma# be used as a pattern(interrupt technique for the purpose of directing a subEect a%a# from non(productive behavior. Mismatching ma# also represent the %a# an individual sorts experiences subEectivel#. In this context, it might be referred to as one of a personHs man# Metaprograms. Mo'el The components of a particular methodolog#$ a paradigm. Mo'eling The practice of reproducing certain actions or behaviors %ith the goal of achieving a similar outcome. Modeling is one of NLPHs foundational concepts. NLP Neuro(Linguistic Programming. The stud# of excellence in both self(communication and communications %ith others. NLP practitioners then record and catalog the man# %a#s people experience the %orld subEectivel#. 0# becoming increasingl# familiar %ith the various patterns people use to ma e sense of the %orld, %e can tailor our communications %ith them accordingl#. Outcome The desired result. Pacing To temporaril# experience anotherHs model of the %orld. + practice designed to 40

gain rapport %ith another. Pacing another involves subtl# emulating breathing, posture, voice, tonalit#, rh#thm, timbre and speed of speech. Parts +n allusion relating to personalit# traits and behaviors. + metaphorical %a# of referencing a particular belief s#stem. &or example, an NLP practitioner might as a subEect to get in touch %ith the part causing the anger. !he then might as that person to 'go %ithin) and as the part if it %ould be %illing to offer more information. Presumabl#, an individual %ould be at peace %ith the %orld %hen all of his parts are in harmon#. Perce!tual Filters =alues, beliefs, experiences and ideas that color a personHs subEective experience. Perce!tual Position +n individualHs personal point of reference. In NLP perceptual positions are commonl# no%n as associated, Ffirst personG second person, and dissociated, Fthird personG. +n individual ma# imagine or re(live an experience from an associated perceptual position. In this case she %ould actuall# envision the experience in the first person. In second position, she %ould experience the perceptions of another person. In third person or dissociated, she %ould %atch the event but not participate. Pre'icates *ords indicating some t#pe of action. In NLP %e can often gain insight into the %a# a person processes subEective input b# the %ords the# use. These %ords frequentl# point to %hich representational s#stem is dominant. &or example, a person ma# sa#, 'I see %hat #ouHre sa#ing.) This statement might indicate that, at least in that moment, the person is in the visual mode. Presu!!ositions + belief that a certain model or belief is true$ an idea that is ta en for granted. 3ne of NLPHs primar# presuppositions, 'The map is not the territor#,) refers to an individualHs subEective experience not being realit# L it is simpl# realit# experienced through their perceptual filters. &a!!ort + sense of affinit# or inship %ith another person. Pacing anotherHs model of the %orld often helps to create rapport. &eframing Changing the context of a concept or experience allo%ing it to have a different meaning. &e!resentations The sensor#(based information humans are consciousl# a%are of.

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&e!resentational S$stems The sensor# s#stems of vision, hearing touch, taste and smell. +lso referred to as 6ep !#stems. &esources 5xperiential tools humans ma# use to arrive at a desired outcome. 6esources ma# include, imagination, past experiences, people, feelings, language, strategies, states, and man# more. &esourceful State The feeling or experience of being in a positive, affirmative state. Secon' Position + point of vie% experienced from another personHs perspective. !ee Perceptual Positions. Sensor$ (cuit$ +%areness through use of the five senses. !ensor# acuit# is experienced in var#ing degrees. State The present mental(ph#sical, holistic, or mind(bod#, condition of an individual. Strateg$ The mental structure of a behavior %hich allo%s the individual to consistentl# obtain the same outcome. To produce a certain result a person must thin and act in the same %a# each time. Their strateg# represents the pattern of thoughts and actions the# ta e in the exact order the# ta e them. Submo'alit$ =ariations people reali.e in representing information to themselves. &or example, one person, %hen as ed to thin of his car, might picture it in vivid color, up close, in a %ide(screen or panoramic vie%. +nother might see their car as a distant, blac and %hite snapshot. +ll of these distinctions are !ubmodalities. The# exist for all of the representation s#stems. Thir' Person + point of vie% outside of the action. !ee Perceptual Positions. Unconscious +ll human experience outside of oneHs present a%areness. ?alue 0eliefs and ideas high in priorit# %ithin a particular context. ?isual The representational s#stem of sight. 42

?isualiEation The abilit# to imagine pictures in oneHs mind. Well-Forme' Outcome The factors and conditions %hich must exist for the s#stematic pursuit of a goal. The criteria for a %ell(formed outcome areK 8. The goal must be stated in the positive. 9. The goal must be defined and evaluated based on sensor#(based evidence. >. The goal must be initiated b# the individual. :. The goal must not interfere %ith an# of the positive aspects of the individualHs life. 2. The goal must be ecological.

&esources #ark Persuasion Techni$ues Scienti%ic Study Method &'erco e Procrastination No( User Friendly Books

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