Sie sind auf Seite 1von 37

A presentation format of questions and answers has been used in this Bulletin to focus

on the factors which are pertinent to a basic understanding and application of

overcurrent protective devices. Relevant Sections of the National Electrical Code® are
referenced and analyzed in detail. Each Section is translated into simple, easily understood
language, complemented by one-line diagrams giving sound, practical means of applying
overcurrent protection, as well as affording compliance with the National Electrical Code®.
This Buss Bulletin is helpful to engineers, contractors, electricians, plant maintenance
personnel, and electrical inspectors. It also should prove to be a valuable training aid for
formal and informal instruction.

Click Item Below to View Page

90-2 Covers the Scope of the N.E.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

110-3(b) Covers Requirements for Proper Installation of Listed and Labeled
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
110-9 Covers the Requirements for Proper Interrupting Rating of Overcurrent
Protective Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
110-10 Covers the Proper Protection of System Components
from Short-Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
110-22 Covers the Proper Marking and Identification of
Disconnecting Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
210-22(c) Covers Ratings of Overcurrent Devices on Branch Circuits Serving
Continuous and Non-Continuous Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
215-10 Covers Requirements for Ground-Fault Protection of
Equipment on Feeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
230-65 Covers the Short-Circuit Rating of Service Entrance Equipment . . . . . . . 10
230-82 Covers Equipment Allowed to be Connected on the Line Side
of the Service Disconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
230-95 Covers Ground-Fault Protection for Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
240-1 Covers the Scope of Article 240 on Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . . . . . 12
Contents (cont.)
Click Item Below to View Page

240-3 Covers the Protection of Conductors Other Than Flexible Cords

and Fixture Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
240-4 Covers Proper Protection of Fixture Wires and Flexible Cords . . . . . . . . 14
240-6 Covers Standard Ampere Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
240-8 &
380-7 Covers Protective Devices Used in Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
240-9 Covers Thermal Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
240-10 Covers Requirements for Supplementary Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . 14
240-11 Covers the Definition of Current-Limiting Overcurrent
Protective Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
240-12 Covers System Coordination or Selectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
240-13 Covers Ground Fault Protection of Equipment on Remote Structures . . . 17
240-21 Covers Location Requirements for Overcurrent Devices
and Tap Conductors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
240-40 Disconnecting Means for Fuses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
240-50 Covers Plug Fuses, Fuseholders, and Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
240-51 Covers Edison-Base Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
240-53 Covers Type S Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
240-54 Covers Type S Fuses, Adapters, and Fuseholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
240-60 Covers Cartridge Fuses and Fuseholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
240-61 Covers Classification of Fuses and Fuseholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
240-83(c) Covers Marking–Interrupting Rating of Circuit Breakers
and Series Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
240-100 Covers Feeder Overcurrent Protection Over 600 Volts, Nominal . . . . . . . 20
250-1 Covers the Requirements for Proper Grounding and
Bonding of Electrical Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
250-51 Covers the Requirements for an Effective Grounding Path . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Contents (cont.)
Click Item Below to View Page

250-70 Covers Bonding Requirements and Short-Circuit Withstand . . . . . . . . . . 21

250-75 Covers Bonding Other Enclosures and Short-Circuit Withstand
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
250-95 Covers Sizing of Equipment Grounding Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
310-10 Covers Temperature Limitation of Conductors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
364-11 Covers Protection at a Busway Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
384-16 Covers Panelboard Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
430-1 Covers Scope of Motor Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
430-6 Covers Ampacity of Conductors for Branch Circuits and Feeders . . . . . 22
430-32 Covers Motor Overload Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
430-36 Covers Fuses Used to Provide Overload and
Single-Phasing Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
430-52 Covers the Sizing of Various Overcurrent Devices for
Motor Branch Circuit Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
430-53 Covers Requirements for Connecting Several Motors
or Loads on One Branch Circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
430-71 Covers an Introduction to Motor Control-Circuit Protection . . . . . . . . . . . 25
430-72(a) Covers Motor Control-Circuit Overcurrent Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
430-72(b) Covers Motor Control-Circuit Conductor Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
430-72(c) Covers Motor Control-Circuit Transformer Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
430-94 Covers Motor Control Center Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
440-5 Covers Marking Requirements on HVAC Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
440-22 Covers Application and Selection of the Branch Circuit Protection
for HVAC Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
450-3 Covers Protection Requirements for Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
450-3(a) Covers Protection Requirements for Transformers Over 600 Volts . . . . . 29
450-3(b) Covers Protection Requirements for Transformers 600 Volts or Less . . . 30
Contents (cont.)
Click Item Below to View Page

450-6(a)(3) Covers Tie Circuit Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

455-7 Covers Overcurrent Protection Requirements for Phase Converters. . . . 30
460-8(b) Covers Overcurrent Protection of Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
501-6(b) Covers Fuses for Class I, Division 2 Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
517-17 Covers Requirements for Ground Fault Protection and
Coordination in Health Care Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
520-53(f) Covers Protection of Portable Switchboards on Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
550-6(b) Covers Overcurrent Protection Requirements for
Mobile Homes and Parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
610-14(c) Covers Conductor Sizes and Protection for Cranes and Hoists . . . . . . . 32
620-62 Covers Selective Coordination of Overcurrent Protective Devices
for Elevators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
670-3 Covers Protection of Industrial Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
700-5 Covers Emergency Systems – Their Capacity and Rating . . . . . . . . . . . 33
700-16 Covers Emergency Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
700-25 Covers Emergency System Overcurrent Protection
Requirements (FPN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
701-6 Covers Legally Required Stand-by Systems –
Their Capacity and Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
702-5 Covers Optional Standby Systems –
Their Capacity and Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
705-16 Covers Interconnecting Electrical Power Production Sources –
Their Interrupting and Withstand Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
725-23 Covers Overcurrent Protection for Class 1 Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
760-23 Covers Requirements for Nonpower Limited Fire Protective
Signaling Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Overcurrent Protection And The 1996 National Electrical Code®

NE96 Questions & Answers To Help You Comply

National Electrical Code® and N.E.C.® are registered trademarks of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Inc., Quincy, MA
02269. This bulletin does not reflect the official position of the NFPA.

Great care has been taken to assure the recommendations herein are in accordance with the N.E.C® and sound engineering principles. Bussmann
cannot take responsibility for errors or omissions that may exist. The responsibility for compliance with the regulatory standards lies with the user.

Copyright January 1996 by Cooper Industries, Inc., Bussmann Division.

Printed U.S.A.
90-2 Covers the Scope of the N.E.C.

What does this Section mean?

90-2(b) covers installations that are not covered by requirements of this section that utility installed utilization equipment located on
of the N.E.C. However, the fine print note states that it is the intent private property is subject to the National Electrical Code.

110-3(b) Covers Requirements for Proper Installation of Listed and Labeled Equipment

What is the importance of Section 110-3(b)? CIRCUIT

Some equipment is listed, subject to specific conditions of BRANCH
installation or operation. In such instances, the conditions should CIRCUIT NON-FUSED
be adhered to for safe protection. DISCONNECT

What is the protection requirement of an air conditioner when its name

plate specifies Maximum Fuse Size Amperes? AIR CONDITIONER



VAC PH CYC LRA Violates N.E.C. & Listing Requirements
230 - 60 140
FAN MOTOR 230 - 60

* C O M P R E S S O R R AT E D I N R L A
Typical Nameplate of a Central Air Conditioning Unit. MARKED WITH
Fuse protection in the branch circuit is mandatory to meet the
requirements of the U.L. Listings and the National Electrical Code.
Note that the U.L. Orange Book “Electrical Appliance and
Utilization Equipment Directory,” April 1995, requires the following
for central cooling, air conditioners: “Such multimotor and
combination load equipment is to be connected only to a circuit Conforms to N.E.C. & Listing Requirements
protected by fuses or a circuit breaker with a rating which does not
exceed the value marked on the data plate. This marked protective FUSED
device rating is the maximum for which the equipment has been BRANCH
investigated and found acceptable. Where the marking specified DISCONNECT
fuses, or “HACR Type” circuit breakers, the circuit is intended to
be protected only by the type of protective device specified.” U.L.
Standard 1995 also covers this subject.
What about a motor starter heater table (such as that shown below) "MAX" FUSE
which specifies Maximum Fuse?

Heater Full-Load Current Max.

Code of Motor (Amperes) Fuse
Marking (40°C Ambient)
Conforms to N.E.C. & Listing Requirements
XX03 .25- .27 1
XX04 .28- .31 3
XX05 .32- .34 3
XX06 .35- .38 3 CIRCUIT BRANCH
XX14 .76- .83 6 FUSED
XX15 .84- .91 6 DISCONNECT
XX16 .92-1.00 6
XX17 1.01-1.11 6 AIR CONDITIONER
XX18 1.12-1.22 6 MARKED WITH
Above Heaters for use on Size 0 "MAX" FUSE

Like an air conditioner, use of fuse protection is mandatory. Also,

the fuse must provide branch circuit protection and be no larger
than the specified size [430-53(c)]. The chart shown, for example,
is typical for starter manufacturers and may be found on the inside
of the door of the starter enclosure. (See starter manufacturer for Conforms to N.E.C. & Listing Requirements
specific recommendations.)

110-3(b) Covers Requirements for Proper Installation of Listed and Labeled Equipment

What violation exists when a “series-rated” panelboard with a “42/10” Can a series-rated system recognized by a testing laboratory be used in a
system rating has the potential to see a fault current less than 4 ft. from facility with motors on the load side of the main circuit breaker?
the loadside circuit breaker?


40,000 Amperes Available

#12 Cu
Branch Circuit Series Rated
10KA.I.R. Recognized
20A CB's CB-CB System M M
Fault <4' from Branch
Circuit Breaker Series Rated Recognized Fully-Rated System
CB-CB with Short-Circuit
200A Panelboard Current from more than
one source
U.L. 489 Series Rating tests allow a maximum of 4 ft. of rated wire
to be connected to the branch circuit breaker. Whenever the No, this would be a violation of 110-3b, since the series-rated
potential for a fault exists closer than 4 ft. from the circuit breaker, system is tested only with a short-circuit source on the line side of
i.e., where the #12 wire leaves the enclosure, or a maintenance the main circuit breaker. Should motors be used on the load side
man is working on the equipment “hot”, a violation of 110-3b of the main circuit breaker, the main circuit breaker will not “see”
exists, as does a potentially hazardous condition. In this situation, this contribution, but the branch circuit breaker will, thus changing
the interrupting capacity of the circuit breaker does not equal its the opening characteristics of the combination, and violating the
marked interrupting rating! recognition.
The recommended solution would be to specify a fully-rated
system, with all devices meeting the requirements of Section

110-9 Covers the Requirements for Proper Interrupting Rating of Overcurrent Protective Devices

What is the importance of Section 110-9? The following definition of Interrupting Capacity is paraphrased
Equipment designed to break fault or operating currents must from the IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic
have a rating sufficient to withstand such currents. This article Terms:
emphasizes the difference between clearing fault level currents Interrupting Capacity (CB): Actual test Ip and IRMS the circuit
and clearing operating currents. Protective devices such as fuses breaker sees during the U.L. tests for standard circuit breaker
and circuit breakers are designed to clear fault currents and, applications. This value should not be exceeded.
therefore, must have short-circuit interrupting ratings sufficient for
fault levels. Equipment such as contactors and switches have What happens if a fault current exceeds the interrupting rating of a fuse
interrupting ratings for currents at other than fault levels. Thus, the or the interrupting capacity of a circuit breaker?
interrupting rating of electrical equipment is now divided into two It can be damaged or destroyed. Severe equipment damage and
parts. Current at fault (short-circuit) levels and current at operating personnel injury can result.
In this circuit, what interrupting rating must the fuse have?
Most people are familiar with the normal current carrying
ampere rating of a fuse or circuit breaker; however, what is a Available fault current–50,000 amperes
short-circuit interrupting rating?
It is the maximum short-circuit current that an overcurrent
protective device can safely interrupt under specified test
At least 50,000 amperes. (Class R, J, T, L and CC fuses have an
What is a circuit breaker’s interrupting capacity? Interrupting Rating of at least 200,000 amperes. The interrupting
It is the highest short-circuit current at rated voltage that the device rating of a fuse and switch combination may also be 200,000
can safely interrupt. amperes. . .well above the available short-circuit current of 50,000
amperes. The interrupting rating of Class G fuses is 100,000
Note: Several proposals were submitted to add a definition for amperes; K1 and K5 fuses can be 50,000, 100,000, or 200,000
interrupting capacity to the 1993 Code. These proposals were amperes.)
rejected. However, the industry is beginning to understand when
there is a difference between a circuit breaker's interrupting rating In this circuit, what interrupting rating must the circuit breaker have?
and it's interrupting capacity. This difference is due, in large part,
to the industry standards that allow added wire impedance during Available fault current–50,000 amperes
the interrupting rating tests.
An AdHoc Committee will be appointed to investigate this

110-9 Covers the Requirements for Proper Interrupting Rating of Overcurrent Protective Devices

Some value greater than or equal to 50,000 amperes. See Given the full-load transformer secondary amperage and percent
discussion on circuit breaker interrupting rating in Section 110-10 impedance of a transformer, how can you compute the level of short-
for a further evaluation. (Faults within four feet of the breaker could circuit amperes that can be delivered at the secondary terminals
cause complete destruction of the breaker if it is applied where the (Assuming an infinite, unlimited, short-circuit current at the primary)?
available fault current approaches the tested interrupting capacity
of the breaker.) ISCA = (F.L.A.) x  100 
There is an addition to 110-9 that requires the overcurrent %Z x .9†† 
device to have a sufficient interrupting rating for phase voltage and
phase-to-ground voltage. Given: 1.3% impedance from nameplate of 500 KVA transformer
with a 480V secondary
What is the significance of this addition? 601 Full-Load Amperes (from Table below)
Certain molded case circuit breakers have lower single-pole 601 x 100 =
interrupting ratings than their multi-pole A.I.R. For example, a ISCA = 51,368 Amperes
1.3 x .9
circuit breaker marked 65,000 A.I.R. may have a single-pole
interrupting rating of 8,600 amperes. Engineers must be aware of COOPER
the lower line-ground (L-G) ratings and the available L-G fault
Power Systems Division
current at the point of application. 65°C
Does an overcurrent protective device with a high interrupting rating VOLTAGE12470GRD. Y/7200

assure circuit component protection? RATING 480Y/277

No. Choosing overcurrent protective devices strictly on the basis CAT
PCWN 416124-500-L1
of voltage, current, and interrupting rating alone will not assure %
component protection from short-circuit currents. High interrupting BIL-KV
capacity electro-mechanical overcurrent protective devices, TANK & FITTINGS LBS. TOTAL LBS.
especially those that are not current-limiting, may not be capable UNTANKING LBS. OIL LBS.
of protecting wire, cable, starters, or other components within the
higher short-circuit ranges. See discussion of Sections 110-10 and
240-1 for the requirements that overcurrent protective devices
must meet to protect components such as motor starters, H2 X2 %Z
contactors, relays, switches, conductors, and bus structures.
H1 H3X1 X3 Percentage
Note: Breaking current at other than fault levels.
H1H2H3 H0X0 X1 X2 X3

The rating of contactors, motor starters, switches, circuit breakers

and other devices for closing in and/or disconnecting loads at What are typical values of transformer short-circuit currents?
operating current levels must be sufficient for the current to be
interrupted, including inrush currents of transformers, tungsten Short-Circuit Currents Available from Various Size Transformers
lamps, capacitors, etc. In addition to handling the full-load current Voltage+ KVA Full- % † Short-

of a motor, a switch and motor starter must also be capable of and Load Impedance †† Circuit
handling its locked rotor current. If the switch or motor starter has a Phase Amperes (Name plate) Amperes
horsepower rating at least as great as that of the motor, they will 25 104 1.58 11,574
adequately disconnect even the locked rotor current of the motor. 371/2 156 1.56 17,351
120/240 50 209 1.54 23,122
It is necessary to calculate available short-circuit currents at various 1 ph.* 75 313 1.6 32,637
points in a system to determine whether the equipment meets the 100 417 1.6 42,478
requirements of Sections 110-9 and 110-10. How does one calculate the 167 695 1.8 60,255
values of short-circuit currents at various points throughout a distribution 150 416 1.07 43,198
system? 225 625 1.12 62,004
There are any number of methods. Some give approximate values; 300 833 1.11 83,383
some require extensive computations and are quite exacting. A 500 1388 1.24 124,373
simple, usually adequate method is the Buss Point-To-Point 120/208 750 2082 3.5 66,095
procedure presented in Buss Bulletin SPD, Selecting Protective 3 ph. 1000 2776 3.5 88,127
Devices. The point-to-point method is based on computation of the 1500 4164 3.5 132,190
two main circuit impedance parameters: those of transformers and 2000 5552 5.0 123,377
cables. Of these two components, the transformer is generally the 2500 6950 5.0 154,444
major short-circuit current factor for faults near the service 1121/2 135 1.0 15,000
entrance. The percent impedance of the transformer can vary 150 181 1.2 16,759
considerably. Thus, the transformer specification should always be 225 271 1.2 25,082
checked. As shown in the illustration of a typical transformer 300 361 1.2 33,426
nameplate, “%” impedance is specifically designated. Bussmann's 277/480 500 601 1.3 51,368
TRON® Software includes BUSSPOWER™, which calculates three- 3 ph. 750 902 3.5 28,410
phase short-circuit currents. 1000 1203 3.5 38,180
1500 1804 3.5 57,261
2000 2406 5.0 53,461
2500 3007 5.0 66,822
† Three-phase short-circuit currents based on "infinite" primary.
* Single-phase values are L-N values at transformer terminals. These figures are based
on change in turns ratio between primary and secondary, 100,000 KVA primary, zero
feet from terminals of transformer, 1.2 (%X) and 1.5 (%R) multipliers for L-N vs. L-L
reactance and resistance values, and transformer X/R ratio = 3.
†† U.L. listed transformers 25KVA or greater have a ±10% impedance tolerance. “Short-
Circuit Amperes” reflect a worst case scenario.
+ Fluctuations in system voltage will affect the available short-circuit current. For
example, a 10% increase in system voltage will result in a 10% increase in the
available short-circuit currents shown in the table.

110-10 Covers the Proper Protection of System Components from Short-Circuits

What is the importance of Section 110-10? In this circuit, what type of protective device must be used?
The design of a system must be such that short-circuit currents
cannot exceed the withstand ratings of the components selected 12,000A #12 Cu
as part of the system. Given specific system components and level available
fault current
of “available” short-circuit currents which could occur, overcurrent PROTECTIVE Short-Circuit
protective devices (mainly fuses and/or circuit breakers) must be DEVICE
used which will limit the energy let-thru of fault currents to levels
within the withstand ratings of the system components. (Current- It must be current-limiting. When the available short-circuit current
limitation is treated under 240-11 of this Bulletin). exceeds the withstand rating of the wire, a protective device such
as a current-limiting fuse, properly selected, will limit fault current to
What is component short-circuit withstand rating? a level lower than the wire withstand rating (3,800 amperes for 1/ 2
It is a current rating given to conductors, switches, circuit breakers cycle). (See Section 240-1.) For instance, a LOW-PEAK YELLOW™
and other electrical components, which, if exceeded by fault LPN-RK20SP fuse will limit the 12,000 amperes available short-
currents, will result in “extensive” damage to the component. The circuit to less than 1000 amperes and clear in less than 1/ 2 cycle.
rating is expressed in terms of time intervals and/or current values.
Short-circuit damage can be heat generated or the the result of Protection of Motor Controllers, Contacts and Relays
electro-mechanical force of high-intensity, magnetic fields. (For
further details, see Buss Bulletin EDP-3, Engineering Dependable In this circuit, what kind of fuse must be used to provide adequate
Protection). protection of the starter?

Conductor Protection 25,000A

fault current Short-Circuit
How is the component withstand rating of conductors expressed?
Size 1 Starter
As shown in the Table below, component withstand of conductors (Tested by UL with 5000A available)
is expressed in terms of maximum short-circuit current vs. cycles
(or time).
A current-limiting fuse, such as the Buss LOW-PEAK YELLOW or
Table 1—Copper, 75° Thermoplastic Insulated Cable Damage Table* FUSETRON ® dual-element fuse. Such a fuse must limit fault
(Based on 60 HZ). currents to a value below the withstand rating of the starter and
Copper Maximum Short-Circuit Withstand Current clear the fault in less than 1/ 2 cycle.
Wire Size in Amperes
75° For For For For What is Type 2, motor starter protection?
Thermoplastic 1/2 Cycle** 1 Cycle 2 Cycles 3 Cycles** U.L. has developed a short-circuit test procedure designed to
#14 2,400 1,700** 1,200** 1,000 verify that motor controllers will not be a safety hazard and will not
#12 3,800 2,700** 1,900** 1,550 cause a fire.
#10 6,020 4,300 3,000 2,450 Compliance to the standard allows deformation of the
#8 9,600 6,800 4,800 3,900 enclosure, but the door must not be blown open and it must be
#6 15,200 10,800 7,600 6,200 possible to open the door after the test. In the standard short-
#4 24,200 17,100 12,100 9,900 circuit tests, the contacts must not disintegrate, but welding of the
Footnotes—*Reprinted from ICEA. **From ICEA formula (All circuit examples of conductor contacts is considered acceptable. When testing with fuses,
protection related to the use of wire are specified in Table 1.) damage to the overload relay is not allowed, and it must perform in
accordance with the calibration requirements. Tests with circuit
In this circuit, what is the maximum permissible available short-circuit breakers allow the overload relay to be damaged with burnout of
current? the current element completely acceptable.
There is an IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
#12 Cu Standard that offers guidance in evaluating the level of damage
(75°C thermoplastic likely to occur during a short-circuit with various branch circuit
Available insulated Cu)
Short-Circuit protective devices. IEC Publication 947, "Low Voltage Switchgear
Current and Control, Part 4-1: Contactors and Motor Starters", addresses
PROTECTIVE DEVICE Short-Circuit the coordination between the branch circuit protective device and
(1 cycle opening time; the motor starter. It also provides a method to measure the
not current-limiting) performance of these devices should a short-circuit occur. IEC
defines two levels of protection (coordination) for the motor starter:
2700 amperes. Since the protective device is not current-limiting, Type 1. Considerable damage to the contactor and overload
the short-circuit current must not exceed the one cycle withstand relay is acceptable. Replacement of components or a completely
of the #12 conductor, or 2700 amperes. new starter may be needed. There must be no discharge of parts
beyond the enclosure.
In this 20 ampere circuit with a non-current-limiting protective device, Type 2. No damage is allowed to either the contactor or
what would be the smallest size conductor that would have to be used? overload relay. Light contact welding is allowed, but must be easily
12,000A ? Where Type 2 protection is desired, the controller manufacturer
available must verify that Type 2 protection can be achieved by using a
fault current
Short-Circuit specified protective device. U.S. manufacturers have recently
DEVICE begun having both their NEMA and IEC motor controllers verified to
(20A, 1 cycle opening time; meet the Type 2 requirements outlined in IEC 947-4. As of this
not current limiting) writing only current-limiting fuses have been able to provide the
current-limitation necessary to provide verified Type 2 protection.
In many cases, Class J, Class RK1, or Class CC fuses are
No. 4 wire. Since the protective device is not current-limiting, the required, because Class RK5 fuses and circuit breakers aren't fast
wire selected must withstand 12,000 amperes for one cycle. enough under short-circuit conditions to provide Type 2 protection.

110-10 Covers the Proper Protection of System Components from Short-Circuits

Protection of Transfer Switches† Standard interrupting rating tests will allow for a maximum 4 ft.
rated wire on the line side, and 10 in. rated wire on the load side of
In this circuit, what protection must the fuse give the 100 ampere transfer the circuit breaker. Performing a short-circuit analysis of this test
switch and what kind of fuse must be used? (Test standards require 100 circuit results in the following short-circuit parameters, as seen by
ampere transfer switches to be tested at a minimum of 5000 amperes). the circuit breaker.
• Actual short-circuit RMS current = 9900 amperes
10,000A LPS-RK100SP RMS symmetrical
fault current • Actual short-circuit power factor = 88%
at 480V • Actual short-circuit peak current = 14,001 amperes
Following is an example of a partial table showing the actual IP and
The fuse must limit fault currents to less than 5000 amperes. It IRMS values to which the circuit breaker is tested.
must be a current-limiting fuse such as Buss LIMITRON KTS-R100
† Transfer switch withstand is also addressed in NFPA Publication 110 "Emergency and CB 10KA 14KA 18KA 22KA
Standby Power Systems". Section 4-2.2 requires that the transfer switch be capable of RATING Ip Irms Ip Irms Ip Irms Ip Irms
withstanding the effects of available fault circuits.
15A 7.2 5.1 8.7 6.1 9.3 6.6 9.9 7.0
Protection of Circuit Breakers 20A 8.9 6.3 11.4 8.1 12.6 8.9 14.0 9.9
25A 10.7 7.5 14.2 10.1 16.5 11.7 19.9 13.5
There are several key concepts about the protection of circuit 30A 10.7 7.5 14.2 10.1 16.5 11.7 19.9 13.5
breakers that need to be understood. 40A 11.7 8.3 16.0 11.3 19.2 13.6 22.7 16.1
1. The user should be aware of the potential problems 50A 11.7 8.3 16.0 11.3 19.2 13.6 22.7 16.1
associated with series-rated circuit breakers. The engineer 60A 12.5 8.8 17.3 12.2 21.3 15.1 25.6 18.1
can not always "engineer" the installation as before 70A 13.0 9.2 18.1 12.8 22.6 16.0 27.4 19.4
because, 80A 13.0 9.2 18.1 12.8 22.6 16.0 27.4 19.4
2. A molded case circuit breaker's interrupting capacity may 90A 13.2 9.3 18.3 12.9 23.0 16.3 27.9 19.7
be substantially less than its interrupting rating, and 100A 13.2 9.3 18.3 12.9 23.0 16.3 27.9 19.7
3. Some molded case circuit breakers exhibit "dynamic"
operation that begins in less than 1/ 2 cycle. This makes These values are known as the circuit breaker’s interrupting
them more difficult to protect than other static electrical capacities.
circuit components.
The most practical and reliable solution is to specify a fully- Protection of Bus Structures
rated fusible system.
In the circuit below, what must be the busway short-circuit bracing?
Molded Case Circuit Breakers—U.L. 489 and CSA5 Test Procedures 100,000A 1600A BUSWAY
U.L. 489 requires a unique test set-up for testing circuit breaker available
interrupting ratings. Figure F illustrates a typical calibrated test fault current
circuit waveform for a 20 ampere, 240 volt, 2-pole molded case NON-CURRENT-
circuit breaker, with a marked interrupting rating of 22,000 LIMITING DEVICE
amperes, RMS symmetrical.
100,000 amperes, because the overcurrent device is not current-
Ip = 48,026A limiting.

In this circuit, what would the busway short-circuit bracing have to be?
P.F. = 20%
IRMS = 22,000 Amps 100,000A 1600A BUSWAY
IRMS = 22,000A available
fault current


36,000 amperes (as shown in the Minimum Bracing Table). With an

available short-circuit current of 100,000 amperes, the LOW-PEAK
YELLOW™ KRP-C1600SP fuse will only let-thru an equivalent of
36,000 amperes, RMS symmetrical.

Figure F

Figure G illustrates the test circuit as allowed by U.L. 489.

S.C. P.F. = 20% 20A
S.C. Avail. = 22,000A RCB XCB

SOURCE: 4' Rated Wire (#12 Cu) 10" Rated Wire (#12 Cu)

Note: For calculations, RCB and XCB are assumed negligible.

Figure G

110-10 Covers the Proper Protection of 210-22(c) Covers Ratings of Overcurrent
System Components from Short-Circuits Devices on Branch Circuits Serving
Continuous and Non-Continuous Loads
Minimum Bracing Required for Bus Structures at 480V.
(Amperes RMS Symmetrical) What is the importance of this Section?
Rating* The overcurrent protective device provided for branch circuits,
Busway Fuse Available Short-Circuit Amperes RMS Sym. such as store lighting and restaurants, must not be less than the
25,000 50,000 75,000 100,000 200,000 total non-continuous load, plus 125% of the continuous load
100 100 3,400 4,200 4,800 5,200 6,500 (defined as a load that continues for 3 hours or more).
225 225 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 12,000
400 400 9,200 11,00 13,000 14,000 17,000 Rating not less than = [(10A) x 1.0] + [(8A) x 1.25]
600 600 12,000 15,000 17,000 19,000 24,000 = 20A
601 601 11,000 14,500 17,000 18,000 24,000 EXAMPLE
800 800 14,200 17,500 20,000 23,000 29,000
1200 1200 16,000 22,500 26,000 28,000 39,000
20A Rating
1600 1600 22,500 28,500 33,000 36,000 46,000
2000 2000 25,000 32,000 37,000 40,000 52,000
3000 3000 25,000 43,000 50,000 58,000 73,000
4000 4000 25,000 48,000 58,000 68,000 94,000
*Fuses are: 100-600 Ampere—LOW-PEAK YELLOW Dual-Element Fuses—LPS-RK_SP Non-Continuous Continuous Load
(Class RK1) or LPJ_SP (Class J); 800-4000 Ampere—LOW-PEAK YELLOW 10A 8A
Time-Delay Fuses—KRP-C_SP (Class L). (LOW-PEAK YELLOW fuses are
current-limiting fuses.)
The branch circuit rating shall not be less than 20 amperes.

110-22 Covers the Proper Marking and

Identification of Disconnecting Means 215-10 Covers Requirements for Ground-Fault
Protection of Equipment on Feeders
What does this new Section require?
What is the importance of this Section?
Labeling Considerations
N.E.C. Sections 110-22 and 240-83 require special marking for a Equipment classified as a feeder disconnect, as shown in these
testing agency listed series-rated systems. examples, must have ground fault protection as specified in
On listed series-rated systems, the downstream equipment will Section 230-95.
be marked by the manufacturer per applicable standards [240-
83(c)]. The N.E.C. requires that the main or upstream protective High Voltage Feeder W/O
device be marked with a field installed label per N.E.C. Section Service 4160V G.F.P.
110-22. This is the responsibility of the electrical contractor. VIOLATION
Short-circuit calculations must be performed at panel 1000A
locations where series-rated systems are specified. 480Y/277V or Greater

High Voltage w/G.F.P.
Service 4160V
480Y/277V or Greater

G.F.P. is not required on feeder equipment when it is provided on

the supply side of the feeder (except for certain Health Care
Facilities requirements, Article 517).


COMPLIANCE Feeder of any rating

480Y/277V 1000A no G.F.P. Required
or (Except Per Article 517)

See Section 230-95 for an in-depth discussion of Ground Fault


Ground fault protection without current-limitation may not protect system

components. See Section 110-10.

230-65 Covers the Short-Circuit Rating of Service Entrance Equipment

What does the Section mean? Can cable limiters protect service entrance equipment from short-circuit
Service equipment must be able to withstand available short- currents?
circuit currents. More specifically, the service switchboard,
panelboard, etc., and the protective devices which they
incorporate must have a short-circuit rating equal to or greater
than the short-circuit current available at the line side of the

In this circuit, what must be the short-circuit rating of the switchboard?

100,000A METER
fault current


Fuses must have (Residential and light

100,000 amperes UNDERGROUND CABLE commercial buildings)
interrupting rating
or greater Current-limiting cable limiters not only can be used to isolate a
“faulted” service cable, but also can help to protect utility meters
At least 100,000 amperes. with low withstand ratings against high short-circuit currents. (See
Section 230-82).
What must be the interrupting rating of the fuses?
100,000 amperes or greater. (Most current-limiting fuses have an Application Note:
interrupting rating of 200,000 or 300,000 amperes.) Residential —100 ampere and 200 ampere fused main-branch
circuit breaker panels are commercially available. These load
In this circuit, what must be the interrupting capacity of the main circuit centers incorporate the small-sized T-TRON JJN fuses which make
breaker, and the short-circuit rating of the switchboard? it possible to obtain a 100,000 amperes short-circuit current rating.
Mobile home meter pedestals are also available incorporating the
SWITCHBOARD T-TRON JJN fuses in a Fuse Pullout Unit.
available Apartment Complexes —Have high densities of current and,
fault current MAIN therefore, high short-circuit currents for the typical meters.
BREAKER Grouped meter stacks are commercially available using the T-
TRON JJN fuses (up to 1200 amperes) to give the proper short-
circuit protection. Meter stacks are also available with Class T fuse
pullouts on the load side of each meter.


At least 100,000 amperes.
As shown in the circuit, can fuses be used to protect circuit breakers with
(up to 1200A) (up to 1200A)
a low interrupting rating.
fault current

10,000A.I.C. METERS
200 ampere service entrance panel
must have a short circuit rating
equal to or greater than 100,000

Yes. Properly selected fuses can protect circuit breakers as well

as branch circuit conductors by limiting short-circuit currents to a
low level even though available short-circuit current is as high as
100,000 amperes. (Buss LOW-PEAK YELLOW™ or T-TRON fuses
give optimum protection.)

230-82 Covers Equipment Allowed to be Connected on the Line Side of the
Service Disconnect

What are the advantages of using cable limiters on the supply side of the RESIDENTIAL SERVICE ENTRANCE
service disconnect. (Single cable per phase)
Typical cable installations are shown in the illustration below. The
benefits of cable limiters are several: #1
1. The isolation of a faulted cable permits the convenient
scheduling of repair service. #2
2. Continuity of service is sustained even though one of more RESIDENCES
cables are faulted.
3. The possibility of severe equipment damage or burn down as a #4
result of a fault is greatly reduced. (Typically, without cable limiters
the circuit from the transformer to the service equipment is Open
Faulted cable isolated; the other
afforded little or no protection.). services continue in operation
4. Their current-limiting feature can be used to provide protection without being disturbed
against high short-circuit currents for utility meters and provide
compliance with Section 110-10. What do exceptions 7 and 8 mean?
The control circuit for power operable service disconnecting
COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL SERVICE ENTRANCE means and ground fault protection must have a means for
(Multiple cables per phase) disconnection and adequate overcurrent protection–interrupting
capacity and component protection.


(Open) (Open)
Faulted cable isolated; only the cable
limiters in faulted cable open; others
remain in operation

230-95 Covers Ground Fault Protection for Services

What is the importance of this section? Current limitation under short-circuit conditions and high-level
This section means that 480Y/277 volt, solidly grounded “wye” only ground-faults.
connected service disconnects, 1000 amperes and larger, must
have ground fault protection in addition to conventional over- In this circuit, is protection provided against high magnitude ground-
current protection. Ground fault protection, however, is not faults as well as low level faults?
required on a fire pump or a service disconnect for a continuous
process where its opening will increase hazards. All delta Ground fault
connected services are not required to have ground fault
protection. The maximum setting for the ground fault relay (or SWBD
sensor) must be set to pick up ground-faults which are 1200
amperes or more and actuate the main switch or circuit breaker to
disconnect all phase conductors. A ground fault relay with a 480Y/277
deliberate time delay characteristic of up to 3000 amperes for 1 3Ø, 4W 1000 ampere
second can be used. (The use of such a relay greatly enhances Service circuit breaker
system coordination and minimizes power outages). or larger
Under short-circuit conditions, unlike current-limiting fuses, No, it is not. There is no current-limitation.
ground fault protection in itself will not limit the line-to-ground or
phase-to-phase short-circuit current. When mechanical protective Is G.F.P. required on all services?
devices such as conventional circuit breakers are used with No. The following do not require G.F.P.:
G.F.P., all of the available short-circuit current will flow to the point 1. Continuous industrial process where non-orderly shutdown
of fault limited only by circuit impedance. Therefore, it is would increase hazard.
recommended that current-limiting overcurrent protective devices 2. All services where disconnect is less than 1000 amperes.
be used in conjunction with G.F.P. relays. 3. All 120/208 volts, 3Ø, 4W (wye) services.
4. All single-phase services including 120/240 volt, 1Ø, 3W.
In this circuit, what protection does the fuse provide in addition to that 5. High or medium voltage services. (See N.E.C. Sections 240-13
provided by the ground fault equipment? and 215-10 for equipment and feeder requirements.)
Ground fault 6. All services on delta systems (grounded or ungrounded) such
protection as: 240 volt, 3Ø, 3W Delta, 480 volt, 3Ø, 3W Delta, or 240 volt, 3Ø,
required 4W Delta with midpoint tap.
SWBD 7. Service with 6 disconnects or less (Section 230-71) where each
disconnect is less than 1000 amperes. A 4000 ampere service
could be split into five 800 ampere switches.
480Y/277 8. Resistance or impedance grounded systems.
3Ø, 4W 1000 ampere
Service switch & fuse
or larger

230-95 Covers Ground Fault Protection for Services

What are some of the problems associated with G.F.P.? fuses in order to avoid outages. (Section 230-95 permits an inverse
Incorrect settings, false tripping and, eventually, disconnection. time-delay relay with a delay of up to 1 second at 3000 amperes.)
(The knocking-out of the total building service or large feeders as a Conventional mechanical tripping overcurrent protective
result of minor faults or nuisance tripping cannot be tolerated in devices often do not permit a selectively coordinated system* and
many facilities). Unnecessary plant down time is often more BLACKOUTS can occur. For ground faults (and short-circuit
critical, or even more dangerous, than a minor ground fault. current as well) of current magnitude above the instantaneous trip
setting on the main circuit breaker’s overcurrent element, the main
Note: G.F.P. without current limitation may not protect system will nuisance trip (open) causing a blackout even though the fault
components. See Section 110-10 and 250-1 FPN. is on a feeder or branch circuit. Appropriate selection of current-
limiting fuses with proper G.F.P. settings can provide the highest
How can ground faults be minimized? degree of coordination and prevent blackouts.
1. To prevent blackouts, make sure that all overcurrent protective * A system wherein only the protective device nearest the fault operates and
devices throughout the overall system are selectively coordinated. none of the other protective devices in the system are disturbed.
When maximum continuity of electrical service is necessary,
ground fault protective equipment should be incorporated in 300
feeders and branch circuits. [Per Section 230-95 (FPN No. 2).] 200
2. Insulating bus structures can greatly minimize the possibility of
faults. The hazard of personnel exposure to energized electrical 100
equipment is also reduced with insulated bus structures. 60
3. Specify switchboards and other equipment with adequate 50 KRP-C1600SP
clearance between phase conductors and ground. Ground faults 30
are rare on 120/208 volt systems because equipment manufactur- GFP
ers provide ample spacing for this voltage. Insist on greater KTS-R set KRP-C
125 at 1600SP
spacing for 277/480 volt equipment and the likelihood of ground 10 1200 AMPS
faults will be greatly reduced. 8
4. Avoid unusually large services; split the service whenever 5 0.5 SEC.
possible. 4
5. Adequately bond all metallic parts of the system to enhance
ground fault current flow. Then, if a ground fault does occur, it is 2
more likely to be sensed by fuses or circuit breakers. KTS-R250
To respond properly to a line-to-ground type fault, what should be the .6
setting of a ground fault relay located on the main disconnect? .4
The setting should allow the feeder circuit (or preferably the .3
branch) overcurrent protective devices to function without .2
disturbing the G.F.P. relay. KTS-R
How is a G.F.P. setting determined? .08
.06 KTS-R125
By making a coordination study. Such a study requires the plotting .05
of the time-current curves of the protective devices. .04
A simple solution to the problem of coordinating ground fault
relays with overcurrent protective devices is shown in the system
represented in the graph at right. The G.F.P. relay coordinates with
the feeder fuses KTS-R 250. The G.F.P. relay with a degree of




inverse time characteristics provides coordination with feeder


240-1 Covers the Scope of Article 240 on Overcurrent Protection

What is the importance of this Section? Why, in the circuit below, is the #10 wire protected even though the
The basic purpose of overcurrent protection is to open a circuit available short-circuit current exceeds the wire withstand? The #10
before conductors or conductor insulation are damaged when an conductor can withstand 4300 amperes for one cycle and 6020 amperes
overcurrent condition exists. An overcurrent condition can be the for one-half cycle.**
result of an overload or a short-circuit. It must be removed before
the damage point of conductor insulation is reached. Conductor **Footnote—From ICEA tables and formula.
insulation damage points can be established from available
engineering information, i.e., Publication P-32-382, “Short-Circuit #10 THW COPPER WIRE
Characteristics of Cable”, ICEA, (Insulated Cable Engineers available
Association, Inc.) 30A Short-Circuit
Low-Peak Yellow
When selecting an overcurrent protective device to protect a conductor, Class RK1 Dual-Element
is it adequate to simply match the ampere rating of the device to the Fuse
ampacity of the conductor? Under short-circuits, the LOW-PEAK YELLOW Dual-Element fuse
No. Although conductors do have maximum allowable ampacity (30 ampere) is fast acting. It will clear and limit (cut off) short-circuit
ratings, they also have maximum allowable short-circuit current current before it can build up to a level higher than the wire
withstand rating. Damage ranging from slight degradation of withstand. The opening time of the fuse is less than one-half cycle
insulation to violent vaporization of the conductor metal can result (less than 0.008 seconds). In this particular example, the
if the short-circuit withstand is exceeded. (See Section 110-10.) prospective current let-thru by the fuse is less than 1850 amperes.
Thus, opening time and current let-thru of the fuse is far lower than

240-1 Covers the Scope of Article 240 on Overcurrent Protection

the wire withstand. (Conductor protection is not a problem when Copper—Thermoplastic Aluminum—Thermoplastic
the conductor is protected by current-limiting fuses which have an Conductor Insulation Conductor Insulation
ampere rating that is the same as the conductor. In the case of
short-circuit protection only, fuses can often be sized many times  I 2 T2 + 234   I 2 T2 + 228 
higher than the wire current rating, depending upon the current-  A  t = 0.0297 log T1 + 234   A  t = 0.0125 log T1 + 228 
limiting characteristics of the fuse.)

Does the circuit below represent a misapplication? (#10 THW insulated Where:
copper wire can withstand 4300 amperes for one cycle and 6020 I = Short-Circuit Current—Amperes
amperes for one-half cycle). A = Conductor Area—Circular Mils
t = Time of Short-Circuit—Seconds
30A MECHANICAL OVERCURRENT T1 = Maximum Operating Temperature—75°C
PROTECTIVE DEVICE T2 = Maximum Short-Circuit Temperature—150°C
(Clearing time 1 cycle; #10 COPPER WIRE
not current-limiting) (THW insulated) Note: ICEA (Insulated Cable Engineers Association) is the most widely accepted authority
40,000A on conductor short-circuit withstand ratings. Their publication, P-32-382, is referenced in
available IEEE Buff, Red, Gray, and White Books and also by the Canadian Electrical Code.
Conductor must Short-Circuit
be protected for 100
its entire length 80

60 40,000 Amps - 1 Cycle

Yes. The 40,000 ampere short-circuit current far exceeds the with- 50
stand of the #10 THW wire. Note the table and chart which follow.

What can be done to correct the above misapplication?


There are two possible solutions:



1. Use a larger size conductor (i.e., 1/0), one with a withstand




greater than the short-circuit for one cycle (see chart below). 4,300




2. Use an overcurrent protective device which is current-limiting Amps - 1



such as that shown in the previous question. Cycle


0 SE








The following table is based on Insulated Cable Engineers 8




Association, Inc. (ICEA) insulated cable damage charts in


66 00



Publication 32-382. This table assumes that the conductor is 6




preloaded to its ampacity before a short-circuit is incurred. The


formulas that are used to develop the ICEA Damage Charts are



given following the table. These formulas can be used to

extrapolate withstand data for wire sizes or time durations not
furnished in the ICEA Publication 32-382 charts. A sample chart is 10
shown at right.
The mechanical overcurrent protective device opening time Conductor-Copper
and any impedance (choking) effect should be known along with Curves Based on Formula
the available short-circuit current and cable withstand data to 1
determine the proper conductor that must be used. I 2 T2 + 234
.8 t = .0297 log
A T1 + 234
Insulated Cable Damage Table (60Hz)† .6 Where
Wire Size Maximum Short-Circuit Withstand Current Amperes) .5 I = Short-Circuit Current - Amperes
(THW Cu) at Various Withstand Times .4 A = Conductor Area - Circular Mils
1 Cycle 1/2 Cycle 1/4 Cycle 1/8 Cycle t = Time of Short-Circuit - Seconds
#14 1,700* 2,400* 3,400* 4,800* .3 T1 = Maximum Operating Temperature -
#12 2,700* 3,800* 5,400* 7,600* 75°C
#10 4,300 6,020* 8,500* 12,000* .2 T2 = Maximum Short-Circuit Temperature -
#8 6,800 9,600* 13,500* 19,200* 150°C
#6 10,800 15,200* 21,500* 30,400*
#4 17,100 24,200* 34,200* 48,400*
† See Insulated Cable Engineers Association, Inc., “Short-Circuit Characteristics of .1




Cable”, Pub. P-32-382, and circuit breaker manufactures’ published opening times for
various types of circuit breakers.

240-3 Covers the Protection of Conductors Other Than Flexible Cords and
Fixture Wires

What is the meaning of 240-3(b) and 240-3(c)? and three phase, delta-delta connected transformers with three-
Where the ampacity of a conductor does not correspond with a wire (single-voltage) secondaries can be considered protected by
standard rating (240-6) of a fuse, the next standard rating may be the primary side fuses if the transformer is properly protected in
used as long as the fuse is not above 800 amps and the accordance with Section 450-3. The primary fuse must be less
conductors are not part of a multi-outlet branch circuit supplying than or equal to the secondary conductor ampacity times the
receptacles for cord and plug-connected portable loads. secondary-to-primary transformer voltage ratio.
Also, Section 240-3 was completely rewritten in positive
What does 240-3(i) mean? language to improve comprehension and readability.
Conductors fed from single-phase, 2-wire secondary transformers 13
240-4 Covers Proper Protection of 240-6 Covers Standard Ampere Rating
Fixture Wires and Flexible Cords
adjustable trip from 225 through 400 amperes, the rating of the
breaker would be 400 amperes, and 500 kcmil cable would
What is the importance of this Section? therefore be required, increasing costs significantly. However, if
Flexible cords and extension cords shall have overcurrent protec- this adjusting means is not readily accessible, such as behind a
tion rated at their ampacities. Supplementary fuse protection is an bolted door and reached only by a qualified person, then the rating
acceptable method of protection. For #18 fixture wire 50 feet or can be considered to be equal to the adjusted setting.
over, a 6 ampere fuse would provide necessary protection, and for
#16 100 feet or over, an 8 ampere fuse would provide the Note: Standard ampere ratings for fuses and inverse time circuit
necessary protection. #18 extension cords must be protected by a breakers are 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110,
7 ampere fuse. 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700,
Also, Section 760-12, covering special non-power-limited fire 800, 1000, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000
protective signaling circuits, requires 7 ampere protection for #18 amperes. In addition, standard fuse ratings are 1, 3, 6, 10 and 601.
conductors and 10 ampere protection for #16 conductors.

240-8 & 380-7 Covers Protective
Devices Used in Parallel

Receptacle What do these Sections mean?

There are cases in which an original equipment manufacturer, for
various reasons, must parallel fuses and receive an appropriate
20A #18 Extension Cord equipment listing. For example, this would be the case of some
Branch Circuits
solid-state power conversion equipment. However, for the standard
Compliance safety switch, conventional branch circuit applications, switch-
(EXTENSION CORD) boards, and panelboards, the use of parallel fuses is not allowed.
Paralleling of circuit breakers is not allowed under any conditions.

240-9 Covers Thermal Devices
20A 7 Amp #18 Extension Cord What does this Section mean?
Fuse Thermal overload devices generally can neither withstand opening
Branch Circuits
a circuit under short-circuit conditions nor even carry short-circuit
currents of higher magnitudes. When using thermal overload
Violation Compliance protective devices, the use of a complementary current-limiting
(FIXTURE WIRE) (FIXTURE WIRE) fuse will not only protect the circuit against short-circuit current, but
also the thermal overload device.

Note: Agency short-circuit tests on thermal devices, such as

BRANCH BRANCH thermal cutouts, are run with a specified size and type of fuse.
To load To load
20A Fuse
#16 Fixture Wire
8A Fuse
#16 Fixture Wire
240-10 Covers Requirements for
100 ft. or over 100 ft. or over Supplementary Overcurrent Protection
Violation Compliance
(FIXTURE WIRE) (FIXTURE WIRE) What is the importance of this Section?
Supplementary fuses, often used to provide protection for lighting
fixtures, cannot be used where branch circuit protection is
What are the advantages of supplementary protection?
To load To load The use of supplementary protection for many types of appliances,
20A Fuse 6A Fuse fixtures, cords, decorator lighting (Christmas tree lights. . .)*, etc.,
#18 Fixture Wire #18 Fixture Wire
is often well advised. There are several advantages:
50 ft. or over 50 ft. or over
1. Provides superior protection of the individual equipment by
permitting close fuse sizing.
2. With an occurrence of an overcurrent, the equipment protected
240-6 Covers Standard Ampere Ratings by the supplementary protected device is isolated; the branch
circuit overcurrent device is not disturbed. For instance, the in-line-
fuse and holder combination, such as the Type HLR fuseholder
with Type GLR or GMF fuses, protects and isolates fluorescent
What is the importance of this Section? lighting fixtures in the event of an overcurrent.
In addition to the standard ratings of fuses and circuit breakers, 3. It is easier to locate equipment in which a malfunction has
this section states that the rating of an adjustable trip circuit occurred. Also, direct access to the fuse of the equipment is
breaker is considered to be the highest possible setting. This possible.
becomes important when protecting conductors or motor circuits.
For example, if a copper 75°C conductor is required to carry 200 *Footnote–Supplementary protection for series connected decorator lighting sets and
parallel sets (Christmas tree string lights) was required in 1982. Manufacturers have
amperes continuously, a 250 kcmil cable might be chosen. If a implemented this requirement.
circuit breaker were chosen to protect this cable with an external

240-11 Covers the Definition of Current-Limiting Overcurrent Protective Devices

What is the importance of this Section? To further appreciate current-limitation, assume for example,
that the available prospective short-circuit current in a circuit is
Areas within waveform 50,000 amperes. If a 200 ampere LOW-PEAK YELLOW fuse is
loops represent destructive
energy impressed upon
used to protect the circuit, the current let-thru by the fuse will be
circuit components only 6500 amperes instead of 50,000 amperes. Peak current will be
only 15,000 amperes instead of a possible 115,000 amperes. Thus,
in this particular example, currents are limited to only 13% of the
available short-circuit values.
As is true of fuse application in general, the application of
current-limiting fuses in respect to current-limitation and
Normal component protection (110-10) is quite simple. Graphs or tables
load current such as the one shown below permit easy determination of the “let-
thru” currents that a fuse will pass for various levels of prospective
Circuit breaker trips short-circuit currents. For example, the table below shows that the
and opens short-circuit 200 ampere LOW-PEAK YELLOW fuse will let-thru 6500 amperes
Initiation of in about 11/2 cycles when prospective short-circuit current is 50,000 amperes.
short-circuit current
fault current
Size 1 Starter
(Tested with 5000A available)

For the above circuit, the Size 1 Starter has a short-circuit

withstand rating of 5000 amperes.* The question is, with the 25,000
ampere available short-circuit current, will a LOW-PEAK YELLOW
fuse provide adequate protection of the starter? By referring to the
table below, it can easily be seen that for a prospective short-
circuit current of 25,000 amperes, fuses with ratings less than 100
amperes will limit fault currents to below the 5000 ampere
withstand of the starter and, thus, provide adequate protection.
Fuse opens and clears
short-circuit in less Current-Limiting Effects of RK1 LOW-PEAK YELLOW Fuses.
than 1/2 cycle Prospective Let-Thru Current (Apparent RMS Symmetrical)
Short-Circuit LPS-RK_SP (600V) Fuse Ratings
ACTION OF CURRENT-LIMITING FUSE. Current 30A 60A 100A 200A 400A 600A
5,000 980 1,600 2,100 3,200 5,000 5,000
Simply stated, a current-limiting protective device is one which 10,000 1,200 2,000 2,550 4,000 6,750 9,150
cuts off a fault current in less than one-half cycle†. It thus prevents 15,000 1,400 2,300 2,900 4,800 7,850 10,200
short-circuit currents from building up to their full available values. 20,000 1,500 2,500 3,150 5,200 8,250 11,300
The greatest damage done to components by a fault current 25,000 1,600 2,650 3,400 5,450 9,150 12,200
occurs in the first half-cycle (or more precisely, “the first major 30,000 1,650 2,850 3,550 5,650 9,550 12,800
loop” of the sinewave). Heating of components to very high 35,000 1,750 2,950 3,750 5,850 10,000 13,500
temperatures can cause deterioration of insulation, or even 40,000 1,850 3,100 3,900 6,100 10,450 13,900
explosion. Tremendous magnetic forces between conductors can 50,000 1,950 3,300 4,150 6,500 11,300 15,000
crack insulators and loosen or rupture bracing structures. 60,000 2,050 3,500 4,350 6,950 11,950 16,100
The levels of both thermal energy and magnetic forces are 80,000 2,250 3,850 4,800 7,850 13,000 17,400
proportionate to the square of current. Thermal energy is 100,000 2,450 4,050 5,200 8,250 13,900 18,700
proportionate to the square of “RMS” current; maximum magnetic 150,000 2,750 4,800 6,100 9,550 15,900 21,300
fields to the square of “peak” current. If a fault current is 100 times 200,000 3,000 5,200 6,500 10,000 17,400 23,500
higher than normal current, its increased heating effects equals RMS Symmetrical Amperes
(100)2 or 10,000 times higher than that of the normal current. Thus,
to prevent circuit component damage, the use of current-limiting *Footnote: See discussion on Section 110-10 in this Bulletin.
protective devices is extremely important, particularly since
present-day distribution systems are capable of delivering high The reader should note that much of the current-limitation
level fault currents. claimed by small ampere circuits breakers is actually the result of
the significant impedance added to the circuit breaker test circuit
† Footnote: The more technical definition of a current-limiting protective device is expressed after the circuit has been calibrated. Refer to the circuit breaker
by 240-11.
protection portion of Section 110-10 for further information on
circuit breaker test circuits.

240-12 Covers System Coordination or Selectivity

What is the importance of this Section? 1. The 90 ampere breaker will unlatch (Point A) and free the
Whenever a partial or total building blackout could cause breaker mechanism to start the actual opening process.
hazard(s) to personnel or equipment, the fuses and/or circuit 2. The 400 ampere breaker will unlatch (Point B) and it, too, would
breakers must be coordinated in the short-circuit range. It is begin the opening process. Once a breaker unlatches, it will open.
acceptable for a monitoring system to be used to indicate an The process at the unlatching point is irreversible.
overload condition, if the overcurrent protective devices cannot be 3. At Point C, the contacts of the 90 ampere breaker finally open
coordinated in the overload region. However, in the vast majority of and interrupt the fault current.
cases, both circuit breakers and fuses will be able to be 4. At Point D, the contacts of the 400 ampere breaker open. . .the
coordinated in the overload range, so the monitoring systems will entire feeder is “blacked out”!
seldom be required. Typical installations where selective
coordination would be required include hospitals, industrial plants, Example of Non-Selective System.
office buildings, schools, government buildings, military 1,000
installations, high-rise buildings, or any installation where continuity 800
of service is essential.

1000A 100
I.T.=10x 80
225A Opens 20 400A
90 AMP 400 AMP
I.T.=8x Circuit Breaker
10 Breaker I.T. = 5X

Opens 4
I.T.=8x 3 90A
22,000 Amp
Fault exceeding the instantaneous trip setting of all 3 circuit breakers in series will
open all 3. This will blackout the entire system. .8
.3 Circuit

Not .06
1000A Open .04
.006 POINT B
Not .004
Open .003 POINT A





20A Opens
Now, let’s take the case of fuse coordination. When selective
22,000 Amp coordination of current-limiting fuses is desired, the Selectivity
Short-Circuit Ratio Guide (next page) provides the sizing information necessary.
19-B In other words, it is not necessary to draw and compare curves.
Fault opens the nearest upstream fuse, localizing the fault to the equipment
affected. Service to the rest of the system remains energized. Current-limiting fuses can be selectively coordinated by
maintaining at least a minimum ampere rating ratio between the
If the ampere rating of a feeder overcurrent device is larger than the main fuse and feeder fuses and between the feeder fuse and
rating of the branch circuit device, are the two selectively coordinated? branch circuit fuses.
No. A difference in rating does not in itself assure coordination. For These ratios are based on the fact that the smaller downstream
example, a feeder circuit breaker may have a rating of 400 fuses will clear the overcurrent before the larger upstream fuses
amperes and the branch breaker 90 amperes. Under overload melt. An example of ratios of fuse ampere ratings which provide
conditions in the branch circuit, the 90 ampere breaker will open selective coordination is shown in the one-line circuit diagram.
before, and without, the 400 ampere breaker opening. However,
under short-circuit conditions, not only will the 90 ampere device 2:1 (or more)
open, the 400 ampere may also open. In order to determine
whether the two devices will coordinate, it is necessary to plot their LPS-RK90SP
time-current curves as shown at right. For a short-circuit of 4000 LPS-RK400SP

240-12 Covers System Coordination or Selectivity

*Selectivity Ratio Guide (Line-Side to Load-Side) for Blackout Prevention.

Circuit Load-Side Fuse
Current Rating 601-6000A 601-4000A 0-600A 601-6000A 0-600A 0-1200A 0-600A 0-60A
Type Time- Time- Dual-Element Fast-Acting Fast-Acting Time-
Delay Delay Time-Delay Delay
Class (L ) (L ) (RK1) (J)** (RK5) (L ) (RK1) (T) (J) (G)
601 to Time- LOW-PEAK KRP-C–SP 2:1 2.5:1 2:1 2:1 4:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 N/A
6000A Delay YELLOW (L)
601 to Time- LIMITRON KLU 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 4:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 N/A
4000A Delay (L)
LOW-PEAK LPN-RK–SP – – 2:1 2:1 8:1 – 3:1 3:1 3:1 4:1
0 Dual (RK1)
Line-Side Fuse

to Ele- (J) LPJ–SP** – – 2:1 2:1 8:1 – 3:1 3:1 3:1 4:1
600A ment FUSETRON FRN-R – – 1.5:1 1.5:1 2:1 – 1.5:1 1.5:1 1.5:1 1.5:1
601 to LIMITRON KTU 2:1 2.5:1 2:1 2:1 6:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 N/A
6000A (L)
0 to Fast- LIMITRON KTN-R – – 3:1 3:1 8:1 – 3:1 3:1 3:1 4:1
600A Acting (RK1) KTS-R
0 to T-TRON JJN – – 3:1 3:1 8:1 – 3:1 3:1 3:1 4:1
1200A (T) JJS
0 to LIMITRON JKS – – 2:1 2:1 8:1 – 3:1 3:1 3:1 4:1
600A (J)
0 to Time- SC SC – – 3:1 3:1 4:1 – 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1
60A Delay (G)
* Note: At some values of fault current, specified ratios may be lowered to permit closer fuse sizing. Plot fuse curves or consult with Bussmann.
General Notes: Ratios given in this Table apply only to Buss fuses. When fuses are within the same case size, consult Bussmann.
** Consult Bussmann for latest LPJ—SP ratios.

240-13 Covers Ground Fault Protection of Equipment on Remote Structures

Building A Service
What does this Section require? High Voltage
G.F.P. Not
Equipment ground fault protection of the type required in Section Required
230-95 is now required for each disconnect rated 1000 amperes or G.F.P. Not 800A
Required 480Y/277V
more in 480Y/277V systems that will serve as a main disconnect
Building B Service
for a separate building or structure. Refer to Sections 215-10 and
230-95. G.F.P.
1000A or Greater
Note: G.F.P. that is not current-limiting may not protect system 480Y/277V
components. See Section 110-10 and 250-1 (FPN).

240-21 Covers Location Requirements for Overcurrent Devices and Tap Conductors

What are the requirements of 240-21(b)?

240V, 3Ø Violation Compliance
The basic content of this section remains unchanged. However, it
has been rewritten to improve readability and comprehension.
Typically, fuses must be installed at point where the conductor 10'
receives its supply, i.e., at the beginning or line side of a branch TAP
circuit or feeder. There are installations where this basic rule may Equipment
not have to be followed. Room
Fuses are not required at the conductor supply if a feeder tap Wireway
conductor is not over ten feet long; is enclosed in raceway; does
not extend beyond the switchboard, panelboard or control device
which it supplies; and has an ampacity not less than the combined
computed loads supplied, and not less than the rating of the
device supplied, unless the tap conductors are terminated in a
fuse not exceeding the tap conductor's ampacity [240-21(b)]. For M M M M M M
field installed taps, the ampacity of the tap conductor must be at 1 5 7.5 15 20 25
least 10% of the overcurrent device rating. See the following HP HP HP HP HP HP
example. 17
240-21 Covers Location Requirements for Overcurrent Devices and Tap Conductors

In the previous diagram, the feeder overcurrent devices are length; the secondary conductors terminate in a set of fuses rated
sized per the N.E.C for the load served. at the ampacity of the tap conductors; and it the primary and
All taps to the motors are 10 foot taps. secondary conductors are suitably protected from physical
Three of the motors are smaller motors: damage.
one motor is a 1 HP motor,
one motor is a 5 HP motor, What are the requirements of 240-21(e)?
and one motor is a 71/ 2 HP motor. Fuses are not required at the conductor supply if a feeder tap is
The 1, 5 and 71/ 2 HP motors will require a minimum of #14, #12 not over 25 feet long horizontally and not over 100 feet long, total
and #10 75°C conductors, respectively. For field wiring, these 10 length, in high bay manufacturing buildings where only qualified
foot taps are not permitted since the line side overcurrent device is persons will service such a system. Also, the ampacity of the tap
600 amperes. Section 240-21(b)(5) requires that the maximum conductors is not less than 1/ 3 of the fuse rating from which they
overcurrent protection for field installations shall not exceed are supplied, the size of the tap conductors must be at least No. 6
1000%, or 10 times the ampacity of the tap conductor, for AWG copper or No. 4 AWG aluminum. They may not penetrate
example: walls, floors, or ceilings, and the taps are made no less than 30
#14 conductor, 20 amperes ampacity, maximum line side feet from the floor.
overcurrent protection is 200 amperes.
#12 conductor, 25 amperes ampacity, maximum line side
overcurrent protection is 250 amperes.
#10 conductor, 35 amperes ampacity, maximum line side Feeder 2:1 RATIO 100 Amp
overcurrent protection is 350 amperes. Fuse Fuse
To tap the above conductors to a 600 amperes feeder
overcurrent device would be a violation of Section 240-21(b)(5) of 480V
the Code. 150 Amp 100 Amp
50 Amp
The solution is to feed the smaller motors from a branch circuit Rated Rated
panel or from a smaller feeder where the feeder overcurrent Conductor Conductor 240V
protection does not exceed the 10 times rating of the tap
conductor’s ampacity.
The smallest of the three larger motors is a 15 HP motor which 25 Feet or Less
requires a branch circuit conductor with a minimum ampacity of
52.5 amperes and which could be tapped to the 600 ampere
feeder since a No. 6 75° conductor has an ampacity of 65 300 Amp TRANSFORMER
Feeder 1:1 RATIO 100 Amp
amperes and 10 x 65 = 650. In other words the No. 6 75°
Fuse Fuse
conductors could be tapped to an overcurrent device as high as
650 amperes. 480V
Motor tap conductors that have a 60 ampere ampacity or 300 Amp 100 Amp
greater could be tapped to a 600 ampere feeder overcurrent Rated 100 Amp
Rated Rated
protective device. Conductor
Conductor Conductor 480V

What are the requirements of 240-21(c)?

Note: Smaller conductors tapped to larger conductors can be a
serious hazard. If not adequately protected against short-circuit
200A conditions (as required in sections 110-10 and 240-1), these
unprotected conductors can vaporize or incur severe insulation
damage. Molten metal and ionized gas created by a vaporized
TAP conductor can envelop other conductors (such as bare bus),
causing equipment burndown. Adequate short-circuit protection is
recommended for all conductors. When a tap is made to a
switchboard bus for an adjacent panel, such as an emergency
panel, the use of BUSS Cable Limiters is recommended for
protection of the tapped conductor. These current-limiting cable
limiters are available in sizes designed for short-circuit protection
of conductors from #12 to 1000 kcmil. BUSS Cable Limiters are
available in a variety of terminations to make adaption to bus
M M M structures or conductors relatively simple. For more information on
BUSS Cable Limiters, see Buss Bulletin CL.
1 5 7.5
What are the requirements of 240-21(j)?
Transformer secondary conductors of separately derived systems
Fuses are not required at the conductor supply if a feeder tap do not require fuses at the transformer terminals when all of the
conductor is not over 25 feet long, is suitably protected from following conditions are met.
physical damage; has an ampacity not less than 1/ 3 that of the 1. Must be an industrial location.
feeder conductors or fuses from which the tap conductors receive 2. Secondary conductors must be less than 25 feet long.
their supply; and terminate in a single set of fuses sized not more 3. Secondary conductor ampacity must at least equal to the
than the tap conductor ampacity. See "Note". secondary full load current of transformer and sum of
terminating, grouped, overcurrent devices.
What are the requirements of 240-21(d)? 4. Secondary conductors must be protected from physical
Fuses are not required at the conductor supply if a transformer damage.
feeder tap has primary conductors at least 1/ 3 the ampacity, and/or
secondary conductors at least 1/ 3 the ampacity, when multiplied by Note: Switchboard and panelboard protection (384-16) and
the approximate transformer turns ratio of the fuse or conductors transformer protection (450-3) must still be observed.
from which they are tapped; the total length of one primary plus
one secondary conductor (excluding any portion of the primary
conductor that is protected at its ampacity) is not over 25 feet in
240-40 Disconnecting Means for Fuses

What does the Section require? The second exception allows one disconnect for multiple sets of
A line side disconnecting means must be provided for all cartridge fuses as provided in 430-112 for group motor applications and
fuses where accessible to other than qualified persons and for any 424-22 for fixed electric space-heating equipment.
fuse in circuits over 150 volts to ground. This section does not
require a disconnecting means for the typical 120/240V single
phase residential plug fuse application.
The first exception removes the requirement for a
disconnecting means ahead of a current-limiting cable limiter or
other current-limiting fuse ahead of the service disconnecting

240-50 Covers Plug Fuses, Fuseholders, and Adapters

What does this Section mean? PERMISSIBLE

Normally, plug fuses are applied in 120 volt circuits for appliances, Plug Fuses
small motors, machines, etc. They may be used on 240/120 volts
single-phase circuits, and 208/120 volt three-phase circuits, where
the neutral is solidly grounded. 120V

Plug Fuses

120V 208V

240-51 Covers Edison-Base Fuses

What are these fuse types? Edison-base fuses can be used for supplementary overcurrent
These are generally referred to as branch circuit listed fuses which protection in new installations.
are NOT size rejecting. They can provide protection for appliances
and small motors in residential, commercial, and industrial

240-53 Covers Type S Fuses

What are these fuse types? Type S fuses are required for new installation where plug fuses
These are branch circuit listed fuses that are size (ampere) are to be used as the branch circuit protection.
rejecting. They become size rejecting when a special Type S
holder or Type S adapter is used. For example, when a 20 ampere
adaptor is installed, it is very difficult to insert a 25 or 30 ampere

240-54 Covers Type S Fuses, Adapters, and Fuseholders

What are the advantages of Type S Fuses?

Type S fuses are size rejecting to prevent overfusing. They are
used with special adapters that cannot easily be removed.

240-60 Covers Cartridge Fuses and Fuseholders

What does this Section mean? Also, branch circuit listed fuses are designed so that it is very
300 volt rated fuses can be used to protect single-phase line- difficult to replace an installed fuse with one of lesser capability.
neutral loads when supplied from three-phase solidly grounded This can be based on a voltage or current rating or a current-
480/277 volt circuits, where the single-phase line-to-neutral voltage limiting vs. non-current-limiting device.
is 277 volts.


600 Volt
Fuses 300V Fuses

277V 1Ø Loads

240-61 Covers Classification of Fuses and Fuseholders

What does this Section mean?

All low voltage branch circuit fuses have an AC voltage rating
associated with them. They can be properly applied at any system
voltage up to that rating.

240-83(c) Covers Marking–Interrupting Rating of Circuit Breakers and Series Ratings

What does the Section require?

Special marking requirements now exist for series-rated systems
40,000 Amps RMS Available which are tested and recognized. (One source is the U.L. Yellow
Books.) This special marking on the equipment must state that the
specific circuit breakers in the equipment have been series tested
200A Circuit Breaker 200A Current- with special upstream devices. Any substitution of series-rated
65,000 A.I.R. or Limiting Fuse circuit breakers with a non-series-rated device will void the
recognition and create a potentially dangerous situation. This
labeling will be supplied by the manufacturer.
30,000 Amps RMS Available
If this is a testing Note: Refer to Section 110-22 for marking requirements for the
laboratory Recognized main or upstream protective device.
20A series rating, a special
10,000 A.I.R. label is required inside
Circuit Breakers the equipment, supplied
by the manufacturer.

Note: Refer to Section 110-22 For marking requirements for the main or
upstream protective device.

240-100 Covers Feeder Overcurrent Protection Over 600 Volts, Nominal

What does the Fine Print Note to this Section mean? (The reader should refer to N.E.C. Section 110-10 for a further
The overcurrent device specified for the application must be understanding of this fine print note. Feeders must be protected
capable of protecting the feeder conductors from short-circuit from short-circuit damage.)
250-1 Covers the Requirements for 250-95 Covers Sizing of Equipment
Proper Grounding and Bonding of Grounding Conductors
Electrical Installations
increased, or a different overcurrent device could be chosen
which could provided adequate protection for the conductor. This
What does the Fine Print Note #2 refer to in Section 110-10? Section of the N.E.C. now requires this analysis.
This FPN stresses the importance of protecting the equipment and Since instantaneous only circuit breakers (MCP’s) can be set
materials that make up the ground path in order to facilitate the as high as 1700% of motor full-load current, the equipment
safe opening of the overcurrent device. grounding conductor shall be sized based on the motor overload

Note: Table 250-94 in the N.E.C. gives the sizes of the grounding
250-51 Covers the Requirements for electrode conductors versus the sizes of the service entrance
an Effective Grounding Path conductors. Caution, Table 250-95 in the N.E.C. gives the
“Minimum Size Equipment Grounding Conductors for Grounding
Raceway and Equipment.”

What does this Section mean? VIOLATION

The effective grounding path shall have a low enough impedance Grounded 50,000A RMS 500 kcmil Copper
to limit the voltage to ground and to facilitate the opening of the Service
Neutral Service Equipment
overcurrent protective device. It must be permanent and continuos
and be able to safely conduct available fault current. #1/0 Copper Metal Enclosure
400A Non-Current-
Limiting Device
250-70 Covers Bonding Require-
ments and Short-Circuit Withstand #3 Copper
Equipment Raceway
What does this Section mean? Metal Enclosure
All bonding provided must have the capacity to conduct safely any 3Ø
fault current it is likely to see. Load

Would need to increase

250-75 Covers Bonding Other Equipment Grounding
Conductor to 2/0.
Enclosures and Short-Circuit
Withstand Requirements Grounded 50,000A RMS 500 kcmil Copper
Neutral Service Equipment
What do these Sections require? #1/0 Copper Metal Enclosure
All materials used in the grounding and bonding of equipment Grounding
400A Current-
shall be capable of safely carrying the short-circuit current that Limiting Device
could flow through the ground path. This will, in many cases,
require the use of a current-limiting fuse to protect the equipment
from damage. See Section 110-10 for more on component #3 Copper Non-Metallic
protection. Equipment Raceway
Metal Enclosure
250-95 Covers Sizing of Equipment 3Ø
Grounding Conductors
Conforms to Section 110-10
What are the ramifications of 250-95 and especially the new note at the and 250-95.
bottom of Table 250-95?
The integrity of the grounding path is essential for safety; it For example, Table 250-95 allows a circuit protected by a 400
facilitates the operation of the overcurrent protective devices. ampere overcurrent device to have a #3 copper equipment
Improper sizing of the grounding conductors can result in their grounding conductor. If the 400 ampere overcurrent device takes
melting or vaporizing before the protective device clears the one cycle to open in a circuit where 50,000 amperes are available,
circuit. Generally, the grounding electrode conductor and the typical cable manufacturer’s withstand charts show that the #3
equipment grounding conductors are smaller than the circuit conductor would be damaged. One solution would be to install a
conductors and their ampere rating is less than that of the #2/0 copper equipment grounding conductor which would be able
overcurrent protective device. The protective device may be too to withstand the 50,000 amperes for one cycle. The other
slow to protect an undersized conductor against high fault currents alternative is to limit the 50,000 amperes to within the 22,000
(see Section 240-1 of this Bulletin). Consideration must be given to ampere for one cycle limit of the #3 conductor. This can be
the size of the grounding conductors, their withstand, the accomplished easily with the use of current-limiting fuses.
magnitude of ground fault currents, and the operating
characteristics of circuit overcurrent devices. Where the protective
device is not fast enough to protect the undersized equipment
grounding conductor, the conductor size may need to be
310-10 Covers Temperature Limitation of Conductors

What is the purpose of the Fine Print Note in this Section? 9 #12 75°C Copper in a Raceway
The fine print note is intended to point out the need for conductor
derating at high ambient temperatures. It also directs the user to 35°C
be aware of other information, such as conductor size and Environment
number, to assure proper application.

3 #12 75°C Copper Conductors This fuse is sized at 25 (amperes) x .94 (temperature derating
in a Raceway factor) x .70 (9 conductors in a raceway derating factor from
Note #8 to ampacity tables) = 16.45 amperes. The next
standard size is a 20 ampere Fuse.

This fuse is sized at 25 (amperes) x .94 (temperature derating

factor) = 23.5 amperes. The next standard size is 25 amperes,
but the obelisk directs the reader to the bottom of Table 310-16,
where the maximum overcurrent device is given as 20 amperes.

364-11 Covers Protection at a Busway Reduction

What does this Section mean?

Overcurrent protection is required whenever busway is reduced in
ampacity unless all of the following conditions are met:
1. Industrial establishment only.
2. Length of smaller bus does not exceed 50 feet.
3. Ampacity of smaller bus must be at least 1/3 that of the
upstream overcurrent device.
4. Smaller bus must not contact combustible material.

384-16 Covers Panelboard Overcurrent Protection

What does this Section mean? General Comment—The service entrance split bus load center or
Lighting and appliance branch circuit panelboards must be panelboard having up to 6 main disconnects is no longer permitted
protected by a main overcurrent device (up to two sets of fuses, as on new installations.
long as their combined ratings do not exceed that of the The tap rules found in Section 240-21 do not remove these
panelboard), unless the feeder has overcurrent protection not requirements for lighting and appliance branch circuit panelboard
greater than the rating of the panelboard. protection, nor do they remove the requirements for transformer
protection found in Section 450-3.

430-1 Covers Scope of Motor Article

What is the importance of this Section?

This is a new Section of the N.E.C. It offers an overview of
protection for motors, motor circuits, motor controllers, and motor
control centers.

430-6 Covers Ampacity of Conductors for Motor Branch Circuits and Feeders

What is the importance of this Section? The separate overload device should be based on the
It states that conductors supplying motors shall be selected from nameplate current rating.
applicable Tables in Article 310. The determination of conductor
ampacity, or ampere rating of switches, branch circuit protection,
etc., should be taken from the motor F.L.A. tables in Article 430,
Tables 430-147 through 430-150.

430-32 Covers Motor Overload Protection

What are the typical ways of providing motor overload protection external Do fuses sized as above also provide branch circuit protection
to the motor? requirements?
Generally, motor starters with overload relays and/or dual-element Yes. Sizing FUSETRON® and LOW-PEAK YELLOW™ Dual-Element
fuses are used to provide motor running protection. fuses for motor running overload protection also provides the
necessary short-circuit protection per 430-52. The use of these
dual-element fuses permits close sizing. Thus, fuse case sizes
M often can be smaller, thereby permitting the use of smaller
Dual-Element Can circuit breakers and fuses other than dual-element fuses be used to
give motor overload protection?
Not generally. The conventional circuit breakers usually must be
M sized at 250% of the motor full-load amperes to avoid tripping on
motor starting current, and thus cannot provide overload
protection. Instantaneous only circuit breakers or motor short-
Typically, how are the devices selected for protection of motors? circuit protectors are only equipped with a short-circuit tripping
With starters and overload relays, the proper heater element is element and, therefore, are incapable of providing overload
selected from manufacturers’ tables based on the motor full-load protection. For motor applications, the non-time-delay fuses such
current rating. The level of protection reached in this selection as the LIMITRON® KTS-R fuses normally have to be sized at 300%
process complies with Article 430. of a motor full-load current rating to avoid opening on motor start-
up and, therefore, do not provide overload protection.
When employing dual-element fuses for motor running overload When single-phasing occurs on a 3-phase motor circuit,
protection, the rating of the fuse should be as follows: unbalanced currents flow through the motor, which can damage
the motor if not taken off-line. Dual-element, time-delay fuses, sized
LOW-PEAK LOW-PEAK for motor overload protection, can provide single-phase damage
FUSETRON FUSETRON protection . See Section 430-36.
Dual-Element Dual-element
Fuse Fuse Footnote–Abnormal Motor Operation: The application of motors under certain abnormal
operating conditions often requires the use of larger size fuses than would normally be
required. The use of oversize fuses limits protection to short-circuit or branch circuit
Size at 125% Size at 115% protection only. The types of abnormal motor installations that may be encountered include
or less of motor or less of motor the following: (a) Fuses in high ambient temperature locations. (b) Motors having a high
full-load amps full-load amps Code Letter (or possibly no Code Letter) with full-voltage start. (c) Motors driving high
inertial loads or motors which must be frequently cycled off-and-on. Typical high inertial
M M loads are machines such as punch presses having large mass flywheels, or machines
such as centrifugal extractors and pulverizes, or large fans which cannot be brought up to
S.F. 1.15 or higher S.F. less than 1.15 speed quickly. (d) High efficiency motors with high inrush currents.
or or
temp. rise 40°C. temp. rise over 40°C.
or less

430-36 Covers Fuses Used to Provide Overload and Single-Phasing Protection

What does this Section require? A

This Section clarifies the need for overload protection in all three LPS-RK171/2SP
phases of a 3-phase, 3-wire system, where one phase also serves
as the grounded conductor.
480 Volts
B 10HP
LPS-RK171/2SP F.L.A. = 14A


430-52 Covers the Sizing of Various Overcurrent Devices for Motor Branch
Circuit Protection

What is the basic content of this Section? Yes. Because the LOW-PEAK YELLOW fuse is “current-limiting,”
This Section deals with the protection of motor branch circuits good short-circuit protection is provided, even though available
against short-circuit damage. It establishes the maximum short-circuit current greatly exceeds 5000 amperes. (Specifically,
permissible settings for overcurrent protective devices. (Branch the LOW-PEAK YELLOW fuse would give protection against fault
circuits include all the circuit components–wire, switches, motor currents through 200,000 amperes.) It is also significant to note
starters, etc.) As is apparent in Code Table 430-152, maximum that because the LOW-PEAK YELLOW fuse is a time-delay fuse, it
settings vary with different types of motors, each type having actually could be sized at 125% of full-load current or the next
unique starting characteristics. Motors to which the maximum larger size (30 amperes) with the advantage of permitting the use
permissible settings or ratings apply (shown in the condensed of a smaller disconnect switch, and providing backup overload
Table following) include all types of single-phase, three-phase protection and even better short-circuit protection.
squirrel cage (other than Design E) and three-phase synchronous These maximum sizing allowances are all overridden if a
motors. manufacturer's label shows overcurrent protection values lower
These maximum values do not preclude the application of than what 430-52 allows.
lower sizes. Also, compliance with Sections 110-10 must be The overload relay heater elements of a motor controller often
analyzed. Motor starters have relatively low short-circuit current have relatively low short-circuit current withstand ratings. The
withstands. Refer to Buss Bulletin SPD for specific fuse maximum ratings of protective devices given in Table 430-152,
recommendations. thus, do not necessarily apply since they are too large to provide
adequate protection. Consequently, the starter manufacturer
Maximum Rating or Setting of Protective Devices† includes an overload relay table within the starter enclosure. This
Fuse Circuit Breaker* table states the maximum fuse size ratings to be used which will
Non-Time-Delay Dual-Element Instantaneous Inverse adequately protect the overload relay heaters. The protective
All Class CC Time-Delay Type Only Time Type device used, in such cases, must be a fuse.
300% 175% 800% 250%
†See Article 430, Section 430-52. TYPICAL EXAMPLE: The chart shown below is typical for starter
* For latest information, check manufacturer’s data and/or Underwriters’ Laboratories U.L. manufacturers and may be found on the inside of the door of the
Standard #508 for damage and warning label requirements. starter enclosure. (See starter manufacturer for specific
What about starter withstandability and Section 110-10 requirements for
component protection? Heater Full Load Current Max.
Code of Motor (Amperes) Fuse
SIZE 1 STARTER LISTED FOR 5000 Marking (40°C Ambient)
AMPS WITH THE 50A BREAKER 71/2 HP XX03 .25- .27 1
Short-circuit current (22A) XX04 .28- .31 3
should not exceed M XX05 .32- .34 3
5000 amperes XX06 .35- .38 3
XX15 .84- .91 6
Under short-circuit conditions, the branch circuit protective device XX16 .92-1.00 6
must protect the circuit components from extensive damage. XX17 1.01-1.11 6
Therefore, the following factors should be analyzed: available XX18 1.12-1.22 6
short-circuit current, let-thru characteristics of the overcurrent Above Heaters for use on Size 0
protective device, and starter withstandability.
As an Example, a Size 1 Starter has been tested by U.L. with Section 240-6 has an exception listing additional standard fuse
5000 ampere minimum available short-circuit current per U.L. ampere ratings of 1, 3, 6 and 10 amperes. The lower ratings were
Standard 508. Thus, in the example above, the available short- added to provide more effective protection for circuits with small
circuit currents should not exceed 5000 amperes since the circuit motors, in accordance with Sections 430-52 and 430-40 and
breaker is not current-limiting. requirements for protecting the overload relays in controllers for
Additionally an MCP, if used in a combination controller, must very small motors. Fuse manufacturers have available other
be listed for that specific combination. The MCP cannot be used intermediate fuse ampere ratings to provide closer circuit
as a separate motor branch circuit short-circuit protective device protection (such as sizing dual-element fuses at 125% of motor
to protect a motor controller. Applications of MCP’s on many current) or to comply with “Maximum Fuse” sizes specified in
motors, i.e., high efficiency or high Code Letter, may cause the controller manufacturer’s overload relay tables.
MCP to operate needlessly, even when sized at 1700% of motor
current. Some MCP’s require an additional component which A paragraph of Section 430-52 allows other fuses to be used in place of
accommodates or overlooks the inrush to allow motor start-up. those allowed in Table 430-152. Why is this Code provision necessary?
Some “solid-state” motor starters and drives require fuses
In the circuit below using a Buss LOW-PEAK YELLOW ™ dual-element specifically designed to protect semiconductor components. The
time-delay fuse, can available short-circuit current exceed 5000 Code provision was necessary in order to give branch circuit,
amperes? short-circuit and ground fault “recognition” to these fuses.


3Ø M


Max. size: 175% x 22 = 40A

430-53 Covers Requirements for Connecting Several Motors or Loads on One Branch Circuit

What does this Section mean? BRANCH

Simply stated, branch circuit protection for group motor
installations must be testing agency and factory listed for such
installations. This listing can be accomplished as a factory
installed assembly with specified marking, or field installed as M
separate assemblies listed for use with each other, with
instructions provided by the manufacturer. For the best protection Nameplate specifies max fuse as
branch circuit device.
of group motor installations, the branch circuit protective device
must be current-limiting. The Fine Print Note reference to Section
110-10 emphasizes the necessity to comply with the component If the equipment nameplate specifies “MAX” circuit breaker of a certain
short-circuit withstand ratings. manufacturer and part number, what must be used?
Only that specific type and manufacturer may be used. In other
If the equipment nameplate specifies “MAX” fuse for a multimotor words, that controller has been tested and listed with a certain
circuit, what must the branch circuit device be? circuit breaker, with certain short-circuit characteristics. Although
It must be a fuse, rated at not more than what is specified on the breakers of other manufacturers and interrupting ratings may be
nameplate. The best type of fuse to use is a current-limiting fuse. interchangeable, that substitution is not allowed by 430-53(c)(3).
This is due in part to the fact that there is no standardization of
short-circuit performance of circuit breakers. Also, some circuit
breakers exhibit current-limitation, to a degree, while not being
marked current-limiting. This could prove to be a hazard if a non-
current-limiting breaker of the same form and fit were to be

430-71 Covers an Introduction to Motor Control-Circuit Protection

What does this Section mean? Section 430-71 defines the control circuit of a motor controller
(control apparatus). The relationship of a control circuit to the
BRANCH CIRCUIT circuit carrying the main power current is illustrated in the circuit
diagram at left.


430-72(a) Covers Motor Control-Circuit Overcurrent Protection

What does this Section mean:
protected by either a branch or supplementary-type protective
BRANCH CIRCUIT device (such a control circuit is not to be considered a branch
FUSE circuit).
M New agency requirement—For motor controllers listed for
available fault currents greater than 10,000 amperes, the control
circuit fuse must be a branch circuit fuse with a sufficient
Branch circuit or interrupting rating. (The use of Buss FNQ-R, KTK-R, LPJ_SP, JJS,
supplementary-type fuse CONTROL CIRCUIT or JJN fuses is recommended; these fuses have branch circuit
As shown in the above circuit, the motor control circuit tapped on listing status, high interrupting rating, current-limitation, and small
the load side of the motor branch circuit protective device can be size.)

430-72(b) Covers Motor Control-Circuit Conductor Protection

What does this Section mean?
Control circuit conductors must be protected by a fuse rated at not (Exception No. 1)
more than those values shown in Column “A” of Table 430-72(b).

FUSE Control circuit
M within

The motor branch protective device is considered

Branch circuit or
to also protect the control conductors if the conductors
supplementary-type fuse CONTROL CIRCUIT CONDUCTORS do not extend beyond the enclosure and the maximum
What does Exception No. 1 mean? rating of the protective device is not greater than
If the control conductors do not leave the enclosure, they can be Table 430-72(b) Column B.
considered to be protected by the branch circuit fuse, if that fuse
does not exceed the values of Table 430-72(b) Column B.
430-72(b) Covers Motor Control-Circuit Conductor Protection

Do the two circuits shown below require individual control circuit protec- What does Exception No. 2 mean?
tion? If the control conductors leave the enclosure, they can be
considered to be protected by the branch circuit fuse, if that fuse
does not exceed the values of Table 430-72(b) Column C.
25 HP
M 34A (Exception No. 2)

No. 16 Wire Within Enclosure M

Control conductors
extending beyond enclosure
No. The LPS-RK40SP ampere fuses are sized within the 40 ampere
requirement for #16 conductor within an enclosure. (See Table The motor branch circuit protective device is considered also to
430-72(b).) protect the control conductors if it does not exceed the values of
Column C.

25 HP What does Exception No. 3 mean?

M 34A Primary fusing of a control transformer can be considered to
10A Required protect the 2-wire, secondary conductors if the fuse rating does not
exceed the value of multiplying the appropriate rating from Table
430-72(b) with the secondary-to-primary voltage ratio.
No. 16 Wire Within Enclosure
Yes. Individual control circuit fuses are required since the 80 FUSE
.5 Amp
ampere circuit breaker has a rating in excess of the 40 ampere 120V
requirement for #16 conductor within an enclosure. (See Table 2 WIRE
480V 100VA
Note: Sections 110-10 and 240-1 require that component withstand not be exceeded. Not
all overcurrent devices set at 400% can protect small conductors.
#18 Copper

From Table 430-72(b)

Wire Size Max. Protection

#18 Copper 7 Ampere Fuse

Maximum primary fuse shall not exceed 1.75A as determined by—

120V x
7A = 1.75A

Comparison By Largest HP Motor (460V) Circuit Where Branch Circuit Protective Device Is Considered To Protect The Control Conductors Per
430-72(b) (2), Exc. 1 and 2.
Protective Approx. Level Of Control Circuit Control Circuit
Device Size As Percent Protection Within Enclosure Extending Beyond Enclosure
Motor F.L.A. #18 #16 #14 #18 #16 #14
125% Overload 15HP 25HP 60HP 3HP 5HP 25HP
or FUSETRON Fuse Circuit
175% 10HP 15HP 40HP 2HP 3HP 15HP
Non-Time-Delay 300% 5HP 71/2 H P 20HP 1HP 11/2 H P 10HP
Thermal Magnetic 250% Branch 5HP 10HP 30HP 11/2 H P 2HP 10HP
Circuit Breaker Circuit
1 1
Instantaneous 1000%* Only 1HP 2HP 5HP /4 H P /2 H P 2HP
Only Circuit
*Instantaneous only circuit breakers cannot provide any overload protection. Typically to hold starting currents, instantaneous trip is set at 1000% to 1700% of motor full-load amperes.

Even though a fuse or circuit breaker can be sized at 300% or 400% of insulation breakdown and melting of the conductors. For example,
the conductor ampacity, what level of control conductor protection can be if the control circuit run were of considerable length, the conductor
expected? impedance might be sufficiently high to limit fault currents to 200%
The protective device would respond only to high level conductor to 400% of the conductor ampacity. Thus, oversized overcurrent
overcurrents; the control conductors would not be protected devices would provide inadequate protection. In contrast, fuses
against lower overcurrent levels. This lack of protection could sized to the conductors ampacity would provide full-range
result in a prolonged 200% control circuit overcurrent and eventual overcurrent protection; their use is to be recommended.

430-72(c) Covers Motor Control-Circuit Transformer Protection

What does this Section Mean? However, inclusion of fuse protection in the primary of the
control transformer would minimize this type of hazard. Buss type
Primary Fuse Protection Only. FNQ or FNQ-R Time-Delay fuses could be sized as low as 125% of
Transformer Primary Fuse the transformer full-load amperes. Buss type KTK or KTK-R fast-
Primary Ampacity acting fuses could typically be sized at 300% of the primary full-
Current Must Not Exceed load amperes. When applying fuses, the time-current
Less than 2 amperes 500%* (Exception No. 2)* characteristics should be checked to determine if the fuse can hold
2 to 9 amperes 167% the inrush magnetizing current of the transformer.
9 amperes or more 125%
*Primary protection using time-delay fuses sized not in excess of 250% is recommended. Fuses Commonly Used in Control Circuits.
There are several fuse types which have small dimensions that are
Primary and Secondary Fuse Protection. ideally suited for control circuit protection. The KTK-R, FNQ-R and
Primary Fuse Secondary Secondary LP-CC fuses are listed as Class CC fuses, and JJN (JJS) fuses are
Does Not Exceed Current Fuse listed as Class T fuses. The other fuses shown are listed as
250% 9 amperes or more 125% supplementary protection. When used for control transformer, coil,
250% Less than 9 amperes 167% or solenoid protection, the fuse should be selected to withstand the
inrush current for the required time.
Application Guideline to 430-72(c), Exception No. 1.
Symbol Voltage Ampere Interrupting Comment
The conditions of 430-72(c), Exception No. 1, permits the use of a Rating Rating Class Rating
control transformer rated less than 50 VA* without the inclusion of Branch Circuit Rejection Fuses
individual protection on the primary side of the transformer in the FNQ-R 600V 15/100 thru 10 CC* 200KA
control circuit proper. Thus, protection of the transformer primary LP-CC 600V 1/ 2 thru 30 CC* 200KA Time-delay in
against short-circuit currents is dependent upon the device used LPJ 600V 1 thru 600 J* 300KA overload region
for branch circuit protection. However, consideration should be SC 480V 6 thru 60 G* 100KA
given to protecting the control transformer on the primary side with KTK-R 600V 1/10 thru 30 CC* 200KA No intentional
individual fuses specifically sized for control transformer JJN 300V 1 thru 1200 T* 200KA time-delay
protection. JJS 600V 1 thru 800 T* 200KA in the overload
SC 480V 1/ 2 thru 5 G* 100KA region
60A Supplementary Fuses
FNQ 500V 1/10 thru 30 SUP.* 10KA
* FNW 250V 12 thru 30 SUP.* 10KA
FNM 250V 0 thru 1 SUP.* 35A
480V 120V FNM 250V 1.1 thru 3.5 SUP.* 100A
(25VA) FNM 250V 3.6 thru 10 SUP.* 200A Time-delay in the
FNM 125V 10.1 thru 15 SUP.* 10KA overload region
.05A normal F.L.C.
(breakdown of transformer windings could cause FNM 32V 15.1 thru 30 SUP. 1KA
FNA 250V 1/10 thru 8/10 SUP.* 35A
current to increase many times over normal level but
less than 60A) *Conductor protection still required per FNA 125V 1 thru 15 SUP.* 10KA
Section 430-72(b) FNA 32V 15.1 thru 30 SUP. 1KA
KTK 600V 1/10 thru 30 SUP.* 100KA
Take the case, for instance, in which a short occurs in a control BAF 250V 1/ 2 thru 1 SUP.* 35A
transformer (such as would result from insulation deterioration and BAF 250V 1.1 thru 3.5 SUP.* 100A
breakdown). (See diagram above in which a 60 ampere branch BAF 250V 3.6 thru 10 SUP.* 200A No intentional
circuit fuse is shown.) Now, if the overcurrent drawn by the control BAF 250V 10.1 thru 15 SUP.* 750A time-delay
circuit as a result of the shorted control transformer is relatively low BAF 125V 15.1 thru 30 SUP. 10KA in the overload
(actually could be less than 60 amperes) compared to the BAN 250V 2/10 thru 1 SUP. 35A region
response time of the 60 ampere branch circuit fuse or circuit BAN 250V 1.1 thru 3.5 SUP. 100A
breaker, the transformer could become so hot that extensive BAN 250V 3.6 thru 10 SUP. 200A
damage could be done to the insulation of the control conductors BAN 250V 10.1 thru 15 SUP. 750A
. . . the transformer itself could burst into flames. BAN 250V 15.1 thru 30 SUP. 1500A
* U.L. Listed

*Control Transformers rated less than 50 VA are usually impedance protected or have
other types of protection, such as inherent protection.

430-94 Covers Motor Control Center Protection

What are the requirements of this Section? COMPLIANCE COMPLIANCE

Where motor control centers (MCC) are specified, proper
overcurrent protection shall be supplied in the MCC as an integral
main, or remote main. These devices should be rated based on
the common power bus rating.

600A MCC 600A MCC

600A Bus 600SP
600A Bus

440-5 Covers Marking Requirements on HVAC Controllers

What are the requirements of this Section?
If the nameplate on the equipment controller is marked with "MAX
FUSE", that means a fuse must be used to protect the equipment.
See Section 110-3(b) for proper installation and protection.

440-22 Covers Application and Selection of the Branch Circuit Protection for
HVAC Equipment

What are the requirements of this Section? 440-22(e) states that if the manufacturer's heater table shows a
The branch circuit protective device may be sized at the maximum maximum protective device less than that allowed above, the
value of 175% of the motor-compressor rated load current. If the protective device rating shall not exceed the manufacturer's values
motor cannot start due to high inrush currents, this value may be (refer to Section 430-52 also).
increased to, but cannot exceed, 225% of motor rated current.

450-3 Covers Protection Requirements for Transformers

The required secondary protection may be satisfied with multiple

overcurrent devices that protect feeders fed from the transformer
secondary. The total ampere rating of these multiple devices
cannot exceed the allowed value of a single secondary 250%
overcurrent device. If this method is chosen, dual-element, time-
delay fuse protection offers much greater flexibility. 150 KVA
Note the following examples:
This design utilized a single secondary overcurrent device. It 208/120V IFLA = 417A
provides the greatest degree of selectively coordinated
transformer protection, secondary cable protection, and switch-
board/panelboard/load center protection. The transformer cannot This fuse or circuit breaker may
be sized at 1.25 x 417A = 522A.
be overloaded to a significant degree if future loads are added The exception allows the next
(improperly) in the future. standard size of 600A to be used.
If the single secondary overcurrent device is eliminated, much
of the protection will be reduced.
200A 200A 200A 200A 200A
Switch Switch Switch Switch Switch
110SP 110SP 110SP 110SP 110SP

83A 83A 83A 83A 83A

450-3 Covers Protection Requirements for Transformers

Using the same logic, if the single secondary main is eliminated No Single Secondary Device
and thermal magnetic circuit breakers are utilized as branch circuit
protection, only three of the motors can be connected because the
thermal-magnetic breakers will have been sized at approximately
250% of motor F.L.A. (83 x 250% = 207.5A)
No Single Secondary Device 150 KVA

208/120V IFLA = 417A

581A MCP
150 KVA

208/120V IFLA = 417A

200A 200A 200A

Thermal- Thermal- Thermal-
Magnetic Magnetic Magnetic
Circuit Circuit Circuit
Breaker Breaker Breaker Only one motor can be connected
M when the MCP is utilized.

If the single secondary main is eliminated, and dual-element

fuses are utilized as branch circuit protection, the transformer can
continue to be loaded with the five 83 ampere motors because 5 x
110 = 550 amperes (which is less than the maximum of 600
83A 83A 83A
No Single Secondary Device
Using a 200 ampere circuit breaker would allow three
(600 ÷ 200) motors to be connected.
If the single secondary main is eliminated and MCP's are
utilized as branch circuit protection, the transformer will be
seriously underutilized because only one motor can be connected.
For one motor, 1 x 700% of 83 = 581 amperes. For two motors, 2 x 150 KVA
700% of 83 = 1162 amperes. Since the sum of the devices cannot
exceed 600 amperes, only one motor can be connected when the IFLA = 417A
motor circuit is protected by an MCP.
If the MCP will not hold at the 700% setting due to a high
starting current, it cannot be adjusted beyond 722% (600÷83) and 200A 200A 200A 200A 200A
therefor it may not be able to be used. Switch Switch Switch Switch Switch
110SP 110SP 110SP 110SP 110SP

83A 83A 83A 83A 83A

450-3(a) Covers Protection Requirements for Transformers Over 600 Volts

What is the general content of this Section? This part of the Section sets the overcurrent protection require-
ments of transformers (over 600 volts): The primary should be
Z = 6% (or less) protected by an individual protective device with fuse rating not in
PRI. SEC. excess of 300% of the primary's rated current. Secondary sizing is
over 600V
Unsupervised dependent upon whether or not the location is "supervised".
600V or less

Fuse at Fuse at
300% of F.L.A. of primary 125% of
F.L.A. of secondary

450-3(b) Covers Protection Requirements for Transformers 600 Volts or Less

What is the general content of this Section? Protection of circuit conductors is required per Articles 240 and
This section covers protection requirements of transformers, 600 310; protection of panelboards per Article 384. Specific sections
volts or less. Fusing requirements are shown in the illustrated which should be referenced are Sections 240-3, 240-21 and
example below. Section 384-16d.

PRIMARY PROTECTION ONLY Note: Transformer overload protection will not be provided by using
No secondary
overcurrent protective devices sized much greater than the trans-
former F.L.A. The limits of 167%, 250% and 300% will not adequately
Fuse must not be PRI. & SEC. protect transformers. It is suggested that for transformer overload
larger than 125% 600V or less protection, the fuse size should be within 125% of the transformer full-
of F.L.A. of primary load amperes.
There is a wide range of fuse ampere ratings available to
PRI. & SEC. properly protect transformers. FUSETRON® (Class RK5) and LOW-
600V or less PEAK YELLOW™ (Class RK1) dual-element fuses can often be sized
on the transformer primary and/or secondary, rated as low as 125%
of the transformer F.L.A. These dual-element fuses have sufficient
125% of F.L.A.
Fuse no larger than of secondary
time delay to withstand the high magnetizing inrush currents of
250% of F.L.A. (except as noted) transformers. There is a wide ampere rating selection in the 0 to 15
of primary when ampere range for these dual-element fuses to provide protection for
secondary fuses even small control transformers.
are provided at 125%

450-6(a)(3) Covers Tie Circuit Protection

What does this Section require?

Current-limiting cable limiters shall be used on each end of the tie
conductors, specified per the size of the conductors.

455-7 Covers Overcurrent Protection Requirements for Phase Converters

What does this Section mean? P/C

Phase converters can best be protected by dual-element time- Nameplate = M
delay, current-limiting fuses sized at not more than 125% of the LPS-RK100SP 80 Amperes
3Ø Motor
P/C nameplate single-phase input full-load current.
For converters supplying specific leads, the protection shall not A maximum fuse rating LPS-RK100SP will meet the 125%
be more than 250% of the load, times the ratio of output to input requirements.
Where the required rating does not correspond to a standard
rating, sizes up to the next standard rating may be used.

460-8(b) Covers Overcurrent Protection of Capacitors

What are the requirements of this Section?

Overcurrent protection must be provided in each ungrounded
conductor supplying a capacitor bank, except for a capacitor
located on the load side of a motor overload protective device.
The rating of this overcurrent protective device shall be as low
as practical. Generally, dual-element time-delay fuses can be
sized at 150% to 175% of the capacitor rated current.

501-6(b) Covers Fuses for Class I, Division 2 Locations

What is the importance of the addition of “non-indicating, silver sand, What is the importance of 501-6(b)(5)?
current-limiting type” to Section 501-6(b)(3)? General Comment–These fuses are used to isolate a faulted fixture
A reference to a “non-indicating, silver sand, current-limiting type” ballast and maintain continuity of service. Listed or recognized
fuse has been added to Section 501-6(b)(3). The intent of this branch circuit or supplementary fuses may be used. Additionally,
reference is to suggest the use of non-indicating, filled, current- the GLR fuse is used on ballasts that have a 200 ampere short-
limiting fuses. The description “silver sand” is used as a generic circuit withstand rating such as Class P ballasts.
reference in describing filled, current-limiting fuses, not as a
description for a specific type of fuse link or filler material. The CIRCUIT
following is a partial list of non-indicating fuses which are current- BREAKER 2,000 Amperes Row of Fluorescent
limiting: 20' #12 WIRE Available Fixtures
Class CC LP-CC 1/2 - 30, KTK-R 3 - 30, FNQ-R 2 - 10
Class J LPJ_SP 15 - 600, JKS 0 - 600 Lighting
Class L KRP-C_SP 601 - 6000, KTU 601 - 6000, Panel
KLU 601 - 4000
Class RK1 KTN-R 1 - 600, KTS-R 35 - 600
GLR Fuse

Faulted Ballast Ballasts

517-17 Covers Requirements for Ground Fault Protection and Coordination in

Health Care Facilities

What does this Section mean? What is one of the most important design parameters of the power
If ground fault protection is placed on the main service or feeder of distribution system of a health care facility?
a health care facility, ground fault protection must also be placed Selective coordination. To minimize the disruption of power and
on the next level of feeders. The separation between ground fault blackouts in a distribution system, it is absolutely mandatory that
relay time bands for any feeder and main ground fault relay must the overcurrent protective devices be selectively coordinated.
be at least 6 cycles in order to achieve coordination between these
two ground fault relays. In health care facilities where no ground What is selective coordination?
fault protection is placed on the main or feeder, no ground fault A selectively coordinated system is one in which the overcurrent
protection is necessary at the next level down. Therefore, if the protective devices have been selected so that only the overcurrent
requirements of Sections 230-95 and 215-10 do not require ground device protecting that circuit in which a fault occurs opens; other
fault protection, then no ground fault protection is required on the circuits in the system are not disturbed. The danger of a major
downstream feeders either. power failure in a health care facility such as a hospital is self
evident. In any facility, a rampant power failure is at least
If the ground fault protection of the feeder coordinates with the main inconvenient, if not quite costly; in a hospital, it can easily give rise
ground fault protection, will complete coordination between the main and to panic and endanger lives. Continuity of electrical service by
feeder be assured for all ground faults? selective coordination of the protection devices is a must. (See
No, not necessarily! Merely providing coordinated ground fault Section 240-12, System Coordination, of this Bulletin for a more
relays does not prevent a main service blackout caused by feeder detailed explanation of selective coordination).
ground faults. The overcurrent protective devices must also be
selectively coordinated. The intent of Section 517-17 is to achieve
“100 percent selectivity” for all magnitudes of ground fault current
and overcurrents. 100% selectivity requires that the overcurrent
protective devices be selectively coordinated for medium and high
magnitude ground fault currents because the conventional
overcurrent devices may operate at these levels. (See discussion
of Section 240-12, System Coordination, for a more detailed
explanation of selective coordination).

520-53(f) Covers Protection of Portable Switchboards on Stage

What does this Section require?

Compliance with Sections 110-9 and 110-10 is mandatory. High
available fault currents require the use of current-limiting fuses.
If the available short-circuit current exceeds the withstand rating of the available fault
switchboard, what can be done to comply with this Section? current CURRENT-
Use current-limiting fuses on the line side of the switchboard to LIMITING
provide short-circuit protection. FUSE

Switchboard withstand
rating 50,000A when
protected by a current-
31 limiting fuse
550-6(b) Covers Overcurrent Protection 620-62 Covers Selective Coordination of
Requirements for Mobile Homes and Parks Overcurrent Protective Devices for Elevators

What does this Section mean? 1,000

Branch circuit fuses installed in a mobile home should not exceed 600
the rating of the conductors they supply. These fuses should not 400
be more than 1.5 times the rating of an appliance rated 13.3 300
amperes or more on a single branch, and not more than the fuse 200
size marked on the air conditioner or other motor operated
appliance. 100
Do these branch circuit fuses conform to the requirements of 550-6(b)? 60
Yes. 40
APP 13.3 Amps 20 400 AMP 400A
90 AMP Circuit Breaker
20A FUSE Circuit I.T. = 5X
10 Breaker
#14 Conductor 8
15A FUSE 6
60A Air Conditioning Unit

M 4
MAIN marked max. fuse 20 Amp. 3 90A

Note: If the nameplate on a device states “Maximum Fuse Size”, then fuses that size or .8
smaller must be used somewhere in the circuit. .6 Elevator

610-14(c) Covers Conductor Sizes .1 4000A

and Protection for Cranes and Hoists .06
What does this Section mean?
#18 conductors can be used in control circuits of cranes and .008
hoists if they are fused at not greater than 7 amperes. .006

620-62 Covers Selective Coordination of .001





Overcurrent Protective Devices for Elevators


What does this Section require?

When a feeder supplies more than one elevator, the elevator
overcurrent protective devices must selectively coordinate with all
670-3 Covers Protection of Industrial
upstream feeders and mains. This requirement was added
because the upstream device may be a long distance from the
To be "selectively coordinated" means that should a fault (L-G,
L-N, L-L, L-L-L) occur anywhere in a system, ONLY the first What does this Section mean?
overcurrent device upstream of the fault will open. Thus, power is If a main overcurrent protective device is provided on a metal
maintained on all other branches (feeders) in the system. working machine tool, the nameplate shall state, among other
In the following diagram, a fault at X would trip both the 90 things, the interrupting capacity of the device. The machine shall
ampere breaker and the 400 ampere breaker. This non-selectivity also be marked “overcurrent protection provided at machine
would be present for all short-circuit current values higher than the supply terminals”.
instant trip setting of the 400 ampere breaker. In the example. . .
400 x 10 = 4,000 amperes. This results in total loss of power to the
other elevators. The aftermath can be PANIC. This installation is a
clear VIOLATION of Section 620-62.
If LOW-PEAK YELLOW™ fuses were used (see the Selectivity
Ratio Guide), a fault at X clears the 90 ampere fuses ONLY. The
400 ampere fuses remain intact, thereby maintaining power to the
other elevators. This installation is in COMPLIANCE with Section

700-5 Covers Emergency Systems – Their Capacity and Rating

What does 700-5(a) require?

Emergency systems and equipment must be able to handle the
available short-circuit current at their line side. If the equipment
cannot, it may be damaged, causing additional hazards to
personnel. The use of current-limiting fuses can be a solution to
this high fault current problem.

700-16 Covers Emergency Illumination

What does this Section require? COMPLIANCE

Emergency lighting systems cannot allow a blackout in any area Fixture No. 1
requiring emergency illumination due to the failure of any one
element of the lighting system. Such failures could be caused by Fixture No. 2
the burning out a light bulb or the opening of a branch circuit
protective device due to a faulted ballast. The solution to the burnt Branch
out light bulb is to have additional bulb(s) in the area. The solution (Remains Fixture No. 3 Fault
to the open branch circuit protective device is to install U.L. 198G energized) (Open)
listed supplementary fuses on each ballast. In that way, a faulted Fixture No. 4
ballast would be taken off the line by the supplementary fuse, not
by the branch circuit protective device, allowing the rest of the
emergency system to remain energized. The fault in Fixture #3 will open just the supplementary fuse. The 20
ampere branch circuit device does not open and Fixtures 1, 2 and 4
VIOLATION remain energized, preventing a blackout.
Fixture No. 1

20A Fixture No. 2

Fixture No. 3 Fault

Fixture No. 4

The fault in Fixture #3 causes the 20 ampere branch circuit overcurrent

device to open, causing a blackout in the entire area.

700-25 Covers Emergency System Overcurrent Protection Requirements (FPN)

What does this fine print note require?
Increased Reliability
In order to maximize the reliability of emergency systems, the
overcurrent devices must be selectively coordinated. †Time- COMPLIANCE
current curves of both fuses and circuit breakers must be
examined to determine whether or not only the overcurrent device
closest to a fault opens. If additional upstream devices open, the Not
1000A Open
system is not selectively coordinated, causing additional sections
of the emergency system to black out and therefore, reducing the
reliability of that system.

Reduced Reliability
1000A Open

225A Opens
20A Opens

20A 22,000 Amp

Opens Short-Circuit
I.T.=8A 38-B
22,000 Amp
Short-Circuit Fault opens the nearest upstream fuse, allowing other circuits to remain
energized. Reliability of the emergency system is increased.

Fault exceeding the instantaneous trip setting of all three circuit †Selective coordination of overcurrent protective devices is addressed in Publication
breakers in series will open all three. This will blackout the entire NFPA110 “Emergency and Standby Power Systems”. Section 4-5 (1988) states that
emergency system. these devices shall be coordinated to ensure selective tripping of the circuit overcurrent
protective devices when a short-circuit occurs. (Appendix A, Section A-4-5.1 also
addresses selective coordination).

701-6 Covers Legally Required Standby Systems – Their Capacity and Rating

702-5 Covers Optional Standby Systems – Their Capacity and Rating

705-16 Covers Interconnected Electric Power Production Sources – Their

Interrupting and Withstand Rating

What do these three Sections mean?

The N.E.C. requires that emergency and standby systems shall
have the capability of safely interrupting the available short-circuit
current available at the line terminals of the equipment. Refer to
Sections 110-9 and 110-10.

725-23 Covers Overcurrent Protection for Class 1 Circuits

What does this Section mean? What must be added to this Control Circuit to comply with 725-23?
Class 1 Control Circuit Conductors shall be protected by fuses at
their ampacities. In addition, #18 and #16 shall be protected at 7 VIOLATION
amperes and 10 amperes, respectively.
20 Amp


#18 Control Wire

A 7 ampere fuse must be added to protect the #18 control wire.


20 Amp

7 Amp Fuse

#18 Control Wire

760-23 Covers Requirements for Nonpower-Limited Fire Protective Signaling


What does this provision require?

Fire protective signaling circuits with conductors #18 and larger
must be protected at their ampacities as shown:
#18 …7 ampere fuse maximum
#16 …10 ampere fuse maximum
#14 (and larger). . .Max. fuse size as dictated in Section

Fuses shall be located at the supply terminals of the conductor.

Buss Fuse Selection Chart (600 Volts or Less).
Circuit Load Ampere Fuse Symbol Voltage Class Interrupting Remarks
Rating Type Rating Rating
(AC) (KA)
Conventional Dimensions–Class RK1, RK5 (1/10-600A), L (601-6000A)
All type loads– /10 LOW-PEAK LPN-RK_SP 250V* RK1†† 300 All-purpose fuses.
resistive or to YELLOW™ LPS-RK_SP 600V* Unequaled for combined
inductive (optimum 600A (dual-element, short-circuit and
overcurrent time-delay) overload protection.
protection). 601 to LOW-PEAK KRP-C_SP 600V L 300 (Specification grade product)
Motors, welders, /10 FUSETRON® FRN-R 250V* RK5†† 200 Moderate degree of
transformers, to (dual-element, FRS-R 600V* current limitation. Time-delay
capacitor banks 600A time-delay) passes surge currents.
(circuits with heavy 601 to LIMITRON® KLU 600V L 200 General purpose fuse.
Main, inrush currents). 4000A (time-delay) Time-delay passes
Feeder surge-currents.
and Non-motor loads KTN-R 250V RK1†† 200 Same short-circuit protection
Branch (circuits with no 1 KTS-R 600V as LOW-PEAK fuses, but
heavy inrush to must be sized larger for
currents). 600A circuits with surge currents,
LIMITRON fuses i.e., up to 300%.
suited for circuit 601 to KTU 600V L 200 A fast-acting, high-
breaker protection. 6000A performance fuse.
Reduced Dimensions For Installation in Restricted Space–Class J(1-600A), T(1-1200A), CC(1/10-30A), G(1/2-60A)
All type loads LOW-PEAK LPJ_SP 600V* J 300 All-purpose fuses.
(optimum YELLOW™ Unequaled for combined
overcurrent (dual-element, short-circuit and overload
protection). 1 time-delay) protection. (Specification
to grade product).
Non-motor loads 600A LIMITRON® JKS 600V J 200 Very similar to KTS-R
(circuits with no (quick-acting) LIMITRON, but smaller.
heavy inrush 1 to T-TRON™ JJN 300V T 200 The space saver (1/3 the
currents). 1200A JJS 600V size of KTN-R/KTS-R).
Control transformer /10 to 30A LIMITRON® KTK-R 600V CC 200 Very compact (13/32" x
circuits and lighting (fast-acting) 11/2"); rejection feature.
ballasts, etc. 1
/4 to 10A CC-TRON™ FNQ-R Excellent for control
Branch (time-delay) transformer protection .
All type loads - LOW-PEAK LP-CC
especially small /2 to 30A YELLOW™
HP motors (time-delay)
General purpose, /2 SC SC 300V G 100 Current-limiting;
i.e., lighting to 13/32"
dia. x varying
panelboards. 60A lengths per ampere rating.
Miscellaneous. /8 ONE-TIME NON 250V H or K5† 10 Forerunners of
to NOS 600V the modern
600A SUPER-LAG® REN 250V H 10 cartridge fuse.
Purpose Plug fuses can 1
/4 FUSTAT® S 125V S 10 Base threads of Type S
(non- be used for to (dual-element, differ with ampere ratings.
current- branch circuits 30A time-delay) T and W have Edison-base.
limiting and small T & S fuses recommended
FUSETRON® T 125V ** 10
fuses) component for motor circuits. W not
protection. time-delay) recommended for circuits
with motor loads.
Buss Type W W 125V ** 10
* LPN-RK_SP, 125VDC; LPS-RK_SP, 300VDC. FRN-R, 125VDC; FRS-R, 300VDC; LPJ_SP, 300VDC.
** Listed as Edison-Base Plug Fuse.
† Some ampere ratings are available as Class K5 with a 50,000A interrupting rating.
†† RK1 and RK5 fuses fit standard switches, fuseblocks and holders; however, the rejection feature of Class R switches and fuseblocks designed specifically for rejection type fuses
(RK1 and RK5) prevent the insertion of the non-rejection fuses (K1, K5 and H).

Bussmann Cooper Industries, Inc. Bussmann Division, P.O. Box 14460, St. Louis, MO 63178-4460
Sales Offices: U.S.A. 314-527-3877 • United Kingdom 44-1509-880737
Denmark 45-44850910 • Germany 49-6105-76968 • Singapore 65-227-5346
Australia 61-2-743-8333 • Mexico 525-352-0088 • India 91-80-225-1133