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# Transmission Line Theory

UCF
Transmission Line Equations (1)
At low frequencies:
Can simply use a wire to
connect two components
At high frequencies:
Cannot simply use a wire to
connect two components
0.5m
10 600
10 3
MHz 600
m 10 5 Hz 60
6
8
6
=

= =
= =

f
f
UCF
Transmission Line Equations (2)
GAz
RAz LAz
z z + Az
Az
Differential Length
R: Series resistance per unit length (O/m)
G: Shunt conductance per unit length (S/m)
L: Series inductance per unit length (H/m)
C: Shunt capacitance per unit length (F/m)
Lossless Line: R = G = 0
CAz
UCF
Transmission Line Equations (3)
Cannot apply Kirchhoff's Laws to the whole line
Can apply Kirchhoff's Laws to the differential length
KVL:
t
t z i
L t z Ri
z
t z v
z
t
t z z i
L t z z Ri
z
t z z v t z v
t z z v
t
t z z i
z L z R t z z i t z v
c
c
+ =
c
c
A
c
A + c
+ A + =
A
A +

A + +
c
A + c
A + A A + =
) , (
) , (
) , (
0
) , (
) , (
) , ( ) , (

) , (
) , (
) , ( ) , (
GAz
RAz
LAz
z z + Az
Az
Differential Length
CAz
+
+

) , ( t z v
) , ( t z z v A +
) , ( t z i
) , ( t z z i A +
UCF
Transmission Line Equations (4)
GAz
RAz
LAz
z z + Az
Az
Differential Length
CAz
+
+

) , ( t z v
) , ( t z z v A +
) , ( t z i
) , ( t z z i A +
t
t z v
C t z Gv
z
t z i
z
t
t z v
C t z Gv
z
t z z i t z i
t z z i
t
t z v
z C z G t z v t z i
c
c
+ =
c
c
A
c
c
+ =
A
A +

A + +
c
c
A + A =
) , (
) , (
) , (
0
) , (
) , (
) , ( ) , (

) , (
) , (
) , ( ) , ( : KCL
UCF
Transmission Line Equations (5)
LC
v
t
t z v
v z
t z v
t
t z v
LC
z
t z i
t
L
z
t z v
t
t z v
C
z
t z i
t
t z i
L
z
t z v
G R
t
t z v
C t z Gv
z
t z i
t
t z i
L t z Ri
z
t z v
p
p
1
0
) , ( 1 ) , (

) , (
)
) , (
(
) , (
(3) From
) 4 (
) , ( ) , (
) 3 (
) , ( ) , (
Line) (Lossless 0 If
) 2 (
) , (
) , (
) , (
) 1 (
) , (
) , (
) , (
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
= =
c
c

c
c

c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c

c
c
=
c
c

c
c
=
c
c

= =
c
c
+ =
c
c

c
c
+ =
c
c

Wave Equation
UCF
Phasor Form Representation for
+
|

=
+
(

=
=
+

c
c

c
c
=
|
(

=
+ =
U

Re
) cos(
2
t
2

Re
) cos(
2
jkz
Ae U
t j
e
jkz
Ae
kz t A u
j
t
j
Ae U
t j
e
j
Ae
t A u
e
e
e e
|
e |
| e
UCF
Sinusoidal Excitation of
Transmission Line (1)
Length per Unit Impedance Series
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
+ =
'
+ =
'
'
= + =
c

'
= + =
c
c
+ =
c
c

c
c
+ =
c
c

C j G Y
L j R Z
z V Y z CV j z GV
z
z dI
z I Z z LI j z RI
dz
z dV
t
t z v
C t z Gv
z
t z i
t
t z i
L t z Ri
z
t z v
e
e
e
e
UCF
0 ) (
) (

) )( ( 0 ) (
) (

0 ) ( ) )( (
) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
=
+ + = = = +
= + +
+ = + =
+ = + =
z V
dz
z V d
C j G L j R k z V k
dz
z V d
z V C j G L j R
dz
z V d
z V C j G z CV j z Gv
dz
z dI
z I L j R z LI j z Ri
dz
z dV

e e
e e
e e
e e
From
or
Sinusoidal Excitation of
Transmission Line (2)
UCF
Sinusoidal Excitation of
Transmission Line (3)
This imagecannot currently be displayed.
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
z z
e V V e V V
e V e V
e V e V z V
+ +
+
+
= =
| |
+ =
+ =
0 0
0 0
0 0
Define
Wave Backward Wave Forward

) (
is Solution General

UCF
Sinusoidal Excitation of
Transmission Line (4)
where

) (
) ( ) (
) (

: o solution t above the Substitute
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
z z
z z
e
Z
V
I e
Z
V
I
C j G
L j R
Z
I I
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
z I
z I L j R
dz
z dV

e
e
e

+
+
+

+
= =
+
+
=
+
=
+ =
UCF
Characteristic Impedance
0
0
1
Y C j G
L j R
Z =
+
+
=
e
e
If R=G=0 (lossless case)
C
L
Z =
0
UCF
Propagation Constant
) )( (
2 2
C j G L j R k e e + + = =
r wavenumbe : constant, n propagatio : k
o | | o j - or j Let = + = k
(losses) 0 when 0
nep/m constant, n attenuatio :
= = = G R o
o
jk e e e e
z z j z jkz
= = =

o |
.
UCF
Reflection Coefficient (1)
)) ( 1 )( (
) ( ) ( ) (
z z V
z V z V z V
I + =
+ =
+
+
Reflection Coefficient (or: Voltage Reflection Coefficient) at
any point along the transmission line is defined as:
) (
) (
) (
z V
z V
z
+

= I
z
Source
z
) (z I
0
jkz
jkz
e V z V
e V z V

+ +
=
=
0
0
) (
) (
UCF
Reflection Coefficient (2)
z
Source
) (
1
z I
0
1
z
) (
2
z I
2
z
1
1
1
2
0
0
1
1
1
) 0 (
) (
) (
) (
jkz
jkz
jkz
e
e V
e V
z V
z V
z I = = = I
+

2 2
2
2
2
2
) ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) (
jkz jkz
e z e z

I = I I = I
d j d
jkd z z jk
e e z
e z e z z
| o 2 2
2
2
2
) ( 2
2 1
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
1 2

I =
I = I = I
z
d
UCF
Input Impedance (1)
z
Source
z
) (z Z
in
0
) (z I
Defined as:
z along points any for
) (
) (
) (
z I
z V
z Z
in
=
)] ( 1 [ ) ( ) ( ) ( z V z V z V z V I + = + =
+ +
)] ( 1 [ ) ( ) ( ) (
0
z
Z
V
z I z I z I I = + =
+
+
0
0
0
) (
) (
) ( or
) ( 1
) ( 1
) (
Z z Z
Z z Z
z
z
z
Z z Z
in
in
in
+

= I
I
I +
=
UCF
Input Impedance (2)
z
Source
) (
1
z I
0
1
z
) (
2
z I
2
z
) (
1
z Z
in
) (
2
z Z
in
From
0 1
0 1
1
) (
) (
) (
Z z Z
Z z Z
z
in
in
+

= I
0 2
0 2
2
) (
) (
) (
Z z Z
Z z Z
z
in
in
+

= I
d
e z z
2
2 1
) ( ) (

I = I
) tanh( ) (
) tanh( ) (
) (
2 0
0 2
0 1
d z Z Z
d Z z Z
Z z Z
in
in
in

+
+
=
d
UCF
Input Impedance (3)
z
Source
0
in
Z
) tanh(
) tanh(
0
0
0
d Z Z
d Z Z
Z Z
L
L
in

+
+
=
Impedance Transformation Formula:
d
L
Z
) tanh(
) tanh(
0
0
0
d Z Z
d Z Z
Z Z
in
in
L

+
+
=
Note:
as d
d
0
UCF
Input Impedance (4)
z
Source
0
z
in in
Z Y / 1 =
d
L
Z
) tanh(
) tanh(
0
0
0
d Y Y
d Y Y
Y Y
L
L
in

+
+
=
) ( 1
) ( 1 1
0
z
z
Y
Z
Y
in
in
I +
I
= =
d
0
UCF
Lossless Terminated Transmission Line (1)
z
Source
0
z
in
Z
d
L
Z
real , , , 0
0
C
L
Z j k = = = = | | o
0
0
2
Z Z
Z Z
e
in
in
d j
L
+

= I = I
|
I
constant
L
I = I
) tan(
) tan(
0
0
0
d jZ Z
d jZ Z
Z Z
L
L
in
|
|
+
+
=
d
0
UCF
Lossless Terminated Transmission Line (2)
z
Source
0
in
Z
d
L
Z
I
) tan(
) tan(
0
0
0
d jZ Z
d jZ Z
Z Z
L
L
in
|
|
+
+
=
. 0 , if
; , 0 If
2
) 1 2 ( or ,
4
) 1 2 (
When (1)
2
0
= =
= = =
+ =
+
=
L L
in L
L
in
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
Z
n d
n
d
t
|
d
0
Discussions:
UCF
Lossless Terminated Transmission Line (2)
z
Source
0
in
Z
d
L
Z
I
) tan(
) tan(
0
0
0
d jZ Z
d jZ Z
Z Z
L
L
in
|
|
+
+
=
L in
Z Z n d
n
d , or ,
2
When (2) = = = t |
0 , When (5)
) cot( (o.c.) When (4)
) tan( (s.c.) 0 When (3)
0 0
0
0
= I = =
= =
= =
Z Z Z Z
d jZ Z Z
d jZ Z Z
in L
in L
in L
|
|
d
0
UCF
Average Power on Lossless
Transmission Line
z
Source
z
) (z I
0
) (z V
) ( ) ( ) ( z V z V z V
+
+ =
0 0
) ( ) (
) (
Z
z V
Z
z V
z I
+
=
(constant)
| |
2
1 | |
2
1

]
| | | |
Re[
2
1

)] )( Re[(
2
1

)] ( ) ( Re[
2
1
) (
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
* *
0
2
0
2
0
*
0
*
*
+
+
+ + +
+
+
= =

+ =
+ =
=
P P
Z
V
Z
V
Z
V V V V
Z
V
Z
V
Z
V
Z
V
V V
z I z V z P
UCF
Chain Matrix of Transmission Line (1)
z
Source
d
) 0 ( I
0
) 0 ( V
+
+ =
0 0
) 0 ( V V V
0
0
0
0
) 0 (
Z
V
Z
V
I
+
=
jkd jkd
e V e V d V
+
+ =
0 0
) (
0
0
0
0
) (
Z
e V
Z
e V
d I
jkd jkd +
=
) (d I
) (d V
(

(
(

=
(

) 0 (
) 0 (
cos
sin
sin cos
) (
) (
0
0
I
V
kd
Z
kd
j
kd jZ kd
d I
d V
Chain Matrix A
UCF
Chain Matrix of Transmission Line (2)
d
3
d
2
d
N-2
d
N-1
Z
01
k
1
Z
03
k
3
Z
02
k
2
Z
0,N-2
k
N-2
Z
0,N-1
k
N-1
Z
0N
k
N

2 3 2 1 tot
A A A A A

=
N N