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Original Title: Quality Controls

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p-chart

The p-chart is used to control the proportion of defective items in a sample. User inputs the no. of samples, sample size, sigma limits, and no. of defectives in each sample. Sigma limits refer to the number of standard deviations used to establish the control limits. Control limits are normally set at 1, 2, or 3 standard deviations from the mean. Sigma limits are the Z value in the p-chart formulas. The number of samples can range from 2 to 30. The sample size is unlimited. Excel calculates the proportion defective, p-bar, and the upper and lower control limits for the control chart. The control limits and mean are graphed, along with the proportion defectives. The decision maker determines whether or not the process is in control. A process is in control if all points lie between the control limits and if no patterns are evident.

c-chart

The c-chart is used to control the number of defects in an item. User inputs the no. of samples, the no. of defects in each sample, and the sigma limits. Sigma limits refer to the number of standard deviations used to establish the control limits. Control limits are normally set at 1, 2, or 3 standard deviations from the mean. Sigma limits are the Z value in the c-chart formulas. The number of samples can range from 2 to 30. Excel calculates c-bar, and the upper and lower control limits for the control chart. The control limits and mean are graphed, along with the no. of defects. The decision maker determines whether or not the process is in control. A process is in control if all points lie between the control limits and if no patterns are evident.

X-bar and R charts are used to control the central tendency and dispersion of a process. User inputs no. of samples and sample size, along with data from several observations in each sample. Multiple observations are needed to ensure the process follows a normal distribution. Excel calculates the average of each sample, X-bar, and the range of each sample, R. The average of the averages, X-bar-bar is also calculated and used in the control limit formulas. The control limit formulas are shown on the worksheet. The A and D variables refer to the Control Chart Factors Table. (Scroll down the worksheet to find it). The correct table values are associated with the problem's sample size. The appropriate entries have been copied from the Control Chart Factors Table and appear at the top of the worksheet. Both an X-bar and an R-chart are graphed for each problem. They include the control limits, the mean, and X-bar or R values. The decision maker determines whether or not the process is in control. Both the X-bar and R charts have to be in control for the process to be in control. A process is in control if all points lie between the control limits and if no patterns are evident.

Process capability

Process capability determines whether a process is capable of meeting product specifications. User inputs design target, design tolerance, process mean and process standard deviation. The design tolerance is a +/- value expressed as a positive number. Excel calculates the upper and lower spec limits, the process capability ratio, Cp, and the process capability index, Cpk. Cp compares the design tolerance range with the process range in a ratio format. If Cp =1, the process is just capable. If Cp< 1, the process is incapable. If Cp is >1, the process is capable.

A Cp value of 1 is 3 sigma quality. A Cp value of 2 is 6 sigma quality. Cpk determines whether the mean of the process is centered between the specification limits. The mean is centered when Cp and Cpk are equal. If Cpk <1, the mean is off-center and defects will occur. If Cpk >1, the mean may be off-center but it is still capable of meeting product specs. A process that is in control is not necessarily capable.

Acceptance sampling

p-chart

p -Chart

p-Chart Formulas Input: No. of samples Sample size Sigma limits Output: p = UCL = LCL = #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

Input the sample size, sigma limits, and the number of defectives for each sample.

LCL p z

p 1 p n

UCL p z p 1 p n

Calculations Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Number of Defectives Proportion Defective #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! p #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! UCL #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! LCL #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

1.000 0.900 0.800

Proportion Defective 0.700

0.300

Page 3

c-Chart

c-Chart Formulas Input: No. of samples Sigma limits 10 2 Output: c-bar UCL LCL Calculations Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Number of Defects 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 2 2 25 c-Bar 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 UCL 5.66 5.66 5.66 5.66 5.66 5.66 5.66 5.66 5.66 5.66 LCL 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

6

LCL c z c UCL c z c

Number of Defects

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Sample Number

Input: No. of samples Sample size Output: UCL Mean LCL Observations Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 X-Bar #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! Range #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! Calculations Sample Mean Range #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! Table Values N 0 A2 #N/A D3 #N/A D4 #N/A Xbar Chart UCL #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! LCL #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

Input the observations for each sample in the green shaded cells.

R-chart UCL #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! LCL #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! Xbar chart formulas

LCL x A R

2

UCL x A R

2

R-chart formulas

LCL D R

3

UCL D4 R

Mean

X-Bar

1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sample

1.00

Range

0.90

0.80 0.70

Mean

Mean

0.60

0.50 0.40

0.30

0.20 0.10

0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sample

Process Capability

1.000 0.900 0.800 0.700 0.600 0.500 0.400 0.300 0.200 0.100 0.000 0.000

Process distribution

Upper Spec Limit Lower Spec Limit

Input:

Design target = Design tolerance (+/-) = Process mean = Process standard deviation =

Input the design target and tolerance, the process mean and standard deviation.

Mean

0.200

0.400

0.600

0.800

1.000

Output:

Acceptance Sampling

Input: AQL LTPD

Input AQL and LTPD. The model assumes an alpha of .05 and a beta of .10.

Output: Best Sampling Plan Sample size, n #DIV/0! Acceptance no., c #DIV/0!

Probability of Acceptance

OC Curve

1.000 0.900

0.800

Graph:

Input a trial sampling plan to be graphed. Try the best sampling plan given above.

0.700 0.600

0.500

0.400 0.300

0.200

0.0200 0.0400 0.0600 0.0800 0.1000 0.1200

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