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FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


{PRIMER CURSO EN ESPAOL)

An

Elementary Spanish

Grammar

(Una Gramtica Espaola Elemental)

BY

EVERETT WARD OLMSTED,


Professor of

Ph.D., Litt.D.

Romance Languages and Head


University of Minnesota

of the Department

NEW YORK HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY

*.\

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
PAGE
I.

Alphabet
Pronunciation
,.
.

11.

III.

Vowels

4
4
5 5

. .
.

IV. Diphthongs

V. Triphthongs
VI. Consonants

VIL Double letters


VIII. Variations of pronttnciation

IX. Orthographic and phonetic changes

........

10
11

X. Accent

XL
XIII.

Division of syllables

13

XII. Punctuation

14 14
15

Capital letters

XIV. Class-room expressions

LESSONS
I.

Present indicative of the first conjugation. OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. USE OF UStcd


{Verb Exercises.)

Omission
19

II.

Present indicative of the second and third conjugations


(Verb Exercises.)

22

III.

Indefinite article. Definite article.

The

prepositions
24

de AND
IV.

Si

...

(The Spanish Class.)

Nouns: gender and nl^mber


(Zw the Class-room.)

28

VI

CONTENTS
PAGE

V. Seasons and months of the yeae. tive OF ser


.

Present indica31'

{The Months and Seasons of the Year.)


VI.

Days of the week. Present indicative of


{The Days of the Week and Month.)

estar

34

VII.

The hours of the


{How
to tell the

day.

Expressions of time
of Day.)

...
.

Zl

Time

VIII.

Sentence order.

Present indicative of tener.

40

{The Principal Parts of the Body.)

IX. Adjectives: gender, number, agreement, position

43

{Industrious and Idle Pupils.)

X. Apocopation of adjectives.
article {Two Friends and

Omission of indefinite
47

their Families.)

XI. Demonstrative adjectives.


{Family Relationships.)

Possessive adjectives

50

XII. Subjunctive used as polite imperative. FORMATION, POSITION


{In the Class-room.)

Advep-BS:
55

XIII. Forms of address.

Use of definite article.


J

...

59

{A Call, Greetings

etc.)

XIV. The gerund.

tive OF haber.

The past participle. Present indicaThe perfect indicative ....

63

{The Spanish Language as spoken in Different Parts


of the World.)

XV. Imperfect and preterit

indicative of the three REGULAR conjugations. ImPERFECT INDICATIVE OF ser, ver and ir {An Invitation to travel to Spain and South America.)

68

XVI. Imperfect and preterit indicative of the auxiliary VERBS. Accusative with a
.

72

{The Itinerary.)

XVII. Future and conditional indicative of the three REGULAR CONJUGATIONS AND OF THE FOUR AUXILIARY VERBS. Compound tenses {Preparations and Purchases for the Journey.)
,

76

CONTENTS
XVIII. Imperative and present subjunctr^ of the three REGULAR CONJUGATIONS
(Arrival at Gibraltar?)

Vil
PAGE

82

XIX. Orthographic changes


{Granada

The Alhamhra.)

in verbs

88

XX. Orthographic changes


{Hotel

in verbs and Sleeping Accommodations.

93
Laundry,)

XXI. Demonstrative pronouns. Comparison of adjectives


{Points of Interest in Cordova.)

99

XXII. The relative superlative. Adjectives irregularly COMPARED. Comparison of adverbs. Adverbs irregularly COMPARED. Comparison of equality
(adjectives ANT) ADVERBS)
{Sightseeing in Seville.)

104

XXIII. Possessive adjectives


nouns).

(forms

which follow the


110

Possessive pronouns
Seville.)

{A Boarding-house in

XXIV. Negatives. Spanish words for


{Railway Travel in Spain.)

'but'

115

XXV. Object personal


{Greetings.

pronouns.

Position of same

...

120

An

Introduction.

Conversation re-

garding the Sights of Madrid.)

XXVI. Reflexive

verbs.

Use of se

124

{A Trip

to Toledo.)

XXVII. Two OBJECT personal pronouns. Personal pronouns


USED with prepositions
{Shopping in Madrid.)
131

XXVIII. The points of the compass. Haber used impersonally. Tener used idiomatically. Adverbial phrases
.

137

{The Climate of Madrid.)

XXIX.

Radical-changing verbs, first class. of time


{Excursions about Madrid.)

Expressions
141

XXX.

Radical-changing verbs, second and third classes


{Spanish Meals.)
dar, hacer,

146

XXXI. The irregular verbs


.

poner, traer and

decir
{In the Dining-room.)

150

VUl

CONTENTS
PAGE

XXXII. Relative pronouns and adjectives


{The University of Salamanca.)

155

XXXIII. The iilregular verbs poder,


venir
{Burgos and

querer, saber,

ir

and
161

San Sebastin.) XXXIV. Interrogative pronouns and adjectives


{A Bull-fight.)

......

165

XXXV. The
XXXVT.

absolute superlative
{Voyage
to

171

Rio de

Jajteiro.)

Indefinite pronouns and adjectives. inite ARTICLE


{Montevideo.)

Uses of def176

XXXVII. The

prepositions para and por


{Buenos Aires.)
infinitive
in dependent clauses. Noun Tense sequence after a present or
.

182

XXXVIII. Uses of the

187

{The Theater.)

XXXIX. The

subjunctive

clauses.

future tense
{The Argentine Hero, San Martin.)

192

XL. Present subjunctive of the four auxiliary verbs AND OF TEN COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS {A Walk through the Streets of Buenos Aires.) XLI. Tense sequence after a past or conditional tense. Imperfect subjunctive of the three regular conjugations, of the four auxiliary verbs, and of ten common. irregular verbs
{A Trip from Buenos Aires
to

197

202

Santiago de Chile.)

XLII. The subjuncttv^ in adjective clauses. ular \^RBS ver AND salir {A Trip from Chile to Peru.) XLIII. The sl^bjunctlv^ in AD^^ERBIAL clauses
{The Incas.)

The

irreg-

203

......
The

216'

XLIV. Conditions contrary to

fact.

Imperfect subjunc223

tive (first form) in lieu of conditional.

irregular ^^rbs andar and querer


{The Venezuelan Hero, Bolivar.)

XLV. Independent use of the


VERB valer
{The

subjunctive.

The irregular
228

Panama

Canal, Mexico, Cuba.)

CONTENTS

IX

APPENDIX
PAGE

The regular verbs The compound tenses The passive voice


Verbs w^th orthographic changes
Radical-changing verbs

238

240
242

244

246
249

Verbs

^^^:TH

inceptwe endings

Verbs in

-iar

and -uar
.

250

Irregular verbs

250
251
261

Verbs in -uir
List of radical-changing verbs
List of irregular verbs

264 276
285

The infinitive. The cardinal numbers The ordinal numbers


Fractions

287

288 289

Collective numbers, etc

Weights and measures


Mont:y

290
291

Augmentatives
Diminutives
Interjections
.

292

294 299
302 307

Idioms in general use

Examples of epistolary style

Poems to be memorized

318

VOCABULARIES
Spanish-English vocabulary English-Spanish vocabulary
Int)ex

325

357
3S5

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

City and Port of Havana, Cuba

Frontispiece

Tomb

of Isabella

Granada

77

The Court of the Lions, The Alhambra Granada The "Mirador" of Daraxa, The Alhambra Granada The "Tocador" of the Queen, The Alhambra Granada The Court of the Orange-trees Cordova
Interior of the

81

87
91

95 97
103 108

Mosque

of

Cordova

Moorish Bridge

Cordova
Seville

The Giralda

The Royal Palace Madrid The Alcntara Bridge Toledo. The Gate the Sun Toledo
Tomb
of

Columbus

Seville

113

119
125

of

129
135

The

Escorial

Ancient Aqueduct

Segovia
of

144

Carved Stairway

University

Salamanca

154

Interior of the Cathedral of

Burgos

160
163

The "Concha"

San Sebastin

Bull-fight

The "Cuadrilla"

169
175

Rio de Janeiro and Bay


Square the Constitution and Port Montevideo The Capitol Buenos Aires The Pampas Argentine Republic The Capitol Santiago de Chile The Hill Santa Lucia Santiago de Chile
of of
.

180
185
191

199
.

205

Port of Valparaiso

209
213

Cathedral

Lima Cuzco
xi

Ancient Inca Fortress

215

Llamas waiting

for their loads

219

XU
The Panama Canal
Cathedral

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE
.

222

City

of

Mexico

225

Great Pyramid of the Sun

San Juan Teotihuacan


MAPS

230

Spain

232
235
.

South America

Mexico and Central America

236

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


{PRIMER CURSO EN ESPAOL)

AN ELEMENTARY SPANISH GRAMMAR


{UNA GRAMTICA ESPAOLA ELEMENTAL)

SIGNS

AND ABBREVIATIONS
ABREVIATURAS)
n.

{SIGNOS Y

adj. adv.

adjective

neuter
nautical

adverb
architectural
article

naut.
neg.
obj.

arch.
art.

aug.
cent{s)
cf.

augmentative cntimo (s)

obs.

PXP-)
pppart. pers.
pi.
>

ca.
coll.

compare compaa
colloquial

negative object obsolete page(s) past participle


participle
/ \

comp.
conj.
contr.
d.
del.

comparative
/
\

person personal
plural

conjugation conjunction contraction

plur. poss.

don
definite

prep.
pres.
pret.

possessive preposition present


preterit

dem. dim.
dir.

demonstrative diminutive
direct

i.^

primera

pron.
prov. pta.
rl{s).

pronoun
proverb
peseta
real(es) reflexive relative

dn.
dfia.
e.g.

don doa
for

example

Eng.

=
etc.

English equal (s), equalling, igual a

reflex.
rel.

and so forth
feminine famiUar feminine
first

()
2.^

section (s)

/.

segunda
>

Jam. Jem.
ISt

2d

2nd
sing.

second
singular

Jut. grafn.

future

Sp.
sr.

Spanish
seor seora
seorita

grammatical
the same that is imperfect impersonal imperative
/ indicative

Id.
i.e.

sra.
srta.

imp. impers
imptv.
ind.
iitdef.

subj. subst.
syl.

subjunctive substantive
syllable tercera

3-^

inf.
int.

\ indirect indefinite infinitive interjection

3d
3rd
trans.

third

translate
>

ud{s).

inter.
irr.

interrogative irregular

V.{V.)
V.

usted (es)

verb
verb, neuter (intransitive)
-

Jan.
lit.

January
literally
>

v.n.

m.
mas.
(
[

mascuUne
)
]

denotes that words are to be or may be included denotes that words are to be omitted

INTRODUCTION (INTRODUCCIN)
LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET {LETRAS DEL ALFABETO)
1.

Letter
a

2>

Name
a be
ce

1.

Letter

2.

Name
ene ee o

b
c

n
P
q
r
rr

ch

d
e
f

che de
e
efe

pe cu
ere
erre
^

ge

s
t

ese
te

h
i

hache
i

jota

u V

u
ve ve doble
i

k
1

ka
ele

w
X y
z

m
(a) All of

eUe

eme

equis griega zeta

the letters of the alphabet are feminine in Spanish.


a,

una
(b)

an a
11,

la b, the

The

characters ch,

and

rr

appear as distinct signs in


n.

the Spanish alphabet.

In a dictionary, words and syllables


rr,

and follow the letters c, 1 and which never begins a word, follows the normal order.
beginning with ch,
11

(c)

k and
n.

w occur

only in words of foreign origin.

PRONUNCIATION (PRONUNCIACIN)
of

The pronimciation
tries,

many

of the Spanish letters varies in


in the Spanish-speaking counis

the dijfferent parts of Spain

and

but the Castilian pronimciation


is

generally conceded to

be correct, and

the one

presented in this
3

grammar.

Even

in

'

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

Castilian Spanish, the pronunciation sometimes varies sHghtly

with individuals, so that

it is

impossible to give fixed and imletter.

varying rules for the formation of the sound of each

The

following rules will serve,

it is

hoped, to give the student

an approximately accurate knowledge of the subject, but observation and imitation are the best guides to correct pronunciation.

m. VOWELS (VOCALES)
The vowels
word,
e.g.,

are a,

e,

i,

o,

u and sometimes y (when

final in

ley,

and

in the conjunction y, ^and').

They

are

pronounced approximately as follows:


as in English ah:

ama
:

e (in open'^ syllables) e (in closed'^ syllables^) i (and y as vowel) o (in open syllables) o (in closed syllables^)

they (no vanishing sound)


here:

debe
ser

machine: go (no vanishing sound):


or:

mi
solo

forma

like 00

moon:
is

una
i

Note.

silent after

g and q before e or

(i.e.,

guiar, quedar).

IV.
1.

DIPHTHONGS (DIPTONGOS)
is

diphthong in Spanish

a combination of two vowels

forming a single syllable with a composite sound.

diphthong

may

consist of a strong vowel (a, e or o\


of

u or y ending a word) or
strong vowels.

and a weak vowel (i, two weak vowels, but never of two
and
in the latter

In the former combination the strong vowel of

an accented

syllable receives the stress,

com-

bination, the second of

When
Note.

or

two weak u precede other vowels, they have respectively


vowels.
e.g., Julia,

the consonantal sounds of y or w,


vowel or upon the
da, an, fluido.
1

Juan.
to a strong
e.g.,

An accent mark upon a weak vowel adjacent


first of

two weak vowels prevents a diphthong,

Syllables are open when they end in vowels. They are closed when they end in consonants. Also in open syllables before ch, 11, rr (perro, etc.).

INTRODUCTION
2.

The

regular diphthongs in Spanish are as follows:


>

ai or
ei or

oi

ay pronounced /z ^e " ey ay ee '' or oy oy as in English hoy


-

aire,

hay

reina, rey
sois,

au eu ou
ia
ie

*'

ow

"

"

''

how

" " " "


''

ay oo
oh 00

hoy aun deuda bou


diablo

yah yay
>'o/i

io

iu

ua ue
ui
.

uo

" " " " "

you as in English you

bien nacin viudo


cuatro

wah way

"
'^

"

'' '^

i;a;j

"
''

way
we woe

puedo
huir cuota

wee '' woe "

"

" "

V.

TRIPHTHONGS (TRIPTONGOS)
is

triphthong

a combination of three vowels forming a

single syllable

with a composite sound.


all of

There are four possible


are:

triphthongs in Spanish, in
stands between two
iai iei

which a stressed strong vowel


enviis enviis averiguis, Uruguay averigis, buey

weak vowels. They


ee

pronounced
"
''
''

ee

dh dy

ee ee

uai (uay) uei (uey)

wdh wdy

ee
ee

VI.

CONSONANTS (CONSONANTES)
The
lips

is

not explosive as in English.

should hardly

touch,

and the passage

of the breath

between them should not

be wholly checked.
cabo
iba

In Spanish, b and v are pronounced alike, and are often interchanged in spelling.
Vivar (sometimes written Bivar or Bibar)

When
EngHsh

initial pr after
b.

or n, b

and v are a

little

more

like

bobo, bolar, ambos, envidia (n in such positions

is

pronounced m)

6
c

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


has two sounds:
Before
^, o,

(1)

u or a consonant (except
cosa
i,

h), it

has the sound

of k.

cabo
(2)

cura

creo

Before e or

it

has the sound of English th in thin (not


cita
first

then).

ceba

Note.

When c

is

doubled, the

c has the

sound

of k: accin.

ch has the sound of Enghsh ch in


chico

chair.

muchacho
th

d has commonly
in then.

a'

sound closely resembling the EngHsh


tongue
is

The
feel

tip of the

placed against the lower edge


slightly, so that

of the upper teeth,

sometimes even protruding


Madrid^
1

one can

the

''bite.''

cada

ido

usted ^

When
,

initial,

or after

or n,

it

more nearly resembles EngUsh


andando

but the

tip of the
decir

tongue always touches the teeth.


doy

maldad

Note. In the ending -ado, the sound of d is entirely lost in everyday speech, that combination of letters being pronounced like English
ou in
f
out.

It

is

better for foreigners, however, not to omit the d entirely.

has the soimd of English /.

fama g has two sounds.


(1)

alfalfa

Before

a, o, u,

or a consonant,
gola

it

has the sound of EngHsh


grande

gin

go.

gana

gusto
is

Note.
spirant.

g between two vowels


lago
i,

often pronounced as an indistinct

sigue

(2)

Before e or

it

has the sound of German ch in noch or a


h.

strongly aspirated English


^ Some Spaniards,

The

tip of the

tongue

is

placed

especially those of the south of Spain,

do not sound the

final d.

INTRODUCTION
against the lower teeth, the back of the tongue
to partially close the air passage,
is

7
raised so as
is

and the escaping breath


giro
i

rasped.
gente

Note. u after g and before e or pronounced itself.


guerra

makes the g hard, but


gua

is

not

is silent.

hablar
j

hora
i.

has always the sound of Spanish g before e or sometimes slur or fail to pronounce a final j.
jams

Spaniards

mujer

reloj

(sometimes pronounced relo)

k {found
English
k,

only in words of foreign origin) has the sound of


kilogramo
kilmetro

has approximately the sound of English


1,

pronouncing Spanish

the corners of

However, in the mouth are drawn


/.

back more tensely, and the tongue is brought farther forward than in the formation of the English /.
lejos
II
.

ala

has the sound of Enghsh Hi in million.


calle

llama
.

has the sound of English m,

mi

amo
of English n,
.

n has about the sound


nada
Note.
(like

mano
n becomes somewhat
tengo
nasal

When followed by a guttural, the English ng in bring),


encargar

monje

has

the.

sound

of English

ny

in

canyon (written also canon).


seor

caa

p has the sound of English p,


poco

capa

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


:

q is used only before u only e or i.

qu has the sound


aqxii
r.

of k,

and precedes

que
r

has about the sound of English

When

initial,
1,

when
s,

pre-

ceding another consonant,

when preceded by
Enrique
is

or

or

by a

consonant in the same


robo
rr
is

syllable, it is trilled. lrico


Israel

verbo

grande

strongly

trilled.

The sound

the tip of the tongue against


of the teeth.
perro

the, roof

made by a vibration of of the mouth just back

gorra
s in see,

has commonly the sound of English


of s in rose (though

and not the

sound

sometimes

slightly voiced before a

voiced consonant).
sobre
t

rosa
/,

has somewhat the sound of English


the mouth, the

but

it is

farther forward in

tip of the

pronounced tongue always

touching the upper teeth.


tocar
.

esta

V has the sound

of Spanish b.
vivo

ave

{found only in words of foreign origin) has the sound of v in German words and of w in English words.

Wagner ( =

Vaguer)

whist

= wist)

X between vowels has the sound of English x {=^ks)\ before consonants it has the sound of either EngHsh x or s,

examen

sexto (written also sesto)


it

In early Spanish, where Note. sound of Spanish j.

takes the place of


'

j,

it

has the

Mxico

or Mjico

y when used as a consonant has the sound of English y


ya
yugo

in yes.

INTRODUCTION
z
(like

Spanish c before, e or

i)

has before

all letters

the sound

of English th in thin (not then),

zeta

azul

juzgar

Vn.

DOUBLE LETTERS (LETRAS DOBLES)


a,

Of the vowels, most frequently.

and o may be doubled,


leer^

e so occurring

Aaron

Feijoo

Of the consonants, may be doubled.

and n

(n always belonging to a prefix)

accin

innumerable

Vin.

VARIATIONS OF PRONUNCIATION (VARIAaONES DE PRONUNCIACIN)


variations from the Castilian pronun-

The most important


ciation,
in

which are found in many parts of Spain, particularly the south, and in Spanish America, are:
c before e or
cinco
z,
i,

1.

pronounced
= sinco)

like

Spanish
(

s.

decir
s.

= desir)

pronoimced
azul
(

like

Spanish

= astil)
like
(

feliz (=felis)

11,

pronounced

Spanish consonantal
Uevar
(

y.

caballo

= cabayo)

= yevar)

and

in

some

localities (particularly

Argentina) like English /

in jest. caballo (^^cahajo)

y as a consonant, in some localities (particularly Argentina) pronounced like English j in 7^^^.


yo (=jo)
1

ya

(=^ja)

The two

e's are

pronounced somewhat separately.

10
1

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

and

r,

sometimes confounded.
SLTtsifor alta

robre for roble


s,
(

2.

Many

consonants, particularly final

are silent.
vese)

mujer

= muj)

dos veces

= do

In some locaKties (particularly about Malaga)


the soimd of English th in
las
3.

final s is

given

lath.
{

mujeres

= laz mujer ez)

There are still other regional peculiarities that exist, but with a knowledge of the Castilian pronunciation one can make oneself imderstood by any Spanish-speaking person, and with the above-mentioned variations in mind, one can understand
the speech of

any part

of Spain or Spanish America.

>
1.

IX.

ORTHOGRAPHIC AND PHONETIC CHANGES {CAMBIOS ORTOGRFICOS Y FONTICOS)


often

In conjugation, in inflection and in derivative words, a


is

change of orthography
original

made

in order to preserve the

sound

of the consonant.

In the infinitive sacar, for

example, c has the sound of k.

When

in the conjugation of

the verb the ending e occurs, in order to preserve the original

sound of

this

consonant, one must write saque

(not sace).

The

following table illustrates these orthographic changes:

= ^) becomes qu before e or i { = k) becomes c before a, o or u g { = g in go) becomes gu before e or i gn ( = g in go) becomes g before a, o or u c ( = ih in thin) becomes z before a, o or u z ( = th in thin) becomes c before e or i g ( = Spanish j) becomes j^ before a, o or u gu ( = Spanish gu before a, o or u) becomes
c
(

qu

gii

before e or

1 Spanish j does not usually change to g before e or i: Navajo, Navajito. In popular orthography, however, they are sometimes confused. One often sees on signs camiages for carruajes.

INTRODUCTION
2.

11

The

following examples illustrate the varying orthography

for the

same consonantal sound:


que,
qiii

(a) ca, CO, cu,

(b)

tocar, toco, locura, toque, toquilla

ga, go, gu, gue, gui za, zo, zu, ce, ci


ja, jo, ju, ge, gi

gua, guo, ge, gi


3.

pagar, pago, gusto, pague, gua gozar, gozo, azcar, goce, rocn coja, cojo, jubn, coge, cogido averiguar, averiguo, averig, giro

Unstressed e and o of Latin derivatives often change


stressed to ie

when

and ue

respectively, or, at the beginning of

a word, to ye and hue.


stress shifts to

The

reverse also takes place

when the

another syllable.
pienso yerro certsimo

pensar
errar
cierto

contar
oler

cuento huelo
fortsimo
i

fuerte

Unstressed e and o are sometimes weakened to


spectively

and u

rei.

when not followed by a


sintiendo

syllable containing a stressed

sentir
4.

dormir

durmiendo
i

Whenever by
y.

inflection

an unaccented
i

or the vowel y
is

would occur between vowels, the


consonantal

or vowel y

changed to

leer

leyendo (not leiendo)


X.

rey

reyes

ACCENT (ACENTO)

In Spanish words one syllable always receives more stress

than the others.


1.

No

accent

mark

is

required to indicate the voice stress in

the following cases:

word ending in a vowel or a diphthong, sonants n or s, is stressed on the next to the last
(a)

or in the consyllable.

mesa
libro
{b)

patria
especie

hablan orden

hablas
postres
s, is

word ending

in a

consonant, except n or
is

stressed

on the

last syllable.

Final y

treated as a consonant,
virrey

verdad

feliz

Uruguay

12
(c)

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


Monosyllalbes normally have no accent mark,
vez

muy

veis

sois

2.

An accent mark is required in the following cases: (a) On any stressed syllable preceding the next to the
msica
areo

last,

hroe

crmenes
s.

(b)

On

a final stressed syllable ending in a vowel, or n or


escribi

habl
(c)

leccin

tenis

On any
lpiz

stressed syllable before the last of a

word ending

in a consonant, except

or

s.

difcil
if

Velazquez
stressed,
is

when it strong vowel or preceding another weak vowel.


{d)

On any weak vowel


bal

adjacent to a

da
(e)

acento

fluido

On words

having the same orthography as other words,


Especially on interrogative pronouns and

to distinguish them.

adverbs, to distinguish

them

from^ similar forms of the relatives;

on demonstrative pronouns, to distinguish them from the demonstrative adjectives; and on the following words:
an
d
(following word modified);
^

still,'

aun
de,
el,

(preceding), 'even,'

^yet'
(subj. of dai), 'give'

'still'

'of
'the'

'him' ms, 'more' mi, 'me'


l, 'he,'

mas, 'but' mi, 'my'


se, 'oneself,' 'himself,' etc.
si,

s, 'I

know," be'
'oneself
J

si, 'yes,'

'if
'thee'

slo (adv.)
t, 'tea'

'only'

solo (adj,)j 'alone'


te,

t, 'thou'

tu, 'thy'

Also on monosyllabic preterits ending in a diphthong:


fui, fu, dio, vio, etc.

The

preposition a and the conjunctions

e,

o,

u,
6,

formerly

accented, are

now

written without accent, except


for zero, e.g., 3 4.

when

it

might be mistaken

INTRODUCTION
Note
mark,
the
1.

13
have an accent
are suffixed,

When pronouns are


stress of the verb

suffixed to verbs that


If,

it is

retained, e.g., habl, hablle.

when pronouns

normal

the last of

on a syllable before the next to the combination, the accent mark is used, e.g., dando, dnfalls

form

domelo.

Note 2. x\n adjective having an accent mark retains it when -mente is added to form an adverb, e.g., fcil, fcilmente; and in compound words each part retains its original accent, e.g., el espantapjaros
(espanta-pjaros)
.

Note 3. In the inflection of a word an accent mark omitted according to the rules given above.
orden
leccin

is

used or

rdenes
lecciones

ingls

ingleses

iba

bamos
of their plurals,
of the

But: carcter and rgimen, in the formation the stress one syllable nearer the end
racteres, regmenes.

move
ca-

word,

e.g.,

XI.

DIVISION OF SYLLABLES
of

{DIVISIN

DE

SLABAS)

how to divide a Spanish word into syllables important, in prose for the sake of breaking a word at the end of a line, and in verse for the sake of the meter.
is

The knowledge

Combinations of vowels forming a diphthong or triphthong should not be separated.


1.

se-ria {not se-ri-a)

rui-do {not ru-i-do)

But:
V

se-ri-a,

a-un, cre-er, le-al.


U,

2.

rr)

smgle consonant (including the characters ch, goes with the following vowel.
me-sa mu-cho
na-cion
bu-llir

and

l-piz

to-ma-do
a-rro-di-llar

ma-a-na
(ch,
11,

3.

Tw^o or more consonants


or r (except

f,

rr

being considered as
fol-

single characters) are regularly divided,

but any consonant

lowed by
vowel.

rl, si, tl

and

sr)

goes with the following

cuan-do
per-la

ac-cion
is-la

a-gra-da-ble
at-le-ta

ex-tra-o
Is-ra-el

14

PIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

4. Prefixes usually

form separate
ab-ro-gar

syllables,

even though by

so doing they violate the preceding rules.


des-a-rro-llar
in-e-vi-ta-ble

If the prefix precedes s followed by a consonant, the s is Note. joined to the prefix, for s is always separated from a following consonant.

ins-pi-rar

ads-cri-to

subs-crip-cin

Xn.
1.

PUNCTUATION {PUNTUACIN)

are:

The names of the signs (signos) of punctuation in Spanish la coma (,), el pimto y coma (;), los dos puntos (:), el
final
(.),

pimto

los puntos suspensivos (...)? los signos

de inla

terrogacin
( ),

( ?), los signos

de admiracin
comillas
(((

!),

el

parntesis
(-),

la diresis o

crema

{"), las

))),

el

guin

raya
2.

().
Spanish punctuation
is
is

essentially the

same as English.
is

The dash

often used, instead of quotation marks, to indicate

a change of speaker.

Another notable exception

the use of

the inverted interrogation and exclamation points at the be-

ginning of interrogatory and exclamatory sentences respec-

mixed character, may end with a different point from that wdth which they begin. This aids the readier to modulate his voice correctly, especially in a long sentence, whereas in English one often notices at the very end of a sentence that it is interrogative, and is obliged to change suddenly
tively,

which,

if

of

the pitch of his voice.

Qu hora es? What time is it? Qu persecucin es sta, Dios mo

Qu

lstima!

What

a pity!
is

Heavens! W^hat persecution

this?

Xm. CAPITAL LETTERS {LETRAS MAYSCULAS)


Contrary to English usage, proper adjectives and the pronoun yo, ^I,' begin with small letters (letras minsculas)
1.

except

when

their position in the sentence requires capitals.

INTRODUCTION
Mi amigo
Note.
y yo somos americanos.

15
and
I are

My

friend

Americans.

Nouns of nationality referring to persons may be capitalized,


los

Franceses

{or franceses)

the French

But:
2.

Hablamos
of

ingls.

We

speak English.

Names

days and months are usually not capitalized,


they often are.

but in dating

letters

XIV.

CLASS-ROOM EXPRESSIONS (EXPRESIONES PARA USO DE LA CLASE)


may
be used as exercises in pronunciation,

(These phrases
he

and should

memorized gradually.)

Buenos das, seor. Buenas tardes, seora. Buenas noches, seorita.

Ha sonado

el timbre (la campana)? Tomen ustedes asiento. Sintense ustedes.

Good morning, sir. Good afternoon, madam. Good evening, Miss. Has the bell (gong) rung?
Take your
Sit

seats.

down.
attention.

Silencio.

Silence.

Presten ustedes atencin. Voy a pasar lista. Contesten ustedes a la lista. Servidor (a). He omitido algn nombre? S, seor, el mo. Cmo se llama usted? Me llamo Cul es la leccin de hoy? En la gramtica, leccin En qu pgina principiamos? En la pgina lnea Al principio (medio, n) de la p.

Pay
I

am

going to

call

the

roll.

Answer the

roll-call.

Have

Present (in answer to roll-call). I omitted any name? Yes, sir, mine.

What is your name? My name is What is to-day's lesson?

In the grammar, lesson On what page do we begin? line On page At the top (middle, foot) of page

gma

Gracias, est bien. A sus rdenes. No hay de qu. Hganme el favor de abrir (cerrar) los libros.

Thanks, all right. You're welcome. You're welcome. Please open (close) the books.
Rise.

Levntese usted. Manda (dice) usted?

What

did you say?

16

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


repetir.

Tenga usted la bondad de Dispnseme usted.


tura.

Please repeat.

Principie (empiece) usted la lec-

Excuse me. Begin the reading.


Please read in Spanish.

Srvase usted leer en espaol. No tan de prisa. Lea usted ms despacio. Pronuncie usted con cuidado. Est muy (bastante) bien. ? Qu significa la palabra Qu quiere decir eso?

Not so fast. Read more slowly.


Pronounce with care. That is very (quite) good. What does the word mean? What does that mean? Speak louder. ? How do you say How do you spell mesa? Mesa is spelled m-e-s-a. Ask me a question in Spanish.
Thanks, that's enough.

Hable usted ms

alto.

Cmo Cmo

Mesa Hgame
Es

? se dice se escribe mesa? se escribe m-e-s-a.

usted ima pregvmta en

espaol. Gracias, basta.


suficiente.
el ejercicio,

Traduzca usted
(seorita)
.

seor

That is enough. Translate the exercise,

sir

(Miss).

Usted traduce muy bien. Usted ha saltado un rengln. Lea usted la frase (oracin)
guiente.

You translate very well. You have skipped a line.


si-

Read the
(phrase)

following sentence

Entiende (comprende) usted? Contsteme usted en espaol. S, seor, entiendo (comprendo).

Do you understand? Answer me in Spanish.


Yes,
sir,

Qu he

dicho? Sabe usted? No, seor, no s.

What
No,
la lnea

I understand. did I say?

Do*you know?
sir,

do not know.

Dnde hemos quedado?

Hemos quedado en
Espere usted.

Where

did

we leave

off?

We
I

have reached

line

Wait.
lost the place. reading. Continue the reading.

He

perdido el lugar. Siga usted leyendo. Contine usted la lectura. Conjugue usted el verbo Saquen ustedes sus cuadernos. Han escrito ustedes el tema?
.

have

Go on

Conjugate the verb

Take out your note-books. Have you written the composition?

Quin no ha

escrito el

tema?

Who
Let

has not written the composisee

tion?

Djeme ver su tema. Enseme (mustreme) usted su


tema. Pase usted
al pizarrn.

me

your composition.
composition.

Show me your

Go

to the blackboard.

INTRODUCTION
Escriba
el

17

tema en

el

pizarrn.

Vamos a ver. Qu errores

(faltas)

hay?
falta?

Quin puede indicar una

Alcen (levanten) ustedes la mano. Aqu est la tiza. Tome usted la tiza y subraye los
errores. Corrija usted las faltas.

Tome usted el borrador (cepillo). Borre usted eso. Hgame usted el favor de abrir (cerrar) la ventana (puerta).
Muchas
gracias.

the composition on the blackboard. Let us see. What mistakes are there? Who can point out a mistake? Raise your hands. Here is the chalk. Take the chalk and underline the mistakes. Correct the mistakes. Take the eraser. Rub that out. Please open (shut) the window

Write

(door)

Distribuya usted estas hojas. Escriban ustedes su nombre y la fecha en la parte superior del
papel.

thanks. Distribute these papers. Write your name and the date at the head of the paper.

Many

Escriban ustedes esto al dictado. Escriban ustedes con plimia y


tinta (o lpiz).

Write this from dictation. Write with pen and ink (or pencil).

Seor
cicios.

recoja usted los ejer-

Mr.
Listen.

collect the exercises.

Escuchen ustedes. La leccin para la prxima vez (maana) es desde hasta Preparen ustedes para maana la

The

lesson for the next time (tois

morrow)
Prepare for

leccin

from to to-morrow lesson


well.

Aprendan ustedes bien la leccin. Ustedes aprendern bien la leccin, (no es)

Learn the lesson

You
The

will learn the lesson well, will

verdad?

you not?
class is dismissed.

La clase ha terminado. Pueden ustedes marcharse. Hasta maana. Qu usted lo pase bien!
Adis.

You

are excused.

Good-by until to-morrow. Good luck to you!


Good-by.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


(PRIMER CURSO EN ESPAOL)

LESSON

{LECCIN PRIMERA)

REGULAR VERBS (VERBOS REGULARES)


1.

The

First Conjugation (La Primera Conjugacin)

Infinitwe
hab ar,
'

(Infinitivo)

to speak/

The Present

Indicative (El Presente de Indicativo)


Singular (Singidar)

1st

person (primera persona) y o

hab

o,

I speak,

am speaking,

2d person (segunda persona) t 3d person (tercera persona) l (ella usted

1
J

do speak hab as, thou speakest, etc. ^^ ^^^^^ speaks, etc. -^^^ a I \ you speak, etc.
'

Plural (Plural)
1st

person

(i.* (2.^
(j.^

persona)
persona)

2d person 3d person

nosotros vosotros
ellos (ellas)
\

hablamos, we speak,
hablis,

etc.

persona)

.11

ye speak, etc. they speak, etc.


speak, etc.

ustedes

'I you (pL)

Note.
lute,

The

progressive
last

on the
2.

Spanish present indicative translates the English absotenses. Observe the accent mark syllable of the second person plural.

and emphatic present

Omission of the Personal Pronouns (Omisin de os Pronombres Personales). Personal pronouns are generally omitted as subjects of Spanish verbs, except when required for emphasis
or clearness.

19

20
3.

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH

3-5

Usted {pL, ustedes), 'you/ however,


it

is

generally expressed.

This form, since

originally

meant 'your honor' (vuestra merIt is the only

ced), governs the third person.

need use

for

'you/

are required only for

form a foreigner The second persons, singular and plural, the most intimate address. You
for

Usted habla espaol


Note.

speak Spanish
for

Abbreviations

usted are Ud., Vd., V., and

ustedes, Uds.,

Vds., V.V.

4.

Pronoun

subjects,

when

used, usually follow the verb in

interrogations.

Habla usted espaol?


5.

Do you

speak Spanish?

Negation {Negacin).
it.

A verb is made
Do
No,

negative by placing

no, 'not,' before

No

is

also used independently

meaning

'no.'

No habla usted espaol? No, seor, no hablo espaol

you not speak Spanish?


sir,

do not speak Spanish

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
conjugar, to conjugate desear, to wish, desire Espaa,/., Spain espaol, adj., Spanish (los) Estados Unidos, m. (the) United States
estudiar, to study Inglaterra,/., England
ingls, adj., English

qu? what? which?


pi.,
s,

adv., yes adv., also, too

tambin,

y, conj., and (becomes e before a word beginning with i or conjugue usted {pi., conjuguen ustedes), imptv., conjugate

hi)

Forms
Miss.

of address: seor,

sir;

seora,

madam, Mrs.;

seorita,

As nouns these terms mean respectively 'man' man'), 'woman' ('lady'), 'young (unmarried) lady.'

('gentle-

EXERCISES

21

ORAL GRAjMMATICAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO GRAMATICAL ORAL)


a.

Conjugue usted ^

el

presente de indicativo de (^of) ha-

blar; desear; estudiar; conjugar.


h.

Change the

infinitive in

these sentences to the correct


1.

form of
2.

the present

indicative:

Hablar usted espaol?


3.

Yo

no hablar espaol, yo hablar ingls.


4.
6.

l y

ella

hablar

espaol.
e ingls.
ol.
7.

Nosotros hablar

ingls.

Qu

estudiar ustedes?

Nosotros
8.

5.

Ellos estudiar espaol


estudiar espa-

No

estudiar t
9.

tambin espaol?
11.

S,

yo tambin
10.
el

estudiar espaol.

Ellas

no e^/^w espaol.
Conjugar usted
el

Yo

con-

jugar

el

presente de hablar.
12.

presente

de hablar?

Usted y yo conjugar

presente de hablar.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Habla usted espaol? 2. No hablo espaol. 3. Hablo 5. En Ingla4. En los Estados Unidos hablan ingls. 6. En Espaa no hablan ingls. terra tambin hablan ingls. 7. Hablan espaol. 8. No hablan espaol en los Estados Unidos.
1.

ingls.

9.

No hablamos espaol.
12.

10.

Hablamos ingls.
espaol.
14.

espaol.

Deseamos hablar

13.

Estudiamos Estudiamos para


11.

(4n order to O hablar espaol.

Deseamos

estudiar espaol.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
Habla usted espaol? No, seor (seora or seorita 2), no hablo espaol. 2. Habla usted ingls? S. seor, ^ hablo ingls. Hablan 3. Qu hablan en los Estados Unidos? ingls en los Estados Unidos. 4. Qu hablan en Inglaterra?
1.

Hablan tambin Espaa? No,


2

ingls en Inglaterra.

5.

seor,^

no hablan

ingls

Hablan ingls en en Espaa; hablan

1 The singular is used, as it is preferable in the main to address an individual student rather than the class. The form conjugese may also be used impersonally.

The student

will insert the

proper form.

22
espaol.
6.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


Estudian ustedes espaol?^
7.

6-7

S,

seor/ estudia-

mos

espaol.

Desean ustedes hablar espaol?


etc.
will

S, seor,^

deseamos hablar espaol,


Note.
to prepare suitable answers

Henceforth only the questions


seor; no, seorita;
etc.

be printed.

The student

is

question, inserting for

and repeat as fully as possible the words of the affirmative and negative replies the appropriate

forms:

si,

EXERCISE TO BE TRANSLATED INTO SPANISH^ {EJERCICIO PARA TRADUCIR AL ESPAOL)


1.

In England they speak English,


3.

2.

In the United States

they speak English also.


lish.

In Spain they do not speak Eng-

4.

They speak
7.

Spanish.
I

6. I

speak English.
9.

am

do not speak Spanish. studying Spanish. 8. I wish [to]


5.

speak Spanish.

Are you studying Spanish?


11. I

10.

Yes,

sir,

am
sir,

studying Spanish.
12.

am

studying the
(el)

(la) first

conju-

gation.

Do you

I conjugate the

conjugate the verb hablar.

verb hablar?

13.

Yes,

LESSON

II

{LECCIN SEGUNDA)

VERBS {VERBOS)
6.

Second Conjugation
(Segunda Conjugacin)
iNFiNiTnrE

7.

Third Conjugation
(Tercera Conjugacin)

(Infinitivo)

aprend

er,

'

to learn

viv

ir,

'

to live

Present Indicative
aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend
o, I

(Presente de Indicativo)

leam,

am
do

learning,

es
e

learn, etc.

emos
is

en
^

viv o, I live, viv es viv e viv imos viv is viv en


proper form.

am

living,

do

live,

etc.

The student

will insert the

These translation

exercises should be written

by the

student.

EXERCISES

23

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
ahora, adv.,

now
from

escribir, to write

de, prep., of,

donde,^ adv., where, wherever;

hoy, adv., to-day leer, to read

dnde? ^ where?
en, prep., in, on,

mucho,
tell

adv.,

much, a great deal

upon
el

repasar, to review

dgame usted,^

hgame usted ^

me, say to me favor de (leer, traducir, etc.), please

(lit.

do

me

the favor to) read, translate, etc.

ORAL GRAMMATICAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO GRAMATICAL ORAL)


a.

Hgame

usted

el

favor de conjugar

el

presente de indica-

tivo de hablar; de repasar; de leer; de aprender; de vivir; de


escribir.
b.

Dgame usted en
3.

espaol:

1.

I
4.

am

learning.

2.

We
5. 8.

are

learning.

Are
6.
9.

you"^ learning?

We
You

are reading.

are reading.
(pi.)

am

writing.
10.

7.

are writing.
11. 13.

They You

live.

They

live.

We
15.

study.

study?

12.

He and

she

are studying.

Do you (pi.) Do you speak

Spanish?
16.

14.

/ speak Spanish.

They too speak Spanish.

He

speaks Spanish and she speaks English.

READING EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

3.

En Espaa
ingls.
7.

Vivimos en los Estados Unidos. hablan espaol. 4. En


5.

2.

Hablamos

ingls.

los
6.

Estados Unidos

hablan
espaol.

No

hablan espaol.

Estudiamos mucho. 8. espaol. 9. Estudiamos hoy los (Hhe') verbos aprender y vivir. 10. Repasamos tambin el (^the') verbo hablar.
1

Ahora aprendemos Deseamos hablar y leer

3 *

Often preceded by a or en, meaning the 'place to PL, dganme ustedes. PL, hganme ustedes. Use the Spanish pronouns for the italicized forms.

(or in) which.'

24

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

8-9

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Hablamos espaol? 3. Qu haQu hablan en los Estados Unidos? 5. Hablan espaol en los Estados Unidos? 6. Qu aprenden ustedes ahora? 7. Estudian ustedes mucho? 8. Desean ustedes hablar y leer espaol? 9. Qu verbos estudian ustedes hoy? 10. Qu verbo repasan ustedes?
1.

Dnde vivimos?
4.

2.

blan en Espaa?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE
1.

(EJERCICIO

DE TRADUCCIN)

where they speak Spanish. 2. I live in the United States, where they speak English. 3. I wish [to] 4. I wash [to] read, [to] write and [to] speak learn Spanish. 6. We study a great 5. I am studying Spanish. Spanish.
I

do not

live in Spain,

deal.

7.

To-day we learn the


vivir.
8. (el)

(el)

present indicative of apren(el)

der and

We

review also the

verb hablar.

9.

We

conjugate the

present indicative of hablar.

LESSON

III

(LECCIN TERCERA)

ARTICLES (ARTCULOS)
8.

Indefinite Article (Artculo Indefinido)


Singular
Plural

Masculine (Masculino) un, Feminine (Femenino) una, /


"I

'

unos, \ goj^e unas, /

un hombre, a man una mujer, a woman


9,

unos hombres, some men unas mujeres, some women

Definite Article (Articulo Definido)


Singular
Plural
los,
'

Masculine (Masculino) el Feminine (Femejiino) la lo Neuter (Neutro)


1

las, /

These translation

exercises should

be written by the student.

'

10-14

ARTICLES
is

25

1.

Lo

used chiefly before adjectives or participles to give

an abstract or general idea.


lo
lo escrito^ that

malo, that which is evil which is written

2.

Before a feminine singular noun beginning with stressed


is

a or ha, the article el


el el

regularly used instead of

la.

agua (/.), the water hacha (/.), the ax

10.

Articles (definite

tives, in

and indefinite) agree, as do all adjecgender and number with the words they modify.

11.

Articles are repeated before each

word they modify.


girls

los

un muchacho y una muchacha, a boy and (a) girl muchachos y las muchachas, the boys and (the)

12.

The Prepositions de and a


A, Ho,'
is

{Las Preposiciones de

ya).

De,
case.

^of,' is

used especially to form the possessive or genitive

used

(1) to

form the dative

case, (2) to intro-

duce a personal direct object or geographical


case
it is

name

(in

which

not to be translated).

They

are repeated before each

word they modify.


los libros

de Juan y de Mara doy los libros a Juan y a Mara

John's and Mary's books I give the books to John and

(to)

Mary
veo a Juan y a Mara visito a Granada
13.
I see

am

John and Mary visiting Granada

Contractions

(Contracciones).

Note the following con-

tractions wdth the definite article.

de+el=del a+el=al
14.

el libro

hablo

al

del muchacho, the boy's book muchacho, I speak to the boy

Spanish nouns commonly form their plural in either -s or -es. All ending in consonants take -es.

26

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
el agua,/., the

water

la forma, the la
el

el borrador,^ the eraser

borrar, to erase
la clase, the class, class-room

form muchacha, the girl muchacho, the boy


pasar, to pass, spend; go, come in the blackboard^

con, prep., with ensear, to teach, show escuchar, to listen (to 2), heed escrito, pp. of escribir, written la falta, the mistake, fault

el pizarrn, el

profesor

(la

profesora), the

teacher, professor subrayar, to underline


la tiza, the chalk

tengo, I have; tiene, he (she) has,' you have; tenemos, tienen, they (you) have

we have;

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Dgame Vd.
en
el plural.
el

las
2.

formas del artculo indefinido en

el

singudefi-

lar;

Dgame Vd.

las
3.

formas del artculo

nido en

singular; en el plural.

Hgame Vd.

el

favor de

pasar al pizarrn y de escribir el presente de indicativo de en4. Ahora hgame el sear; de escuchar; de leer; de escribir.
favor de borrar lo escrito con
el

borrador (o

cepillo).

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: 1. A grammar. 4. Some classes. 5. The water. 3. A class. 8. The boy. 9. A girl. 10. The 7. A boy.
boy.
12.
2. 6.

The grammar.
Of the water.
11.

girl.

To

the

Of the boy. 14. Of the girl. 15. A boy and girl. 16. Of the boys and girls. 17. The teacher. 19. Of the teachers. 20. I Hsten to the 18. Of the teacher.

To

the

girl.

13.

teacher.

21.

We

listen

to

the

teachers.
I

22.

The

teacher

23. speaks to the boys and girls. 24. Some boys go to the blackboard.

go to the blackboard.

25.

They

write
is

upon the
written.

blackboard.
27.
1

26.

They read
verb.

to the teacher
28.

what

They conjugate a

We

conjugate the present of


2

Called also cepillo. Of slate. Called also pizarra.

Takes

direct object.

When made of blackened boards or cloth, called

encerado.

EXERCISES
the verb.
29. I

27

have the chalk. 30. Have you [some] chalk? 31. The theme has some mistakes. 32. We underline the mistakes with the chalk. 33, With the eraser we erase what is
written.

READING EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Aprendemos las formas del artculo indefinido. 3. Aprendemos tambin las formas del 4. Repasamos la conjugacin del verbo. artculo definido. 6. Los 5. El profesor ensea a la clase la leccin de hoy. muchachos y las muchachas de la clase escuchan al profesor. 7. Unos muchachos y unas muchachas pasan al pizarrn. 9. Leen al pro8. Escriben en el pizarrn la leccin de hoy.
1.

Hoy

estudiamos

el

artculo.

2.

fesor lo escrito.
11.

10.

El profesor subraya las faltas con

tiza.

Los

ejercicios

de una de las muchachas no tienen

faltas.

CON\'ERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
2. Qu Qu estudian Vds. hoy? aprenden Vds.? 3. Aprenden Vds. las formas del artculo definido? 4. Qu repasan Vds.? 5. Qu ensea a la clase el profesor? 6. Escuchan al profesor los muchachos y las muchachas? 7. Pasan al pizarrn unos muchachos y unas muchachas de la clase? 8. Qu escriben en el pizarrn? 9. Qu leen al profesor? 10. Con qu subraya el profesor las faltas? 11. Qu ejercicios no tienen faltas?
1.

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

I wish [to] learn Spanish.


3.

2.

I study Spanish a great


4. I

deal.^
5. I

I learn the

forms of the verb.

read the exercises.


the
class.
6.

speak Spanish to the boys and


I

girls of

To-

day

go to the blackboard.

7.

I write the translation exercise

^ In Spanish, the adverb usually follows the verb. The definite article should not be omitted before espaol, if mucho intervenes between espaol and the verb.

28

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


8.

15-20
9.

on the blackboard.
[to]

I write the exercise with chalk.


is

read to the teacher what


the reading.
11.

written.

10.

The teacher

listens

The

exercise has

some mistakes.

12.

The

teacher underlines the mistakes with chalk.


exercise.

13. I erase the

LESSON IV {LECCIN CUARTA)


NOUNS {NOMBRES O SUBSTANTIVOS)
15.

Gender {Gnero),
libro, m.,

All Spanish nouns are either

mascu-

line or feminine.

There are no neuter nouns.


book
pluma,/., pen

Endings {Terminaciones)
16.

Nouns ending

in

-o are regularly mascuHne.


libro, m.,

book

Exception
17.

{Excepcin)

mano, /., hand.

Nouns ending

in

-a^ are regularly feminine.


pluma,/., pen

Exceptions
-ta, e.g.,

{Excepciones) da, w., day; nouns tema, m., theme; planeta, m., planet.
:

of

Greek origin

in

-ma,

18.

The gender

of

nouns with other endings should be

memorized
19.

in each case.
rules.

Sex determines gender, regardless of the foregoing


hombre, w., man
mujer,/.,

woman
in

cura, w., priest

20.

Number

{Nmero).

Nouns ending

an unstressed

vowel or diphthong add -s to form the plural.


(learn)
Singular
libro,

Plural
libros,

book

books

serie, sequence, series

series, sequences, series


-ie, -ion,

Other feminine endings are: -dad, -tad, -tud

-umbre.

21

NOUNS
Nouns ending
in a

29

21.

consonant or in a stressed vowel


pliiral.

(except -e) or diphthong add -es to form the

(learn)
Singular
profesor, teacher
rub, ruby
ley,

Plural

profesores, teachers
rubies, rubies
leyes, laws
cafs, coffees, cafs
pies, feet
final

law
'"

But:

caf, cofee, caf


pie, foot

Note

1.

the singular

Note
'pencils.'

2.

A wTtten accent on a vowel preceding the consonant lecciones, the plural: leccin, omitted A 'pencil,Mpices, -z changes toe before -es:
is

in

in

'lesson,'

'lessons.'

final

lpiz,

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
alumna), the pupil the seat el cuaderno, the note-book cul?^ (pL, cules?), inter. pron. and adj., which? what? este, m. (esta, /.), dem. adj.,
el
(la

alumno

el papel,

el asiento,

la
el

la la
la el

this;

estos,

m.

pi.

(estas, /.

pL), these
la

the paper; role para, prep., for, (in order) to pluma, the pen pupitre, the (small) desk regla, the rule, ruler silla, the chair tinta, the ink tintero, the ink-stand, ink-well

mesa, the table


es, is; son, are;

hay, there

is (or

are)

GRAIVIIMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)

De qu gneros son los substantivos en espaol? 2. De qu gnero son los nombres que tienen la terminacin -o? 3. Dgame Vd. una excepcin. 4. De qu gnero son los nombres que tienen la terminacin -a? 5. Dgame Vd. unas otras (^ other') terminaciones excepciones. 6. Dgame Vd.
1.

femeninas.
1 Cul? pron., than one):

is

used instead of qu? when 'what?' means 'which?'

(of

more

Cul es la leccin? But: Qu es un diptongo?


Cul?
is

What What

(which one)

is

(sort of a thing)

the lesson? is a diphthong?

not often used as an adjective, being regularly replaced by qu?;


libro es ste?

Qu

What book

is

this?

30

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


1

Llene Vd. los espacios en blanco con

los artculos definidos

alumno; agua; mano; mesa; pluma; profesor; profesora; rub; leccin;


definite

e indefinidos correspondientes (^Fill the blanks with the proper

and

indefinite articles').*

alumna;
pie;

tintero;

da;

silla;

lpiz;

ley;

clase.

2.

Cul es
pie?

el

plural de

lpiz? leccin? pizarrn? libro?

mesa? papel? tintero? pluma? mano? da? ley? rub?


cuaderno? banco?

serie?
silla?

caf?

profesor? clase?

terminacin?

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Esta clase es

la clase

de espaol.
alumnos.
3.

2.

En

la clase hay-

asientos

y pupitres para
4.
6.

los

En

los pupitres
5.

hay

tinteros con tinta.

Los alumnos tienen plumas.


Escriben
el ejercicio

Tienen

tambin cuadernos.
los

de traduccin en

cuadernos con pluma y tinta. 7. Para el profesor hay una 8. El profesor tiene en la mesa papel y lpisilla y una mesa.
ces.
9.

Tiene un libro en

la^

mano.
de
la

10.

Es una gramtica.

11.

Ensea a

la clase las reglas

gramtica.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
1.

Qu

clase es esta clase?


3.

2.

Qu hay en
4.

la clase

para

los

Qu tienen los alumnos? 5. Tienen tambin cuadernos? 6. Dnde escriben los alumnos el ejercicio de traduccin? 7. Con qu escriben? 8. Qu hay para el profesor? 9. Qu tiene el profesor en la mesa? 10. Qu tiene el profesor en la mano? IL Qu libro es? 12. Qu ensea a la clase el profesor?
alumnos?

Qu hay en

los pupitres?

The

definite article replaces the possessive adjective

with parts of the body.

(C. 59.)

22-23

SEASONS

MONTHS

OF THE YEAR

31

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

In this class-room there are seats and desks for the boys
girls.
2.

and
3.

On

the desks there are pens, pencils and paper.


thie ink-wells.

There is ink in cises on the paper.


7.

4.

The

pupfls write the exer6.

5.

The pupils have also note-books.


8.

They
and

write the translation exercises in the note-books with pen


ink.

They read
10.

the exercises to the teacher.


[a]

He
11.

underchair

lines the

mistakes with

pencil.

9.

The teacher has a


12.

and a

table.

On

the table he has a grammar.


{lit.

He

is

teaching the Spanish lesson

lesson of Spanish).

the pupils are learning the gender and


Spanish.

number

of

To-day the nouns in

LESSON V {LECCIN QUINTA)


22.

The Seasons
la
el

of the

Year {Las Estaciones del Ao)


el
el

prhnavera, spring verano, summer


articles are

otoo, autumn,
invierno, winter

fall

Note.

Definite

commonly used with the names

(nombres)

of the seasons.

23.

The Months

of the

Year {Los Meses del Ao)


julio, July agosto, August

enero, January febrero, February

marzo, March
abril, April

septiembre, September
octubre, October

mayo,

May
of the

noviembre, November
diciembre, December

junio, Jime

Note
Spanish.

1.

All are masculine.


2.

Note

The names The date


el

months

are usually not capitalized in

(la

numbers, except Hhe

first,' el

fecha) of the month primero.

is

expressed by cardinal

el

cuatro de julio, the fourth of July primero de enero, the first of January

32
24.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


Present Indicative of
ser,

24-25

4o be'

{Presente de

Indicativo
soy, I

de ser)
somos, we are
sois,

am
is,

eres, thou art


es, he. (she)

ye are

you are

son, they (you) are

25.
are:
1,

The

first

twelve cardinal numbers (nmeros cardinales)

uno
dos
tres

4,
5,

2, 3,

cuatro cinco
seis

7, 8,

siete

10, 11, 12,

diez

ocho

6,

9,

nueve

once doce

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
cada, adj., each, every
se, reflex, pron., itself, himself,
etc.
it

cundo?

adv.,

when?; cuando,

when
cunto -a?
pi.,

gives

(when used before a verb, an impersonal or


e.g.,

adj.,

how much;

passive sense to the verb,

how many?
either,

se usa(n), ^one uses,'


are) used,' etc.;

*is

{or

la escuela, the school


o,

conj.,

or

{becomes

ized

and is pluralwith plural noun)

before a or ho)

word beginning with

terminar, to end, finish usar, to use

principiar, to begin,

commence
{of weather)-,

hace

calor, it is

warm

hace

fro, it is

cold {of weather)

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cules son las estaciones del ao?


los artculos definidos

2.

Se usan o no se
presente

usan
3.

con los nombres de las estaciones?


4.

Cules son los meses del ao?


ser.
5.

Conjugue Vd.
fecha de hoy?

el

de indicativo del verbo


nales de uno a doce?

Cules son los nmxcros cardila

6.

Cul es

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: You are. 5. They are.
8.
1.

I
I

am.

2.

He

is.

3.

We
is

are.

4.

6.

am

a pupil.
9.

7.

He

also a

pupil.

We

arc pupils of this class.

You

are pupils of this

EXERCISES
school.
10.

33

There are ten pupils in this class. 11. There are twelve months in the year. 12. There are four seasons. 13. It 14. It is w^arm in (the) summer. is cold in (the) winter.

The months of the winter are December, January and February. 16. The months of the summer are June, July and August. 17. The first of January. 18. The tenth of August.
15.

READING EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

El ao tiene cuatro estaciones.


la

2.

Las estaciones
el

del
3.

ao

son

primavera,

el el

verano,

el

otoo y

invierno.

La

escuela principia en

otoo y termina en
5.

la

primavera.
fro. 8. 6.

4.

hay

clases

en

el

verano.
7.

En

el

invierno hace

No En el

verano hace

calor.

El ao tiene doce meses.

meses del ao son enero, febrero, marzo, abril, julio, agosto, septiembre, octubre, noviembre y diciembre. 10. Los meses de la pri9. Cada estacin tiene tres meses. mavera son marzo, abril y mayo. 11. Los meses del verano
son junio, julio
tiembre,

Los doce mayo, junio^

y agosto. 12. Los meses del otoo son sepoctubre y noviembre. 13. Diciembre, enero y febrero

son los meses del invierno.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

Cuntas

estaciones
la

tiene

el

ao?
4.

2.

Cules

son?

3. 5.
7.

Cundo

principia
el

escuela?
6.

Cundo

termina?

Hay

clases en

verano?

Hace calor en el verano? 8. 9. Cuntos meses tiene cada estacin? meses de la primavera? del verano?
vierno?

Hace fro en el verano? Cuntos meses tiene el ao?


10.
-del

Cules son los

otoo?

del in-

34

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

'

26-28

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

There are twelve months


seasons.
3.

in the year.

2.

There are also


{lit,

four
4.

In each season there are three months.

March, April and


5. 6.

of the spring).

months The summer months are June, July and


are the spring
in the

May

months

summer months. 7. September, October and November are the autumn months. 8. In the winter months it is cold. 9. These months are December, January and February. 10. The schools begin in the fall in the month of September. 11. They end in the month of Jime. 12. The twelve months are January, February, March, April, May, Jime, July, August, September, October, November and
August.
It is

warm

December.

LESSON VI {LECCIN SEXTA)


26.

The Days
lunes,

of the

Week

{Los Das de la Semana)


jueves, Thursday viernes, Friday

Monday

martes, Tuesday mircoles, Wednesday

sbado, Saturday

domingo, Sunday

Note.
are
all

The names

of the

days are not capitalized in Spanish.

They

masculine.

27.

'On' before the names of the days of the week

is

indi-

cated by the use of the definite article:


el lunes,

on Monday; los domingos, on Simdays

28.

Present Indicative of

estar, 'to

be' {Presente

de Indicativo de estar)
estoy, I

am
\s,

estamos, we are
estis, ye are

ests, thou art


est, he (she)

you are

estn, they (you) are

29-31

ESTAR

CARDINAL NUMBERS

35

29.

Estar expresses a temporary state or condition while

ser expresses one

more permanent.
estar
is

To

express situation, even

when permanent,
Madrid
30.
13, 14,

used.
is tall

Est enfermo, he is ill Es alto, he est en Espaa, Madrid is in Spain

Learn the cardinal numbers:


trece
15,
16,

quince
diez y seis

17,
18,

catorce

diez y siete diez y ocho

19,

20,

diez y nueve veinte

31.

The

other cardinal numbers are formed by adding y uno,


the decimals:
veinte y uno veinte y dos
31, 32,

y dos,

etc., to

21,
22,

treinta y

uno

treinta

y dos

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
aqu, adv., here

delante

de,
adj.

pre p.,

before,

in

que, re. pron. and adj., that, which, who, whom


recitar, to recite

front of

dems,
rest,

and pron.,

(the)

remaining, other(s) la diferencia, the difference el (or la) estudiante, the student explicar, to explain la lengua, the language, tongue

saber, irr. v., to know sentado, -a, seated (pp. of sentar, to seat)

slo, adv.,

only

tratar, to treat, concern;

de,

to try to
el verso, the verse

de

pie,

on

foot, standing;

puedo, I can; puede, he

(she,

you) can;

trae, brings, has

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

De qu
3.

trata la leccin de hoy?

2.

Cuntos das tiene

la

semana?
5.

Cules son?

ao?

Cules son las


el

Cuntas estaciones hay en el estaciones del ao? 6. Cuntos


4.

meses hay en
8.

ao?

7.

Cules son los meses del ao?


9.

Cuntas semanas hay en un mes?


el

Cuntos das hay

en

mes de junio? de

julio? de diciembre? de febrero? de

36
septiembre?
estar; de ser.
10.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

Conjugue Vd.

el

presente de indicativo de

11.

Cules son los nmeros cardinales de uno a

diez?

de diez a veinte? de veinte a treinta?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en Are you here?
8.

espaol:
4. 6.

1.

am

here.

2.

We
is

are here.

3.

They
I

are

seated.
7.

5.

The

teacher

is

seated in the chair.


fore the class.

am

standing.

He

standing be9.

They
first

are students of Spanish.


10.

We
fifth

are

pupils of this school.


11.

Chicago
the

is

in the

United States.
of

Thursday, the
13.

of June.

12.

Monday, the
of
15.

February.
14.

Saturday,

twenty-ninth

Sunday, the seventeenth of Septeriiber.


16.

December. Wednesday,

the thirty-first of August.


days, on
lesson
{lit,

On

Tuesday.

17.

On Mon-

Wednesdays and on Fridays we have the Spanish


lesson of Spanish).

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Hoy
la

es

de
,

el

(Insert the appropriate


el

week and month,


en
4.

e.g.,

lunes,
3.

diez de octubre.)

2.

day of the Estamos


espaol.

clase

de espaol.
5.

Somos estudiantes de

Estamos sentados.
6.

El profesor est de pie delante de los

alumnos.
ser

Explica la diferencia que hay entre los verbos


7.

Los estudiantes conjugan los verbos ser y estar. 8. En la leccin de hoy aprenden los nombres de los das de la semana. 9. Repasan los nombres de las estaciones y de los meses. 10. Para saber cuantos das hay en cada mes

estar.

aprenden unos versos.


12.

11.

Aqu estn

los versos.

Treinta das trae noviembre

y septiembre; De veinte y ocho slo hay uno; Los dems de treinta y uno.
abril, jimio

Con

32

THE HOURS OF THE DAY

37

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Qu da es hoy? 2. Dnde estamos? 3. De qu 4. Dnde estamos sentados? lengua somos estudiantes? 6. Qu explica el profesor? 5. Dnde sta el profesor? 8. Qu nom7. Puede Vd. conjugar los verbos ser y estar? 9. Qu bres aprenden los estudiantes en la leccin de hoy? nombres repasan? 10. Qu aprenden para saber cuantos das hay en cada mes? 11. Hgame Vd. el favor de recitar los
1.

versos.

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

3.

The students of this class are boys. The teacher is seated in a chair before
is

2.

They

are seated.
4.

the class.

One
6.

of

the pupils
tell

standing.

5.

He is

trying to recite the verses which

(dicen)
{lit.

how many days


7.

there are^ in each month.

Now

he goes

passes) to the blackboard

the days of the week.

and writes the names of There are^ two mistakes. 8. The


9.

teacher underlines

the mistakes with chalk.

The

other

students recite the

names

of the

months.

10.

The

teacher ex-

between the verbs ser and estar. 11. The students conjugate the two verbs. 12. And now they recite the cardinal numbers from one to twenty.
plains to the class the difference

LESSON
The Hours
32.

VII (LECCIN
of the

SPTIMA)

Day

{Las Horas del Da)

The hour or time of day is indicated by a cardinal number preceded by the feminine definite article (to agree with hora, ^hour/ or horas, ^hours/ understood). Time after the hour is expressed by the number of minutes preceded by y, and time before, by the number of minutes preceded by menos,
1

One must

distinguish between Hhere are'

and 'they

are.'

38

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

33-34

Uess.' The word for ^minutes/ minutos, is usually omitted. The verb 'to be/ in expressions of time, is ser, which is singular or plural according to the number of hours.

Qu hora es? What time Son las dos y veinte Son las once menos diez
33.

is it?

Es
It
It

la una.

is is

It is one o'clock twenty minutes past two ten minutes to eleven

hour,

The half-hour by cuarto.


las tres

is

expressed by media and the quarter-

Son Son
34.

y media

It

is
is

half past three

las cinco

menos

cuarto

It

quarter to five

Note the following expressions

of time:

nueve de la maana de la tarde las diez de la noche Al medioda A media noche A las siete en punto
las las tres

A A A

At nine (o'clock) in the morning At three (o'clock) in the afternoon At ten (o'clock) at night At nbon At midnight At seven o'clock sharp

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
antes, adv., first, formerly; de, prep., before (usually applied to time) el bolsillo, the pocket la campana, the bell consultar, to consult entonces, adv., then la esfera, the face (of a watch or
clock)

llamar, to call, name; knock (at a door); se llama, is called

(named)
la manecilla, the

hand

(of a watch

or clock)
el

marcar, to mark minutero, the minute-hand

mucho, -a, much;


la pared, the wall

pi.,

many

etctera,
so forth

et

caetera,

etc.,

and

la posicin, the position


el reloj,

the

la expresin, the expression


el horario, the

hour-hand

indicar, to indicate

de pared,^ wall-clock segimdero, the second-hand el segundo, the second


el
,

clock;

de

timepiece,
bolsillo,^

watch, watch;

da, gives, strikes (of a clock);

cmo se

dice?

how

does one say?

how do you

say?
^

These words are not usually added.

EXERCISES
I

39

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Para indicar

la

hora del da cul es

el artculo

antes del
3.

nmero cardinal? 2. Cul es el Cundo se usa el verbo en el singular?


el

que se usa verbo que se usa?

4.

Cundo

se usa

en

plural?

5.

Hgame Vd.
y

el

favor de traducir al ingls

estas expresiones: es la una; son las cuatro

menos doce; son

las siete

catorce; son las nueve

y media; son las doce menos cuarto.

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Cmo
5.

se dice en espaol?:
3.

1.

What
4.

time

is

it?

2.

It is

half past one.

It is five o'clock.

It is quarter to three.
6.

It is twenty-five
7.

minutes past
(o'clock)

eight.
8.

It is quarter past

six.

It is five
9.

minutes to seven.
in the
11.

It is twelve o'clock
10.

sharp.
(o'clock)
13.

At three

afternoon.
12.

At ten

in

the morning.

At noon.

At midnight.

At eleven

(o'clock) at night.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Aqu en el bolsillo tengo im reloj. 4. En ima 3. Es im reloj de bolsillo. pared de la clase hay tambin un reloj, 5. Es im reloj de pared. 6. Este reloj tiene una campana que da las horas y las medias horas. 7. Cada reloj tiene una esfera con nmeros. 8. Cada reloj tiene tambin dos manecillas, el minutero y el horario para marcar los minutos y las horas. 9. En muchos relojes hay tambin una manecilla para marcar los segundos.
1.

Para saber

la

hora consultamos im

reloj.

2.

10.

Esta manecilla se llama

el

segundero.

minutero y del horario indica la hora. 12. est en el nmero doce y el horario est en
tonces son las tres.
seis

La posicin del Cuando el minutero


11.
el

nmero
el

tres,

en-

13.

Cuando

el

minutero est en

nmero

el

horario est entre los nmeros cuatro

cinco, entonces

son las cuatro y media, etctera.

40

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

35

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
Qu consultamos para saber la hora? 2. Tiene Vd. un reloj? 3. Es un reloj de bolsillo? 4. Qu hay en una pared de la clase? 5. Qu tiene el reloj de pared para dar las horas y las medias horas? 6. Hay nmeros en la esfera de cada 7. Cul es la manecilla que marca las horas? reloj? los minutos? los segundos? 8. Dnde est el horario y dnde est el minutero cuando es la una? cuando son las dos? las cinco y cuatro? las diez y media? las siete menos diez? las
1.

doce en punto? etc.

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


There are twenty-four hours in the day. 2. Every hour has sixty minutes. 3. There are sixty seconds in each minute. 4. We have timepieces which we consult in order to know what time it is. 5. Here is a watch. 6. It has a face with numbers.
1.

7.

It has also three hands: the minute-hand, the


8.

hour-hand and

The second-hand marks the seconds. 9. The hour-hand and the minute-hand mark the hours and the minutes. 10. When the hour-hand is at the number five and the minute-hand is at the number twelve, it is five o'clock.
the second-hand.
11.

When

the minute-hand
is

is

at the niunber three

and the
quarter

hour-hand

between the numbers twelve and one,


etc.

it is

past twelve^

LESSON
-35.

VIII

{LECCIN OCTA VA)

Order (Construccin de la Oracin), In a declarative sentence the word-order in Spanish is much the
Sentence
sanie as in English, but inversion of the subject, especially in
relative clauses,
is

more frequent.

Mi hermano

tiene el libro

My brother has the book


The book which

El libro que tiene mi hermano

my

brother has

36-39

SENTENCE OEX)ER
is

41

36.

In an interrogative sentence the word-order

commonly

as follows: (1) verb, (2) predicate


(3) subject.

nomi

(adjective, adverb, etc.),

Tiene

el libro

mi hermano?

Does

Es interesante el libro? Trabaja bien este muchacho?


37.

brother have the book? book interesting? Does this boy work well?
Is the

my

Present Indicative of tener

have/ 'possess' {Presente de Indicativo de tener)


^

^to

tengo, I have tienes, thou hast tiene, he (she) has, you have

tenemos, we have tenis, ye have


tienen, they (you) have
It
is

Note.

Tener expresses possession.

not used to form compound

tenses {tiempos compuestos).

38.

Tener que, followed by an


Tengo que trabajar

infinitive, expresses obligation.


I

have to work

39.

The Cardinal Numbers by Tens


diez veinte
treinta

{Los

Nmeros

Cardinales de Diez en Diez)


10,

60,
70,

20,

30,

80,

sesenta setenta ochenta

40,
50,

cuarenta cincuenta

90,

noventa
ciento

100,

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
la

barba, the chin, beard


brazo,

la frente, the forehead,

brow

la boca, the
el

mouth the arm


the hair {usually used

hasta, prep., to,


until
la mejilla, the

up

to, as far as,

el cabello,

in the plural)
la

cabeza, the head

cheek middle la nariz, the nose


la mitad, the half,
el ojo,

la cara, the face

the eye

codo, the elbow el cuerpo, the body el dedo, the finger, toe; de la del pie, toe mano, finger; formar, to form
ei

la oreja, the ear la parte, the part


la pierna, the leg la rodilla, the

knee

42

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


Conjugue Vd. el presente de indicativo del verbo tener. 2. Se puede usar el verbo tener para formar los tiempos compuestos? 3. Cules son los nmeros cardinales de diez en
1.

diez hasta ciento?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
espaol:
3.

translate the exercise.

have to study. 2. We have to You have to write the theme. 4. The


1.

students have to learn the lesson.


6.

5.

The

teacher has the book.

Does the teacher have a pen? 7. Do the pupils have pencils and paper? 8. Does this boy study well? 9. The book which the boy has is a grammar. 10. The lesson which the boys and
girls are

studying

is

the thirty-fifth lesson (lesson thirty-five).


ten, twenty, thirty,

11. I

have to learn the cardinal numbers

forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety

and a hundred.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Tenemos im cuerpo. 2. El cuerpo tiene ima cabeza, dos brazos y dos piernas. 3. En la cabeza tenemos los cabellos, las orejas y la cara. 4. Las partes de la cara son los ojos, las mejillas, la frente, la nariz, la boca y la barba. 5. Los brazos terminan en manos. 6. Cada mano tiene cinco dedos. 7. Las piernas terminan en pies. 8. Cada pie tiene cinco dedos. 9. Tenemos veinte dedos,^ diez dedos en las dos manos y diez
1.

dedos en
11.

los

dos pies.
la

10.

En

la

mitad del brazo est

el

codo.

En

la

mitad de

pierna est la rodilla.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
Tenemos un cuerpo? 2. Qu partes tiene el cuerpo? 4. Cules son las partes de la 3. Qu tenemos en la cabeza? 6. Cuntos dedos cara? 5. En qu terminan los brazos?
1.
1

Translate 'fingers and toes.*

40-41

ADJECTIVES

43
los pies?
8.

tiene cada

mano?

7.

En qu terminan
9.

Cuntos
10.

dedos tiene cada pie?


se llama la
se llama la

Cuntos dedos tenemos? parte que est en la mitad del brazo? parte que est en la mitad de la pierna?

11.

Cmo Cmo

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


body are the trunk (tronco), the head, the two arms and the two legs. 2. Each arm has an elbow and ends in a hand. 3. Each leg has a knee and ends in a foot. 4. Each hand has five fingers. 5. Each foot has also five toes. 6. I have ten fingers and ten 7. On my (la) head I have hair, two ears, two eyes, toes. two cheeks, a forehead, a nose, a mouth and a chin.
1.

The

principal parts (partes principales) of the

LESSON IX {LECCIN NOVENA)


ADJECTIVES {ADJETIVOS)
40.

How

the Feminine

is

Formed {Como

se

Forma

el

Feme-

nino). Adjectives ending in -o change to -a to form the feminine.


bonito, w., bonita,/., pretty

41.

Adjectives ending in any other vowel, or in a consonant,

are the

same

in

both genders.
fcil,

pobre, m. and/., poor

m. and f., easy

Exception

1.

Adjectives of nationahty (nacionalidad) form

their feminine in -a.


ingls, w., inglesa,/., English

espaol, m.^ espaola,/., Spanish

Exception

2.

Adjectives ending in -n, -on, -or (except

comparatives) form their feminine in -a.


holgazn, m., holgazana,/., indolent juguetn, w., juguetona,/., playful trabajador, w., trabajadora,/., industrious But: mejor m. andf., better..

44
42.

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH

42-47

How

the Plural

is
is

Formed (Como
formed

se

Forma

el Plural).

The

plural of adjectives

like the plural of


fcil, fciles,

nouns.

bonito, bonitos, pretty

easy

43.

How

Adjectives Agree (Como Concuerdan los Adjetivos).

Adjectives agree in gender and


qualify.

nmnber with the words they

un libro pequeo, a small book buenas plumas, good pens La madre y su hija son altas, The mother and her daughter are
44.

tall

An
is

adjective qualifying two or

gender

generally masculine plural,


if

more words of different and should stand near a

masculine word,

possible.

una seora y un seor espaoles, a Spanish lady and gentleman


45.

Where

Adjectives are

Placed (Donde se Colocan


(adjetivos
etc.;

los

Adjetivos).
articles,

Limiting

adjectives

determinativos):

numerals, possessives, demonstratives,

and

cer-

tain short

and much used adjectives precede


los

their nouns.^

estos libros, these books buenos amigos, the good friends

46.

Most

qualifying adjectives (adjetivos calificativos) fol-

low their nouns (especially long, proper and participial adjectives, those qualified

by an adverb and those joined by a

conjunction to another adjective).

una leccin interesante, an interesting lesson un libro espaol, a Spanish book un viaje muy largo, a very long journey una casa pequea y fea, a small and ugly house
47.

Adjectives

may

be used substantively.
los pobres, the poor

Some

used after:

adjectives have one meaning when used before a noun and another when i.e., el pobre nio, 'the poor (pitiable) child'; el nio pobre, 'the poor (in-

digent) child.*

EXERCISES

45

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
alguno, -a, some, any, a few bastante, adv.j enough, quite, rather bien, adv., well
calificar, to qualify,

juguetn, -a, playful

mayor,

parte de, the greater part


(la

adj., greater, larger; la

cambiar
into)

(en),

modify to change (to

or
el

of, most mismo, -a, same muy, adv., very

nio
.

nia), the child, little

come,

adv., like, as;

cmo? how?

boy

(girl)

corto, -a, short

pero, conj., but

demasiado,

adv., too, too

much

difcil, adj., difficult,

hard

fcil, adj., easy holgazn, -a, indolent

trabajador, -a, industrious trabajar, to work el trabajo, the work

GRAIVIMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cmo
2.

se

forma
3.

el

femenino de un adjetivo que termina en

-o?
los

Cules son los adjetivos que tienen

dos gneros?
el plural
6.

Cules son las


5.

forma
7.

de

los adjetivos?

misma forma en excepciones? 4. Cmo se Cmo concuerdan los adla

jetivos?

Dnde

se colocan los adjetivos determinativos?

Dnde
8.

se colocan la

tivos?

Se pueden usar los adjetivos

mayor parte de los adjetivos calificacomo substantivos?

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
3.

espaol:

1.

An

easy lesson.

2.

Short lessons.
5.

Short and easy lessons.


6.

4.

It is a

very hard lesson.


7.

Some

lessons are very hard.


is

Most
girl.

lessons are easy.


lesson.
9.

This lesson
industrious
girls.

rather short.
10.

8.

have the same


11.
13.

An

boy.
.12.

An

indolent

Indolent boys and


is

Playful children.
is

The work

quite easy.

14.
16.

The
In-

work
18.

too hard.

15.

Industrious pupils study well.


17.

dolent pupils do not

work enough.

The

industrious work.

The

indolent do not work.

46

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Esta clase es una clase de espaol.


pero habla

2.

La

profesora es

inglesa,

muy

bien espaol.
4.
5.

3.

Hay muchachos y

muchachas en
son^

la clase.

La mayor

parte de las muchachas

muy
6.

trabajadoras.

zanas.

Muchos de
7.

los

que son holgamuchachos son tambin trabajadores,


slo dos o tres

Hay

pero hay algunos nios que son


trabajar.
difciles.
el

juguetones y no desean Para los alumnos que no trabajan las lecciones son
las

muy

8.

Para

muchachas y

trabajo de la clase
fciles.

bastante

10.

muchachos trabajadores 9. Las lecciones son cortas y es fcil. Los aliunnos no tienen que trabajar
los

demasiado.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
Qu clase es sta^? la profesora? 2. Es espaola 3. Hay muchachos o muchachas en la clase? 4. Son trabajadoras las muchachas de la clase? 5. Cuntas muchachas de la clase son holgazanas? 6. Son trabajadores los muchachos? 7. Cules de los muchachos no desean trabajar? 8. Son dif9. Es ciles las lecciones para los aliminos que no trabajan?
1.

fcil

difcil el

trabajo de la clase para los nios trabajadores?


11.

10.

Cmo

son las lecciones?

Tienen que trabajar mucho

los

alumnos?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.
(lit.

There are many boys and


class of Spanish).
2.

girls

in

the

Spanish class

Most of the pupils are industrious. 3. They study a great deal. 4. One of the girls and two of the boys are very indolent. 5. They do not work enough. 6. The work of the class is hard for the indolent pupils. 7. The lessons
are easy for the industrious boys and
1
.2

girls.

8.

This lesson

is

plural

noun following

la

mayor

parte takes a plural verb.

'This one.'

Demonstrative pronoun-

48-52

APOCOPATION OF ADJECTIVES
and
easy.
9.
is

47

quite short

In this lesson
formed.
10.

we

learn

how

the femi-

nine of (the) adjectives


adjectives agree
lesson

We

also learn

how

(the)

and where they are placed. 11. In this same we learn that an adjective may be used (puede usarse)

as

[a]

noun.

LESSON

{LECCIN DCIMA)

APOCOPATION OF ADJECTIVES {APCOPE

DE LOS ADJETIVOS)
48.

The dropping

of a final letter or syllable of a

word

is

called apocopation.

49.

The

following adjectives drop the final -o,

when they
first

precede a masculine singular noim:


bueno, good malo, bad, poor
1

uno, one alguno, some, any ninguno, no, none


first

primero,

tercero, third

postrero, last

algn libro, some book el primer ^ buen da, the


50.
lar

good day

Grande, 'great/ generally becomes gran before a singuof either gender.

noun

un gran hombre, a great man ima gran dificultad, a great difficulty


Note.

In the sense of

'large,' 'big,'

grande usually follows the noim.

una casa grande, a


51.

large house

Santo, 'saint,' becomes San before masculine singidar


of saints, except those beginning with

names

Do

or To.

San Juan, Saint John San Francisco, Saint Francis


52.

Santo Domingo, Saint Dominic Santo Toms, Saint Thomas

Ciento, /a hundred,'

becomes cien before the noun

it

modifies.
1

The

indefinite article is not used before ciento.

Alguno and ninguno take an accent when the -o is dropped. Apocopation may occur even when another adjective intervenes.

48

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

53

cien libros, a hundred books cien mil soldades, a hundred thousand soldiers But: ciento diez, ciento veinte, etc., a hundred and ten, a hundred and
'

twenty,' etc.

53.
1.

The

indefinite article is not used in Spanish:

Before unmodified nouns expressing a state or profession,

after the verb ser, ^to be.'

Es abogado. He
But: Es
2.
tin

is

a lawyer.

Es

profesora.
is

She

is

a teacher

mdico famoso

He

a famous doctor

After qu, ^what a/ in exclamations.

Qu hombre!

Qu

da

ms

{or tan^)

hermoso!

What a man! What a beautiful

day!

3.

Often before noims used in apposition, in which case the

definite article is also frequently omitted.

Blasco Ibez, autor eminente

Blasco Ibez, an author

{or the)

eminent

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
abogado, the lawyer (la amiga) the friend la casa, the house el comerciante, the merchant
el el

el hijo,

amigo

el el

constar (de), to consist


el

(of)

duro
lar

{called also peso), the dol-

la
la
el

{Spanish coin worth

five

pesetas)
el estudio, the

the son (la hija, the daughter); pL, sons, son(s) and daughter(s) hombre, the man inters, the interest madre, the mother mujer, the woman, wife padre, the father; pL, fathers,
parents, father(s) and mother(s)

study

excelente, adj., excellent la familia, the family el hermano, the brother (la hermana, the sister); pL, brothers, brother(s) and sister(s)
el

prometer, to promise
rico, -a, rich

su, poss. adj., his, her,


their

its,

your,
neigh-

vecino bor

(la vecina),

the

pierde, loses; pierden, lose


1

Note the intensive adverb used

in Spanish.

EXERCISES

49

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cules son los adjetivos que pierden

la

terminacin -o
2.

delante de

un substantivo masculino en
el
el

el

singular?

Qu

forma tiene
tantivo en

adjetivo grande cuando est delante de


3.

singular?

un subsforma Qu tiene santo delante de


singular?
4.

un nombre masculino en
cepciones?
5.

el

Cules son las ex-

Cundo

se usa la

forma cien?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


DgamxC Vd. en espaol:
3. 6.
1.

good book.
5.

2.

big book.

A
He

large house.
lives in
8.

4.

great interest.
7.

hundred men.
lives in

San Francisco.

His friend

Santo

Domingo.
10.

He

is

a lawyer.
11. 13.

9.

He

is

a rich merchant.

What
15.

a rich man!

exercise of the book.

The third exercise. 12. The last A bad student. 14. No student is
16.

bad.

Some

students are excellent.


17.

This

woman
is

has a

good son and a good daughter18. It consists of

The family
19.

not large.

only three persons.

Their brothers are


is

neighbors.

20.

His brother, an excellent lawyer,

very

rich.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

En

la clase

de espaol hay dos muchachos que son

muy

buenos amigos, Juan^ Alien y Carlos^ Gordon. 2. Sus padres son vecinos. 3. El padre de Carlos es un comerciante rico. 4. Vive en una casa muy grande. 5. El padre de Juan es im

buen abogado, pero no

es

un hombre muy

rico.

6.

La

familia

de Juan consta de su padre, de su madre, de sus dos hermanas

y de Juan.
hermanos.

7.

Carlos tiene su padre

y su madre, pero no

tiene

Juan es un buen estudiante de espaol. 9. Carlos no es un mal estudiante, p>ero no es excelente. 10. El padre de Carlos tiene un gran inters en el estudio del espaol. 11. Promete cien duros al primer estudiante de la clase.
8.
1

For proper names, see general vocabulary.

50

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

54

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

es el

Son amigos Juan y Carlos? 2. Son vecinos? padre de Carlos? 4. Dnde vive? 5. Qu es
6,

3. el

Qu
padre

De qu personas consta la familia de Juan? 8. Cuntas personas hay en la familia de Carlos? 9. Qu clase de estudiante es Juan? 10. Es un estudiante excelente
de Juan?

Es rico?

7.

Carlos?

11.

Tiene inters en

el

estudio del espaol

el

padre

de Carlos?

12.

Qu promete

al

primer estudiante de

la clase?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

John Alien
is

is

a good friend of Charles Gordon.


3.

2.

John's

father

a lawyer.

There are
sisters,

five persons in the Allen

family^:
4.

John, his two

his father

and

his

mother.

Charles' father, a rich merchant, lives with his wife


5.

and

his

son in a very large house.


6.

The two

families are neighbors.

John and Charles are pupils in the same school. 7. There are a himdred students in the school. 8. The Spanish class is quite large. 9. They have a good teacher who has a great interest in his pupils. 10. John and Charles are excellent
students.
11.

They

learn their lessons well.

LESSON XI {LECCIN ONCE")


DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES {ADJETIVOS
DEMOSTRATIVOS)
54.
Singular
este, -a^ this

Plural
estos, -as, these

^'7^'

aquel, aquella,

jthat
J

esos -as, \^y^^^ aquellos, -as, j


is
is

Note. Ese indicates that which


addressed.
^

Aquel denotes that which


follow familia.

near (or well known to) the person more remote (or less well known).

The proper noun should

Beginning with this lesson, cardinal numbers will be used, since the ordinals (ordinales) are not commonly employed in Spanish beyond tenth.
2

55-59

DEMONSTRATIVE AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

51

Demonstrative adjectives agree in gender and number and are repeated with each word they modify. aquel hombre y aquella mujer, that man and (that) woman
55.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES {ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS)


56.

Forms which Precede the Noun {Formas que Preceden al Nombre)


Singular

Plural

(1.*)
(2.'^)

mi
tu

mis
tus

my
thy
his, her, its,

(3.^) (1.^)

su
nuestro, -a vuestro, -a

sus
nuestros, -as vuestros, -as

your

(2.-)
(3.^)

our your
their (m. or f.),

su

sus

your

Note. -- The forms su and sus are the proper adjectival forms
with usted
.

to use

57.

Possessive adjectives agree with the thing possessed in

gender and number, and in person with the possessor.


to the

They

are

repeated before each noim they modify, unless the noims refer

same person or

thing.
sisters

nuestros hermanos y nuestras hermanas, our brothers and mi amigo y vecino, my friend and neighbor {one person)
58.

To

avoid ambiguity in the third person, personal pro-

nouns after de are sometimes added.


de l, his book de ella, her book de usted, your book
.

SU

{or el) libro

de ellos, their (w.) book de ellas, their (/.) book de ustedes, your {pi.) book
59.

Where

possession

is

evident, particularly in the case of

parts of the body, or clothing, the definite article frequently


replaces the possessive adjective.

Qu

tiene Vd. en la

mano?

What have you

in

your hand?

52
60.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

60-61

The

adjective propio, -a, 'own/

is

often used to enforce

the possessive idea.

mi propia
61.

casa,

my own

house

Many
sexes.

nouns, especially those denoting rank or relation-

ship, are

used in the masculine plural to include individuals of

both

los reyes, the kings, the king and queen los tos, the uncles, the uncle and aunt
los

hermanos, the brothers, the brother (s) and

sister (s)

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
el

abuelo, the grandfather abuela, the grandmother)


algo,
indef.

(la

pron.j

something;

adv.,

somewhat

apellidarse, to be

named^

cerca, adv., near;


near, about
la ciudad, the city

de,

prep,,

niuneroso, -a, numerous, large otro, -a, other, another el (la) pariente, the relative el primo (la prima), the cousin pues, conj., well; then sobre, prep., above, over, upon, about; todo, above all,

especially
el sobrino,

lejos, adv., far (off)

the

nephew

(la

so-

menor,
cl

adj. (comp. c/

pequeo),

brina, the niece)


el to, the uncle (la ta, the aunt)

smaller, younger miembro, the member modificar, to modify

el nieto,

the grandson the granddaughter)

(la

nieta,

nico, -a, only, sole v., to see (;^^., visto) viejo, -a, old
ver, irr.

a menudo,
(inf.,

adv., often; se refiere (inf., referirse), refers;


is

se repite

repetirse),

repeated:
venir),

vamos
comes

(inf., ir),

we go

(are going),

let

us go; viene

(inf.,

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cules son los adjetivos demostrativos?


3.

2.

Cmo

con-

cuerdan?
4.

Se repiten con cada palabra que modifican?


5.

Cules son los adjetivos posesivos?

Cundo no

se re-

piten delante de dos o tres substantivos que modifican?


^

Applied to family names.

EXERCISES

53

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
the

espaol:
3.

1.

This book.

2.

That book
4.
6.

{near

person addressed),

pencils
7.

and

(these)

Those books pens. 5. His book.


8.

{yonder),

These Her grammar.

Your note-book.

aunt {two ways),


11.

10.

Our own house. 9. My uncle and Our father and mother {two ways),
your hand?
12. I
14.

What do you have


13.

in

have something
is

for

you.

Who

is

that gentleman?

He

my

friend

and

neighbor.
16.

15. Is

my

cousin your only friend in this city?


are there in your family?
18.
17.

How many members


is

Our

family

somewhat niunerous.
have

you?

19. I

my

grandparents,
cousins.

How many relatives have my parents, a few uncles

and aunts, and many

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

En

esta leccin, dice el profesor,


la familia.
3. 2.

vamos a hablar de

los

miembros de
es

Juan, dgame Vd. algo sobre su


esta

familia de usted.

Pues, seor profesor, nuestra familia no


4.

mi padre y mi madre, mis dos hermanas y yo. 5. Mi abuelo y mi abuela, los padres de mi padre, viven en otra ciudad, no muy
numerosa.
cuidad viven
lejos

muy

En

de aqu.

6.

Ellos son bastante viejos.

7.

En

aquella

misma
padre.

ciudad, cerca de la casa de mis abuelos, viven


ta Isabel.
8.

mi

to

Pablo y mi
9.

Mi

ta es la

hermana menor de mi
10. Ellos

Mis

tos

se

apellidan WilHams.

tienen

11. Aquellos muchachos son mis nicos primos. Mis hermanas son las sobrinas de sus tos y yo soy su sobrino. 13. Mis abuelos vienen a esta ciudad muy a menudo

dos hijos.
12.

para ver a sus nietos.

54

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

De qu vamos a hablar en

esta leccin?

3. Es numerosa la a Juan el profesor? 4. Cules son los parientes de Juan que viven en

Qu dice familia de Juan?


2.

la

ciudad

donde l vive? 5. Dnde viven su abuelo y su abuela? 7. Qu parientes de Juan viven 6. Son viejos sus abuelos? cerca de la casa de sus abuelos? 8. Es su ta hermana de su padre o de su madre? 9. Cmo se apellida el to de Juan? 10. Cuntos hijos tiene? 11. Cuntos primos tiene Juan? 12. Cmo se llama a los hijos de im hermano o de ima hermana? 13. Para qu vienen a menudo los abuelos de Juan a la ciudad donde vive?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

My
my

family

is

quite numerous.

2.

I live with

my

grand-

parents,
brother.
live

my
3.

father

and (my) mother,

my

two

sisters

and

my

In another house, not very far from our house,

and (my) aimt, with their five children.^ 5. My brother 4. They have three sons and two daughters. and sisters and I are often with these cousins. 6. We go to the same school. 7. Their father is the older brother of my father. 9. These aunts live in a city 8. My mother has three sisters. w^hich is very far from the city in which we live. 10. They also have children,^ 11. We do not see those cousins very often.
uncle
1

Use

hijos.

62-65

POLITE IMPERATIVE

55

LESSON XII {LECCIN DOCE)


THE SUBJUNCTIVE USED AS POLITE IMPERATIVE {EL SUBJUNTIVO USADO COMO IMPERATIVO CORTS)
62.

A command with usted or ustedes as subject is expressed


Singular
I.

as follows in the three regular conjugations:


Plural

11.

III.

Hablar: hable Vd.^ Aprender: aprenda Vd. Vivir: vivaVd.

hablen Vds.^ aprendan Vds.


vivan Vds.

speak
learn
live

63.

Note the
Dar: Hacer: Poner: Tener:
Traer: Decir:
Ir:

polite imperative forms of the following

com-

mon

irregular verbs:

d^Vd. hagaVd. ponga Vd.


tenga Vd. traiga Vd.

den Vds. hagan Vds. pongan Vds.


tengan Vds. traigan Vds. digan Vds. vayan Vds. vengan Vds. traduzcan Vds.

give

make, do
put, place

have
bring
say, tell

Venir: Traducir:

digaVd. vaya Vd. venga Vd.


traduzca Vd.

go

come
translate

64.

The personal

object pronouns (me, se, etc.) follow

and

are attached to these forms in the aflSrmative,

and precede (im-

attached) in the negative.

An

accent

mark must

indicate the stress of voice

when

it falls

on any

syllable except the next to the last of this combination.

Hgame Vd. el favor No me diga Vd. eso

Do me
Don't

the favor

tell

me

that

ADVERBS (ADVERBIOS)
Adverbs are generally formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of an adjective.
65.
claro, claramente, clearly
fcil,
1
2

fcilmente, easily
used.
'of.'

The pronoun usted (pL, ustedes) is not necessary, but is commonly The accent is to distinguish this verb form from the preposition de,

56
66.

riRS COURSE in Spanish

66-69

When two
-mente

adverbs are used together, joined by a conis

junction,

added to the

latter only.

Both have the

feminine form

of the adjective.

clara y distintamente, clearly and distinctly

67.

Qualifying adverbs regularly precede adjectives and

fol-

low verbs.
of time

Great freedom
place.

is

allowed in the position of adverbs

and

Ella es muy hermosa Habla perfectamente

He

Aqu est
68.

el libro

is very beautiful speaks perfectly Here is the book

She

Aqu, ac=^here,' 'hither'; ah=Hhere' (near the person


all,

addressed);

all = Hhere,' 'thither'

(more remote).
all.

Aqu and

all

are

more

definite

and limited than ac and


Come Come
here
right here

Venga ac Venga aqu


69.
is

'Very,' usually expressed

by muy, when standing alone


Are you pleased?

expressed

by mucho.

Est Vd. contento?

Mucho

Very

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
abrir, to

la

open (pp. abierto) bondad, the goodness, kindness


cerrar, to shut, close

la pgina, the

page

preparar, to prepare pronxmciar, to pronounce


la puerta, the

claro, -a, clear

comprender, to understand
detrs de, prep., behind, after
distinto, -a, distinct, different
(las) gracias, /. pL,

prximo, -a, next door


sentarse,
to

seat

oneself,

sit

down

(imptv., sintese Vd.)

thanks, thank

sealar, to point out, indicate


el significado, the

you

levantar, to raise; se, to rise, get up la lista, the list, roll, menu; pasar to call the roll

meaning

significar, to

mean
window

tomar, to take, assume


la ventana, the

la vez, the

time (recurrence)

una vez, once; dos veces, twice; a (or algunas) veces, sometimes; muchas veces, oftenj otra vez, again

EXERCISES

57

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cmo termina en
la

el

singular

el

imperativo corts de un

verbo de

primera conjugacin?
de la tercera?
2.

de un verbo de la segunda

conjugacin?

Cul es

el

imperativo corts
venir, traducir?

de dar, hacer, poner, tener, traer, decir,


3.

ir,

Dnde se ponen los pronombres personales complementos^ en una negacin? 4. Cmo se forman los adverbios en espaol? 5. Cuando hay dos adverbios cul de los dos toma la terminacin -mente?

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


1.

Cmo

se dice ^here,' ^hither'? Hhere' (near the persot


^

addressed)?

there' (more remote)?


3.

2.

Cmo

se dice ^very/
el

cuando no hay otras palabras?

Ponga Vd. en
pasar

singular del

imperativo corts estos infinitivos: hablar distintamente; sealar los adverbios; sentarse aqu;
lista; abrir la

puerta;

levantar la
plirnia;

mano; tomar su

libro;

preparar la leccin; traer la


leer;

en

la

no ir al pizarrn; tener la bondad de mesa; decirme su nombre.

poner

el libro

READING EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

El profesor pasa

lista.

2.

Luego

dice a Juan: tenga Vd.


3.

la

bondad de

cerrar la puerta

y de

abrir la ventana.

Muchas

4. Carlos, tome Vd. su libro, leTiene Vd. la leccin bien prevenga ac. 5. vntese Vd. y 6. Pues, entonces abra Vd. su libro y lea parada? S, seor. 7. Muy bien: Vd. pronuncia muy clara el ejercicio de lectura. y distintamente. 8. Traduzca Vd. el ejercicio. 9. Bueno: ahora seale Vd. los verbos que son de la primera conjugacin. 11. S, seor, 10. Comprende Vd. el significado de sealar? 12. Muy bien: ahora haga el favor sealar significa indicar.

gracias; ahora sintese Vd.

'

object.'

58
de sentarse.
13.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

Cuntos tienen el ejercicio de traduccin 14. Levanten Vds. la mano. escrito en sus cuadernos? 15. Juan, vaya Vd. all y escriba el ejercicio en el pizarrn. 16. Para la prxima vez preparen Vds. la prxima leccin.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

Qu hace

el

profesor?

2.

Qu

dice a Juan?

3.

Qu

dice a Carlos?
5.

4.

Tiene Carlos s leccin bien preparada?


Carlos?
6.

Cmo pronimcia
7.

Comprende Vd.
sealar?
8.

el

significado

de sealar?
el ejercicio

Qu

significa

Cuntos tienen

de traduccin escrito en sus cuadernos?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

The

teacher

is

seated in a chair behind the table.

2.

He

says to the pupils: take your note-books, go to the blackboard

and write the


very
clearly.

translation exercise of to-day's lesson.


4.

3.

Write

Now

go to your
7.

seats.

5.

John, come here


6.

and point out the mistakes in and underline the mistakes.


8.

this exercise.

Take the chalk


table.

Put the chalk on the


it (lo)

Now go to 10. Now take


11.

your

seat.

9.

Charles, write the exercise again.


to (en la)
12.

your book and open

page

fifty-

nine.

Begin with the reading


words? Yes,
Please
sit

exercise.

Read the

Spanish clearly and distinctly.

13.
sir,

Do you
14.

imderstand the

meaning

of the
15.

Well then, translate

the exercise.

down.

70-74

FORMS or ADDRESS

59

LESSON XIII {LECCIN TRECE)


FORMS OF ADDRESS {FORMAS DE TRATAMIENTO)
70.

Don

(doa,/.)

is

used before the Christian name (nombre

de

pila);

seor (seora,/., seorita,/) before the family

name

(apellido).

The two may be combined.


Seora doa Emilia Pardo Bazn

Seor don Juan Valera


71.
It is

customary in Spain to use the mother's name after


it

that of the father, usually joined to


riage adds to her family

by

y.

lady upon mar-

name

that of her husband, preceded

by

de.

Seor don Marcelino Menndez y Pelayo Seora doa Antonia Andrs de Dign
72.

Caballero, unconnected with

any name, sometimes

re-

places seor

by way

of address.

Buenos
73.

das, caballero

Good

day,

sir

Greetings (Saludos)

Buenos das Buenas tardes Buenas noches

Good day, good morning Good afternoon Good evening, good night

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE


74.

(EL

ARTCULO DEFINIDO)
Spanish before noims

The
El

definite article is required in

used in a general or abstract sense.

hombre es mortal
pensa
(abstract)

(general)

Man

is

mortal
is its

La

virtud es su propia recom-

Virtue

own reward

1.

Names

of languages, therefore,

if

used in a general sense,


is

regularly take the definite article, which


verbs, especially hablar.

often omitted after

6(1

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


El espaol es fcil Estudio (el) espaol

75

Spanish is easy I am studying Spanish

2.

Nouns used
Tengo

in a partitive sense take

no

article.

lpices y

plumas

have pens and pencils

75.

The

definite article is required before titles, except in

direct address.
El seor Caldern es rico El profesor Bello es muy clebre

Mr. Caldern

is

rich
is

Professor Bello

very famous

But: Buenos

Good das, seor Caldern Buenas tardes, seor profesor Good

day, Mr. Caldern


afternoon, professor

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
casado, -a,
sar)
la conjuncin, the conjunction

married

(/;?/.,

ca-

la pregunta, the question

preguntar
(of)

(a), to

question, ask
inter,

contestar, to answer, reply


el criado (la criada), the

quin? (pL, quines?),


pron.,

servant despus, adv., afterwards, later,


then,
after
since;

who? whom?

recibir, to receive

de,

prep.,

saludar, to greet
si, conj,, if,

el

ejemplo, the example; por


for

whether

',

solo, -a, alone, sole, only

example

entrar (en) ,^ to enter, go in (into) general, adj., general; por regla in general, usually el gusto, the taste, pleasure el marido, the husband

todo, -a, adj. and pron., all, every; everything til, adj., useful la verdad, the truth; es it is true; no es ? or ? isn't

it

so? etc.

se despide (de)

(inf., despedirse), takes leave (of); hace (mf., hacer), does, makes; sigue {inf., seguir), follows; va {inf., ir), goes, is going

GRAIMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


forma de tratamiento que precede por regla general a un nombre de pila masculino? a un nombre de pila
1.

Cul es

la

En must

be used before a following object.

EXERCISES
femenino?
2.

61

forma de tratamiento que precede a un apellido de hombre? a un apellido de mujer casada? a un apellido de mujer que no est casada? 3. Cul se pone primero en espaol el apellido del padre o el apellido de la madre? 4. Cul es la conjuncin que se usa generalmente entre los dos
Cul es
la

apellidos?
6.
7.

5.

Cmo

se escribe el apellido

de una mujer casada?

Qu preposicin se usa despus del apellido del padre?


Se usa caballero con apellido?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: 1. Mr. Marcelino Menndez (Pelayo bemg his mother's name), 2. Mrs. Mary Bello (Rubio being her father's name), 3. Good day, Mr. Bello. 4. Mr. Rubio is
a rich merchant.
6. 5.

Professor Caldern
7.

Good

afternoon, professor.
9.

an excellent man. Good evening, sir. 8. Books


is

are useful.

Spanish

is

easy.

10. I

speak English.

11.
13.

We

have pens and pencils.


is

12.

Good students work well.

Work

good

for students.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Juan llama a la puerta del seor Gordon. 2. Un criado abre la puerta y Juan pregimta si Carlos est en^ casa. 3. S, seor, contesta el criado, pase Vd. 4. Juan entra en la casa, y Carlos recibe a^ su amigo con mucho gusto. 5. Los dos muchachos hablan algunos minutos de su escuela. 6. Entonces don Jos y doa Mara, padres de Carlos, entran tambin. 7. Saludan a^ Juan y preguntan como est su familia. 8. Muchas
1.

gracias, dice Juan, toda la familia est

muy

bien.

9.

El seor

Gordon, que tiene mucho inters en


chos, pregunta a
1

los estudios

de

los

Juan cmo va

el

trabajo de la clase.

mucha10. Juan

Note the omission

of the definite should not be translated here.

article.

It serves to introduce a personal direct object.

(Cf. 12.)

62

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

contesta que todos los alumnos, con algunas excepciones, tra-

bajan bien.

11.

Despus de una hora de conversacin, Juan

se

despide de sus amigos.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
A qu puerta llama Juan? 2. Quin abre la puerta? 3. Qu pregunta Juan al criado? 4. Cmo contesta el criado? 6. Cmo recibe Carlos a^ su amigo? 5. Qu hace Juan? 8. Quines entran en7. De qu hablan los dos amigos? 10. Quin es doa Mara? tonces? 9. Quin es don Jos? 12. Cmo contesta 11. Qu hacen los padres de Carlos? Juan a la pregunta de los padres de Carlos? 13. Qu pregunta entonces el seor Gordon? 14. Tiene mucho mters en los estudios de los dos muchachos? 15. Cundo se despide Juan de
1.

sus amigos?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

Who
it

is

knocking at the door?


Please come
5.

2.

It is

(lit.

am

I).

3.

Is

you, Charles?

in.

4.

John opens the door

and
you?

his friend enters.


6.

Good

afternoon, Charles.

How

are

Very well, thank you, and you? 7. Quite well, thanks. 9. I am expecting (espero a^) a 8. What are you doing? 11. It is Mr. Joseph Bello y Cabrera. 10. Who is it? friend.
12.
is

The lawyer?
he not?
15.

13.

Yes,

it

is

he.

14.

He

is

(est) married,

Yes, he married (se cas con)


is

Mary

Rubio.
17.

16.

Now his wife

called Mrs.

Mary Rubio
friends.
18.

de Bello.

The

two boys speak

of their

many

After a short con-

versation, Charles takes leave.


1

should not be translated here.

It serves

to introduce

a personal direct object.

(Cf. 12.)

76-77

PARTICIPLES

63

LESSON XIV {LECCIN CATORCE)


PARTICIPLES {PARTICIPIOS)

The genind (called sometimes present participle) is formed by adding, in the first conjugation, -ando to the stem,
76.

and, in the second and third conjugations, -iendo.

The past
tion,

participle

is

formed by adding,
in the

in the first conjuga-

-ado to the stem, and,

second and third conjuga-

tions, -ido.

Note. When the ending -ido is preceded by a, e or o, the i takes a written accent: caer, Ho fall,' cado; leer, 'to read,' ledo; or, 'to hear,' odo.

Past Participle
Infinitive
{Infinitivo)
I.

Gerund
{Gerundio)

{Participio

Pasado

[o Pasivo])

hablar
vivir

hablando, speaking
aprend iendo, learning
viviendo, living

hablado, spoken
aprend ido, learned
vivido, lived

n. aprend er
III.

Note.
ser,

The

auxiliary verbs (verbos auxiliares) follow the

same

rules:

siendo, sido; estar, tener, teniendo, tenido.

estando, estado; haber, habiendo, habido;

77.

The Gerund

{El Gerundio)

The gerund never


used:
1.

varies for gender or number.

It

may

be

Alone, as in English.
estando
solo, being alone

2.

Introduced by the preposition en=^in,' while,' 'by,'


^

etc.

En hablando me
3.

lo

descubri

WTiile (by, in) speaking, he disclosed


it

to

me

With

estar, 'to be,' to express progressive action (accin

progresiva), although the simple tense of the verb

may

also

have

this progressive idea.


{or

Estamos hablando

hablamos)

We are

talking

64

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

78-79

In general, the English present participle after prepositions is Note. rendered by the infinitive: sin hablar, without speaking.' ^Upon'+present participle =al: al llegar, 'upon arriving.'
'

78.

The Past

Participle (El Participio Pasado


[o

Pasivo])

The
1.

past participle
adjective.

may

be used:
it

As

In this case

agrees with

its

noun

in gen-

der and number.

Una
2.

leccin bien aprendida


ser, 'to
it

A well-learned lesson

With
~

In this case

agrees with

be/ to form the passive voice (voz pasiva). its subject in gender and number.

Ya son

vistos por el perro

Now they are seen by the dog


by the
spoken
reflexive

Note.

In

general

it

is

best to replace the passive


por, 'by.'

(with se), unless followed

by

Aqu se habla espaol


3.

Here Spanish

is

With
its

estar,

Ho be/

to indicate a state or condition followit

ing an act.

In this case

also agrees in gender


is

with

subject.

This construction
ser.

and number much more frequent

than the passive with

La puerta
Note. by the se
4.

est cerrada
is

The door

is

shut

'The door
construction.

being shut' would be expressed by the passive or

With haber, Ho

have,' to form the

compound
ladies

tenses (tiemis

pos compuestos).

In this case the past participle

invariable.

Las seoras han llegado

The

have arrived

79.

Present Indicative of Haber

4o have'

(Presente de Indicativo de Haber)


he, I have has, thou hast ha, he has

hemos, we have
habis, ye have han, they have

80

THE PEEJFECT TENSE


as an auxiliary verb.

65
Possession
is

Haber is used only pressed by tener.


80.

ex-

The Perfect
first

(El Perfecto)

The
and

compound

tense,

made up

of the present of

haber

a past participle,

he hablado, has hablado,

etc., is called

the perfect tense.

It is

used the same as in English to express


its

completed action without reference to the time of


tion.

comple-

He

ledo el libro

have read the book

It is also used in conversation to express simple past action,

especially

if

occurring during recent time.

Han

llegado esta

maana?

Did they

arrive this morning?

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
antiguo, -a, ancient
casi, adv.,

el idioma, the language,

speech

almost

la importancia, the

importance

castellano, -a, Castilian, Spanish

interesante, adj., interesting


la literatura, the literature
el

cataln, -a, Catalonian, of Catalonia


el dialecto, the dialect

mapa, the map

diferente, adj., different, vari-

ous^ diverso, -a, diverse, different,


various^ expresar, to express

parecido, -a, like, similar por, prep., by, in, through que, conj., that; than, as el reino, the kingdom, reign,

dominion
sin, prep.,
adv.,

without; embargo, however, nevertheless

famoso, -a, famous

viajar, to travel

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cul es

la

terminacin del infinitivo de la primera condel participio pasado?


2.

jugacin?
la

del gerundio?

Cul es
del

terminacin del infinitivo de la segunda conjugacin?


del participio pasado?
1

gerundio?

3.

Cul es
is

el

gerundio de

When

used before a noun, the meaning

'various.*

66
vivir?
las

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


el participio

pasado?
los

4.

Siguen los verbos auxiliares


el

mismas
el

reglas

que

verbos regulares para formar


5.

ge-

rundio y espaol?

participio pasado?

Cmo
el

se usa el gerimdio en
el infinitivo

6.

Se usa por regla general


7.

gerundio o
se

despus de las preposiciones?

Cmo
forman
los

usa

el

participio

pasado en espaol?
tos?
10.
9.

8.

Cmo

se

los

tiempos compues-

Cul es
el

el

primero de

tiempos compuestos?

Conjugue Vd.

perfecto de hablar.

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
ish.
2.

espaol:

1.

He

is

speaking {two ways) Span3.

We

are living {two ways) in Spain.


4.

(By) studying

One does not learn without studying. 5. A welllearned lesson. 6. The door is closed. 7. The door is (being) closed. 9. They have spoken twice. 8. I have spoken once. 10. We have traveled through Spain. 11. Have you not wished [to] travel through the United States? 12. They have taken the map of Spain. 13. Upon entering the classroom, the teacher has called [the] roll. 14. Upon going to the blackboard,
one learns.
the students have written the translation exercise.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Hoy

el

profesor ha hablado de Espaa.

2.

muy

claramente y yo he comprendido todo. 3. los antiguos reinos que estn indicados en el mapa.

Ha hablado Ha sealado
4.

Hemos
el cas-

aprendido que
tellano, es

el

idioma del antiguo reino de Castilla/


la

ahora

lengua general de Espaa,

5.

Hablando
6.

castellano

uno puede viajar por todas partes de Espaa.


7.

La

pronunciacin, sin embargo, es bastante diferente en las diversas partes.

En

Andaluca,^ por ejemplo, se habla espaol

con ima pronunciacin que es


de
la

muy

parecida a la pronunciacin

Amrica espaola.
1

8.

Los

dialectos hablados en algunos


.

Castile.

Andalusia.

EXERCISES

67

de los antiguos reinos han tomado casi la importancia de lenguas, sobre todo,
el

cataln, dialecto de Catalua.^

9.

Se dice

que hay una literatura

muy

interesante escrita en este dialecto.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
De qu ha hablado el profesor hoy? 2. Cmo ha hablado? 3. Qu ha sealado el profesor? 4. Qu han aprendido ustedes? 5. Dnde se habla castellano? 6. Es dife1.

rente la pronunciacin del espaol en las diversas partes de

Espaa?
la

7.

A qu pronunciacin
8.

es parecida la

pronunciacin

de Andaluca?
catalana?

Cul de

los dialectos, sobre todo,


9.

ha tomado

importancia de una lengua?

Qu

se dice

de

la literatiura

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

There are various


2.

dialects

spoken in the different parts of


3.

Spain.

The

Catalonian, having a very good literature, has


of a language.

assumed the importance


of Castile (Castilla) is

The

ancient speech
all

now

the language spoken in


4.

Spain

However, the pronimciation is quite different in the various parts of Spain and of America. 5. In Spanish America,^ they use the pronunciation of Anda6. In the Spanish class {lit, class of Spanlusia (Andaluca).
in

and

many

parts of America.

ish)

we

use the Castilian pronunciation.


8.

7.

Most Spanish

have learned much to-day about (acerca de) the Spanish language. 9. Some day we wish [to] read the famous literature of Spain. 10. We are
teachers use this pronunciation.
learning a great deal every ^ day.
1

We

Catalonia.
3

Use

definite article.

Use todos

los das or

cada

da.

68

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

81-82

LESSON XV {LECCIN QUINCE)


PAST TENSES {TIEMPOS PASADOS)
81.

Imperfect or Past Descriptive {Imperfecto


o Pasado Descriptivo)
I

hab aba, I was speaking, I used^ to speak, I spoke habl abas, thou wert speaking, eto. habl aba, he was speaking, etc.
habl abamos, we were speaking, etc. habl abais, ye were speaking, etc. habl aban, they were speaking, etc.
,

II

III
etc.

aprend ia, I was learning, aprend ias aprend ia

viv ia, I was living, etc.


viv ias viv ia

aprendamos
aprend iais aprend ian

vivamos
viv iais viv ian

Note.

Observe the accent mark on the ending -abamos and on the


and III throughout.

of the imperfect of II

82.

Only three verbs are

irregular in the imperfect indicative:

ser, 'to be': era, eras, era,

ramos,

erais,

eran

ver,^
ir,

'

to see '

vea, veas, vea, veamos, veais, vea^i

'to go': iba, ibas, iba, bamos, ibais, iban

1 Sometimes the form 'I would speak,' etc., may be used to translate the idea of past customary action. 2 The conjugation of the imperfect of ver is irregular in that the e of the ending is

retained.

83-86

PAST TENSES
Preterit or Past Absolute (Pretrito o

69

83.

Pasado Absoluto)
I

II

III

habl, I spoke, hab aste etc.

habl
hab amos hab asteis hab aron

aprend , I learned, aprend iste etc. aprend i


aprend irnos aprend isteis aprend ieron

viv , I lived, viv iste etc, viv i

vivimos
viv isteis viv ieron

first and third persons singular analogy, monosyllabic preterits ending in a diphthong also take an accent mark (e.g., ver, Ho see': vi, viste, vi^ cf. Introduction,

Note.

Observe the accent mark on the


By

of the preterit.

X,2,.).

Verbs of the second conjugation whose stem ends in a vowel change i to y in the preterit endings -i, -ieron (cf IX,
84.
.

4).

They
creer,

also take

an accent mark on the


cre,

of the endings

-iste,

-imos, -isteis:
^to believe':
creste,

crey, cremos, cresteis,

creyeron
leer, ^to read': le, leste, ley, lemos, lesteis,

leyeron

85. Continued or

Customary Past Action or Condition (Accin o Condicin Pasada Continuada o Habitual)

To

express continued or customary past action or condition

(of things or

mind), use the imperfect or past descriptive tense.


I

Yo

escriba El sol luca Yo Io crea

was writing
shining

The sim was

I used to think so

86.

Definite Past Action (Accin Pasada Definida)

To

express definite past action, use the preterit or past


'

absolute tense.
El se levant

Basta

me

He

arose

grit

'^Enough," he cried to

me

70

i'lRST

COURSE IN SPANISH

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
aceptar, to accept alegre, adj., joyful, glad,
la carta, the letter
la ocasin, the opportunity, occa-

gay

sion
el pais,

comercial, adj., commercial, business conocer, to know, be (become)

the country poco, adv., little, not

much

por qu? conj., why?


proyectar, to plan, project siempre, adv., always, ever la sucursal, the branch {of a husiness house) tan, adv., so, as el viaje, the journey, trip visitar, to visit la vista, the sight, view
-

acquainted with
esplndido, -a, splendid gozar (de), to enjoy
la invitacin, the invitation

joven, adj.,
el

young

largo, -a, long

mundo, the world

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


Conjugue Vd. el imperfecto de indicativo del verbo hablar; 2. Cules son los tres del verbo aprender; del verbo vivir. verbos que son irregulares en el imperfecto de indicativo? 3. Conjugue Vd. el imperfecto de ser; de ver; de ir. 4. Conju1.

gue Vd.
5.

el

pretrito de hablar; de aprender; de vivir; de leer.


el

Qu expresa

imperfecto?

6.

Qu expresa

el

pretrito?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: 1. learning. 3. They were living.
6.

I
4.

was speaking.

2.

We

were

He

spoke.
friend.
trip.

5. 8.

They

learned.

We

lived.

7.

used to

visit

your

We

accepted

the invitation.
ting a letter

9.

He was

planning a

when his friend entered. brother when he received the letter.


then they replied.
13.

11. 12.

John was wriHe was visiting his


10.

They read

the letter;
14. It

When
15.

did you read the letter?


business house
17. I

was a business
Spain.
16. I

letter.

The

used to

live in Spain.

had branches have always lived

in

in

the United States.

EXEilCISES

71

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Juan estudiaba su leccin de espaol cuando entr un da en su casa su amigo Carlos. 2. Carlos estaba muy alegre. 4. En3, Juan pregunt a su amigo por qu estaba tan alegre. tonces Carlos contest que tena una carta de su padre para Juan. 5. Juan tom la carta que tena su amigo. 6. Era una invitacin para^ hacer con Carlos y su padre im viaje muy largo.' 7. El padre de Carlos tena una casa comercial con sucursales
1.

en muchos pases de lengua espaola.

8.

Proyectaba entonces

un viaje a Espaa y a la^ Amrica espaola. 9. Saba que los muchachos deseaban ver los pases donde se hablaba espaol. 10. Deseaba dar a los jvenes amigos ocasin^ de ver un poco
del

mundo y de

gozar de las vistas interesantes del viaje.

COm^ERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Qu haca Juan cuando entr su amigo Carlos? 2. Cmo estaba Carlos? 3. Qu pregimt Juan a su amigo? 4. Cmo contest Carlos? 5. Qu tom Juan? 6. Qu era la carta? 8. Dnde tena sucursales 7. Qu tena el padre de Carlos? su casa comercial? 9. Qu proyectaba hacer entonces el padre de Carlos? 10. Qu saba? 11. Qu deseaba dar a los jve1.

nes amigos?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

John was very glad when he read the


see

invitation.

2.

It

was a splendid opportunity to^ take^ a long journey and


to^

many
[to]

interesting

sights.

3.

It

also

gave him
4.

(le

daba)

[the]

opportunity

to^

visit

the

coimtries

wished
1

know and
is

to^ learn Spanish well.

which he They were

'To' before infinitives

The

definite article

is often translated by para. required before names of countries qualified by adjectives.

iCf.
3

211.)

Note the omission

of the article.

para.

hacer.

72
going
first ^

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


to Spain.
5.

87-89

Afterwards they were going to (a) make a trip to South America (Sud Amrica). 6. Mr. Gordon's business house had many branches in Spain and in South America.

John spoke to his parents of the projected journey, and they told him (le dijeron) that he could (podia) accept the in7.

vitation.

8.

He

entered his friend's house very joyfully and

accepted the invitation with

much

pleasure.

LESSON XVI {LECCIN DIEZ Y SEIS)


IMPERFECT AND PRETERIT OF THE AUXILIARY VERBS {IMPERFECTO Y PRETRITO DE LOS VERBOS AUXILIARES)
Imperfect Indicative {Imperfecto de Indicativo)
87.

Ser

is

the only one of the four auxiliary verbs w^hich


(Cf. 82.)

is

irregular in the imperfect indicative.

Preterit Indicative {Pretrito de Indicativo)


88.

All four of the auxiliary verbs are irregular in the preterit:

Ser 2
fui, I

Estar
etc.

Tener
tuve, I had, tuviste etc.

Haber
hube, I had, hubiste etc.

was,

fuiste

estuve, I was, etc. estuviste

fu

estuvo

tuvo

fuimos
fuisteis

estuvimos
estuvisteis

tuvimos
tuvisteis

hubo hubimos
hubisteis

fueron
89.
,

estuvieron

tuvieron

hubieron

Compound Tenses {Tiempos Compuestos)


tense formed with haba,
etc.,

The compound

and a past
:

participle, is called the pluperfect (pluscuamperfecto)

Haba estudiado mucho tiempo


1

He had

studied a long while

Primero

is

The

preterit of

to be used here adverbially. ir, 'to go,' is the same as that of ser.

"

90-92

ACCUSATIVE WITH A

73

It is

used

much more
which

frequently than the past anterior (pre-

trito perfecto)

is

formed from hube,

etc.,

and a past

TKe past anterior is rarely used, except after temor conjunctions, to denote immediate action from adverbs poral
participle.

a past standpoint: Apenas hubo llegado, cuando cay enfermo


Scarcely
ill

had he arrived when he

fell

90.

Accusative with

{Acusativo con A)
is

In Spanish, the preposition a (which in this case


translated)
(1)

not to be
re-

must precede a
(2)

direct object

if

this object indicates


(3)

a definite person,

a personified thing,

an animal

garded from a standpoint of personal

interest, (4) the


article.^

name
.

of

a city or country not preceded by the definite

(Cf 12.)

Veo a mi hermano Teman a la Muerte


Ella acariciaba a sus gatos Visit a Madrid

I see

my

brother

They

feared

Death

She was petting her cats


I visited

Madrid

91.
direct

Sometimes a is required for clearness to distinguish the object from the subject of a sentence.
sigui la

A la tempestad
92.

calma

The calm

followed the storm

Certain verbs change their meaning according as they

are followed by a or not.


Quiero un mdico Quiero a Pablo Tengo dos hermanos
wish a doctor Paul I have two brothers I am holding the horse
I

I like (love)

Tengo

al caballo

A is often omitted

in this case.

74

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
aadir, to add
la la
el itinerario, the itinerary

la

el

apenas, adv., scarcely, hardly atencin, the attention buscar, to look for, seek cosa, the thing curiosidad, the curiosity; tener to be curious desde, prep., from, since desembarcadero, the landing-

pers. pron.j him, to him {usually placed before verbs) luego, adv., then, next
le,

mirar, to look (at), watch

ocupado, -a, busy


olvidar, to forget
el perro, the

dog

place
la gana, the desire; tener

porque, conj., because, for el preparativo, the preparation


tanto, -a, so
el

muchas

much;

pi.,

so

many

s,

to

have a great desire

la gua, the guide-book


hallar,

to find;

se,

to find

oneself, be hermoso, -a, beautiful, hand.

tiempo, the time weather; mucho while, long ltimo, -a, last

{duration))
,

a long

some
dijo {inf., decir), (he) said, told

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cul es

el

verbo auxiliar que tiene


2.

el

imperfecto de indi-

cativo irregular?

Conjugue Vd.

el

imperfecto de indicativo
3.

de ser; de estar; de tener; de haber.


trito

de ser;

Conjugue Vd. el prede estar; de tener; de haber. 4. Conjugue Vd. el


;

pluscuamperfecto de hablar

el

pretrito perfecto de aprender.

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Where were you? 2. I was there. 3. He was seated. 4. Scarcely had he received the letter when they called him. 5. Hardly had they spoken when I replied. 7. WTien you were 6. When we were young we had to work. young you had many friends. 8. The door was shut when we went to the house. 9. The door was shut by the servant. 11. I had 10. I had learned the lesson and I closed the book.
Dgame Vd. en
espaol:
1.

opened the book and

was watching the

professor.

12.

Had

EXERCISES
they studied the guide-book?
14. 13.

75

They were going


16. Yes,

to^ visit

They had planned a journey. Madrid. 15. Have you visited


I

Spain?
(en)

many
17.

times,

and

was there a long while on


interesting things in

my

last trip.
18.

We

found

many

the city.
19.

They had a

great desire to see another country.

John was looking

for his

dog and he found him behind the

house.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Los ltimos das estuvieron muy ocupados los dos amigos, que tenan tantos preparativos que hacer para el viaje. 2. Un da Juan fu a^ ver a su amigo y le hall estudiando un hbro. 4. Carlos le dijo que 3. Le pregunt cul era el libro que lea.
1.

era una gua de Espaa.

5.

Estudiaba

el

itinerario

que su

padre

Juan pregunt a Carlos cul era el itinerario que iban a^ seguir. 7. Entonces Carlos le seal las
le

haba indicado.

6.

ciudades que iban a^ visitar en Espaa.


curiosidad

y miraba

el

Juan tena mucha mapa con atencin. 9. Tena muchas


8.

ganas de conocer a Espaa.

10.
11.

Carlos

le

seal a Gibraltar

como

su desembarcadero.

Desde

all

iban a^ principiar

su viaje por Espaa visitando a Granada, a Crdoba, a Sevilla,

a Madrid y muchas otras ciudades interesantes.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
1.

Estuvieron
2.

muy
4.

ocupados
3.

los

dos amigos los ltimos


fu a ver a su amigo

das?

Por qu?

Cuando Juan

Qu Hbro lea? 5. Qu estudiaba? 6. Qu le pregunt Juan? 7. Qu le seal Carlos? 8. Cmo miraba Juan el mapa? 9. Qu tena Juan muchas ganas de 10.- Desde dnde iban a^ principiar su viaje por conocer? Espaa?
qu haca Carlos?
\

The verb

Ir

takes the preposition a before a following infinitive.

(Cf. 222.)

76

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

93

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

The two boys were very

joyful

and very busy,

for they

had to prepare their itinerary. 2. They found the guide-book, which was on the table. 3. Then they looked for the map of Spain. 4. Both {lit, the two) were very curious to (de) become
acquainted with Spain.
while.
6.

5.

They looked

at the

map

a long

have a great desire to (de) see Granada, for I have read the (la) Alhambra of Washington Irving. 7. I, too, said John, but I wish above all [to] visit Madrid. 8. They say that there are many beautiful
said to John, I

Then Charles

things to (que) see in that city.


it

9.

I believe, said Charles, that


10. I w^as in

is

a very gay and a very interesting city.

Madrid with
I

my parents when

was very young, he added, but

have forgotten everything.

LESSON XVII (LECCIN DIEZ Y SIETE)


FUTURE AND CONDITIONAL {FUTURO Y CONDICIONAL)
93.
(1)

Future {Futuro)
I

(2)

Condicional^ {Condicional)

hablar, I shall

(will)

speak,
etc.

-hablara, I should (would)

hablars
hablar

hablaras hablar a

speak, etc.

hablaremos 2
hablar is hablar n
II

hablaramos
hablar ais hablar an

aprender, I shall

(will) learn,

aprendera, I should (would)


learn, etc.

etc.

Academy.
2

called the potential mood in the last edition of the grammar of the Spanish seems simpler to treat it here as a tense of the indicative. Observe the absence of an accent mark on this form.

This

is

It

Granada
Su tumha

Isabel

la Reina Catlica.
Granada.

est en la catedral de

Page

g2.

77

78

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


III

94-97

vivir , I shall (will) live, etc.

vivir a, I should (would)


learn, etc.

Note. All verbs


conditional.
of the verb

They
haber.

in Spanish have these same endings in the future and represent in their origin the present and the imperfect

hablar (h)e hablar (h)as


etc.

hablar (hab)a hablar (hab)as


etc.

94.

The

four auxiliary verbs form these tenses as follows:

Future
Ser
Estar

{Futuro)

Conditional {Condicional)
sera, etc.

ser, etc.

estar, etc.

estara, etc.
^

Tener Haber
95.

tendr,

etc.
etc.

habr,

tendra, etc. habra, etc.

and conditional are employed much the same as in English. They may both be used after si meaning ^whether/ but not after si meaning 'if.'
future

The

No No

s si llegar saba si llegara

do not know whether he will arrive I did not know whether he would
I

arrive

Note.

After

or future time

if the present indicative is used for present si meaning and the imperfect subjunctive for past time. (Cf 245, 259.)
' ' .

96.

Both may be used idiomatically


from the past.

to express probability or

conjecture, the future, from the present standpoint,


conditional,

and the
probably

Dnde estar?

Estar en su

AAHiere

can he be?

He

is

casa Sera la xina cuando llegaron

at
It

home

was probably one o'clock when they arrived

97.

Compound Tenses (Tiempos Compuestos)


tenses,

The compound of haber+a past


perfecto)
.
.

made up

of the future

and conditional

participle are

termed respectively the future

perfect (futuro perfecto)

and conditional perfect (condicional and are translated ^I shall have ./ 'I should have
. .

.,'

etc.

EXERCISES

79

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
the trunk the sock la camisa, the shirt
el bal,
el calcetn,

la maleta, the valise

necesario, -a, necessary necesitar, to need


el

comprar
el

(a),

to buy, purchase

el

la

la

(from) cuello, the collar; neck dentro, adv., within; prep., in, within gabn, the overcoat gorra, the cap idea, the idea
listo,

de,

la
el

la
el el

-a, ready

llevar, to carry, take,

wear

el

nor pauelo, the handkerchief pequeo, -a, little, small probabilidad, the probability sombrero, the hat tienda, the shop, store traje, the suit (of clothes) vapor, the steamer vender, to sell zapato, the shoe
ni, conj., neither,

GRAJMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Conjugue Vd.
2.

el

futuro de indicativo de hablar; de apren-

Conjugue Vd. el condicional de hablar; de aprender; de vivir. 3. Se usan estos tiempos por regla general lo mismo que en ingls? 4. Se usan despus de si, cuando significa 'if? S- Expresan tambin la idea de probabilidad? Conjugue 6. Vd. el futuro de ser; d estar; de tener; de haber. 7. Conjugue Vd. el conclicional de ser; de estar; de tener; 8. Cmo se forma el futuro perfecto? de haber. 9. Cmo
der; de vivir.
se

forma

el

condicional perfecto?

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: 1. I speak; I was speaking; they spoke; we shall speak; they would speak; he has spoken; you had spoken; w^e shall have spoken; he would have spoken. 2. We learn; they were learning; he learned; I shall learn; you would learn; they have learned; we had learned; I shall have learned; they Would have learned. 3. They live; I w^as living; he lived; you will live; we shall live; he has lived; they had lived; he will have lived; they would have lived. 4. [Ser] I am;

80

I'IRST

COURSE IN BPANISH

he was; we shall be; they will be; they have been. S. [Estar] He is; we were; they would be; they will have been. 6. [Tener] We have; they had; you will have; he would have; I have had;
they would have had.
7.

John asked whether he would need

many

things for the journey.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Qu necesitar para

el
2.

viaje?

pregunt Juan
le

al

seor

Gordon, padre de Carlos.


necesitara

El seor Gordon

contest que

un pequeo bal y una maleta. 3. Dijo que no sera una mala idea llevar un gabn' para el viaje, porque muchas veces hace fro en el vapor. 4. Aadi que Juan necesi-^ tara tambin dos o tres trajes. 5. No llevar muchos calcetines, cuellos,

camisas ni pauelos, dijo Juan, porque son cosas


las tiendas

que

se

vendern en

de Espaa.

sombrero, una gorra y unos zapatos, y estar tomaremos el vapor? pregunt Juan. 8. Ser
diez

Comprar un hsto. 7. Cundo


6. el

quince^ o
9.

el

seis^
el

de este mes,^ contest

el

seor Gordon.

Tendre-

mos todo

tiempo necesario, aadi.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
1.

Qu

le^

pregunt Juan

al

seor Gordon?

2.

Cmo

con-

test el seor

Qu cosa no sera una mala idea llevar para el viaje? 4. Por qu? 5. Qu aadi el seor Gordon? 6. Por qu no llevara Juan muchas camisas? 7. Qu dijo Juan que comprara? 8. Cundo tomaran el
3.

Gordon?

vapor?
viaje?
2

9.

Tendran tiempo de hacer

los

preparativos de

Cardinals are used for dates, except for the first (primero). (Cf. Redundant use of the personal pronoun is common in Spanish.

23,

note

2.)

Granada (La

Alhaivibra)

El
81

Famoso Patio de los Leones.

Page

g2.

82

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

98

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

We

shall

have to buy a few things need two valises and a large trunk.
shall
it is

for the journey.


3.

2.

We

shall

need also
4.

overcoats for the steamer, because

cold sometimes.

Shall

you take a few


shirts,

suits of clothes?

5.

Yes, but I shall not buy

socks or^ handkerchiefs here, for they are things which


6.

are probably sold in the shops of Madrid.

Your

father said
7.

that

it

would not be well

[to]

purchase

many

things here.

He

said that w^e should find in Spain all the necessary things.
8.

It

would be a good idea to buy shoes


9.

here, for Spanish shoes


shall

are probably not very good.


10. I shall

When

be ready in a few days, for I


11. Shall

many

things.

you need a cap?


trip.

you be ready? do not have to buy 12. Yes, I shall buy

a cap and two hats for the

LESSON XVIII {LECCIN DIEZ Y OCHO)


IMPERATIVE MODE {MODO IMPERATIVO)
The imperative mode has but two forms, which are governed by the familiar pronoun t and its plural vosotros, ex98.

pressed or understood.

In

all

regular verbs
is

(and in most
In verbs

irregular verbs) the singular

form

the same as that of the


all

third person singular of the present indicative.

the plural form


to -d.

may be made by

changing the -r of the infinitive

Singular

Plural

habla

habl ad, speak

n
aprend e
III

aprend ed, learn

vive
1

vivid, live
Ni.

99-103

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
if

83

99.

Foreigners need but rarely,

ever, use the imperative

The imperative idea in formal address, with usted (or ustedes) is expressed by the third person singular (or plural) of
mode.
the present subjunctive.
(Cf. 62.)

Hable usted
100.

Speak
first

The imperative has no

person plural.^
is

tive (or optative) idea in the first person plural

The imperaexpressed by

the present subjunctive.

Hablemos
101.

Let us speak

The imperative mode cannot be made


No
hables as

negative.

All

negative forms must be taken from the present subjunctive.

Do

not speak thus

102.

Personal pronouns used as objects of the Imperative

Affirmative (Pronombres personales usados


del Imperativo Afirmativo).

como complementos Object pronouns follow and are


is

joined to the imperative affirmative, or present subjunctive

used as such, and an accent mark


stress of voice falls

required whenever the

on any syllable of these combined forms,


last.

except the next to the

Dame

el libro

Dmelo en seguida

Give Give

me
it

the book

to

me

at once

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE {MODO SUBJUNTIVO)^


103.

Present Subjunctive (Presente de Subjuntivo)


I

hab e, I may speak hab es, thou mayest speak habl e, he (she, you) may speak; speak (you)
let us speak ye may speak hablen, they (you) may speak; speak (you,

hablemos, we may speak;

habl'is,

pi.)

Vamos, 'let us go,' from ir, is considered by some an exception. The dependent usage of the Subjunctive will be given later.

(Cf. p. 255, footnote 1.)

(Cf. 228.)

84
II

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


III

104

aprenda, I aprend as aprend a

may

learn,

viv a, I
viv as

may

live,

etc.

etc.

viva
viv

aprend amos aprend ais aprend an

amos

viv ais

viv an

Note.
plural.

Observe the accent mark on the ending of the second person

have these same endmgs in the present subjunctive, though the verb stem in this tense is often
104.

All irregular verbs

irregular.

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
as, adv., so,

thus

el

la caja, the
el

box

el

la calle, the street

moro, the Moor mozo, the waiter, porter, youth nada, indef. pron., nothing, anything
the

camino, the way, road


dejar, to let, allow, leave;
de, to fail to

la peseta,

peseta

{Spanish

coin worth about twenty cents)


la plata, the silver
el precio, the price

esperar, to hope, expect, wait


(for)

el extranjero, the foreigner

fabricar, to

make, manufacture

regatear, to bargain siguiente, adj., following, next


unir, to unite, join
valer, irr.
el viajero,
v.,

la fortificacin, the fortification

llegar (a), to arrive (at), reach


el

to be

worth

maana, adv., to-morrow momento, the moment


a cunto? what
is

the traveler

the price of?; en vez de, instead of

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


Cuntas formas tiene el modo imperativo? 2. Cules son las dos formas del imperativo de hablar? de aprender? de vivir? 3. Tienen que usar mucho este modo los extranjeros?
1.

4.

Qu modo usan en vez del imperativo? 5. En una negacin qu modo se usa para expresar vma idea imperativa?

EXERCISES
6.

85

Dnde

se

ponen
del

complementos

pronombres personales usados como imperativo afirmativo? 7. Conjugue Vd. el


los
.

presente de subjuntivo de hablar; de aprender; de vivir.

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Cambie Vd.
perativo)
cin.
3.
1.

los infinitivos siguientes: (1. al singular del


2. el

im-

primera
vosotros.

oracin;
7.

Hablar distintamente. Dejarme hablar. 4. Leer


(2.^ al

Aprender bien
5. 6.

la lec-

ejercicio.

Escribir la

plural del imperativo)

Esperarme
8.

Estudiar todas las reglas de la leccin.

vuestros libros a casa;

Llevar

(3.^ al

presente de subjuntivo) 9.

No
ejer-

me
12.

hablar (t)

as.

10. Vivir

Espaa.

11.

Esperarme Vd.
el

Pasar Vds.
14.

al pizarrn.
el

13. Escribir

Vds.

primer
lo

cicio.

Tomar Vd.

borrador y borrar Vd.


17.

escrito.

15.

Ahora

leer Vd. el ejercicio siguiente.

16. Escribir (nosoel

tros)

muy

distintamente.
(nosotros)

Entrar (nosotros) en
las fortificaciones.

hotel.

18. Visitar

maana

19.

No

le

esperar (nosotros).

20.

No

dejar Vds. de estudiar mucho.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Al^ llegar a Gibraltar,


al hotel.
2.

el

seor Gordon dijo a los jvenes:

ahora iremos

Carlos, llama

un mozo.

3.

Mozo,

tome V.

maletas y los bales y lleve todas estas cosas al Hotel Cecil. 4. Nosotros iremos a pie, porque el hotel no est
las

y hay tantas cosas interesantes que^ ver en el camino. 5. Miren Vds. cuntos moros hay aqu, por las calles. 6. Son de Tnger^ y venden artculos fabricados en frica. 7. Esperemos un poco; deseo pregimtar el precio de las pequeas cajas de plata que venden aqu. 8. {A un moro) A cunto las cajas de plata? 9. Cuarenta pesetas! Es demasiado.
lejos

muy

Tome
1

V. veinte.

10.

No

es as,

seor.
2

Slo la plata vale


<To.'

Al llegar = 'upon arriving.'

(Cf. 77, note.)

Tangiers.


86
FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

11. Espere Vd., cuarenta pesetas y el trabajo es excelente. seor; aceptar treinta. 12. Bueno; aqu estn. 13. {A los

jvenes)
14.

No compren
^

Vds. nada a los

moros

sin

regatear.

Ahora, vamos

al hotel

y maana

visitaremos la parte de

las fortificaciones inglesas

que

se deja ver

a los viajeros.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Gordon a los jvenes? 2. Qu dijo a Carlos? 3. Qu dijo al mozo? 4. Por qu iban a pie al hotel? 5. De dnde eran los moros que se vean por las calles de Gibraltar? 6. Qu vendan? 7. De qu cosa deseaba saber el precio el seor Gordon? 10. Qu 8. Qu dijo al moro? 9. Por cunto compr la caja?
1.

AP

llegar a Gibraltar

qu dijo

el

seor

dijo a los jvenes?

11.

Cul es

la cosa

que visitan todos

los

viajeros en Gibraltar?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

What

shall

we

visit this
2.

morning? said Mr. Gordon to the


visit the

boys upon^

rising.
3.

Let us
4.

English fortifications,

said Charles.

All right

(bueno), replied his father, take


I
6.

your hats and come.


something.
5.

Wait a moment,
ready:
let

Now

am
7.

us go.^

have forgotten Don't take the

guide-book, Charles.

Before^ visiting the fortifications, let

me show you
box
(lit.

(pL, les) this


9.

Moor's shop.

8.

Let us go into the


that small silver
it
is

shop a moment.

(To

the

Moor) Show

me

box

of^ silver).

10. Tell

me how much
I will give

worth.

11. Fifty pesetas!


2. It is

It is too

much.

you twenty-five.

13.
sir,

16.

worth fifty, sir: observe the excellent workmanship. 14. Give me thirty-five pesetas, No, I do not wish the box. 15. Well, here they are. and the box is yours (suya). (To the boys) And now let us go^ and see (a ver) the forti-

fications.
1

2 See p. 85, footnote 1. ^ Use antes de with See p. 83, footnote 1. Spanish usage requires some connective between two nouns.

inf.

Granada (La Alhambra)

El Lindo

Mirador de Daraxa.

Page

g2.

88

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

105-107

LESSON XIX {LECCIN DIEZ Y NUEVE)


ORTHOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN VERBS {CAMBIOS
ORTOGRFICOS EN VERBOS)
105.

Since the sound of the infinitive stem

must be preserved

throughout the conjugation of verbs in Spanish, certain orthographic changes are necessary.
to the rules already given in
106. preterit

These must be made according the Introduction, IX, 1, 2.


in the first person singular of the of verbs end-

These changes occur

and throughout the present subjunctive

ing in -car, -gar, -zar.


Sacar,
Pret.:
'

to take out

'

(c

changes to qu)

saqu, sacaste, sac,

etc.

Fres. Subj.: saque, saques, saque,

saquemos, saquis, saquen

Pagar, 'to pay' (g changes to gu)


Pret.:
*

pagu, pagaste, pag,

etc.

Fres. Subj.: pague, pagues, pague,

paguemos, paguis, paguen


(z

Gozar ,1 Ho enjoy'
Pret.:

changes to c)

Fres. Subj.

goc, gozaste, goz, etc. goce, goces, goce, gocemos, gocis, gocen

Changes occur also in the first person singular of the present indicative and throughout the present subjunctive of
107.

verbs ending in -cer, -ger, -gir, -guir.


Veneer,
Fres. Ind.:
'to conquer' (c changes to z)

Fres. Subj.

venzo, vences, vence, etc. venza, venzas, venza, venzamos, venzis, venzan Escoger, ^to choose' (g changes to
j)

Pres. Ind.\

escojo, escoges, escoge, etc.

Fres. Subj.: escoja, escojas, escoja, escojamos, escojis, escojan


1

Commonly

followed by the preposition de.

108

ORTHOGRAPHIC CHANGES
Dirigir,

89

Ho

direct' (g changes to j)

Pres. Ind.:

dirijo, diriges, dirige, etc.


:

Fres, Siibj.

dirija, dirijas, dirija, dirijamos, dirijis, dirijan

Distinguir, 'to distinguish' (gu changes to g)


Pres, Ind.:
Pres. Subj.
:

distingo, distingues, distingue, etc. distinga, distingas, distinga, distingamos, distingis, dis-

tingan

108.

few verbs in -iar and -uar accent the

the present indicative and subjunctive (except in

and the u in the first and

second persons plural) and in the singular imperative.


Enviar,
Pres. Ind.
:

Ho

send'

envo, envas, enva, enviamos, enviis, envan

Pres. Suhj.\ enve, enves, enve, enviemos, enviis,

enven

Imptv,:

enva, enviad

Continuar, 'to continue,' 'go on'


Pres. Ind.
:

contino, continas,

contina, continuamos, continuis,

continan
Pres, Sibj.: contine,

contines,

contine,

continuemos,

continuis,

continen
Imptv.:

contina, continuad

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
acerca de, prep., about, concerning admirar, to admire
bailar, to
el

el

mirador, the observatory, lookout patio, the court, inner court


practicar, to practise

dance

bonito, -a, pretty el campo, the field, country; casa

de

country house

el

quien {pL, quienes), rel. pron., who, whom; he {pi., they) who recuerdo, the souvenir, re-

la catedral, the cathedral


catlico, -a, Catholic
el correo,

membrance
la reina, the

queen
king

la
el

el

el

the mail cueva, the cave enemigo, the enemy gitano (la gitana), the Gipsy len, the lion lindo, -a, pretty, lovely

el rey, the king; pi., kings,

and queen
el tocador,

the dressing-room,

boudoir
la travesa, the crossing,
la

voyage

tumba, the tomb

obtiene

{inf.^

obtener), obtains

90

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

GRAJMMATICAL DEILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


presente de indicativo y el presente de subjuntivo del verbo sacar; del verbo pagar; del
1.

Escriba Vd. en

el

pizarrn

el

verbo gozar.
verbo vencer?

2.

Cules son los cambios ortogrficos en

el

3.

Cul es

la

primera persona del presente de

indicativo de escoger?

de dirigir?

sente de subjuntivo de dirigir;


el

Conjugue Vd. el prede distingxiir. 5. Conjugue Vd.


4.
el

presente de indicativo,

el

present de subjimtivo y

impera-

tivo de enviar; de continuar.

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
take out the book.
jugating the verb.
espaol:
3.
1.

I took out the book.

2.

Let us
concon-

Take out

(Vd.) the book.

4.

am

5.
7.

Conjugate (Vd.) the verb.

6.

We

jugated the verb.


8.

I enjoyed the trip.


trip.

Let (que) them conjugate the verb. 10. Let us 9. He enjoyed the trip.
12.

enjoy the

11.

Let us choose a book.

Don't choose

(Vd.) this book.

13. I 15.

am

choosing a book.
letter.

14. I

am

direct-

ing this letter.

Direct (Vd.) this

16. I distinguish
18. I

the word.

17.

enemy.

19.

We distinguish We conquer the


He
is

the word.

conquer the

enemy.
letter.

20.
22.

Let us conquer

the enemy. the letter.

21. 23.

Don't send (t) Continue (Vd.) the reading. 24. Let us not
sending a

continue the reading.

READING EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Dirijo esta carta a toda la familia, escribi

Juan desde Gra-

nada, y escribo en espaol para practicar el idioma que contino estudiando aqu. 2. El viaje ha sido excelente. 3. Goc mucho || de la travesa y de los do das pasados en Gibraltar. 4. All

compr para mi madre y para mis hermanas algunas cosas

Granada (La
de donde

Alh.ajmbra)

El
91

Tocador de la Reina,

se obtiene

una buena

vista del Generalife.

Page g2>

92

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH


el

bonitas que envo hoy por

correo.

5.

Pagu poco por


6.

ellas/

pero sern buenos recuerdos de mi viaje.


escoja su recuerdo.
7.

Que cada una

Estamos en el hotel Washington Irving. 8. Al llegar aqu, saqu mi gua de Espaa y aprend mucho acerca de Ja ciudad. 9. Aqu Fernando e Isabel,^ los reyes catlicos, como fueron llamados, vencieron a los moros en 1492.^ 11. Hemos visi10. Su tumba est en la catedral de Granada. tado el Generalife, hermosa casa de campo de los reyes moros.
12.

Hemos

visto bailar a los gitanos en sus cuevas.


la

13.

Sobre

todo,
el

hemos pasado mucho tiempo en

Alhambra, admirando

Mirador de Daraxa,^ el Tocador de la Reina, de donde se obtiene una buena vista del 14. Es verdad Generalife, y otras partes no menos hermosas. que, como se^ dice aqu, ((quien no ha visto Granada no ha visto
famoso Patio de
los Leones, el lindo

nada.))

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Juan? 2. Por qu escribi a su fami3. Goz Juan de la travesa y de los dos das lia en espaol? pasados en Gibraltar? 4. Qu compr Juan en Gibraltar? 6. En qu 5. Cmo envi estos recuerdos a su familia?
1.

De dnde

escribi

hotel estaban?

Qu aprendi? 9. Quines vencieron a los moros? 10. Cundo? 12. Qu es 11. Dnde est la tumba de los reyes catlicos? 13. De qu parte de la Alhambra se obtiene el Generalife? una buena vista del Generalife? 14. Dnde viven los gitanos de Granada? 15. Qu han admirado Juan y sus amigos en la Alhambra? 16. Qu se dice de Granada?
7.

Al llegar

all

qu sac Juan?

8.

'Them.'

* *

Mil cuatro cientos noventa y dos,

Ferdinand and Isabella. Pronounce as if written Daraja.

109-110

ORTHOGRAPHIC CHANGES

93

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

Direct this letter to

my

father, said John.

2.

Send the

souvenirs to my mother and 3. Now let us choose ^ book

to

my

sisters

by

to-day's mail.
I choose the

to (para) read.

4.

guide-book, for I wish


5.

[to]

learn a few things about Granada.

have visited

this city before, said

Mr. Gordon.
7.

6.

I en-

joyed [very]

much

the days which I passed here.


8.

I lived

then in the Washington Irving Hotel, as now.

I used to go

every day to the Alhambra and sometimes to the Generalife.


9.

In what language
10.

Spanish.
it.

your guide-book written, John? In Read a little, for I wish [to] see if you understand
is

11.

Good

(Bien)!

Go

on.

12.

You pronounce

very well,

John, but you do not always distinguish between the s and


the
c.

LESSON

XX

{LECCIN VEINTE)

ORTHOGRAPHIC CIL\NGES IN VERBS {CAMBIOS


ORTOGRFICOS EN VERBOS)
109.

Verbs in -car and

-cir, in

which the

c is

preceded by a

vowel, insert a z before the c


Conocer,
Pres.Siibj.: conozca.,
'to

when followed by
'be

o or a.

know/

acquainted

\vith'

Pres. hid.: conozco, conoces, conoce, etc.

conozcas,

conozca,

conozcamos,

conozcis,

conozcan
110.

Traducir, ^to translate,'

is

irregular in the preterit

and

derived forms.
Pres. Ind.: Pres. Subj.
Pret.:
:

Otherwise

it

illustrates verbs of this class,

traduzco, traduces, traduce, etc. traduzca, traduzcas, traduzca, traduzcamos, traduzcis,


,

traduzcan
tradujiste,

traduje,

tradujo,

tradujimos,

tradujisteis,

tradujeron^
1

Imp.

56;.: tradujera, etc.; tradujese, etc.

94
111.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

111

(with a pronounced u^) insert a y between u-o, u-e, u-a. The i of the endings -io and -ieron

Verbs in

-tiir

changes regularly to y because an unstressed between two vowels. (Cf. IX, 4; 84.)
Construir, 'to build/ 'construct'

may

not stand

Gerund:
Fres. Ind.:

construyendo
construyo, construyes, construye, construimos, construs,

construyen
Pres, Subj.
Pret,:
:

construya, construyas, construya, construyamos, construyis, construyan


constru, construiste, construy, construimos, construsteis,

construyeron 2
Imptvr,

construye, construid

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
la
el

almohada, the pillow bao, the bath caliente, adj., hot

el fsforo, thue

match
jug

el jarro, the pitcher,

la lavandera, the laundress

cama, the bed cansar, to tire la cocina, the kitchen, cooking el cuarto, the room, quarter derecho, adv,, straight (ahead)
la

lavar, to wash limpio, -a, clean

la

manta^ the blanket pedir, to ask, beg


planchar, to iron

descansar, to rest el despacho, the ofi&ce doblar, to double, turn la esquina, the corner el estado, the state, condition

la ropa, the clothing la sbana, the sheet

sucio, -a, dirty, soiled


la vela, the candle

a la derecha, to the
(looks out)

right;

la izqxiierda, to the left;

da

a,

opens

upon

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cul es

la

primera persona del singular del presente de


de traducir?
2.

Conjugue Vd. el presente de subjuntivo de conocer; de traducir. 3. Es regular o irregular el verbo traducir? 4. En qu tiempo es irregular ?,
indicativo de conocer?
^

Not those in -guir or -quit. Imp. Subj.: construyera, etc; construyese,

etc.

CRDOBA

El

Patio de los Naranjos,


agradable,

stos y las palmeras dan

una sombra muy


95

Page 102.

96
5.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

Conjugue Vd.
el

el

pretrito
el

gerundio de construir?

Cul es el singular del imperativo? 7. Contraducir.


6.
el

de

jugue Vd.

presente de indicativo de construir;

presente de

subjuntivo;

el pretrito.

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
ing sentences.

espaol:

1.

Translate into Spanish the follow-

2.

Am
He

I translating well?
4.

the last
teacher?
live

sentence very well.


5.

You translated Do you know my Spanish


3.

teacher quite well. 6. Does he on (en) the corner of street. 8. You follow this street straight ahead until you reach (hasta llegar a) a house which is [being] built.^ 9. Then you turn the

Yes, I

know your
lives

near here?

7.

corner to the right, and you will find his house on the next
corner.
10. I

am

looking

[for]

a good hotel.

11. I

know

[of]

an excellent hotel. 12. It was built last year. 13. Do you wish a room? 14. Yes, I am very tired and I wish to rest. 16. Everything is very clean, the pil15. Here is your room. 17. Here is hot water for lows, the sheets, the blankets, etc. your bath. 18. The servant will give (dar) your soiled clothing to the laundress.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

los

viajeros Conoce Vd. un buen hotel?


:

Al llegar a Crdoba,

el

seor Gordon pregunt a uno de


2.

S,

seor, le con-

yo conozco un hotel, que se construy el ao pasado, donde se pueden hallar buenos cuartos y ima cocina excelente. 3. Est en la esquina de la calle H. 4. Sigue Vd.^
test el caballero,

derecho hasta llegar a la calle P. y luego dobla Vd.


su izquierda
el

la

esquina a

el

hotel est
al

muy

cerca.

5.

Los viajeros hallaron

hotel

y fueron^
with se.

cuarto de los
1

despacho para pedir dos cuartos. 6. El jvenes tena dos camas con mantas, sbanas y
2

Use

pres. ind.

'You go/

Went/

pret. of ir.

(Cf. 189.)

La Mezquita de Crdoba.
las hileras de

Las mil columnas recuerdan

algn bosque de piedra.

Page 102,

97

98

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

almohadas limpias. 7. Hallaron en la mesa una vela y fsforos y un jarro de agua. 8. La lavandera vino^ a buscar la ropa sucia. 9. Iban a pasar algunos das en Crdoba y le dieron^

muchas cosas que

lavar.

10.

La lavandera
el

dijo

que saba lavar

y planchar

muy

bien.

11.

Luego
el

criado del hotel llev a los


12.

viajeros agua caliente para

muy

Los viajeros estaban cansados y para descansar tomaron un bao.


bao.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
1.

Al llegar a Crdoba qu
2.

le

pregunt
le

el

seor Gordon
el

a uno de los viajeros?


3.

Cmo
el 5.

contest
4.

caballero?
al hotel

Cmo

le dijo

que hallara

hotel?

Al llegar

dnde fueron
despacho?
6.

los viajeros?

Para qu fueron

los viajeros al

hallaron en la
9.

Qu tena el cuarto de los jvenes? 7. Qu mesa? 8. Quin vino a buscar la ropa sucia?

Saba lavar y planchar

muy

bien?

10.
11.

Quin llev a

los

viajeros agua caliente para el bao?


los viajeros?

Estaban cansados

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

know an

excellent hotel in this city.


3.

2.

The cooking
is

is

very good and the beds are always clean.


hotel that I
city, I

Well, that

the

am

looking
in a

for.

4.

The
6.

last

time that I was in the

had a room
7.

poor hotel.

were

in a

very soiled condition.

The pillows and blankets Where is this hotel of which


5.

you speak?

and turn the next corner to the right. 8. It is near a house which is [being] built. ^ 9. [In the office) Have you a room whi^ch opens upon the street? 10. Yes, here is a room which looks out upon two
pass the
first

You

street

streets.

11. I shall

take this room, for I see (veo) that every-

thing

is

clean.

12.

Bring

me

a candle and some matches and a

pitcher of hot w^ater.


1

'Came/

pret. of venir.

(Cf. 189.)
*

Use

pres. ind.

2 'Gave,' with se.

pret. of dar.

(Cf. 170.)

112-115

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

99

LESSON XXI {LECCIN VEINTE Y UNA)


DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS \PRONOMBRES
.

DEMOSTRATIVOS)
Plural
stos, -as, these

112.

Singular

NeutQi (Neutro)
esto, this

ste, -a, this (one)

se, -a,

aqul, quUa, I

Ku ^^^'
4.

sos, -as,

('^'^^^

aquUos,

\ ^, '^"'^ -as, /

eso,

1 ^u

aqueUo, )

^ *^^

Note. Demonstrative pronouns, except the neuter forms, have accent marks to distinguish them from the demonstrative adjectives.
113.

ste sometimes means ^the latter/ and aqul, ^the


In the Spanish sentence ^the latter'
is

former.'

generally re-

ferred to before

Hhe former/ which

is

the reverse of the English

usage.

Luisy Pedro son estudiantes; ste


es trabajador, aqul es holgazn

Louis and Peter are students; the latter is diligent, the former is lazy

114.

In correspondence, en (de, a) sta and en (de, a) sa

are used elliptically, the


Llegu a sta
el

word ciudad,

^city,'

being understood.

15

I arrived here the 15th

Qu

tal se divierte

Vd. en sa?

How

are

you enjoying yourself

in

that city?

115.

The

definite article as antecedent of a relative

pronoun

or before a prepositional phrase {El artculo definido

como antece-

dente de un pronombre relativo o delante de una frase preposicional).

Instead of a demonstrative (or personal) pronoun, the

definite article is

used as antecedent of a relative pronoun or

before a prepositional phrase.


El que habla es

mi amigo

The one
friend

(he)

who

is

speaking
is

is

my

Lo que necesito es un gabn

What
coat

(that which) I need

an over-

Mi

pltuna es mejor que la de

mi

My pen

is

better than

my

brother's

hermano

100

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

116-118

Comparison
116.

of Adjectives {Comparacin

de

los Adjetivos)

To form

the comparative (comparativo) of inequality,


is

ms, ^more/ or menos/ 4ess/

placed before the adjective,

and que, Hhan,'

after

it.

Juan es ms trabajador que Carlos


Carlos es

John

is

more

industrious

than

Charles

menos trabajador que

Charles

is less

industrious than John

Juan

^Than' before a numeral in affirmative phrases is expressed by de, and in negative sentences, by de or que, pre117.

ferably the latter.

Yo tengo ms de cien libros l no tiene ms que dos


118.

He

have more than a hundred books has no more than two

^Than' before a dependent clause (clusula dependiente) is expressed by de lo que, when comparison is made with an adjective or adverb of the principal clause (clusula
principal)

and by
de

del que (de la que, de los que, de las que)


is

when comparison
Ella es

made with a noun.


que creen de los que
I

ms

rica

lo

Yo tengo ms
tena antes

libros

She is richer than they think have more books than I had before

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
acentuar, to accent agradable, adj., agreeable, pleasant el rbol, the tree la arquitectura, the architecture asombrar, to astonish ayer, adv., yesterday el bosque, the wood, forest
1

la

columna, the column comparar, to compare


enfrente, adv., in front; prep., in front of

de,

la hilera, the

row

la joya, the jewel


la

mezquita, the mosque


mil, adj., (a^) thousand

Menos
The

before nouns or pronouns has the meaning 'except':


is

Todos menos

l,

All except him.


2

indefinite article

not expressed before mil.

EXERCISES

101

the monument, public building, structure morisco, -a, Moorish el naranjo, the orange-tree la palmera, the palm-tree
el

monumento,

la piedra, the stone el puente, the bridge

religioso, -a, religious


el ro, the river

la

sombra, the shade, shadow

recuerda

know?

no

(inf.,

recordar), recalls, remembers; sabe Vd.? do


s, I

you

do not know

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cules son los pronombres demostrativos?


acentos?
3.

2.

Cules

llevan

Cul

de
4.

los

pronombres
significa

demostrati-

vos significa ^the former'?


5.

Cul

Hhe

latter'?

6.

Cmo Cmo

se indica la

ciudad desde donde se escribe una carta?


Se usan los

se indica la ciudad en la cual est la persona


7.

(^is

going') a recibir la carta?

que va pronombres de-

mostrativos

como antecedentes de pronombres relativos o delante

de frases preposicionales?

un adjetivo? 9. Hhan' delante de un nmero en una


frase negativa?
11.

Cmo se forma el comparativo de Compare Vd. bonito. 10. Cmo se traduce


8.

frase afirmativa?

en una

Cmo

clusula dependiente cuando

adjetivo o adverbio de la

Hhan' delante de una una comparacin se hace con un clusula principal? con un substanse traduce

tivo de la clusula principal?

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: 2. These books and those are for this boy, and those
4.
1.

This one and that one {near you),


3.

(yonder).

These (meaning books)

(near you) are for that girl (yonder).

John and Charles are students of the same class: the latter is rather indolent, and the former is very industrious. 5. This is true. 6. My grammar and my brother's. 7. Our house is smaller than that of our uncle, but larger than the one in which our grandmother lives. 8. The mosque of Mecca is larger than
that of Cordova,

but

it

is

less

beautiful than the latter.

102
9.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

There are more than a thousand columns in the mosque. 10. It has fewer (less) columns now than it had formerly. 11. This monument is less famous than that one. 12. It is

more beautiful than I believed and much more beautiful than those (m.) that I had seen. 13. That is very interesting.

READING EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Llegamos a sta ayer, escribi Juan desde Crdoba. 2. Pasaremos menos de una semana aqu y despus iremos a Sevilla. 3. Se dice que aquella ciudad es ms hermosa que sta y que tiene ms monumentos interesantes. 4. Sin embargo, Crdoba es ms bonita de lo que yo crea y tiene lo que se puede llamar la joya de la arquitectura religiosa morisca en Espaa, la famosa mezquita. 5. Enfrente de sta se halla el Patio de los Naranjos. 6. stos y las palmeras del patio dan una sombra muy agradable. 7. Al entrar en la mezquita se asombra el viajero. 8. Las mil columnas recuerdan las hileras de rboles de algn bosque de piedra. 9. Crdoba tiene otros monumentos bastante interesantes. 10. Entre stos est el puente morisco sobre el ro Guadalquivir.
1.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Juan que llegaron a Crdoba? 2. Cunto tiempo iban a pasar en aquella ciudad? 3. Dnde iban de Crdoba? 4. Cul de las dos ciudades es ms hermosa? 6. Qu 5. Era Crdoba ms bonita de lo que crea Juan? monumentos tiene Crdoba? 7. Qu es la mezquita de Crdoba? 8. Qu est en frente de la mezquita? 9. Qu re1.

Cundo

dice

columnas de la mezquita? 10. Sabe Vd. si la mezquita de Crdoba es ms o menos grande que la de Meca? 11. Dgame Vd. otro monumento interesante que tiene Crdoba. 12. Sobre qu ro est el puente morisco?
cuerdan
las mil

<

c
o

it

<
c g

103

104

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

119

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

How

New

you in that York (Nueva York).


are

[city]?
2.

wrote Charles to a friend in


are very well in this
[city],

We

where we arrived yesterday. 3. They say that this city is less beautiful than Seville, but I find Cordova more interesting than
I

had thought.
5.

4.

Have you

seen

its

orange-trees

and palm6.

trees?

The

latter give less

shade than the former.

The

orange-trees of the patio recall the columns of the mosque.


7.

This mosque

is

very famous.

8.

It is called the jewel of


9.

That of Mecca is 10. I do not know which is more beautiful, larger, they say. 11. I find the Moorish bridge over the former or the latter.
Moorish
religious architecture in Spain.

the Guadalquivir quite interesting also.


sixteen arches (arcos).
13. Seville is

12.

The

bridge has

on

this

same

river.

LESSON XXII {LECCIN VEINTE Y DOS)


THE RELATIVE SUPERLATIVE
RELATIVO)
119.

(EL

SUPERLATIVO

To form

the relative superlative of adjectives, a definite

article, or possessive adjective, is

placed before

ms

or menos.

POSITRTE
(Positivo)

COMPARATRrE
(Comparativo)

SUPERLATRTE
(Superlativo)
el

joven
1.

ms (menos)

joven

ms (menos) joven

The

superlative adjective usually foUow^s a noun.

The
in
it

definite article (or possessive adjective) precedes the


this case unless the

noun

noun

is

in apposition (aposicin),

when

may
Don

go with the following adjective.

el (su) libro

ms

interesante

Quijote,))

obra la

ms famosa

the (his) most interesting book "Don Quixote," the most famous

de Cervantes

work

of

Cervantes

120-124

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS


is

105

2.

^In' after a superlative

usually expressed

by

de.

Es

el

alumno ms trabajador de

He

is

the most industrious student

la clase

in the class

120.

The

following adjectives
mejor, better
peor, worse

may

be compared irregularly:
el

bueno, good malo, bad grande, large pequeo, small

el peor, el el

mejor, best worst


largest, oldest

mayor, larger, older menor, smaller, younger

mayor, menor,

smallest, youngest

Note.
cept

The irregular forms mayor and menor are not often used, exreferring to age or rank.

when

Comparison
121.

of

Adverbs {Comparacin de

os Adverbios)

Adverbs are compared

like adjectives, except that the

definite article is not

used to distinguish between the compara-

and superlative forms. When necessary, the superlative may be distinguished by the use of some such intensive adverb
tive

as todava,

still,'

^yet.'

l habla distintamente Ella habla ms distintamente Yd. habla todava ms distintamente 122.

He

speaks distinctly

She speaks more distinctly You speak still more distinctly

The

following adverbs have irregular comparatives:


bien, well

mal,

ill,

badly

mejor, better peor, worse

mucho, much
poco, httle

ms, more menos, less

Comparison
123.
is

of Equality (Comparacin

de Igualdad)

To form

the comparative of equality, ^as (so) ... as'


(before adjectives, or adverbs)

expressed

by tan

and como,

after.

Carlos es tan alto como Juan Carlos no habla tan claramente

Charles is as tall as John Charles does not speak so clearly as

como Juan
124.

John
first

When

the

member

of the comparison
^as

is

a noun

and the second a noun or pronoun,

much

as,' 'as

many

106
.
. .

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


as'
is

125

expressed

by tanto
is

(-a,

-os,
is

When

the second

member

a verb, como

como replaced by cuanto


-as)
.
.

(-a, -OS, -as),

which

may
como

be used alone.
ella

l tiene tantos libros


(su

He

has as has as

many books
many books

as she (his

hermana)

sister)

El tiene tantos libros cuantos necesita El tiene cuantos necesita

He He

as he needs

has as

many

as he needs

125.

'The more

(less)

the more
. .
.

(less)'

with verbs

is

expressed

by cuanto ms (menos)

tanto

ms

(menos), or

mientras

ms

(menos)

ms

(menos).

Mientras'^ms se estudia,

Cuanto ms se estudia, tanto ms se aprende ) The more one studies, the ms se aprende more one leams /

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
alto, -a, high, tall, lofty

justificar, to justify

la altura, the height


la biblioteca, the library
el caso,

el lado, the side, direction; al

de, beside
el lugar,
(or

la cigarrera,
rette)
la

the case the

cigar

cigala

maker

cristiano, -a. Christian

duda, the doubt; sin


less

doubtel

the building la fbrica, the factory


el edificio,

la
el
el

gtico, -a, Gothic


la historia, the history, story

the place; tener to take place maravilla, the marvel maravilloso, -a, marvelous, wonderful palacio, the palace pintura, the painting refrn, the saying, proverb tabaco, the tobacco
,

tarde, adv., late


la torre, the tower

la iglesia, the church

en ningima parte, nowhere

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cmo

se
el

2.

Cul es
Se usa

forma el superlativo relativo de im adjetivo? comparativo de alto? el superlativo? 3. Pre-

cede o sigue al substantivo un adjetivo en la forma superlativa?


4.
el
5.

artculo con el substantivo o con el adjetivo en

este caso?

Cmo

se traduce *in' despus de

un superla-

EXERCISES
tivo?
6.

107

Cules son los adjetivos que tienen comparativos irregulares? 7. Cul es el comparativo de bueno? de malo?
de grande? de pequeo?
8.

Cmo
9.

se

forma

el

comparativo
el

de los adverbios?
tivo irregular
se

Dgame Vd. de bien; de mal; de mucho; de poco.


el superlativo?

compara-

10.

Cmo

forma

el

comparativo de igualdad?

11.

Cmo

se traduce

'as much ... as' cuando la expresin est seguida de un substantivo o pronombre? cundo est seguida de un verbo?
12.

Se puede usar cuanto solo?


. .

13.

Cmo

se traduce 'the

more

the more'?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
beautiful.
4.
2.

espaol:

1.

Beautiful;
best.
5. 3.

more
Bad;

beautiful;

most

Good; better;
beautiful book.
is

worse;

worst.

The most
6.

The

tallest building in the


is

city.
7.

This

my

older brother; that

my

younger brother.

John speaks Spanish better than I, but Charles speaks still 9. She is 8. I do not speak so clearly as my sister. better. 10. The more one studies the the best student in the class. more one learns. 11. We have as many books as you. 12. You have as many as you need. 13. This school is not so high as the church, but that tower is higher than the church. 14. Its height is more than two hundred feet. 15. There are less than
fifty pupils in

the school.

16.

What

is

taking place?

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Quien no ha visto Sevilla no ha visto maravilla)) es un viejo refrn que halla justificado todo viajero que visita esta
1.

ciudad maravillosa.

2.

En ningima

ms interesantes que aqu. moso de Sevilla es la linda altura es de ms de tres cientos pies. 5. Al lado de la Giralda est la catedral, una de las ms grandes y ms ricas iglesias gticas del mundo. 6. En ella est la esplndida tumba de

monumentos 3. El edificio ms alto y ms hertorre morisca, la Giralda. 4. Su

parte hay

Sevilla

La

Linda Torre Morisca de la Giralda.

Page 107,

108

EXERCISES
Cristbal Coln.^
7.

109
an-

Cerca de

la catedral est el Alczar,

tiguo palacio de los reyes moros


8.

y ms

tarde de los cristianos.

ninguna ciudad se puede estudiar mejor las pinturas de Murillo que en Sevilla, donde se hallan muchas en diferentes
edificios.
9.

En

No hay

lugar

ms

interesante, sin duda, para el

estudiante de la historia

que

la biblioteca

Colombina.^

10.

La
in-

mayor parte de
cigarreras.

los extranjeros hallarn

tambin de mucho

ters la fbrica de tabacos,

donde trabajan cerca de cinco mil

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

Cul es

el

viejo refrn que halla justificado todo viajero


2.

Dnde hay monumentos ms interesantes que en esta ciudad? 3. Cul es el edificio ms alto y ms hermoso de Sevilla? 4. Cul es su altura? 5. Dnde 7. Qu est la catedral? 6. Es una iglesia grande y rica? tumba famosa hay en la catedral? 8. Dnde est el Alczar? 10. Dnde se puede estudiar mejor 9. Qu es el Alczar? que en Sevilla las pinturas de Murillo? 11. Qu hay en Sevilla de mucho inters para el estudiante de la historia? 12. Es interesante para la mayor parte de los extranjeros la fbrica de tabacos de Sevilla? 13. Cuntas mujeres trabajan como
que
visita a Sevilla?

cigarreras en esta fbrica?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

Where

are there
2.

than in Seville?
Alczar

more wonderful jewels of architecture The Giralda is the most beautiful Moorish
3.

tower in the world.


is

It is higher

than I thought.^
it is

4.

The
It is

an interesting building, but


5.

not so beautiful as
6.

the Giralda.

The

cathedral

is

near the Giralda.

one of the most beautiful churches of the Christian world.


7.
*

The tobacco
Havana, Cuba,
2
8

factory

is

one of the largest buildings of

Seville.

Christopher Columbus, whose supposed remains were taken from the cathedral
in 1899.
it

of

So called, since Use creer.

contains some choice manuscripts of Christopher Columbus.

lio
8. 9.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


five

126-128

More than
It
is

thousand

women work
will

in this building.

here that Carmen, so famous in Hterature, w^orked as


10.

you find better paintings of Murillo than some of those which are in' Seville. 11. The more one sees its marvels, the more one admires this city.
cigarette maker.

Nowhere

LESSON XXIII {LECCIN VEINTE Y TRES)


POSSESSIVE KDJECTVfK^ {ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS)
126.

Forms which Follow the Noun {Formas


que Siguen
Singular
Plural
al

Nombre)

(1.^) (2.*)

mo, -a
tuyo, -a

mos, -as
tuyos, -as

my
thy
his,

(of

mine)
(of hers),

(of thine)

(3.*)
(1.^)
(2.^)

suyOj -a
nuestro, -a vuestro, -a suyo, -a

suyos, -as nuestros, -as vuestros, -as suyos, -as


etc.,

her

your

(of yours)

our

(of ours)

yoiu- (of yours)

(3.^)

their (of theirs),

your

(of yours)

Note.
127.

The forms suyo, -a,

are the proper forms to use with usted.

These forms are used


(Cf. 56.)

less often

than are those which

precede the noun.


rhetorical

They

are employed in direct

address and translate the EngHsh expression ^of


Hijo mo! (My) son! un amigo mo, a friend of mine

mine/

etc.

Possessive Pronoims {Pronombres Posesivos)


128.

The

possessive pronouns are formed

by putting^ the
el

definite article before the

above adjectival forms:

mo, la

ma, los mos, las mas, etc.


Tiene un libro?

S,

tiene el

Has he
'

a book?

Yes, he has mine

mo
1

'By putting = poniendo.

129-130

EXERCISES
is

111
omitted, unless emphatic

129.

After ser, ^to be/ the article


is

distinction

made.
The book is mine mo y aqul es el suyo This one is mine and
is

El libro es mo

But: ste es
130.

el

that one

is

his

'Whose?'

generally expressed

by de quin? pL de

quines?

De quin

es este libro?

Whose

is

this

book?

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
afectuoso, -a, affectionate
la alcoba, the
la flor, the flower la fotografa, the
el

bedroom

la la
el el

el

alrededor, adv.^ around; a su around it (him, etc.) arcada, the arcade azul, adj., blue capilla, the chapel centro, the center cielo, the sky, heaven comedor, the dining-room divertir, to amuse, entertain;

photograph husped, the guest, lodger; casa de es, boarding-house omitir, to omit

perezoso, -a, lazy, idle


el piso, the floor, story;

ground floor; primer ond floor

bajo,
,

sec-

se, to

amuse

oneself,

have

a good time emplear, to employ, use encantar, to charm, delight


sirve
{7if.,

pronto, adv.^ soon, quickly querido, -a, dear, beloved la sala, the drawing-room, parlor el techo, the roof, ceiling vario, -a, various, several la vida, the life

servir) [de], serves [as]

GRAIVIMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cules son las formas del adjetivo posesivo que siguen


2.

al

nombre?
3.

Cules son las formas que preceden al nombre?


4.

Cules se emplean ms?

Cules se usan cuando se


5.

dirige la palabra^ a

una persona?
6.

Cules se usan para tralos

ducir 'of mine,' etc.?


sesivos?
7.

Cmo
omite
el

se

forman

pronombres po8.

Cundo

se

artculo definido?

Cmo

se dice 'vahse?' en espaol?


1

Dirigir la palabra a

'

to address.'

112

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
mine.
is

espaol:

1.

Whose
was
in

is

this

house?

2.

It is

3.

I thought^ that yours

another street.

4.

Mine

beside

6.
8.

His has more rooms than mine. How many rooms has yours? 7. Ours has twelve rooms. On (a) one side of the patio, on the ground floor, are the
brother's.
5. 9.

my

drawing-room and the Hbrary.


large, larger

than yours, I think.^


12.

Our dinmg-room is very 10. My own bedroom is on


11.

the second floor, over the arcade.


Seville

Many

of the houses of

have inner courts.

The men and women


13.

of this
is

city pass
idle life,

much

of their time in these patios.

Theirs

an

but very agreeable.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Queridos padres mos:
1.

Estoy encantado con

Sevilla.

2.

Sus hermosos

edificios, sus

muchas flores, su cielo azul, su vida perezosa, todo lo suyo en una palabra es muy agradable. 3. sta es una ciudad donde los hombres y las mujeres no hacen ms que divertirse. 4. Vivimos en un antiguo palacio, que sirve ahora de casa de huspedes. 5. Es una casa mucho ms grande que la nuestra. 6. El patio tiene en su centro una alta palmera y a su alrededor hermosas arcadas. 7. Las varias alcobas dan al patio. 8. Yo tengo la ma en el piso bajo al
lindos patios, sus

lado del comedor.

9.

primer piso.
capilla.
12.
11.

10.

En

Carlos y su padre tienen las suyas en el una parte del palacio hay una pequea

En

otra parte, detrs del comedor, est la cocina.

No

tengo a mano^ ninguna fotografa del lugar, pero he

escrito bastante
13.

para dar a

la familia

ima idea de

la

casa.

Pronto

escribir

ms

acerca de nuestro viaje por Espaa.

Su^ hijo afectuoso,

Juan.
1

*At hand.' Children sometimes address their parents as ustedes, and

Use creer.

in

Spanish America the forms

vosotros, vuestro,

etc., are rarely used.

Sevilla

La Esplndida Tumba de Cristbal Coln. Page 107.

113

114

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Desde dnde escribi Juan? 2. Qu encantaba a Juan en Sevilla? 3. Cul era su idea de los hombres y de las
1.

mujeres de Sevilla?
5.

4.

Dnde vivan Juan y


(la

sus amigos?
6.

Era ms grande
el

la

casa que la suya


7.

de

l)?

Cmo
la

era
8.

patio de la casa?

Dnde

tena

Juan su alcoba?
9.

Dnde tenan Carlos y su padre las suyas? casa ima capilla? 10. Dnde estaba la cocina? Juan una fotografa de la casa?

Tena
11.

Tena

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


Our house is in Seville. 2. It has two stories, a ground floor and a second floor. 3. The roof is rather low (bajo). 4. The house has an inner court. 5. Around it are the various bedrooms. 6. Mine is on the second floor, above the arcade. 7. My father's and mother's (lit. that of my parents) is on the groimd floor. 8. Our hbrary is near the dra^vdng10. We room. 9. Our kitchen is behind the dining-room.
1.

have a chapel in our home. 11. Ours is quite a small chapel. 13. No, but in the 12. Does your house also have a chapel? house of a friend of mine there is a very large chapel. 14. Theirs is a very beautiful house, but yours (lit, that of you) is much

more
16.

beautiful.

15.

There are many pretty houses


is

in Seville.
17. It

Andalusia (Andaluca)

a beautiful part of Spain.

has so

many

flowers

and

so blue a sky.

131-135

NEGATION

115

LESSON XXIV {LECCIN VEINTE Y CUATRO)


NEGATION (NEGACIN)
131.
it.

verb

(Cf. 5.)

made negative by placing no before In compound tenses no precedes the auxiliary.


is

usually

No hablo espaol Mi amigo no ha llegado


132.
If

do not speak Spanish

My friend has not arrived

the verb

is

understood, no follows a personal pro-

noun.
words.

It

sometimes precedes and sometimes follows other


generalmente no, generally not

yo no, not I

^^t'

este no,

) not this one


J

^^"'"P^^' '^^ ^^^^^^

133.

After verbs of saying, thinking,


^yes,' or 'so/ are

etc.,

no, *no,' or *not,'


is

and

si,

introduced by que, which

not to be

translated.

Yo Yo
134.

creo que no digo que si

I think not
I

say yes
is re-

When

other negative words follow the verb, no


verb, no
is

tained, but

when they precede the

omitted.

Such

words are nada, 'nothing,' nadie, 'nobody,'


'not either,' 'nor.'

ni, 'neither,' 'nor,'

ninguno, 'not any,' nunca,^ 'never,' jams,^ 'never,' tampoco,

No

hablo a nadie

I speak to

Nadie habla

No
1.1

no one one speaks

No le hablar nimca \ .
Nimca
1

le

1.

hablare

r j

t -n i ^ to I will never speak ^

w mm

In Spanish, there are three words, pero, mas, sino, to translate the conjimction 'but.' The two former may be used
135.

interchangeably, although
1

mas

belongs rather to literary style.


force ('ever') with an affirmative verb.

Both nunca and jams have affirmative Lo creer Vd. nunca (jams)?

Will you ever believe

it?

116
Sino
is

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

136

used to introduce a positive idea in direct contrast to a preceding negative, and sino que, to introduce a different verb
in the second part of the negation.

Tengo un
plirnia

lpiz,

pero no tengo una

have a pen
is

pencil, 'but I haven't a

Lo cuenta

as el historiador,

mas

The

no es verdad No bebo vino, sino agua No deseo, sino que mando que Vd.
hable
136.

it, but it not true I do not drink wine, but water I don't desire, but I command you to speak

chronicler thus relates

As an adverb ^but' is often ms and ^no but,' by no


. .

translated
.

by no

smo,

que.

No habla sino raramente No tiene ms hermano que Juan

He He

speaks but seldom has no brother but John

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
el coche, the car, coach;

dor-

la hierba, the grass

mitorio, sleeping-car, sleeper


la

incmodo, -a, uncomfortable,


inconvenient
ligero, -a, adv., light; fast, rapid
el lujo, the luxury;

comodidad, the comfort, convenience

cmodo, -a, comfortable, convenient el compartimiento,


the compart-

de

luxuri-

ous
el

modo, the mode, way; de este

ment
deber, to owe, ought, be obliged desagradable, adj., disagreeable dividir, to divide la espalda, the back; de s, adv.^

in this

way

norteamericano, -a, North

American
parecer, to seem, appear pobre, adj., poor puntual, adj., punctual, on time la relacin, the relation el tren, the train verde, adj., green

la

backwards fila, the row

la frecuencia, the frequency;

con

frequently, often
of;

a pesar de, in spite

how?
cially

a travs de, across, through; qu tal? cmo? asks more espeabout mariner or way)
(asks about condition or quality;

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cmo

se

hace negativo un verbo?


los

2.

Dnde

se
3.

pone

la

palabra negativa no en

tiempos compuestos?

Cuando

EXERCISES
no hay verbo cul
palabras?
4.

117

es la posicin
siete

Dgame Vd.

de no en relacin con otras palabras negativas. 5. Cun-

do se puede omitir la palabra no? 6. Cuntas palabras hay en espaol para traducir la conjuncin inglesa 'but'? 7. Cules

son?

8.

Cmo

se traduce al espaol 'but'

como adverbio?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: 1. 3. Not this book, but that one
but you.
to
5.

I think^ so. {yonder).


4.

2.

I think^ not.

He
.^

has no friends

He

never speaks well of any one.

know

this

man?

Not

6.

Do you wish
8.

I.

7.

Nor
9.

I either

This house

does not seem poor, but dirty.

have never traveled in 10. How {in what way) does one travel in Spain? Spain. 11. How {under what conditions) does one travel in Spain?
I
12.

Not very comfortably.


in

13.

Traveling in that country


14.
15.

is

not so convenient as in the United States.


traveled

South America?
country yet.

Never.

Have you

ever

No

one travels

much

in that

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


El viajar^ en Espaa no es tan fcil como en los Estados Unidos. 2. En primer lugar ,^ los trenes espaoles no son ni
1.

tan cmodos ni tan ligeros como los norteamericanos.

3.

Tam-

poco son tan puntuales. 4. Los coches estn divididos en compartimientos que tienen, cada imo, diez o doce asientos colocados en dos
la
filas

a travs del coche.

5.

Esto hace

ir

de espaldas

mitad de

los viajeros,

pero nadie parece hallar desagradable

este
7.

modo de viajar. 6. Hay tres clases de compartimientos. La primera es la mejor para viajar con comodidad. 8. Los

extranjeros no, deben nunca viajar en tercera (clase), porque


1

Use

creer.
first place.'

3
*

The

infinitive is often

'In the

2 n yo tampoco. used as a verbal noun. (Cf. 227.) Notice the omission of the definite article.

118

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

aquellos compartimientos no son solamente


sino que estn con frecuencia bastante sucios.

muy incmodos, 9. Hay algunos


10.

trenes de lujo que tienen coches dormitorios.

Uno de

stos

tomaron nuestros amigos para hacer Madrid.

el

viaje desde Sevilla hasta

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
1.

Qu

tal se viaja

en Espaa?
3.

los trenes espaoles?

Son cmodos y ligeros Son tan puntuales como los norte2.

americanos?

4.

En qu estn

divididos los coches?

5.

Halla

Vd. desagradable ir de espaldas en vm tren? 6. Cuntas clases de compartimientos hay? 7. Cul es la mejor para viajar con comodidad? extranjeros deben viajar en tercera 8. Los
(clase)?
9.

Por qu?
11.

10.

Hay coches

dormitorios en los

trenes espaoles?

hacer

el

viaje

Qu tomaron nuestros amigos para desde Sevilla hasta Madrid?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

To make

the trip from Seville to Madrid more comfort-

able,^

Mr. Gordon and the two boys took the sleeper. 2. Up to that time,^ they had not found the Spanish trains very comfortable, but [rather] very uncomfortable. 3. They had
4.

not found conveniences in any.

In the

first

place, the trains

were never fast enough.


6.

5.

Nor were they


so

ever on time.

In spite of
7.

all this,

however, the journey had delighted the

boys.
or^ so

Nowhere had they ever seen


8.

many

orange- trees

many palm-trees.
9.

Nowhere,

either,

had they seen such

interesting houses as the little stone houses with patios of this

part of Spain.

Now
(lo)

they were going to Madrid, where nothsame.


10.

ing would be the


different

The
11.

life

of

Madrid
is

is

very

from that

of Andalusia.

There the sky

not so

blue nor the grass so green.

Let the comparative adjective follow hacer directly.

Hasta entonces.

n.

o o <

119

120

PIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

137-138

LESSON XXV {LECCIN VEINTE Y CINCO)


OBJECT PERSONAL PRONOUNS {PRONOMBRES PERSONALES COMPLEMENTOS)
137.

The conjunctive

object pronouns, as they are often

called, are as follows:

Direct Object or Accusative


(Complemento Directo o Acusativo)

Indirect Object or Dative (Complemento Indirecto o Dativo)


'

Singular
(1.^) (2.a)

me, me, myself


te, thee, thyself
le, lo,

me,

to me, to myself

te, to thee, to thyself


le, to le,

him,

it,

you

him, to

it, it,

to

la, her, it,


(3.^):

you

to her, to

to

you you

se, himseK, herself, itself,

se, to himself, to herself, to itself,

yourself

to yourself

Plural
(\S)
(2.a)

nos, us, ourselves OS, you, yourselves {los, them, you


las,

nos, to us, to ourselves


os, to you, to yourselves
(

les, to
les, to

them, you

\
i

them, to you them, to you

se, themselves, yourselves

se, to themselves, to yourselves

Note

1.

In addition to the above forms, one


la, las.

often finds, in reading, a

direct object third person masculine plural les,

person feminine singular and plural condemned by the Spanish Academy.

and an indirect object third These forms are, however,


in intimate address.
le

Note
Note

2.

3.

The forms te and os are used only Some make a distinction between
and

and

lo (3rd pers. sing,

direct obj. mase.) reserving le for persons

lo for things.

138.
refer to

The

neuter pronoun lo

is

often used in the predicate to

an adjective, a noun taken in an indeterminate sense with an adjectival value, or an entire phrase. It may often be
translated ^so,' or not translated at
all.

Son negros sus ojos? Es usted profesora? Habla bien espaol?

Lo son Lo soy Ya creo


lo

They are Are her eyes black? I am Are you a teacher? Does he speak Spanish well?
should say so

139-141

OBJECT PRONOUNS

121

Pronouns {Construccin de los Pronombres Complementos). Object pronouns regularly precede the verb. If the verb is negative, no precedes the pronouns.
139. Position of Object

Me

cansa mucho Lo comprende Vd.? prendo


140.
tivCj

No

It tires
lo

com-

Do you

very much understand it? understand it

me

do not

Object pronouns follow and are attached to the

infini-

the gerund and the affirmative imperative (or subjunctive

used as such).
voice

An

accent

mark must

indicate the stress of

when

it falls

on any other

syllable

than the next to the

last of this

combination.

(Cf. 64.)

hablarles, to speak to

Habame
But:
Vd.)

(or

them hbleme Vd.)


(or

hablndonos, speaking to us Speak to me

No me hables

no

me hable

Do

not speak to

me
in formal

Note.

The same
When

is

sometimes true of other forms of the verb

literary style.

Hablronme
141.

They spoke

to

me

the object pronouns are used with infinitives or

gerunds depending upon auxiliary verbs (or verbs with an auxiliary force),

the pronoims
verle (or

may

precede such verbs.


I cannot see

No puedo
ver)

no

le

puedo
(or

him
to

Estaban escuchndome estaban escuchando)

me

They were Hstening

me

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
alegrarse, to be glad americano, -a, American

madrileo, -a, (native) of


drid

Ma-

besar, to kiss
cierto, -a, certain, sure

mostrar, to show, give evidence


of
el

la coleccin, the collection


el discurso,

museo, the museum


nacional, adj., national paseo, the walk; dar un

the speech, address


el

familiar, adj., familiar

to

gustar

(a), to please, like

interesar, to interest

take a walk preciso, -a, necessary

122

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


la universidad, the university

presentar, to present, introduce


real, adj., royal
el sentido,

ya, adv., now, already

the sense, meaning

divierte {inf., divertir), entertains; lo siento {inf., sentir), I am sorry; qu le(s) parece? how do you like?; ya lo creo, yes, indeed, I should say so

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cul es

el

sentido de la palabra complemento en ingls?


los

complementos directos de los pronombres personales; los complementos indirectos. 3. Cules son las formas que se emplean nicamente en el discurso familiar? 4. Cul es el pronombre que se refiere a un adjetivo o a un substantivo usado como adjetivo? 5. Dgame Vd. un ejemplo. 6. A qu partes del verbo siguen los pronombres personales complementos? 7. Cuando el infinitivo (o germidio) se usa con otro verbo como auxiliar dnde se colocan los pronombres complementos?
2.

Dgame Vd.

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
him.
to me.
8.
3.

espaol:

1.

He
4.

speaks to me.

2.

I speak to
5.

We
6.

speak to them.

They speak
7.

to us.

Speak
I

Do

not speak to me.


9.

I wish [to] speak to you.

Speaking to her.

have learned it. 10. [to] see you a moment.


troducing her.
ourselves.
16. 14.

Have you learned the rule? They have learned them all. 11.
12.

Yes,

I wish
13. In-

We

shall introduce her.


15.

He
I

introduced himself.
17.

We

introduced

This pleased them.


18.

He

wishes to show us
library.

the collection.
19.

will

show them the national

Take me to the library. 20. Do not take us home (a casa) Yes, indeed. 22. Are yet. 21. Does Madrid entertain you? 23. Is your friend Certainly, I am. you an American?
Spanish?

Yes, he

is.

EXERCISES

123

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


2. Muy buenos, Don Jos. Buenos das, Doa Mara. Cunto me alegro de verle otra vez en Madrid! 3. Ha 4. No, la he dejado esta vez trado usted a la seora Gordon? en los Estados Unidos, pero he trado a mi hijo, Carlos, y a su amigo, Juan. 5. Muchachos, deseo presentarlos a la seora 6. Tanto gusto en Caldern, una de mis mejores amigas.
1.

divierte vida de esta vieja ciudad? Ya creo; Madrid nos mucho, seora. A ver^: han visto ustedes ya? gusta qu
la
8.

conocerla a usted, seora.

7.

El gusto es mo, seores.


lo

Los

9.

10.

Pues, seora, ya hemos dado muchos paseos por las calles


11.

de Madrid.
cal

Nos han encantado


Sol.

la

Puerta del

el

Prado,

la calle

de Al-

12.

Les ha enseado usted algunos

de

nuestros

monumentos
y
el

interesantes,
el

Don
14.

Jos?

13.

S,

a ustedes nuestra coleccin de pinturas?


Biblioteca Nacional

seora, les he mostrado ya

Palacio Real, la Universidad, la

Museo del Prado.

15.

Qu les parece Las de Velazquez

las

de Goya

me

interesan sobre todo, dijo Carlos.

la

16.

Lo

siento mucho, seora, pero nos es preciso despedirnos de usted.

los pies

de usted, seora.

17.

Beso a ustedes

mano,

caballeros.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
A quin salud Don Jos? 3. Cmo le contest Doa Mara? 4. Qu le pregimt acerca de la seora Gordon? 5. Qu dijo el seor Gordon al presentar a su hijo y a su joven amigo? 6. Cmo
1.

Cmo

se dice

'good day' en espaol?

2.

contestaron ellos?
8.

7.

Cmo

contest

la

seora
9.

Caldern?

Qu

les

pregimt

la

seora a los jvenes?


10. 11.

les

haban encantado en Madrid?


el

Qu paseos Qu monumentos les

haba enseado

seor Gordon?
i

Cules de las pinturas

'Let's see.

(Cf. 225.)


124
del
12.

FIRST COURSE

EST

SPANISH

142

Museo Cmo

del
se

Prado haban interesado a Carlos sobre todo? despidieron^ de la seora Caldern? 13. Qu

dijo ella?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


Mr. Caldern. 2. I wish to take a walk with you^ to-day, and show you some of the inter3. I accept your invitation with esting places of Madrid. much pleasure, Don Pablo, replied John. 4. Here we are in
1.

Good morning, John,

said

of

the Puerta del Sol, [the] center of the

you show me the Prado?


entering
is

life

Madrid.

5.

Will

6.

The
{lit.

street into

which we are
[very]

the Prado.

the calle de Alcal, and this street will take us to


7.

I should like

it

would please me)

much

[to]

see the

museum

of the Prado.

8.

I will certainly

show you that famous collection of paintings, the best in the world, as some believe. 9. Here we are in the museum. Do 10. It delights me, and these you not find it interesting? paintings of Velazquez please me more than all the others. 12. They interest 11. Do you like these paintings of Murillo? me [very] much, but I have seen in Seville others by Murillo which I liked {lit. which pleased me) as much as these.

LESSON XXVI {LECCIN VEINTE Y SEIS)


REFLEXIVE VERBS {VERBOS REFLEXIVOS)
142.

The

personal object pronouns me,

te, se,

nos, os, se

may

be used reflexively and the


In the latter case
often added.

last three
el

sometimes with

reciprocal value.

uno

al otro {or los

unos

a los otros)

is

Me

engao
'

I deceive mj^self

am

mistaken
other

Nos lavamos Nos hablbamos


1

el

uno

al otro
(Cf. 266, 10.)

We are washing ourselves We were speaking to each


2

Pret. of despedirse.

Con

usted.

>0

<

<
w
Q
t

H w D

o
C/2

W
I

O
H

P4

125

126
143.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


Present Indicative of lavarse {Presente de
Indicativo

143-147

de lavarse)

yo
t
l (ella, usted) nosotros vosotros ellos (ellas, ustedes)

me
te

lavo, I

wash myself,

etc.

se

lavas lava
lavis

nos lavamos
os se

lavan

144.

The

object pronouns follow the affirmative imperative,

or present subjunctive used as such, according to rule in 140. The second person plural of the imperative loses its final -d

when OS

is

attached, and the


its final

first

person plural of the present


is

subjunctive loses
Lvate Lvese Vd.
145.

-s when nos

attached.

Wash Wash

thyself

Lavaos

Wash

yourselves

yourself

Lavmonos

Let us wash ourselves


reflexive.

Any
e.g.,

transitive verb

may

be made

Some

verbs are used reflexively in Spanish which are not so used in


English,
acostarse,

Ho

go to bed,' despertarse,

Ho wake

Ho be named,' etc. Certain verbs change their meaning slightly when made reflexive, e.g., dormir. Ho sleep,' dormirse, Ho fall asleep,' marchar. Ho walk,' marcharse. Ho go away,'^ ir, Ho go,' irse. Ho go away,'^
up,' levantarse,

Ho

get up,' llamarse,

etc.

146.

The

reflexive se

may be

used with verbs in a passive


its object.
is

sense, the verb agreeing in

number with
Spanish

Aqu se habla espaol Aqu se venden libros


147.

spoken here
sold here

Books are

The

reflexive se

may

be used with verbs (only in the

form an impersonal construction (like that of the French on). It may be translated into English by Hhey,' *one,' Vou,' etc., or, as above, by the passive. It may govern a direct or an indirect object. Se precedes all other pronouns,
singular) to
1
*

Away may
'

often be onUtted in translaUoHi

EXERCISES
Se aprende viajando Se dice que llegar muy pronto
Se la rehus Se nos pagar
Note.

127

One (you, etc.) leams by traveling They say, that he will arrive very
soon

They They
indefinite

refused her (She


will

was
shall

refused)

pay us (We

be paid)

The

pronoim uno,

'one,' or the third

person plural

of a transitive verb

may

replace the above-mentioned construction.

Uno aprende

viajando

Dicen que llegar

muy

pronto

One leams by traveUng They say that he will arrive very soon

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
acabar, to finish, end
afeitarse, to shave (oneself)

atravesar, to cross desayuno, the breakfast la distancia, the distance; a poca , de, near en seguida, adv. at once, imel

magnfico, -a, magnificent maravillarse, to wonder, be surprised la muralla, the wall


obligar, to oblige
la ocupacin, the

occupation

pendiente,
el

adj., steep

mediately
la espada, the
el ferrocarril,

sword
the
railroad,
rail-

pintoresco, -a, picturesque pual, the poniard, dagger

la estacin, the station

quedar(se), to remain, stay


subir, to go up, climb

way
la huella, the trace

temprano,
the

adv., early

tortuoso, -a, winding, tortuous

la

madrugada,

morning; de

dawn,
,

early
***

early

sale (inf., salir), leaves, goes (comes) out

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cules son los pronombres personales complementos que


reflexivos?
2.

Conjugue Vd. el presente de indicativo del verbo reflexivo lavarse. 3. Cundo pierde la -d la segimda persona del plural del imperativo? 4. Cundo
se

pueden usar como

pierde la -s la primera persona del plural del presente de sub-

jimtivo?

Dgame Vd. algimos verbos que son reflexivos en 6. Dgame Vd. algunos verbos que y cambian de sentido cuando son reflexivos. 7. En qu sentidos
5.

espaol

no' en ingls.

se

puede usar

el

pronombre

reflexivo se?

128

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
4.

espaol:

1.

To
8.

rise.

2.

Rising.

3.

I rise.

We

rise.

5.

Rise (Vd.,
7.

t, vosotros).
rise.

6.

Do

not

rise (Vd.,

t, vosotros).
9.

Let us

Prepare yourself (Vd.,


10.

t).

Prepare yourselves (Vds., vosotros).


11.

Let us prepare

were preparing ourselves. 12. They will 14. Do you shave 13. I shave myself. prepare themselves. yourself? 15. They shave each other. 16. Let us shave each
ourselves. other.
17.

We

They bought each


19.

other' souvenirs.

18.

Let us buy
20.

each other souvenirs.


not go away.
23. I 25.
shall
21.

Go away
24.

(use marcharse).
22. I

Do

Let us not go away.


here.
26.

remain here.

have to go away. Shall you not remain here?

They would remain

We

have remained here.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Una noche
y

el

seor Gordon entr en

el

cuarto de los dos

jvenes

Acostmonos temprano, porque maana tendremos que levantamos a tiempo^ para tomar el tren. 2. El tren para Toledo sale muy de madrugada. 3. Los muchachos se acostaron en seguida y antes de las nueve se haban dormido. 4. Al da siguiente se despertaron a las seis. 5. Se. levantaron muy pronto, se lavaron y se afeitaron. 6. Luego se les llev a la alcoba el desayuno. 7. Acabado el desayuno, se fueron^ con el seor Gordon a tomar el tren. 8. Llegaron a Toledo
les dijo:

despus de dos horas de viaje.

9.

La

estacin del ferrocarril se

halla a poca distancia de Toledo, al otro lado del ro Tajo,

fueron obligados a tomar im coche para entrar en la vieja ciudad.


10.

Atravesaron
11.

el

Tajo por

el

pintoresco Puente de Al-

cntara.

Al subir
12.

las calles pendientes, los

muchachos
la

se

maravillaron de ver que quedaban todava en Toledo tantas


huellas

moriscas.

Las

antiguas

murallas,
la

hermosa

Puerta del Sol y


1

las calles tortuosas

de

ciudad indicaban ima


of ser.
(Cf. 188.)

'Ontime.'
Pret. of irse.

Conjugated the same as the preterit

Toledo

La

Hermosa Puerta del

Sol.

Page 128.

129

130

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


13.

ocupacin morisca.

Se qudaron dos das en Toledo,

visi-

tando
14.
les

Y
en

magnfica catedral y otros monumentos interesantes. antes de marcharse, los dos jvenes se compraron puala

la

famosa fbrica de espadas.

EXERCISE {EJERCICIO)
(Instead of the usual conversation, repeat the above exercise, inserting in

the

first

sentence the words en

mi cuarto

in-

stead of en

el

cuarto de los muchachos, in the third sentence

the word yo instead of los muchachos, and carry the whole

thought through in the


person plural.)

first

person singular.

Then

in the first

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN) 1. Go to bed (acustense) early, said Don Jos to the two
boys, and get up to-morrow at half past
(ourselves) to (a) take the seven
six. 2.

Let us prepare

twenty train (the train of seven twenty). 3. (The) breakfast will be brought for us (nos traern) to our rooms. 4. They all went to bed immediately.
5.

The next

day, Mr. Gordon rose before the boys.

6.

He

washed and shaved himself and then awakened John and Charles. 7. The two boys got up quickly and prepared them8. When they had finished their breakselves for their trip. fast, they went off with Mr. Gordon to the railway station. 9. They took the train, and the journey was finished in less than two hours and a half. 10. Upon arriving^ at Toledo, they took a coach, because the station was^ at [a] certain dis11. They crossed the Alcntara Bridge. tance from the city. 12. Then they went up some very steep streets to the city.
13. I

am

surprised, said John, to (de) see so

many

traces of

the
of

Moors

in the architecture of the walls of this city

many

of its buildings

and

in its winding streets.

14.

and Three

days were spent (passed) in Toledo, and the boys were glad
to (de) have seen that ancient city.
1

Al with

inf.

(Cf. 77, note.)

Translate 'found

itself.*

148-152

OBJECT PRONOUNS

131

LESSON XXVII {LECCIN VEINTE Y SIETE)


148.

Two

Object Pronouns {Dos Pronombres

Complementos)

direct object

pronoun

of the third person (not reflexive)

follows

any

indirect object pronoun.

Se precedes any other

object pronoun.

Me lo

da Quiero drtelos Se me presenta


149.
le

He
He

gives

it

to

me
them
to

I \vish to give

you

{intimate)

presents himself to

me

For the sake of euphony, the indirect object pronouns


les

and

become se before

lo, la, los, las.

Se lo doy Dndoselos

I give it to him (to her, to them or to you) Giving them to him (to her, to them or to you)

Personal Pronouns used with Prepositions^ {Pronombres


Personales usados con Preposiciones)
150.
m,
(2.-)
ti,

Singular

Plural

me
him
her

thee

nosotros, -as, us vosotros, -as, you


ellos, ellas,

l,

ella,

them them

ello, it

(S-)

usted, you s, himseK, herself, oneself


itself,

ustedes, you
s,

themselves, yourselves

yourself
[

Este libro es para m y aqul es para usted


151.

This book
for

is

for

me and

that one

is

you
si.

Mismo,

'self,' is
s

often added, particularly to

Cada uno piensa en


152.

mismo

Each one thinks

of oneself

With the preposition

con, 'with,' mi,

ti

and

si

become

conmigo, contigo and consigo.


Hable Vd. conmigo
1

Talk with
grammar

me

Called in French

disjunctive pronouns.

132
153.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

153-156

When

the direct object

is

los (las) ['you,' pl.]^ then

one of

me, te, os, nos, le (la) ['you'], the above forms is commonly
a.

used for the indirect object, after the preposition

Me present a ella Presentaos a ellos Le presentaron a nosotros


154.

He

introduced me to her Introduce yourselves to them They introduced you to us

The

prepositional indirect object

is

frequently used

re^

dundantly for emphasis or to avoid ambiguity.

A mi me

parece
a l a ella a usted a ellos a ellas a ustedes

It

seems to
'

me
to
to

him

to her

Se

lo

doy

"

I give

it

'

you them (w.) to them (/.) to you {pi.)


to

Note. With usted may be used (1) the redundant construction, (2) a usted without a conjunctive form (less formal), (3) the conjunctive form
alone (least formal)
(1.^)

(2.^)
(3.^)

Le remitimos a Vd., Remitimos a Vd., Le remitimos,

1
\

We

remit to you

Le veo a Vd., Veo a Vd., Le veo,

\
j^

I see

you

155.

A
'

few Commercial Terms (Algunos Trminos


Comerciales)

'

For cash

al
'

contado

'On credit = al fiado 'To charge = cargar en cuenta (la cuenta, 'the account') 'To order (have) made '= mandar hacer (mandar, 'to order,'
'

'send')

156.

The ending

-ia

may

indicate the place where

commer^

cial dealings of

a certain sort are carried on: camisera = shirt

store' (camisa, 'shirt'); zapatera =^ shoe store' (zapato, ^shoe');

sastrera =' tailor shop' (sastre, ^tailor').

i\

EXERCISES

133

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
la americana,

business
saco)

the "sack" coat, in {called coat


countries

Spanish- American

docena, the dozen; media half a dozen la etiqueta, the etiquette, formality; traje de evening
la

barato, -a, cheap bianco, -a, white caro, -a, dear, expensive la corbata, the cravat, (neck) tie costar, to cost el chaleco, the waistcoat, vest el dependiente, the clerk
diario, -a, daily,
el dinero, the

clothes, ''dress" suit


el frac {pi., fraques), the

evening

coat, "dress" coat.

gastar, to spend
el

guante, the glove

la

medida, the measure


negro, -a, black

"every day"
(a la

el pantaln, the trousers


el par,

money
'at

la disposicin, the disposal

de Vd.,
often said
offered to
{inf.,

your disposal,'
is

the pair regresar, to return representar, to represent, per-

when something any one)

form
el uso, the use
{inf.^

doy

dar), I give; quiere Vd.? quiero, I wish

querer i), do you wish?;

GRAJVIMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cuando un pronombre de

la tercera

persona se usa como

complemento directo con otro pronombre complemento indirecto, cul de los dos pronombres sigue? 2. Cul es la posicin del pronombre se en relacin a otros pronombres complementos? 3. Cundo se usa se en vez de los pronombres le o les? 4. Cules son los pronombres personales que se usan con preposiciones? 5. Cules son los pronombres complementos directos con que se usa generalmente un complemento indirecto preposicional?
6.

Se usa algunas veces redundante-

mente^

el

complemento indirecto preposicional?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
gives
it
1

espaol:

1.

He

gives (da)
to you.
4.
2

it

to me.

2.

He
to

to her.

3.

He

gives

them

He

gives

them

More commonly used than desear.

'Redundantly.*

134
US.
5.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


I give

them

to you.
8.

6.

I present

him

to her.

7.

He

presented you to me.

him

to me.
12.

10.

Present

He presented us to you. 9. Present me to him. 11. Do not present him


is

to them.

This book
13. 15. 17.

for

me, that one

is

for you,

and the
wish
16.

other

is

for her.

Do you

wish to go with me?

14. I

to go with thee.
it

Each one thinks

of (en) oneself.

So

seem to you? 18. He took my {use pronoun and article) measure. 19. I bought myself a white vest. 20. It cost me thirty-six pesetas. 21. That is too dear; my vest (mi ... a mi) was cheaper. 22. It cost me less than thirty pesetas. 23. Did he charge it to you? 24. No, I
seems to me.
does
it

How

paid him for

it.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

He

pasado todo
2.

el

da en las tiendas de Madrid, dijo Car-

los

una noche,
tena.

al regresar al hotel,

y he gastado todo
sastrera,

el

dinero

que

Primero
el

fu^ a

ima

donde

me mand
traje de

hacer un traje para


etiqueta, con frac
sastre

uso diario, con americana,

y un

me tom

la

y pantaln negros y chaleco blanco. 3. El medida y me dijo que me los mandara den-

una semana. 4. Luego entr en una zapatera, donde compr un par de zapatos que me costaron diez duros. 5. Le
tro de

pregimt

al

dependiente

si

me

los cargara

en cuenta.

6.

me

contest que no vendan al fiado en aquella tienda,

pagu los diez duros. 7. Entonces me fui a una camisera, donde compr un par de guantes, tres corbatas, ima docena de cuellos y media docena de camisas. 8. All tambin se venda al contado, y

le

pagu

la cuenta.

9.

Me
10.

dijo el dependiente

que

me

lo

mande

dara todo al hotel.


ustedes, pero sin

Aqu me tienen a
el bolsillo.

la disposicin

una peseta en
1

Pret. of

ir.

(Cf. 188.)

So

'^

O O

w
Hi

135

136

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Qu dijo Carlos una noche al regresar al hotel? 3. Qu se mand hacer? 2. A dnde fu primero? 4. Qu le dijo el sastre, despus de tomarle la medida? 5. Dnde entr luego? 6. Qu compr all? 7. Cunto le costaron? 9. Se los carg en cuenta el depen8. Eran caros o baratos?
1.

diente?
fiado?

10.
11.

Cmo vendan en
A dnde
15.

aquella tienda, al contado o al


12. 14.

se fu Carlos despus?
13.

pr en

la camisera?

Pag
les dijo

la

cuenta?

Qu se comQu le dijo el

dependiente?

Qu

Carlos a sus amigos de la con-

dicin de su bolsillo?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

They say that Mr. Cabrera


friend of

is

the best tailor in the city.

2.

A
me

mine took me to
to him.
3.

his tailor's

shop this morning


if

and presented me

asked him

he could (podra)

make me a
to
suit

suit in a

week.

4.
5. 6.

He

replied that he

in less than a week.


[a]

I ordered [for]

would send it myself an evening

w^nt to a shoe store. 7. I found a pair of shoes that I liked very much, but they were so dear that I had to bargain with the clerk. 8. He ended by selling them to me at a rather high price, but it was much cheaper than his first price. 9. Then I went into a haberdashery. 10. The clerk showed me half a dozen beautiful cravats, and I bought them all from him.^ 11. They did not sell on credit in any of these stores, and now I have spent almost all my money. 12. I have only one peseta in my pocket.
with
white vest.
I
1

Then

Remember

to use the dative here

157-161

USES OF HABER AND TENER

137

LESSON XXVIII {LECCIN VEINTE Y OCHO)


The Points
157.
of the

Compass

{Los Puntos Cardinales)

el norte, the

el sur, the

north south

el este, the east

el oeste, the

west

The Weather {El Tiempo), Weather conditions are commonly expressed by the verb hacer, Ho make/ used im158.

personally.

Haber, impersonal,

may sometimes
a noun,

be used in(learn.)

stead of hacer, but only


hace
calor,
it is

when followed by

haca

hace (hay) sol, it is sunny hace (hay) viento, it is windy haca (haba) polvo, it was dusty hace fresco, it is cool hace buen (mal) tiempo, it is good (bad) weather ha hecho un tiempo agradable, it has been pleasant
hot
fro, it

was cold

159.

Haber,

Ho

be,'

used impersonally, has the form hay in


All the other forms are the

the present indicative.

same as
que, fol-

the third person singular of haber, /to have.'

Hay

lowed by the

infinitive,

means 'one must.'


There are two books on the table There \vill be many people there One must study in order to learn

Hay

dos libros en la mesa Habr mucha gente all Para aprender hay que estudiar

160.

Tener

is

used idiomatically in the sense of


(learn.)
be

Ho

be' with

certain noims.
tener tener tener tener

tener fro, to be cold tener sed, to be thirsty sueo, to be sleepy tener ganas, to be desirous, to wish razon,^ to be right no tener razn, to be wrong tener miedo, to be afraid
calor, to

warm

hambre,

to be

hungry

Tiene Vd.

fro?

No, tengo
may

Are you cold?

No,

am

very

mucho
161.

calor

warm

Adverbial Phrases (frases Adverbiales).

-mente, expressing manner,


1

Adverbs in be replaced by de una manera

Razn means

also 'reason.*

138
or de

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

162-163

un modo, followed by an appropriate


correctamente,

adjective, or

by

the preposition con with an appropriate noun.


]
I

de una manera correcta, de un modo correcto, con correccin,


162.

correctly, in a correct

way,

with correctness

Adjectives are sometimes -intensified


lo

by placing before
most disagree-

them the phrase de


Su clima
163,
es de lo

ms.
Its climate is [of the]

ms desagradable

able

Aun,

^yet,'

still,'

'even,'

is

made

dissyllabic

(an)

when

it

follows a verb.

Aim no ha venido? venido an

No
,

ha
^

Has he not come


come yet

yet?

He has not

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
aplicar, to

apply

el peligro, the danger, risk

arrojar, to throw, fling,


el clima, the climate

dash

la proximidad, the

quitar, to
off,

proximity remove; se, to take

coger, to catch correr, to run hmedo, -a, humid, moist

remove

el resfriado, the cold el

sayo (somewhat antiquated), the


great coat

impersonal,
el infierno,

adj.,

impersonal
hell

Hades,

la sierra, the

range

(of

mountains)

la lluvia, the rain la


el

la situacin, the situation

montaa, the mountain

sbito, -a, sudden, unexpected


la temperatura, the
el

la nieve, the
a, to

snow paso, the step, way; cerrar


check
todo
el

la

temperature tempestad, the tempest, storm

mundo, everybody

GRAMMATICAI. DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cules son los puntos cardinales?


indicar
el

2.

Cul es
el

el

verbo

ms usado para
que
tiempo?
4.

tiempo?

3.

Cul es

otro verbo
el

se usa algunas veces delante

de substantivos para indicar


sentido de ^to be'?

Cul es la forma del presente de indicativo del verbo


el

haber, usado impersonalmente en

del

EXERCISES
imperfecto de indicativo?
del futuro? del perfecto?
5.

139
D-

game Vd. algimas expresiones en que tener se usa en el sentido de 'to be.' 6. Dgame Vd. de cuatro maneras diferentes 'cor7. Cuando se escribe an con acento? rectly.'

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
is

espaol:

1.

It is cold.

2.

am

cold.
is

3.

It

warm.
is

4.

We

dust.
8. It

6. It

warm. 5. It is^ windy and there was sunny yesterday. 7. I was very
are
9.

much
cool.

thirsty.
is

bad weather.

You
12.

are

right.

10. It

11.
is

There will be a storm. snow on the moimtains.


cold.
16. It is too
18.

have a
19. Is

The wind is moist. 13. There 14. The rain has begun. 15. You damp here. 17. There is danger of
is

catching (a) cold.

What
20.

the matter with^ the boy?


is

he

still

himgry?

No, he

sleepy.

21.

He

does not

wish^ to eat (de comer).


23.

22. I

am afraid to
24.

(de) speak Spanish.


is

You

always speak correctly.

Your conversation

most

interesting.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

((Nueve meses de invierno, tres de inemo,)) es un viejo

refrn que se aphca

an con razn
fro all

al

clima de Madrid.
el

2.

La

verdad
en
el el

es

que hace mucho


3.

en

invierno

y mucho

calor

Otro refrn, no menos conocido, dice ((Hasta cuarenta^ de mayo, no te quites el sayo.)) 4. Esto significa
verano.
all

que
5.

uno corre siempre

el

peligro de

coger un resfriado.

Los cambios sbitos de temperatura se explican por la alta situacin de la ciudad y la proximidad de la sierra del Guadarrama. 6. Estas montaas cierran^ el paso a los vientos hmedos del norte y del oeste en el verano, y en el invierno arrojan sobre la ciudad tempestades de lluvia y de nieve. 7. Madrid es
1

Use hacer.

Use qu tiene?

Use tener ganas.

'Fortieth.' Of course there is no fortieth day of May. Pres. ind, of cerrar. Conjugated like pensar. (Cf. 164 (1).)

140

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

una ciudad
gradable.

muy
8.

interesante, pero su clima es de lo

ms

desa-

Para gozar de una temperatura ms agradable en el verano, los madrileos ricos se marchan a San Sebastin. 9. En el invierno muchos buscan el calor del sur de Espaa.
10.

No hay
nunca.

ciudad donde se puede pasar


11. All

el

invierno con
sol

ms

gusto que en Sevilla.


fro

hace siempre

12.

Hay

flores

todo el_ao,

y uno no tiene aun en el mes de enero.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

Cul es

el

refrn que se apUca al clima de


3.

Madrid?
4.

2.

Qu

significa?
el

Cul es
los otros
7.

el

otro
5.

refrn?

Tiene

cuarenta das
o.

mes de mayo?

Cuntos das tiene?


el

Cuntos das tienen

meses segn
usa ms
la

refrn que

ustedes

han aprendido?
8. 9.

Hoy

se

palabra sayo o

gabn?

Es verdad que uno coge fcilmente un resfriado

en Madrid?

Cmo

se explican los
10.

cambios sbitos de tem-

A qu cierra el paso la sierra 11. Qu arrojan sobre la ciudel Guadarrama en el verano? dad estas montaas en el invierno? 12. A dnde se marchan los madrileos ricos en el verano? 13. Dnde pasan muchos 14. Hace fro con frecuencia en Sevilla? 15. Hay el invierno? flores todo el ao, aun en los meses ms fros? 16. En este pas cules son los meses en que hace ms fro? en que hace ms
peratura en aquella ciudad?
calor?
17.

Tiene Vd. calor ahora?

18.

Cules son los doce

meses del ao?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

Of

all of

the seasons of the year, (the) spring and (the)


2.

autumn

are the best.

We

like the spring,

because
3.

we
4.

are

neither too cold nor too

warm

in that season.

We

find the

change from the cold of the winter very agreeable.

The

autumn too
mer.
5.

is

an agreeable change from the heat of the sumit is

Frequently

very (mucho) hot here in the months

of July

and August.

6.

Then one ought

[to]

go away to the

164

RADICAL-CHANGING VERBS
trees.
7.

141

country to (para) seek the shade of the

The

coldest

January and February. 8. There is generally much snow in these months, and there are often very cold winds. 9. Then everybody wishes to remain in [the] house and amuse himself with a good book. 10. In

months

of the year in this country are

these months,

and
of

especially in the
cold.
11.

month
is

of

March,

it is

very

easy

[to]

catch

(a)

There
12.

always danger in a
climate of

sudden change
is

temperature.

The

Madrid

most disagreeable. 13. It is so bad in winter that many seek the more agreeable temperature of the south of Spain. 14. There it is never cold, even in the months of January and

February.

LESSON XXIX {LECCIN VEINTE Y NUEVE)


RADICAL-CHANGING VERBS FIRST CLASS {VERBOS QUE CAMBIAN LA VOCAL RADICAL PRIMERA CLASE)
164.

This class consists of certain verbs of the


conjugations
ie,

first

and

second

stressed from e to
illustrate all
(1)

which change the stem vowel w^hen and from o to ue. The following verbs

such changes:
(^to
(2)

Pensari
think')

Perder

(3)

Contar Cto
*

(4)

Volver2
re-

to lose')

count/ expect," teU')

(Ho

turn)

Pres.Ind.:

pienso piensas piensa

pierdo pierdes pierde

pensamos
pensis

perdemos
perdis

cuento cuentas cuenta contamos


contis

vuelvo vuelves vuelve volvemos


volvis

piensan
1

pierden

cuentan

vuelven

Pensar en=Ho think of: Pienso en mi hermano


.

I
.

am

thinking of

my

brother

again': Volver a+infimtive = 'to Vuelvo a saludarle I greet him again Volver has an irregular past participle vuelto.
.

142
Pres. Subj.: piense

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


pierda pierdas pierda

165
vuelva vuelvas vuelva volvamos
volvis

pienses piense

pensemos
pensis

perdamos
perdis

cuente cuentes cuente contemos


contis

piensen
Imptv.
:

pierdan
pierde perded

cuenten
cuenta contad

vuelvan
vuelve volved

piensa pensad

Note. Jugar, Ho play (a game)/ changes the u to ue and takes the regular orthographic changes: Fres. Ind.j juego, juegas, etc.; Fres. Subj.^
juegue, juegues,
etc.

165.

Note the

follov^^ing

expressions of time:
(la tarde, la

maana

(ayer) por la

maana

noche), to-mor-

morning (afternoon, evening) pasado maana, day after to-morrov^ anteayer (or antes de ayer), day before yesterday
rov^ (yesterday)

anoche, last night

anteanoche
el

(or

antes de anoche), night before last

esta noche, to-night

domingo (lunes, etc.) pasado, last Sunday (Monday, etc.) la semana prxima, next week hace ocho (quince) das, a week (two weeks) ago del domingo en ocho (quince) das, a week (two weeks) from Smiday el ltimo domingo hizo ocho (quince) das, a week (two weeks) ago last Simday

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
achicar, to dwarf, lessen

causar, to cause,
la

make

acueducto, the aqueduct los alrededores, the environs aprovechar, to profit by, make
el

colosal, adj., colossal

costumbre, the custom, habit

la descripcin, the description

the most of

desgraciadamente,
tunately

adv., unfor-

aproximarse, to approach, come near el carcter, the character

entender
infer

(ie),

to

understand,

EXERCISES
la estancia, the stay la excursin, the excursion la fuente, the fountain
la partida, the

143

importante,

adj.,

important

departure probable, adj., probable la residencia, the residence segn, prep., according to, as
sepultar, to

la impresin, the impression

bury

el

inmenso, -a, immense monarca, the monarch

la tristeza, the sadness,

gloom

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Qu cambio

tiene lugar en la vocal radical e de los verbos

pensar y perder? 2. Qu cambio tiene lugar en la vocal radical o de los verbos contar y volver? 3. En qu personas tiene
lugar
el

cambio de
el

la

vocal radical?
5.
el

4.

Qu cambios tienen
el

lugar en

verbo jugar?

Conjugue Vd.

presente de indi-

cativo

de subjuntivo y

imperativo de pensar; de perder;

de contar; de volver; de jugar.

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd.
3.

en

espaol:

1.

To-morrow.

2.

Yesterday.

4. Day before yesterday. 5. ToNext week. 8. Last week. 9. A week ago. 10. Two weeks ago. IL A week from Sunday. 12. Two weeks from Sunday. 13. A week ago last Sunday. 14. Of (en) what* are you thinking? 15. I am thinking of our

Day

after to-morrow.

night.

6.

Last night.

7.

trip.

16.

Don't

lose

the

way.
19.

17.

They

are

returning.

Count up to [a] hundred. 20. Let us play first and we shall work later. 21. How much does this book cost^? 22. It costs^ too much. 23. They cost^
18.

Let us return home

(a casa).

very
not

little.

24.
it

Show

(use mostrar^)
26. Sit

me your

exercise.
27.

25.

Do
do

not show^
sit

to them.
here.

down^

in this chair.

Let us

down

28. I

am

closing^ the door.

29.

Why

you

close 2 the door?


1

Change the stem vowel Change the stem vowel

to ue. to ie.

Segovia

El

Antiguo Acueducto Colosal


los de^ns edificios.

que atraviesa la ciudad y que achica

Page 14s

144

EXERCISES

145

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Estos ltimos das he estado tan ocupado, que pierdo la

costumbre de escribir, dijo Juan en una de sus cartas. 2. Ahora vuelvo a tomar la pluma para continuar la descripcin de 3. Desgraciadanuestra estancia en esta parte de Espaa.

mente

se

aproxima

la

hora de nuestra partida, que ser prodas.


4.

bablemente del lunes en quince

Aprovechamos

el

tiempo para hacer algunas excursiones a los alrededores de Madrid. 5. Anteayer fuimos a ver el Escorial, donde estn
sepultados tantos reyes de Espaa.
6.

Haca un tiempo

es-

plndido, pero aquel inmenso edificio de piedra

impresin de tristeza que, yo pienso,


7.

me caus una no perder muy pronto.

El domingo pasado visitamos La Granja, residencia de ve8.

Las fuentes entre los rboles me recuerdan las de Versalles^ en Francia. 9. Fuimos a Segovia el ltimo sbado hizo ocho das. 10. Es una ciudad
rano de varios monarcas espaoles.

muy
12.

pintoresca.

IL Nunca
la

olvidar

el

antiguo acueducto

colosal

ciudad y que achica los dems edificios. La semana prxima pienso hacer ma excursin a Barce-

que atraviesa
es,

lona,

que

segn entiendo, una de las ciudades ms impor-

tantes de Espaa.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

Por qu pierde Juan


tornear la

la

costumbre de

escribir?

2.

Para qu

pluma? 3. Qu se aproxima? 4. Cundo ser su partida de Madrid? 5. Para qu aprovechan el tiempo? 6. A dnde fueron anteayer? 7. Qu impresin le caus a Juan el Escorial? 8. Qu visitaron el domingo pasado? 9. Por qu es conocida La Granja? 10. Qu recuerdan sus fuentes? 11. A dnde fueron el sbado hizo ocho das? 12. Qu atra\esa la ciudad de Segovia, achicando los dems edificios? 13. A qu ciudad piensa Juan hacer una excursin la semana prxima?
vuelve a
1
*

Versailles.'

146

PIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

166

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

am
[to]

thinking

[of]

making^ the most


2. 3.

[of]

the days that


I

remain to
expect

me

in this part of Spain.

To-morrow morning
aqueduct
[of]

go to Segovia.
I
of

Its colossal
4. It crosses

is

very
to

picturesque, as I understand.

the city, dwarfing

aU the other buildings. 5. see the famous fountains


of Versailles, in France.
7.

am
La

also thinking

gomg^

[a]

Granja, which play (corren)


6.

only three or four times every summer.

They
[at]

recall those

Upon

(al)

looking^

one of these

foimtains, Philip

(Felipe Quinto) said: ''It costs ^

me

three
8.

millions (millones)

and entertams^

me

three minutes.'^

week from Monday we shall visit the famous Escorial. 9. This immense building with all its gloom shows ^ the character of
Philip

II

(Felipe

Segundo), as
places
11. I

La Granja shows
awaken^
it

that

of

Philip V.

10. All these

my

interest

the

history of Spain.
ure,
12.

am

studying

again with

much

pleas-

and I am recalling many things that I had forgotten. Count the time employed in (de) this way as time well

spent.

LESSON

XXX

{LECCIN TREINTA)

RADICAL-CIIANGING VERBS SECOND CLASS {VERBOS QUE CAMBIAN LA VOCAL RADICAL SEGUNDA CLASE)
166.

This class consists of certain ^erbs of the third conju-

gation which change the stem vowel

when

stressed from e to ie

and from o to u before


dormir,

to ue,

and when unstressed from e to


io.

stressed a, ie or

Sentir,

Ho

feel,'

and from o ^be sorry,' and


i

Ho

sleep,' illustrate these


1

changes.

2
3

Use inf. Change stem vowel


Divierte.

to ue.
like sentir.

Conjugated

(Cf. 166 (1).)

Change stem vowel

to ie.

167-168

RADICAL CHANGING VERBS


(1)

147
Dormir

Sentir

(2)

Gerund:
Fres. I fid.:

sintiendo
siento sientes

durmiendo
sentimos
sents

siente

sienten
sentimos
sentisteis

duermo duermes duerme


dorm
dormiste

dormimos
dorms

duermen
dormimos
dormisteis

Pret.Ind.:

sent

sentiste

sinti

sintieron

durmi

durmieron

Fres.Subj.:

sienta sientas

sintamos
sintis

sienta

sientan
2. ^

duerma duermas duerma


1.^

diirmamos durmis

duerman
2.^

Imp.

Siibj.^: 1.^

sintiera
etc.

sintiese
etc.

durmiera
etc.

durmiese
etc.

Imptv.

siente

sentid

duerme

dormid

RADICAL-CHANGING VERBS THIRD CLASS {VERBOS QUE CAMBIAN LA VOCAL RADICAL TERCERA CLASE)
167.

This class consists of certain verbs of the third conjui

gation which change the stem vowel e to


also

when

stressed,

and

when

unstressed before stressed

a, ie or io.

Servir, 'to

serve,' illustrates this class.

Gerund:
:

sirviendo

Fres. Ind.. sirvo

servimos
servs

Fres. Subj.i

sirves
sirve

sirva sirvas
sirva

sirvamos
sirvis

sirven
servimos
servsteis

sirvan
2.^

Fret.Ind.: serv
serviste

Imp. Subj}:

1.^

sirviera
etc.

sirviese
etc.

sirvi

sirvieron
sirve
servid

Imptv.:

168.

Verbs

in -er belong to the third class of radical-changi

ing verbs, but the


taining ie or
i

of the

stem absorbs the


i's

of the endings con-

io,

so that

two

do not come together.

Stressed

takes the written accent.

Rer,

Ho
It

laugh,'

and

sonrer, 'to

smile,' illustrate this rule.


1

Cf 236 for the conjugation of this tense.


.

need not be learned for this lesson.

148

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


Rer

Gerund:
Pres. Ind.
:

riendo
ro

reimos
res

Pres. Subj.:

ra

namos
riis

res
re
Fret. Ind.
:

ras
ra

ren

ran
2.^

re

remos
reisteis

Imp. Subj}:

1.^

riera
etc.

riese
etc.

reiste

ri

rieron
re

Imptv.

red

Note.
riyeron,

Ri,
etc.

rieron,

and derived forms, are sometimes written

riy,

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
almuerzo, the lunch, luncheon la carne, the meat, flesh la cena, the supper el cocido, the boiled dish la comida, the meal, dinner
el

la leche, the la

milk legumbre, the vegetable


bread potato
fish

la mantequilla, the butter


el pan, the

la patata, the
el

consistir (en), to consist (of)

pescado, the
preferir

corregir

(i),

to correct

el postre, the dessert


(ie, i),

el chocolate,

the chocolate

to prefer

la ensalada, the salad

francs, adj., French frito, -a, fried el huevo, the egg

reunir (se), to gather la sopa, the soup la tortilla, the omelet

por ltimo,

last, at last; srvase,

please

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Qu cambios
3.

se

hacen en
2.

la

vocal radical del verbo


se

sentir?

del verbo dormir?

Qu cambios
el

hacen en

el

verbo servir?

Escriba Vd. en

pizarrn todos los tiempos

que se hallan cambios de la vocal radical; del verbo dormir; del verbo servir; del verbo rer. 4. Corrija Vd. todas las faltas que hay en los verbos escritos en el
del verbo sentir en

pizarrn.
1

Cf. 236 for the conjugation of this tense.

It

need not be learned for this lesson.

EXERCISES

149

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
much).
also.
2.

espaol:

1.

am

very sorry

{lit,

I feel

it

sleep.

He is more sorry than you. 3. They were 5. Let him sleep. 6. Let us 4. He is sleeping. 8. What 7. He slept only three hours last night.
{lit.

sorry

go to
is

the

use of that

for

what does that

serve)?

9.

It serves to
coffee

explain the rule.


milk.
11.

10.

For breakfast they served

with

The only
the

pass
first.

me
14.

bread. With
is

dessert she served

was

coffee.

12. Please

She

smiling.

15.

much They

pleasure.

13.

Serve him
16.

are both smiling.

Let

them

smile.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

En Espaa como
2.

en Amrica se toman tres comidas cada


3.

da.

La primera

se llama desayuno.
el

El desayuno se
4.

sirve

con frecuencia en

cuarto donde se duerme.

Consta

generalmente de chocolate o caf con leche, pan y mantequilla. 5. En muchas familias espaolas la comida se toma al medioda.
7.

6.

En

estos casos la cena es la


el

que

se

Otras familias prefieren

modo

francs

toma por la noche. y toman el almuerzo

al

medioda y la comida por la noche. 8. El almuerzo y la cena son menos importantes que la comida. 9. Para la comida
se sirve

primero una sopa, luego un cocido, que consiste en


fritos

y legumbres, luego una tortilla o huevos o pescado, despus ima ensalada y por ltimo el postre.
carne, patatas

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
toman cada da en Espaa? 2. Cmo se llama la primera? 3. Dnde se sirve el almuerzo con frecuencia? 4. De qu consta generalmente? 5. Cundo se toma la comida en muchas familias espaolas? 6. En estos casos cmo se llama la que se toma por la noche? 7. Qu prefieren otras familias espaolas? 8. Cundo toma la comida
1.

Cuntas

comidas

se

150

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


9.

69-170

su familia de Vd.?

Cul es ms importante,
la

la

cena o la

comida?
comida?

el

almuerzo o

comida?

10.

Qu

se sirve

para

la

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

I generally take
is

my

breakfast in the
3. It is a

room where
4.

I sleep.

2.

This

the Spanish custom.

very light meal and


All of the

consists of chocolate with bread

and

butter.

lodgers in this house gather in the dining-room for the luncheon

at twelve o'clock according to the French custom.

5.

In some
served

Spanish families they serve a dinner at noon and a supper at


night.
6.

In our boarding-house, however, the dinner


7.

is

at night.
8. All feel
is

The

lodgers gather again ^ in the dining-room.


9.
is

very gay and talk and laugh a great deal.


10.

This

the most important meal of the day.


11.

soup

always

served to begin [with].

Then they

serve a boiled dish

which consists

meat and potatoes and vegetables. 12. After the boiled dish they serve a course (plato) which can be either 13. Then a salad is eggs or fish, and I always choose fish.
of

served.

14.

Last the dessert

is

served.

LESSON XXXI {LECCIN TREINTA Y UNA)


IRREGULAR VERBS (VERBOS IRREGULARES)
Verbs which are considered irregular in this grammar are those having irregularities other than orthographic or stemvowel changes. Learn the irregularities (indicated in boldface
169.

type) which occur in the gerund, past participle or indicative

forms of the following


170.
Pres. Ind.:
Pret.:

common

verbs:

Dar, 'to give'


doy, das, etc.
di, diste, dio,
1

dimos, disteis, dieron


. .

Use volver a

171-174

IRREGULAR VERBS
Hacer,
'to make,' 'do'

151

171,

Fast Fart,:
Fres, Ind,:
Fret.:

hecho
hago, haces,
:

etc.

hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron


etc.;

Fut.

and Cond. har,

hara, etc.

Imptv,

haz, haced

172.
Fast Fart,:
Fres, Ind,:
Fret.:

Poner,
puesto pongo, pones,
:

'to put,' 'place'

etc.

puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron Fut, and Cond. pondr, etc.; pondra, etc. pon, poned Imptv,:

173.
Gerund:
Fres. Ind.:
Fret.:

Traer, 'to bring'

trayendo
traigo, traes, etc.
traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron

174.
Gerund: Fast Fart.:
Fres. Ind.
Fret.:

Decir, 'to
diciendo dicho

say,' 'tell'

digo, dices, dice, decimos, decs, dicen


dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron
:

Fut. and Cond.

dir, etc.; dira, etc.


di,

Imptv,:

decid

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
el aceite, the (olive) oil

almorzar (ue), to lunch


asar, to roast
el azcar,

la
el

el

la

el

the sugar beber, to drink botella, the bottle cigarrillo, the cigarette cigarro, the cigar comer, to eat, dine cuchara, the spoon (cucharita, teaspoon) cuchillo, the knife

mantel, the tablecloth hacer to give an order la pimienta, the pepper


el el pedido, the order; el plato, the plate, dish

un

la propina, the tip


el rato, the while,

space of time

la sal, the salt la servilleta, the


el

napkin

encender
fimiar, to

(ie),

to light

tenedor, the fork el vaso, the glass el vinagre, the vinegar el vino, the wine

smoke

152

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cul es
la
4.

la

primera persona del presente de indicativo de


2.

dar? del pretrito?


3.

Cul es

el

participio pasado de hacer?

Cul es

primera persona del presente de indicativo? del


Cules son las formas irregulares del verbo

pretrito?

poner? del verbo traer? del verbo decir?

'

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Conjugue Vd. en
3.
el

I.

pretrito:

1.

Le

di las gracias.

2.

Le

traje la lista.

La semana pasada
5.

hice

un

viaje.

4.

Puse

todos los platos en la mesa.


II.
le

No

le dije

nada.
pretrito:
1.

Ponga Vd.

las frases siguientes


2.

en

el

dan por la caja? haceVd.? 4. Pongo


III.

Le traemos una
la

invitacin.
5.

Cunto 3. Qu

el

sombrero en

mesa.

Qu me decs?

Ponga Vd.
.

las frases siguientes

en

el

presente de indicatraje

tivo:
3. el

Me

dieron

muchas
le dijo

cosas.
4.

2.

Le

un recuerdo.

Nos

hizo Vd.
5.

un gran

favor.

Pusieron Vds. los libros en

pupitre?

l no

su nombre.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Hoy hemos

almorzado tan temprano que ya tengo hambre,


Madrid.
2.

dijo Carlos la ltima tarde de su estancia en

Yo

tambin tengo ganas de comer, contest Juan. 3. Entraron en el Hotel de Pars, que se halla en la Puerta del Sol, y se dirigieron al comedor. 4. Se sentaron en una mesa. 5. En seguida un mozo
6.

les dio la lista

principi a poner la mesa.

Puso un mantel

limpio, servilletas, platos, vasos, cuchillos,

Luego puso en la mesa 8. Los muchachos azcar, sal, pimienta, aceite y vinagre. hicieron su pedido y el mozo les trajo primero la sopa. 9. Luego les sirvi carne asada con patatas y una botella de vino.
tenedores, cucharas

cucharitas.

7.

EXERCISES
10.

153

Despus

les trajo

les sirvi caf.

12.

pescado y una ensalada. 11. Como postre Despus de beber el caf los jvenes pidieron

cigarros
13.

cigarrillos

se

quedaron
la

all

a fumar un
la

rato.

Antes de levantarse de
al

mesa pagaron

cuenta y dieron

una propina

mozo.

COm'ERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
1.

Quin dijo que tena hambre?

2.

Por qu tena hambre?


4.

En qu hotel entraron? 5. Dnde est el Hotel de Pars? 6. Cuando los jvenes se sentaron qu les dio el mozo? 7. Qu principi a hacer el mozo? 8. Qu puso en la mesa? 9. Cuando los muchachos le dieron su pedido qu les trajo primero?
3.

Tena Juan tambin ganas de comer?

Qu les sirvi luego? 11. Se sirve vino generalmente en una comida espaola? 12. Qu les trajo despus? 13. Qu tomaron los jvenes como postre? 14. Le gusta a Vd. el caf solo o con leche? 15. Despus de beber el caf qu pidieron Carlos y Juan? 16. Fuma Vd., seor? 17. Fuma su seor padre? 18. Qu se fuma ms en Espaa, cigarros o cigarrillos? 19. Qu hicieron los jvenes antes de levantarse de la mesa?
10.

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

My father is a rather old man.


5.

2.

am his

only daughter.
4.

3.

We

have no other relatives and we

live alone.

do

all

of

the work of the house.


o'clock.
[on]
6.

My
I

father lunches regularly at one


7. First I put put on the table two napkins,

At

half past twelve I set the table.


8.

the tablecloth.
glasses

Then

and the other things necessary for (the) luncheon, plates, knives, forks and teaspoons. 9. I also put on the table salt, pepper, vinegar, oil and sugar. 10. At exactly one o'clock my father seats himself at the table and I serve him. 11. I give him first an omelet, then a salad. 12. Then I bring him the boiled dish, which consists of meat and vegetables.

two

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Universidad de Salamanca

La

Curiosa Escalera de Piedra,


toros del siglo quince,

cuya balaustrada representa una corrida de

154

175-178

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES


14.

155

13.

He

generally takes wine with his luncheon.

As
16.

dessert

I always serve
coffee

him
I give

coffee

without milk.
cigar

15.

He

drinks his

and then

him a
17.

times I light his cigar.


meal.

and some matches. He smokes only one cigar

Some-

after each

LESSON XXXII {LECCIN TREINTA Y DOS)


175. Relative

Pronouns and Adjectives {Pronombres


y Adjetivos Relativos)

que, that, which, who, whom (pronoun) 1 which, who, el (la, lo) que, pL los (las) que, adjective) el (la, lo) cual, pi. los (las) cuales, /

whom

(pronoun rarely
j

qmen

(-es),

who, whom, he

(she, they)

who (whom)

(pronoun)

cuyo (-a, -OS, -as), whose, of which (adjective) cuanto (-a, -os, -as), all that, as much (or many) as (pronoun
jective)

and ad-

176.

Relative pronouns are never omitted in Spanish, as

they sometimes are in English.

They
This

agree with antecedent in

gender and number.


Este es
el

lugar que
la

Madrid es

ms me gusta ciudad en la cual (or

is

Madrid
ing

the place (which) I like best is the city in which I am Hv-

que) vivo

177.

Que

is

verb,

it

may

used as subject or object of a refer to persons or things. After a preposition it


invariable.

When

refers only to things.

El caballero que est escribiendo es mi padre Dnde est el libro que Vd. compro? E un libro de que todos hablan

The man (who


father

is)

writing

is

my

Where

is the book which you bought? It is a book of which everybody is speaking

178.

El cual and

'whom,to the

may

que in the sense of ^which/ 'who/ be used to avoid ambiguity, and refer generally
el

more remote

of

two possible

antecedeiats.

El cual

156

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

179-183

more commonly used (especially of persons) than is el que. They are both often used after prepositions where there is no
ambiguity.
Ayer
vi a la mujer del mdico, la cual ha estado fuera de a ciudad Esta es la calle por la que {pr cual)

Yesterday I saw the doctor's wife who has been out of the city This is the street by which we return

volvemos a casa
179.
'

home
'

Lo que usually means what

in the sense of ^ that which.'

Lo cual usually
are neuter.

refers to a preceding

statement or idea.

Both

Entiendo lo que Vd. dice l habl muy poco, To cual gust mucho
180.

I understand what

me

He

you say spoke very httle, which pleased me very much


lieu of

(fact)

Quien

(-es)

is

sometimes used in
translate

que

for greater
It is

emphasis, after an antecedent clause complete in

itself.

more commonly used to


It

may
{or

also translate

^whom' after ^he who/ ^the one who/ etc.

prepositions.

mi hermano Juan, quien que) ha estado enfermo All est el muchacho con quien Vd. hablaba Soy yo quien lo hice Quien estudia aprende
All est
^

There is my brother John, who has been ill There is the boy with whom you were speaking I am the one who did it

He who

studies, learns

181.

in

Quien and cual are sometimes repeated as which case they have accent marks.
la retirada; quin,

correlatives,

Quin aconseja

One
All,

advises retreat; another, to die

morir peleando Todos, cules ms, cules menos. son culpables


182.

fighting

some more, some

less,

are guilty

Cuyo

(~a, -os, -as) is

a possessive relative adjective.

Ya

oir Vd. la cantatriz cuya voz

Now

you

will

hear the singer whose

me

gusta tanto

voice pleases

me

so

much

183.
jective.

Cuanto

(-a, -os, -as) is

used both as pronoun and ad-

It usually includes its antecedent.

EXERCISES
Dije cuanto deseaba De cuantos idiomas he estudiado, el espaol es el ms fcil
I said all that I wished

157

Of

all

the languages which I have


is

studied, Spanish

the easiest

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
acompaar, to accompany, go
with la amabilidad, the kindness el aula,/., the hall, lecture-room la balaustrada, the balustrade
la conferencia, the lecture
la facultad, the faculty

frecuentar, to frequent fimdar, to found el laboratorio, the laboratory nuevo, -a, new; de again el rector, the president {of a uni-

conservar, to keep, preserve


la corrida, the bull-fight

versity)
el siglo,
tal,

the century
;

curioso, -a, curious


el curso, the course

such, such a (one) just as (like)


bull-fight

cual,

la escalera, the stairs, staircase


el escritor, the writer

el toro,

the bull; corrida de

s,

la fachada, the facade, front

la visita, the visit

hoy

da,

nowadays; por todas partes, everywhere

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cules

son

los

pronombres

adjetivos

relativos?

3. Se puede omitir en ingls? pronombre relativo como 4. Con qu concuerda un un pronombre relativo? 5. En qu concuerda? 6. Cul de los pronombres relativos es invariable? 7. Se refiere el cual al antecedente que est ms cerca o ms lejos? 8. Cmo se traduce Svhom' despus de una preposicin? 9. Cules de los pronombres relativos se usan como correlativos? 2.

Cul se usa solamente como adjetivo?

ORAL. EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


pronombres o adjetivos relativos correspondientes: 1. Es ste el libro ha comprado Vd.? 2. Quin es el seor a Vd. me ha presentado? 3. no estudia no aprende. 4. La hermana de mi amigo, lleg anteayer, est enferma. 5. Mire Vd. aquel edificio fachada
Llene Vd.
los espacios

con

los

es tan hermosa.

6.

De escuelas conozco,

sta es la mejor.

158
7.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


8.

escalera
libros

ms, menos, eran amigos mos. por subimos? Dgame Vd. ha estn en mesa son mos. El Aqu de todos hablan. casa en
Todos,
9.

Es sta

la

visto.

la

11.

escritor es

10. Los un hombre

12.

est la

vive.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)

Mi muy querida mam^: 1. Como te he prometido,


estamos en
la vieja

te escribo en espaol.

2.

Aqu

ms

ciudad de Salamanca, que es una de las pintorescas de Espaa. 3. La imiversidad es lo que


4.

me

interesa sobre todo aqu.


al

Ayer fuimos a

verla.
el

5.

Hi-

cimos primero una visita

distinguido

escritor,

seor

don Miguel de Unamuno, antes rector de la universidad, quien es muy amigo de pap.^ 6. l tuvo la amabilidad de acompaarnos por todas partes. 7. Nos ense la fachada de
la universidad,

la cual es

muy

hermosa.

8.

Nos mostr

la

curiosa escalera de piedra cuya balaustrada representa


corrida de toros del siglo quince.
9.

una

Nos

hizo entrar en la an-

tigua aula de Fray Luis de Len, la que se conserva tal cual

estaba en
capilla

el siglo

diez

seis.

10.

Nos mostr

la biblioteca, la
11.

y todas

las partes

de esta antigua universidad.


el siglo trece,

La

universidad de Salamanca se fund en

cuando no

haba ms escuelas en Europa que las de Bolonia, de Pars y de Londres. 12. Antiguamente tena irnos diez mil estudiantes,

mucho menos frecuentada. 13. Ahora la imiversidad de Madrid es la ms importante de las diez universipero hoy da es

dades espaolas.
ferencias

14.

stas estn divididas, por regla general,

en cinco facultades, cuyos cursos se dan en forma de con-

y de prctica en los laboratorios. 15. Estoy aprendiendo mucho en este viaje. 16. Te escribir de nuevo desde San Sebastin a donde vamos dentro de dos das.

Tu
l

hijo afectuoso,

Carlos,
Familiar for madre.
2

Familiar for padre.

EXERCISES

159

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

En qu lengua

escribe Carlos a su
3.

madre?
le 5.

2.

Por qu
4.

le

escribe en espaol?

Desde qu ciudad
6.

escribe?

Qu

es lo que interesaba sobre todo a Carlos?


los viajeros

A quin
el

hicieron

una
7.

visita?

Qu

les

ense primero

seor de

Unamimo?
escalera?
9.
8.

Qu representa
fund
la

la

balaustrada de la curiosa

Cmo
se

se conserva el aula de

Cundo

Fray Luis de Len? escuela de Salamanca? 10. Cul es la


11.

universidad espaola

ms importante ahora?
se

En cuntas

facultades estn divididas generalmente las universidades es-

paolas?

12.

Cmo

dan sus cursos?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


To-day we shall speak about the University of Salamanca, which is the oldest school in Spain. 2. It was foimded in the thirteenth^ century, which makes it (la hace ser) much older than any (ninguna) American imiversity. 3. It is one of the four oldest universities of Europe, which are Bologna, Paris, London and Salamanca. 4. Formerly, it had ten thousand students, who came (venan) from all parts of Europe. 5. Today it has much fewer (menos) students than the University of Madrid. 6. However, it still has distinguished men in its faculties, of whom the best (ms) known is the writer Miguel de Unamimo. 7. Its courses are given principally in the form of lectures. 8. Its lecture-halls are like those of any (cualquier)
1.

other university, with the exception of that of Friar Louis of

Len, which

is

preserved just as

it

was

in his time.

9.

In the
is

principal building of the university, the fagade of


-beautiful, is the

which

very

famous

staircase,

which represents a

bull-fight

of the fifteenth^ century.


I

Use cardinal number.

La Famosa Catedral de Burgos.


Su
magnifico interior.

Page 164.

160

184-189

IRREGULAR VERBS

161

LESSON XXXIII {LECCIN TREINTA Y TRES)


IRREGULAR VERBS {VERBOS IRREGULARES)
184.

Leam

the irregularities (indicated in boldface type)

which occur in the gerund, past participle or indicative forms


of the following verbs:

185.
Gerund:
Pres. Ind.:
Pret.:

Poder,

'to

be

able,' 'can'

pudiendo puedo, puedes, puede, podemos, podis, pueden pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron
puede, poded

Fut. and Cond.: podr, etc.; podra, etc.

Imptv.:

186.
Pres. Ind.:
Pret.:

Querer, 'to wish,'

'like,' 'love'

quiero, quieres, quiere, queremos, queris, quieren


quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, quisieron

Fut. and Cond.: querr, etc.; querra, etc.

Imptv.

quiere, quered

187.
Pres. Ind.:

Saber, 'to know,' 'know how'

se, sabes, sabe, sabemos, sabis, saben supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, supieron Fut. and Cond.: sabr, etc.; sabra, etc.
Pret.:

188.
Gerund:
Pres. Ind.:

Ir, 'to

go'

yendo
voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van
iba, ibas, iba,
fui, fuiste, fu,

Imp.^:
Pret.^:

bamos, ibais, iban fuimos, fuisteis, fueron

Imptv.:

ve, id

189.
Gerund:
Pres. Ifid.:
Pret.:

Venir, 'to come'

Fut.

and

Co7ui.;

Imptv.:

viniendo vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, vens, vienen vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron vendr, etc.; vendra, etc. ven, venid
82.)

1
2.

One of three irregular imperfects in Spanish. (Cf. Same as the preterit of ser, Ho be.' (Cf. 88.)

162

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
animado, -a, animated, lively
la aristocracia, the aristocracy

la lnea, the line


el or la

mar, the sea


to

baar (se),
la diversin,

to bathe

ofrecer, to offer
partir,

detener (se), to stop


the amusement, diversion durante, prep., during
especial, adj., special, particular
el esposo, the

depart;

de,

to

leave
la pelota, the ball, pelota (Basque

game similar

to

hand-ball)

la playa, the shore,

beach

l plaza, the plaza, square;

de

husband

(la

esposa,

toros, bull-ring

the wife)
favorito, -a, favorite
el frontn,

los restos, the remains


situar, to situate
el teatro, the theater

the court (for playing

pelota)
el

hroe, the hero el juego, the game

vascongado, -a, Basque veranear, to summer, pass the

summer

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cul es
el
ir;

el

gerundio de poder? de

ir?

devenir?

2.

Con-

jugue Vd.
saber; de

presente de indicativo de poder; de querer; de

de venir.

3.
ir
;

de querer; de saber; de

Conjugue Vd. el pretrito de poder; de venir. 4. Cul es la primera perde querer? de saber?
ir.

sona del futuro de poder?


5.

de venir?
6.

Conjugue Vd.

el

imperfecto de indicativo de
el

Cules

son los otros verbos que son irregulares en


indicativo?

imperfecto de

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


I.

Ponga Vd.
el

las frases siguientes


2.

en

el pretrito:

conjugar

verbo.

Ellos

sabemos traducir no viene Vd.?


II.

la frase.

no quieren 4. Va Vd. a Madrid?

No puedo acompaamos. 3. No
1.

5.

Por qu

tivo:

Ponga Vd. las frases siguientes en el presente de indica2. Qu 1. El muchacho no pudo indicarme el camino.
decirme?
3.
l

quisisteis
4.

No

supe

contestar

su

pregunta.
5.

Todos fueron con


la

a la estacin del ferrocarril.

Vinimos

hora indicada.

6.

Por qu no se detuvo Vd.?

^ ^

u
<
h-i
1
1

< o o

^
"5^

?i)

13
?3

IX!

< m

CO

^
-?^

^ <
c/:

g ^
<o
^!:^

O <^ ?3

r^

Q
C)

<i\

5^

163

164

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Despus de partir de Salamanca, nuestros viajeros fueron directamente a Burgos. 2. All se detuvieron, porque quisieron ver la famosa catedral. 3. Admiraron sobre todo su magnfico interior. 4. Antes de continuar su viaje, pudieron visitar otros monumentos de Burgos. 5. Los que tenan alguna relacin con
1.

el

Cid, hroe nacional de Espaa, interesaron especialmente a los


6.

jvenes.

Como

todos saben,

el

Cid vino de Vivar, cerca de

Burgos, y en Burgos se conservan sus restos as como^ los de Ximena, su esposa. 7. Cuando llegaron a San Sebastin, la

primera cosa que hicieron


hotel, fu baarse en la

los

muchachos, despus de buscar un

Concha, cuya playa est siempre


8.

muy

animada durante
ranean

el

verano.

vascongada, situada entre las


la familia real

San Sebastin es una ciudad montaas y el mar. 9. All ve10.

y toda

la aristocracia espaola.

Su

playa, su casino, sus teatros, su plaza de toros

sus frontones

de pelota, juego favorito de los vascongados, ofrecen diversiones

para todos

los gustos.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

A dnde fueron nuestros


2.

viajeros despus de partir de


3.

Salamanca?
de
la catedral

Qu quisieron ver en Burgos?

Qu parte

admiraron sobre todo? 4. Antes de continuar su viaje qu ms pudieron ver en Burgos? 5. Qu monumentos 7. De 6. Quin era el Cid? los interesaron especialmente?

dnde vino?
10.

8.

Cundo

vivi?

9.

Quin era su esposa?

Cuando nuestros

viajeros llegaron a
11.

fu la primera cosa que hicieron?


est

San Sebastin, cul En qu parte del ao


12.

muy animada
all?

la

playa de San Sebastin?

Quines

veranean

13.

Cules son las cosas en San Sebastin que

ofrecen diversiones a todos los gustos?


1

*As well

as.*

190-191

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 165

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


Dear Friend:
1.

can give you perhaps in a few lines an idea of what


doing.
2.

am

came

to San Sebastin last week,


since.
3.

and I
I like

have been busy amusing myself every moment

San Sebastin immensely.


whole summer here.
sort of diversion that
5.

4.

am
6.

going to

One can

find in

(a) spend the San Sebastin every

one wishes.

It has a splendid casino,

excellent theaters,

the best bull-ring in Spain, good pelota


7.

courts and. a wonderful beach where I go every day.

Do

you know where there


aristocracy
is

is

any gayer place?

8.

All the Spanish

here.

8.

dance in the casino two or three eve-

nings every week, and the other evenings I go to the theater, or

some other way. 10. I have made a few and I am learning that excellent Basque game, la pelota. 11. Can you not come and (a) spend ^ a part of the summer with me? Your affectionate friend,
amuse myself
in (de)

excursions in the mountains,

X.

LESSON XXXIV {LECCIN TREINTA Y CUATRO)


190.

Interrogative Pronouns

and Adjectives {Pronombres

y Adjetivos Interrogativos)
qu, what, which (pronoun and adjective) cul (-es) which (one) what (one) {pronoun and adjective) quin (-es) who, whom {pronoun)
,

cuyo (-a, -OS, -as), whose {adjective) cunto (-a, -os, -as), how much, how many {pronoun and

adjective)

Note. Interrogative
marks
in

pronouns and adjectives regularly take accent both direct and indirect questions.

191.

Qu
Qu Qu

is

invariable.

tiene Vd.?
libros

son stos?
1

What have you? What books are these?


Use
inf.

166
1.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

192-195

Qu may be used
(cf
.

in exclamations in the sense of


is

^how/

^what (a)/
in

In the latter case the indefinite article


53, 2)

omitted

Spanish

and ms or tan may precede a following

adjective.

Qu

gracioso

How
{or tan) tonto!

Qu lstima! Qu hombre ms
2.

What What

funny! a pity! a fool of a man!

Qu

tal,

^how/ asks only regarding the

quality ox condition

of a person or thing, while

cmo
it

inquires especially regarding

way^ means or manner^ though


the same force as qu
tal.

may

sometimes be used with

Qu Qu
Qu
192.

tal? [very
tal

common

greeting)

se viaja en Espaa?

How goes it? How is traveling

in Spain (comfort-

able or otherwise)?
tal (or

cmo) est Vd.?


is

How are you?


is

Cul

not so often used adjectively as

qu.

As a
asked

pronoun cul
for,

is

usually employed before the preposition de or

the verb ser (followed

by a noun).

When

a definition

is

qu

is

used to translate *what.'


Which
of the

Cul de los libros tiene Vd.? Cul es la leccin para hoy?

books do you have?


is

What
day?

(which)
is

the lesson for to-

But: Qu es un fongrafo?
193e

What

a phonograph?

Quin

(-es)

may

be used as subject or object of a

verb or after a preposition.


Quines son sus amigos? Para quin es este recuerdo?
194.

Who
For

are your friends?


is

whom

this souvenir?

Cuyo

is

rarely used.

De

quin commonly replaces

it.

(Cf. 130.)

De quin
195.

(or

cuyo) es este libro?

Whose

is

this

book?
is

Cuan, 'how,' an abbreviated form of cunto,

often

used in exclamations before adjectives or adverbs.

EXERCISES
Cuan dichosas son! Cuan fcilmente aprende!
Note.

167
happy they
easily
lo
. . .

How How
verbs)

are!
I

he learns

Lo

que

(before

and

que sometimes replace

cunto or cuan.
Lo que {or cunto) trabajan! No puedo decirle lo hermosa^ que es

How
I
is!

(much) they work! cannot tell you how beautiful she

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
anterior, adj., anterior, former

ayudar, to aid, help el caballo, the horse; horseback la capa, the cape
clavar, to nail, stick
el color,

on

the pity; dar cause pity lograr, to succeed matar, to kill la pica, the pike, pointed pole proteger, to protect
la lstima,

to

the color
adv.,

retirar (se), to retire,

withdraw,

la cruz, the cross; withers

debajo,
el desfile,
(in

underneath;

leave
rojo, -a, red
el sitio, place, space, situation

de, prep., under

the procession,

march

la tierra, the earth,

ground; a

the

el

columns) echar, to throw, cast espada, the matador hacia, prep., toward
herir
(ie, i),

to the

ground
to

el torero, the bull-fighter

trastear,
el

worry

{excite

hull with a red cloth)

to

wound

tumo, the turn


role

hacer un papel, to take a part, play a

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


Cules son los pronombres y adjetivos interrogativos en espaol? 2. Cul se usa solamente como pronombre?
1.

3.

Cul se usa solamente como adjetivo?


5.

4.

Cul es invaria-

ble? tivos?

Llevan acentos

los

pronombres y adjetivos interroga-

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


pronombres o adjetivos intetiene Vd.? rrogativos correspondientes: L 2. libro de los libros es de Vd.? 4. Sabe Vd. busca Vd.? 3.
Llene Vd.
los espacios

con

los

Adjectives in such expressions are declined.

168
son los mos?
larga es!
ma;^)')
5.

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH

esta gramtica?
9.

7.

es

una gramtica?
es la leccin

De {whom) para maana? 8.


6.

profesor de Vd.? pginas hay? fcilmente aprende Vd.! su nombre de son aquellas trabajadoras son sus hermanas de Vd.! {how) Vd. esta maana? muchachas?
11.

- {how)

tendr que estudiar!


es el

10.

es

es

{how

12.

pila?

13.

14.

15.

16.

est

17.

me

alegro de verle a Vd.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


En
1.

la Plaza de Toros

El Sr. Gordon, Tenemos un buen Miren Vds. Ya sale la cuadrilla.


cuadrilla?

sitio
2.

para ver

la corrida.

Juan,

Qu
Carlos,

es

la

?>,

El

Sr. G.

La

cuadrilla es el desfile de los tore-

ros que sirve de introduccin a la corrida.

hermosa
lla se

5. El y cuntos colores! retira y no se quedan ms que

es

4.

Qu

Sr. G,

Ahora

la cuadri-

toreros para ayudarlos.


7.

los picadores

y algunos

6.

Juan.

Cules son los picadores?

Los que estn a caballo y tienen picas largas. Qu hacen con aquellas picas? 9. El Sr, G. 8. Carlos, Tratan de proteger a sus caballos, pero no lo logran por regla
El Sr, G.

general.

10.

Juan,

Ya

sale el toro.

Oh!

Qu lstima!

ha echado a tierra con el pica11. El Sr, G, Miren Vds. a aquellos toreros que dor debajo. llaman la atencin del toro con sus capas rojas y ayudan al El toro ha matado a otros pobre a levantarse. 12. Carlos, 13. El Sr, G, Ha acabado la parte ms desados caballos. gradable de la corrida. Ahora es el turno de los banderilleros. 14. Juan, Quines son los banderilleros? 15. El Sr. G, 16. CarLos que clavan en la cruz del toro las banderillas.^ los. Esta parte ha sido ms interesante que la anterior, y los 17. / Sr, G. Ahora prinbanderilleros han hecho maravillas.
herido al primer caballo

Ha

lo

Small decorated darts.

oo

O
Pi

H
I-}

t Pi

O
Q

<
<

169

170

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


El primer espada se dirige hacia
trastea.

cipia la ltima parte.

Miren Vds. como


Qu bien
lo

lo

Ahora
el

lo

mata.

el toro.

18.

Juan,

hace! pero

me da

lstima

pobre toro.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
1.

Dnde
3.

tiene lugar

una corrida?
4.

2.

Cmo

principia

una

corrida?

Qu

es la cuadrilla?

Cuntas partes tiene

una corrida de toros? 5. Quines hacen el papel principal en la parte que sigue a la cuadrilla? 6. Qu tienen los picadores para proteger a sus caballos? 7. Logran proteger a sus caballos por regla general? 8. Cules de los toreros hacen el papel principal en la tercera parte de la corrida? 9. Qu tienen que hacer los banderilleros? 10. Qu tal lo hacen generalmente? 11. Quin es el torero que hace el papel principal en la ltima parte de la corrida? 12. Qu hace el espada?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

Which
2.

is

the last Spanish city that Charles and John

visited?

In what part of the year did they arrive at San


3.

Sebastin?

Where

is

this

Basque

city situated?

4.
5.

What
Which

are some of the amusements that one can find there?

you more, a game of pelota or a bull-fight? 6. How do you call the place where pelota is played^ ? 7. Where does a bull-fight take place? 8. How do you call that part which serves as (de) introduction to a bull-fight? 9. Which
would
interest

ones

among the bull-fighters play


10.

the principal role in the second

part of the bull-fight?


third part?
kills

Who

play the principal role in the


is

11.

In which part
13.

the bull killed?

12.

Who

the bull?

How many

bulls are generally killed in a

bull-fight?

{If there is time, the student

may

also

answer these

questions in Spanish,)
1

donde se juega a

la pelota.

196-199

ABSOLUTE SUPERLATIVE

171

LESSON XXXV {LECCIN TREINTA Y CINCO)


ABSOLUTE SUPERLATIVE {SUPERLATIVO ABSOLUTO)
196.

An

absolute superlative

is

that form of an adjective or

adverb which indicates a high degree of the quality expressed without comparison wth any lesser degree. With adjectives it
is

formed by placing before them some intensifying adverb (muy, Wery/ sumamente, 'extremely,' etc.) or by adding to them the suffix (sufijo) -simo, -a, which is joined directly to a
consonant and takes the place of a
final

vowel or diphthong.
adjective
fro,

An accent mark on the positive form of the


fro, cold

is

dropped.

muy (sumamente)

very (extremely) cold

corto, short
fcil,

easy

cortsimo, very short facilsimo, very easy

197.

Before -simo the regular orthographic changes take


c,

place;

g and z becoming respectively qu, gu and c, and stressed ue and ie returning to their original Latin vowels o

and

e.
rico, rich

largo, long
feliz,

riqusimo, very rich largusimo, very long


felicsimo, very happy bonsimo, very good certsimo, very certain

happy

bueno, good
cierto, certain

198.

The ending -ble

reverts to the Latin -bil,

and some

adjectives revert to the original Latin for the entire form.


amable, kind
fiel,

amabilsimo, very kind


fidelsimo, very faithful

faithful

few adjectives in -ro, -re, derived from Latin adjectives in -er, follow the Latin original and form the absolute
199.
'

superlative in -rrimo.
msero, wretched
clebre, famous

misrrimo, very wretched celebrrimo, very famous

172
200.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

200-202

With adverbs the absolute superlative is formed same way as with adjectives, or by placing the neuter
lo

in the
article

before the relative superlative form of the adverb followed


possibility (posibilidad).

by some word expressing


bien, well pronto, soon
lo

muy

bien, very well prontsimo, very soon

ms claramente
is

posible, as clearly as possible

added to the absolute superlative of an adjective, the accent mark on -isima is retained.
201.
facilsimo, very easy

When -mente

facilisimamente, most easily

Cardinales), In countfrom one hundred (ciento) hundreds to one thousand ing by (mil),^ all forms are regular (dos cientos, tres cientos, etc.)

202.

Cardinal

Numbers {Nmeros

except three:
quinientos, five hundred setecientos, seven hundred novecientos, nine hundred
1.

Above a thousand, counting


is

is

done in thousands and


in English.

hundreds, not in hundreds as

so

common

1920= mil novecientos veinte

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
la acera, the sidewalk
la declaracin, the declaration la devocin, the

amable, adj., kind, charming ancho, -a, wide, broad el aniversario, the anniversary el aspecto, the aspect, appearance la avenida, the avenue
la baha, the

devotion

divertido, -a,
el

amusing

ecuador, the equator

la elegancia, the elegance la gente, the


lar verb)

people {takes singu-

bay

bello, -a, beautiful

clebre, adj., celebrated, famous cualquier (a), pi. cualesquier(a),

hermosear, to beautify imaginar, to imagine


la iniciacin, the initiation
el

any (whatsoever)
1

mosaico, the mosaic


article.

Observe that ciento and mil are never preceded by the indefinite


EXERCISES
el

173
the port, harbor

ocano, the ocean


portugus,
adj.,

el puerto,

la parada, the stop, stay

la repblica, the republic

Portuguese

someter (se), to submit

a bordo, on board; darse a entender, to make oneself understood

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.
2.

Cmo

se

forma

el

superlativo absoluto de

un adjetivo?

Pierde

el el

acento escrito la forma positiva del adjetivo?

3.

al
i.

cambio ortogrfico que se hace cuando c precede cuando g precede? cuando z precede? sufijo -simo? En qu se cambia la terminacin -ble? 5. Dgame Vd. un
Cul es
6.
7.

ejemplo.
clebre?

Cul es

el

superlativo absoluto de fiel?

de

adverbio?

Cmo se forma el superlativo absoluto de im 9. Cules son los 8. Dgame Vd. un ejemplo.

nmeros cardinales de ciento en ciento hasta mil?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


I.

Ponga Vd. en

la

forma del superlativo absoluto:


fiel;

bello;

clebre; amable; rico; fro; fcil; largo; cierto; bueno;


II.

corto.

Cuente Vd.: de diez en diez hasta ciento; de ciento en

ciento hasta mil.


III.

Dgame Vd. en espaol

los

nmeros

siguientes:

125;

743; 815; 965; 502; 1492; 1776; 1789; 1812; 1914.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Rio de Janeiro, 15 de noviembre de 19
Queridos Padres:

Ayer llegamos a esta celebrrima ciudad, despus de un viaje sumamente largo. 2. Partimos de San Sebastin hace ms de dos meses. 3. Fuimos a Inglaterra para tomar el vapor que nos trajo aqu, haciendo paradas cortas en Pars
1.

y en Londres.

4.

El viaje por

el

ocano Atlntico fu

muy

174

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

agradable y la gente a bordo del vapor, amabilsima. 5. Al atravesar el ecuador, nosotros que lo hacamos por primera

vez fuimos obligados a someternos a una iniciacin en


de Neptuno
la

el

reino

impresin

hermossima
8.

muy divertida. 6. No puedo dar ima idea de que me hicieron la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro y su baha. 7. No hay puerto ms bello en el mundo.
la

Se han gastado millones para hermosear


9.

puerto.

ciudad y su Las anchas avenidas con sus aceras de mosaico y

las bonitas calles

con sus largas hileras de palmeras dan cierto


difcil

aspecto de elegancia
edificios

de imaginarse.
los

10.

La ciudad

tiene

que pueden compararse con


11.

de cualquiera ciudad
la declaracin

americana.

Hoy
el

es el aniversario

de

de

la

repblica del Brasil^

la

ciudad est animadsima.

12.

La

lengua del pas es


el

portugus, pero nos

damos a entender con


devocin,

espaol que se parece^ muchsimo al portugus.

Con toda mi

Juan.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Desde dnde escribi Juan esta carta? 2. Cundo partieron Juan y sus amigos de San Sebastin? 3. En qu ciudades hicieron paradas cortas? 4. Qu tal era el viaje por el ocano Atlntico, y la gente a bordo del vapor? 5. A qu estn obli1.

gados a someterse
primera vez?
6.

las

personas que atraviesan

el

ecuador por
la

Qu impresin hicieron en Juan

ciudad de

Rio de Janeiro y su hermossima baha? 7. Hay puertos ms bellos que ste? 8. Qu se ha hecho para hermosear la ciudad y su puerto? 9. Qu cosas dan cierto aspecto de elegancia 10. Tiene hermosos edificios Rio de Janeiro? a la ciudad? 11. Cul es el aniversario de la declaracin de la repbHca del
Brasil?
12.
el

Cul

es la

lengua del pas?

13.

Se parece al

espaol

portugus?
1

Brazil takes the definite article in Spanish* parecerse (a) = 'to resemble/

to

M
M-H

O
t

c/2

o M
PA

175

176

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

203

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


Rio de Janeiro is the second city of South America. 2. Its bay is most beautiful and its harbor is one of the best in the world. 3. Millions have been spent to beautify this most cele1.

brated port.

4.

The
5.

city has

few

cities

have.

Its

an appearance of elegance which avenues are very long and very broad,
6.

with sidewalks of mosaic.

Some

of its streets

have rows of

palm-trees and beautiful residences on either (a cada) side.

handsome. 8. Rio de 9. Brazil Janeiro was founded by the Portuguese in 1556. proclaimed^ itself a republic the 15th of November, 1889. 10. The Brazilians (brasileos) are most charming people.
7.

Its public^ buildings are extremely

11.

Their language
if

is

the Portuguese, which one learns very


well.

easily,

one knows Spanish

LESSON XXXVI {LECCIN TREINTA Y SEIS)


203.
Indefinite

Pronouns and Adjectives {Pronombres


y Adjetivos Indefinidos)

Vn ^^

/
'

^^^^ ^^^' somebody, any one, anybody

alguno (-a, -os, -as), some, any, a few alguna .i^icosa, 1 vv/o., s ^ somethmg, o oj anythmg
algo,
J

nadie, no one, nobody ninguno (-a, -os, -as), none, no ninguna cosa, 1 cosa alguna, \ nothing

nada,
'

J
.

mucho
poco todo

(-a, -os, -as),

uno (-a, -os, -as), one, some unos (-as) cuantos (-as), a few unos (-as) pocos (-as), a few cada {invar, adj.), each, every cada uno (-a), each one

(-a,

much, many -os, -as), httle, few

(-a, -os, -as), all, every; {n.)

everything

mismo

(-a, -os, -as),

same,

self

ambos

(-as)

,i

otro (-a, -os, -as), another, other tanto (-a, -os, -as), as (so) much

los (las) dos, /

(many)
cierto (-a, -os, -as), a certain (one),
certain (ones)
tal,

cualquiera (cualesquiera), any (one)


at all, whatever quienquiera (quienesquiera), who-

such, such a (one)

ever
1

lo, los (las)

dems, the

rest,

others

pblicos.

se proclam.

204-210

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES


(or ^any')

177

204.

^Some'

when unemphatic

is

not expressed in

Spanish.

(Cf. 74, 2.)

Tiene Vd. papel?

Have you some

{or

any) paper?

205.

Uno

is

often used as impersonal subject (sujeto imper-

sonal) of a verb, taking the place of the reflexive se.


note.)

(Cf 147,
.

Uno

{or

se)

tiene que

estudiar

One must study

in order to learn

para aprender

206.

Cualquiera (cualesquiera)

when used

adjectively before

a noun

may

be written with or without the

final -a.

cualquier {or cualquiera) sujeto, whatever subject cualesquier {or cualesquiera) sujetos, whatever subjects

207.
is

^A few' algunos, unos cuantos or unos pocos; never pocos, which ^A


little'

(indicating quantity)

is

un poco

de.

means

^few.'
Please give
I

Srvase darme un poco de carne Tengo algunos (unos cuantos or

me

a Httle meat

have a few books

unos pocos) libros


208.

The

indefinite article

is

not used with otro, cierto or

tal.

Venga Vd. otro da Cierto hombre lo predijo Nunca pasamos tal da

Come

another day

A certain man foretold it We never spent such a day

209. Varios, diferentes, diversos are often used as indefinites


in the sense of ^various,' ^several,' ^divers,' before plural noims.^
Varias (diferentes, diversas) personas lo han dicho
Various persons have said so

210.

Definite

Article

{Articulo

Definido).

The

definite

article is often
is

omitted before nouns used in apposition, as


(Cf. 53, 3.)

the indefinite article.

Montevideo, capital del Uruguay


After nouns they have a

Montevideo, (the) capital of Uru-

guay
J

more

literal

meaning.

178
211.

rmsT COURSE
The

in Spanish

211-212

definite article is required before the

names

of cer-

tain countries, such as:


el Brasil, Brazil
el

el
el

el

Canad, Canada Japn, Japan


etc.

el

Peru, Peru Paraguay, Paraguay Uruguay, Uruguay

and before
la

all

countries

when

qualified
los

by

adjectives:

Espaa meridional, southern


Spain

Estados Unidos, the United

States
is

Note.
212.

La Repblica Argentina
The
such as:
el

often called la Argentina.

definite article is also required before the

names

of

a few
la

cities,

Habana, Havana

Havre, Havre

el Cairo, Cairo, etc.

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
acoger, to welcome
la anchura, the
el

width balneario, the bathing resort


try)

la capital, the capital (of a counla cra, the breeding, raising

gobierno, the government the inhabitant la industria, the industry la milla, the mile notable, adj., notable, noteel

el habitante,

worthy
take
la peninsula, the peninsula

cuidar (de), to care


care of
datar, to date
la

for,

predilecto, -a, favorite


el presidente, the president
(of

desembocadura, the mouth


a river)

la realidad, the reality

recto, -a, straight

la

el

dominacin, the domination extender(se) (ie), to extend ganado, the cattle

rodear, to surround
la ventaja, the

advantage

en frente de,

in front of

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


Cmo Hhey/ etc.?
1.

se
2.

puede expresar el sujeto impersonal ^one/ Cmo se puede escribir cualquiera (cuales-

quiera) delante de

un substantivo?

3.

Cmo

se dice 'a little'?

EXERCISES
4.

179

Dgame Vd. algunos nombres de pases que se usan con el 5. Dgame Vd. algunos nombres de ciudaartculo definido.
des que se usan con
el

artculo definido.

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: 1. Some one is coming. 2. No one knows who. 3. A few friends will welcome him. 4. I have something for you. 5. Have you nothing for me? 6. Here are a few things for you too. 7. Both men are friends of mine.
8.

Few

persons are friends of that man.


10.

not be president.
11.

No

Such a man cangovernment would receive him.


9.

Each one has a

different idea of him.

12.

Various persons
of his
15. All

have expressed

their ideas to
14,

me.

13.

These are a few

favorite diversions.

He
is

likes

the streets of the capital of


16.

any diversion [at all]. Uruguay are broad and

straight.

The

raising of cattle
17. Brazil

another important industry of this


beautiful cities, but none can
18.

country.

has

many
19.

be compared with Rio de Janeiro.


beautiful

Peru has no port so


of

as

this

one.
20.

The

inhabitants

Brazil

all

speak Portuguese.

Before returning I should like to visit

Havana.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Montevideo es la capital del Uruguay, repblica la ms pequea de todas las sudamericanas. 2. La ciudad est situada sobre una pennsula que se extiende en el Ro de la Plata, formando un hermoso puerto. 3. Este ro es en realidad la desembocadura de los ros Paran y Uruguay, ambos muy grandes, y tiene en frente de Montevideo una anchura de cien millas.
1.

4.

La ciudad misma es muy bonita y muy limpia, con calles anchas y rectas y hermosas plazas. 5. La Plaza de la Constitucin est rodeada de varios edificios notables, entre los cuales
est la catedral

que data de

la

dominacin espaola.

6.

En

la

180

EXERCISES
Plaza de
la

181

Independencia estn

el

Palacio de Gobierno, la resiel

dencia del Presidente de la Repblica,

Museo Nacional y
de
la

el

magnfico Teatro
halla el

Sols.

7.

En

los alrededores

ciudad se
de

balneario predilecto de

muchos de
8.

los habitantes

Buenos

Aires, quienes llenan sus hoteles durante los

meses de

verano, que es nuestro invierno.

El clima del Uruguay es

muy
gen

agradable todo
10.

de ganado.

Su principal industria es la cra Los uruguayos son gente muy amable y acoel

ao.

9.

muy

bien a los norteamericanos.


el

11.

Con excepcin de

la

Argentina,

Uruguay

tiene las mejores escuelas de cualquier

pas sudamericano.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
1.

Cul es
2.

la

ms pequea de todas
3.
el

las repblicas

sudamerisituada?
5.

canas?
4.

Cul es su capital?

Dnde
la

est

Cules son los ros que forman


6.

Ro de

Plata?

Son

grandes los dos?


7.

Es limpia

la

ciudad de Montevideo?

son sus calles y sus plazas? 8. Puede Vd. nombrar algn edificio de la Plaza de la Constitucin? 9. Es un edificio

Cmo

nuevo la catedral? 10. Cules son algunos de los edificios que rodean la Plaza de la Independencia? 11. Qu es un balneario? 12. Quines van a Montevideo para veranear? 13. Cules son los meses del verano en el Uruguay? 14. Qu tal es el clima del Uruguay? 15. Cul es la principal industria del pas? 16. Son buenas las escuelas uruguayas?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

Whoever

visits

Montevideo
is

for [the] first time is surprised

to (de) see so

many

conveniences and so

much

elegance.
3.

2.

No
are

South American city


larger

cleaner than this one.

Some

and

streets are

richer, but none is better cared for. 4. All [of] its broad and straight. 5. Each of its squares is a beau-

182
tiful
its

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


garden, surrounded

213-216

by noteworthy

buildings.

6.

few of

buildings date from the time of the Spanish domination,


its

such as

old cathedral, for example.

7.

Its magnificent Solis


city.

Theater can be compared with the best theaters of any


8.

Montevideo has one of the favorite bathing resorts of South America, and many of the inhabitants of^ Argentina summer there. 9. The climate of Uruguay is most (de lo ms) agreeable. 10. Its industries are numerous, and every day some new one is foimded. 11. There are few countries where North Americans can spend their money with more advantage than
there.

LESSON XXXVII {LECCIN TREINTA Y SIETE)


THE PREPOSITIONS PARA AND POR
PREPOSICIONES PARA Y POR)
213.
^By,' Hhrough,'
'in,^ /at'
el car-

{LAS

may
ter

be translated by por.
built

La casa fu constniida por


pintero

The house was

by

the carpen-

Nos pasebamos por


Por
214.
la

los

parques

We

used to walk through the parks

maana,
'

in the

morning

Por

la noche, at night

^By

is

translated

by de when the action


He
is

is

not physical.

Es muy querido de sus amigos


215.
216.

much

loved by his friends

^For'

may

be translated by either por or para.


of,'

^For' meaning ^because


for,' 'as,'

'for the

sake

of,'

'in ex-

change

'during the time

of,' is

por.
it

No

lo hizo

por miedo de ofender-

He

did not do
it

for fear of offending

las

them
I did for

Lo hice por mi madre Lo compramos por mil duros Me tomaron por espaol Voy a Espaa por el verano

my
it

We
I

bought

for a

mother thousand

dollars

They took me

for a Spaniard

am

going to Spain for the

summer

217-220

PARA AND POR


'intended for/

183
'bound for/ 'suitable
is

217.

^For' meaning

for/ 'compared with

what one might expect of/


I gave

para.
for
(i.e.,

Le

di dinero

para pan

him money

to get)

Han

salido para
la

Madrid

sta es

cuchara para sopa

bread They have left for Madrid This is the spoon for soup (soup-

Lo habla bastante bien para un


ingls

He

spoon) speaks

it

rather well for an Eng-

Hshman
'To' meaning 'in order to' before an infinitive
para vivir
is

218.

para.

Comemos

We

eat to Hve

219. After estar, para before an infinitive denotes action

about to take place.


El hombre est para salir El libro est para terminar

The man The book

is

is

about to go out about to be finished

220. After estar, por before an infinitive denotes inclination


if

the subject

is

personal, otherwise action yet to take place.

El hombre est por salir El libro est por terminar

The man is disposed to go out The book is yet to be finished

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
la actividad, th^ activity
el

enjambre, the swarm


espacioso, -a, spacious

la

aduana, the custom-house asombroso, -a, astonishing, wonderful


atracar, to

la extensin, the distance


el

come

alongside, be

extremo, the end imponente adj imposing


,

moored
el

inferior, adj.,

automvil, the automobile


bajar, to go (come)

las
el

lower mercancas, the

merchan-

down

dise

la
el

bandera, the flag buque, the boat, vessel cargar, to load, charge

muelle, the wharf, quay

el orgullo, the pride

la cptda, the

dome

parar (se), to stop el peridico, the newspaper


surgir, to rise,

descargar, to unload

loom up

de repente, suddenly; en medio de,

in the midst of

184

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cules son las preposiciones que se usan en espaol para


2.

traducir la preposicin inglesa ^for'?

Cul de

las

dos se

usa delante de un infinitivo en


3.

el

sentido^ de ^in order to


4.

Qu

significa estar

para delante de un infinitivo?

Qu

significa estar por delante

de un

infinitivo

cuando

el

sujeto es

personal? cuando

el

sujeto

no

es personal?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Llene Vd. los espacios con las preposiciones correspondientes:

Cunto ha dado Ha pagado Vd. tanto la 6. Es demasiado. miedo de regatear con el dependiente? 7. Le habr tomado su hermano? un americano rico. 8. Qu ha comprado Vd. l. 10. Es verdad que l 9. He comprado este libro espaol un norteamericano. lee el espaol y lo habla muy bien mi hermano que he venido a Espaa. 12. 11. Es la
4.

He comprado maleta? Vd.


all

L Maana

maana partir Madrid. 2. algunos das. 3. Tomar un automvil


la

estas cosas

Me

quedar
hotel.

ir al

el viaje.

5.

prxima vez preparen Vds.

la leccin treinta

siete.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


El seor Gordon y los dos jvenes se quedaron por algunos das en Montevideo. 2. Despus tomaron el vapor para Biie1.

nos Aires.

3.

Al entrar en

el

puerto, la ciudad surgi de re-

pente delante de sus ojos.

4.

El vapor atrac a un muelle


5.

Por una extensin de cinco millas im enjambre de buques, llevando banderas de todos los pases del mundo, cargaban y descargaban mer-

en medio de ima actividad asombrosa.

Los viajeros pasaron por la Aduana y tomaron im automvil para ir al Hotel Plaza, uno de los mejores hoteles sudamericanos. 7. El da siguiente, muy temprano por la
cancas.
6.

o H
<

o W P< O o

185

186

'

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


salieron para ver algunos de los lugares interesantes de
8.

maana,
la
tolio),

ciudad.

Fueron primero al Palacio del Congreso (o Capihermoso edificio espacioso con alta cpula. 9. De all

bajaron por la famosa Avenida de Mayo, orgullo de todos los


bonaerenses,^

se

pararon para visitar


inferior

la Prensa, el

mejor peri-

dico escrito en lengua espaola


10. 11.

y que ocupa un
avenida est

edificio magnfico. la

En

el

extremo

de

la

Plaza de Mayo.
dos edificios

Antes de volver

al hotel, los viajeros visitaron la

importantes que se hallan en aquella plaza,

Casa Rosada,

residencia del presidente de la Repblica Argentina,

la

im-

ponente catedral.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

Por cunto tiempo se quedaron


2.

los viajeros

en Monte3.

video?

Qu tomaron para
el

ir

a Buenos Aires?
4.

Cundo
5.

surgi la ciudad delante de sus ojos?

Hallaron los viajeros

mucha
ba

actividad en

muelle donde atrac su vapor?

Ha-

muchos buques en el puerto? 6. Qu hicieron los viajeros al llegar a Buenos Aires? 7. A qu hotel fueron? 8. Es un buen hotel? 9. Qu hicieron el da siguiente? 10. A dnde fueron primero? 11. Qu avenida bajaron desde all? 13. Dnde est la Plaza de Mayo? 12. Dnde se pararon? 14. Qu edificios interesantes se hallan en aquella plaza?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

We

remained for a few days

in

Montevideo, capital of

Uruguay. 2. Then we left in the steamer for Buenos Aires. 4. We had the 3. The Rio de la Plata is very wide for a river. impression of being again on the ocean. 5. Upon entering the harbor of Buenos Aires, we were surprised to (de) see so much activity. 6. For a distance of several miles there were vessels

moored at the wharves, loading and unloading merchandise.


1
*

Inhabitants of Buenos Aires.'

221-223

THE INFINITIVE

187

7.

We

passed through the custom-house and took an automoour hotel.


8.

bile for

For fear

of not being believed, I shall not

try to give
largest

you any idea


is

of this

wonderful

city.

9.

It is the
is

city in the world in

which the Spanish language

spoken, and

the fourth city of the

New

World.

10. It is

very rich
buildings.
of its

city,

with beautiful streets and squares and imposing


almost as famous as Paris for the elegance

11. It is

women.

LESSON XXXVIII {LECCIN TREINTA Y OCHO)


THE INFINITIVE
221.
infinitive

{EL INFINITIVO)

Certain verbs take no preposition before a following

such

as deber, desear, gustar, hacer, poder, quelist,

rer, saber, etc.

For a more complete


I

see 297.
^

"Debo salir Quiere Vd. acompaarme?


Note.

must go out
wish to accompany me?

Do you
it

When deber
estar

is

followed by de,

generally indicates probability

or presumption.

Debe de
222.
finitive.

muy

ocupado

He must

(probably) be very busy

Some verbs take

a preposition before a following in-

These prepositions are usually de (as with alegrarse, olvidar (se) tratar, etc.) and a (as with ayudar, ir, principiar, For reference lists of verbs taking these and other etc.).

prepositions, see 298-309.

Me alegro de verle Trate Vd. de hacerlo Voy a decrselo El teln principia a levantarse
223.

I
I

am am

glad to see you

Try

to

do

it

The

going to tell him so curtain is beginning to rise

Learn the following idiomatic expressions:


a,

acabar de,
volver

Ho have just' Acabo de llegar, I have just arrived again' Ho Volvi a hablar, He spoke again
. .

188
pensar en, to think
'
'

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH


of
'

224r-227

contar con, 'to count on' soar con, to dream of


'

Pienso en escribir, I am thinking of writing Cuento con verle, I count on seeing him Soaban con viajar. They dreamed of travehng

224.

direct infinitive follov^ing hacer,

Ho make/

cause/
is

'have/ mandar,

Ho

order,' ^have,'

and

cerj:ain

other verbs

often translated in

EngUsh by a past
I I

participle.
it

Se

lo hice

saber

made

known

to

him

Mand
225.

concluir el trabajo

ordered (had) the work finished


infinitive,

The

preposition a

is

sometimes used before an

especially before ver, v^ith the idea of 4et us,' 4et me.'

ver

el

peridico

Let us (me) see the paper

226.
Callar!

The
Be

infinitive

may

be used with an imperative idea.


Dirigirse adentro, Apply within

quiet!

227.

The

infinitive is often

used as a verbal noun, preceded

generally
El viajar

by the
gusta

definite article.
I like

me

travehng

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
adems, alemn,
el
adv.,
adj.,

moreover

la fimcin, the

performance

German
la

igual, adj., equal, similar


la localidad, the place

animcio, the advertisement asistir (a), to attend, be present at the orchestra chair, la butaca, arm-chair
cantar, to sing
el

msica, the music


ture,

la obra,

the work (of music, etc.)

art,

litera-

or, irr. v., to

la Opera, the
el palco,

hear opera

cinematgrafo, the moving-pic-

la
el

el

show (called familiarly cine, '^ movies") comedia, the comedy, play compositor, the composer drama, the drama
ture

el sainete, el

el

la

la entrada,

the entrance, admis-

la la

sion

the box the farce submarino, the submarine (boat) teln, the curtain (of a theater) tragedia, the tragedy vctima, the victim zarzuela, the musical comedy, operetta

el teatro

de variedades, the vaudeville theater

EXERCISES

189

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


Dgame Vd. algunos verbos que no toman preposicin delante del infinitivo que los sigue. 2. Qu significa deber cuando est seguido por la preposicin de? 3. Dgame Vd. algunos verbos que toman la preposicin de delante del infinitivo que los sigue; la preposicin a, 4. Forme Vd. una frase
1.

con

la expresin
5.

acabar de; volver a; pensar en; contar con;


se traduce el infinitivo

soar con.

Cmo

que sigue directa-

mente al verbo hacer? 6. Qu significa a ver? 7. Dgame Vd. un ejemplo del infinitivo usado con una idea imperativa. 8. Dgame Vd. un ejemplo del infinitivo usado como substantivo
verbal.

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
4.

espaol:
3.

1.

must go
5.

out.

2.

Do you

wish

to go to the theater?

I shall

be glad to accompany you.

The performance is going to begin. 6. You can hear the music now. 7. The curtain is beginning to rise. 8. The comedy has just begun. 9. Be quiet! I am trying to hear what they say. 10. What are you
Help
to find a good place.

me

was thinking of the last performance. 12. They are presenting again the same comedy. 13. Can you understand the words? 14. I was counting on you. 15. I ordered the work translated. 16. Do you like traveling? 17. Let's see the newspapers. 18. I wish to buy a house. 19. Apply within.
dreaming of?
11.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Qu vamos a hacer ahora?


ir al

dijo el seor

jvenes, la segunda noche de su estancia en


2.

Quieren ustedes

teatro?

3.

Gordon a los Buenos Aires. Qu teatros hay aqu?

190
pregunt Carlos.

PIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

4.

Hay

de todos
5.

los

gneros/ como en cual-

quiera ciudad espaola.

Hay

cinematgrafos, teatros de

variedades y teatros en que se representan sanetes, comedias, 6. Ni el ^cine' ni el tragedias, dramas, zarzuelas y peras.

teatro de variedades

me

gusan,^ dijo Ca/rlos; son iguales en

todos los pases del mundo.

7.

Si les gusta la msica, podra-

mos
10.

asistir

a alguna pera.
9.

8.

Tiene Vd.

el

peridico de esta

noche, Juan?

ver lo que se da en los diferentes teatros.

esta noche, seor.

Aqu estn

los

anuncios de las funciones que se van a dar


11.

En el Teatro

de Coln se canta

la

pera

Goyescas de Enrique Granados, aquel gran compositor espaol que


fu

una de

las

vctimas d los submarinos alemanes.

12.

Me

mucho de or aquella obra hermosa, dijo Juan. 13. Adems tendramos la ocasin de ver el mejor teatro americano y el ms grande, aadi el seor Gordon. 14. Cunto cuesta la entrada? pregunt Carlos. 15. La localidad ms barata es de cuatro pesos y la ms cara, de ochenta pesos. 16. A m me gustara ms tener una butaca que un asiento de palco, dijo Carlos. Vamos en seguida al teatro, 17. Bueno.
alegrara

porque

el

teln se levantar

muy

pronto.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

Qu

les

pregunt a

los jvenes el seor

noche de su estancia en Buenos Aires? teatros hay en Buenos Aires? 3. Cul de estos gneros le gusta ms a Vd.? 4. Cules no gustaban a Carlos? 5. Por

Gordon la segunda 2. Qu gneros de

qu no le gustaban? 6. Para qu pidi el peridico el seor Gordon? 7. Cul es el peridico ms conocido de Buenos Aires? 8. Qu pera se cantaba aquella noche en el Teatro de Coln? 9. Cmo perdi la vida el famoso compositor Granados? 10. Dgame Vd. algo del Teatro de Coln. 11. Son
1 2

Gnero means 'kind' The verb is regularly

as well as 'gender.' in the plural after ni

ni.

191

192

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


12.

228

baratas las localidades en aquel teatro?

Es cara

la

vida

en Buenos Aires?

13.

Cul

le

gusta a Vd. ms, una butaca o

im

asiento de palco en

un teatro?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)

What do you wish to do to-night? 2. Let us go theater. 3. What kind of performances can one attend
1.

to the
in this

city?
5.

4.

Let us see the advertisements in the newspaper.

There are

many

moving-picture shows, but I do not like


6.

them very much.


prefer
[to]

Do you

like vaudeville theaters?


8.

7.

have just read an excellent comedy by Benavente. 9. I should like to see it, but I do not know when they will present it again. 10. Help me to find something good. 11. I think that you would like to see this musical comedy. 12. Yes, indeed, I knew that I could count on you. 13. Here is the theater: let us go in. 14. The curtain has just risen. 15. They are going to begin. 16. We have
see a

good comedy.

arrived in (a) time.


18.

17.

These orchestra chairs are


19.

excellent.

We

are in the fifth row.

Do you

like

the music?

20.

[Very]

erally it is

much, but I cannot understand the words. 21. Genvery hard to understand the words of an operetta.

LESSON XXXIX {LECCIN TREINTA Y NUEVE)


The Subjunctive
in

Dependent Clauses

{El Subjuntivo

en Clusulas Dependientes)
228.

Though the subjunctive may be used independently,


dependent clauses, which
{a)
is

its

chief usage is in

may

be divided

into three classes:

substantive clauses {those in which the


of the

dependent clause
(b)
(c)

either subject or object

main

verb)]

adjective clauses

{those

introduced by relative pronouns);

adverbial clauses {those introduced by conjunctions).

229-231

SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES

193

The Subjunctive

in Substantive Clauses {El Subjuntivo

en Clusulas Substantivas)
229.

The

subjunctive, usually introduced

by que, may serve

as logical subject or object of verbs expressing:


1.

Doubt [duda] (including

denial, also belief

when doubt

is

imphed by

interrogation, negation or condition).


I

Dudo que estudien


Es posible que hayan hablado
as?

doubt that they are studying

No

creo que vengan

it possible that they should have spoken thus? I do not think (that) they will come

Is

2.

Will [voluntad] (including desire, command, requirement,

permission, approval and the like, with their opposites).

Desean que Yd. los acompae Yo les dir que hablen ms alto

I shall I

They wish you to accompany them tell them to speak louder


do not hke to have you write to

No me
3.

gusta que Vd. le escriba

him

Emotion [emocin] (including


etc.).
I

joy,

sorrow,

fear,

anger,

shame,

am glad (that) you have come am very sorry that he is ill Note. The verb esperar, Ho hope/ may govern the indicative. Espero que Vd. me escribir {or I hope that you will write to me
I

Me alegro que Vd. haya venido Siento mucho que est enfermo

me

escriba)
If

230.
of the

the subject of the dependent verb


infinitive is

is

the same as that

main verb, an
ir al

used instead of the subjunctive.


I wash to

Yo deseo
231.

teatro

go to the theater
los Tiempos).

Sequence

of

Tenses {Correspondencia de

A present or a future tense


Yo deseo
tudie Yo siento

in the principal clause is followed

by

a present or a perfect^ subjunctive in the dependent clause.


(desear) que Vd. esI wish (shall wish)
I

you

to study

mucho que Vd. no haya


compound

am

very sorry that you have not

estudiado
1

studied
tense of the subjunctive,

The

first

composed

of the present

subjunc-

tive of

haber 4-a past

participle.

194

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
acordarse (ue) de, to remember admirable, adj., admirable asegurar, to assure, secure
la carrera, the career
la causa, the cause

morir (ue, u), to die; pp.j muerto nacer, to be born


la obscuridad, the obscurity
la operacin, the operation

posible, f^j., possible

cruzar, to cross

la
el

la la

derrotar, to defeat, rout dudar, to doubt educacin, the education ejrcito, the army imposible, adj., impossible ingratitud, the ingratitude libertad, the liberty
militar, adj., military

proclamar, to proclaim el pueblo, the town, village, nation, people el servicio, the service el soldado, the soldier
sufrir, to suffer

la tropa, the troop

la victoria, the victory

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cul es

el

uso

ms comn

del subjimtivo, en clusulas


2.

dependientes o en clusulas independientes?

Cuando

el

verbo de

la clusula principal
el

expresa duda, voluntad o emo-

cin cul es
3.

modo que

se usa en la clusula dependiente?


4.

Cmo

se

llaman aquellas clusulas dependientes?

Si el

sujeto del verbo dependiente es el

mismo que
5.

el

del verbo prinel

cipal se usa el subjuntivo o el infinitivo?

Cul es

tiempo
en

del subjuntivo

que

se usa despus del presente o del futuro

la clusula principal?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
study.
3.

espaol:

1.

wish to study.
4.

2.

I wish

you to

He

wishes us to study.
5.

He

doubts that we are

learning much.

We
6.

are glad that they are learning some-

thing every day.


Spanish.
7.

am

sorry that they are forgetting their

do not believe that you study enough. 8. We hope that you will study more. 9. Do you think that one ought to study so much? 10. It is impossible for one to learn a 11. I doubt that they will ever language without studying.
I

learn

Spanish.

12. Is

it

possible that he speaks

Spanish?

EXERCISES
13. I

195

shall tell

them
14.

to write

their translation exercises in

They do not like to write the exercises. 15. It is necessary that wx speak and that we write a little in Spanish every day. 16. The teacher tells us to learn ^ something
their note-books.

about the

life

of

San Martin to-day.

17. It is

a pity that in
life

the United States

we

are so

little

acquainted [with] the

of

that great hero.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


San Martn
1.

Un

da Carlos dijo a su padre:

algo acerca del

Juan y yo queremos saber general^ San Martn. 2. Me alegro que se in-

teresen por aquel gran hroe sudamericano, contest

el

seor

Es una lstima que no se conozca mejor en los Estados Unidos la vida de San Martn, uno de los caracteres ms admirables de la historia. 4. Juan Jos San Martn naci en Yapey, pueblo pequeo de la Argentina, en 1778. 5. Recibi en Espaa una educacin militar y principi all su ca6. Luego volvi a la Argentina, donde se rrera de soldado. puso a la cabeza del ejrcito de la libertad. 7. Cruz los Andes 8. Parece imposible que con la mayor parte de sus tropas. haya^ podido atravesar montaas tan altas con im ejrcito, 9. Es verdad, contest su padre, pero no soladijo Carlos. mente lo hizo, sino que derrot a los espaoles en Chacabuco, en 1817, y asegur la libertad de Chile por la victoria de Maipo
Gordon.
3.

Continu sus operaciones militares y proclam la independencia del Per en 1821. 11. El general San Martn, a
en 1818.
10.

pesar de sus grandes servicios en favor de la causa de la liber-

tad sudamericana, sufri en


12.
la

la

ingratitud de los hombres


(Francia)
se

y muri
1850.

obscuridad

en

Boulogne-sur-mer

en

Yo
1

espero, sin embargo,

que ustedes

acordarn siempre

de este hroe.
2

Either de with infinitive or que with subjunctive. (Cf. 230, note). 3 Same word in English. p^^s. subj. of haber. (Cf.

232

(4).)

196

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
1.

Qu

dijo Carlos a su padre?

2.

Cmo

le

contest ste?

Es verdad que se conoce muy poco en los Estados Unidos la vida de San Martn? 4. Es una lstima que no se conozca mejor? Por qu? 5. Cuntos de uste^des pueden decirme
3.

algo acerca de la vida del hroe argentino?

cundo naci
8.

San

Dnde

recibi

Dnde y Dnde y cundo muri? su educacin militar? 9. Qu hizo por la


6.

Martn?

7.

causa de la libertad sudamericana?


cruzar los Andes con un ejrcito?
ferrocarriles entonces?
12.
*

Haba Cundo proclam San Martn la


qu?
11.

Por

10.

Era

difcil

entonces

independencia del Per?

13.

Se acordarn ustedes de

la

vida

de San Martn?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

It is possible that

you

are not acquainted with the

life

of

San Martin. 2. I doubt that your teachers have (hayan) spoken to you about him. 3. It is a pity that the history of South America is taught so little in the schools of the United

you have not read the life of the great Argentine hero, who can well be compared with Washington. 5. Do you wish me to narrate to you his life? 6. He was born in Argentina in 1778. 7. When he was quite yoimg, he went to Spain to receive a military education, but returned to Buenos Aires in 1812 to offer his services to. the cause of South American liberty. 8. At the head of the Argentine army he crossed the Alps and defeated the Spaniards in Chile and in Peru. 9. Thus ended Spanish domination in the southern part (la parte del sur) of South America. 10. Unfortunately San Martin, like so many others, received only ingratitude for his services, and died in obscurity in France in 1850. 11. I hope that you will not forget the life of this great South American hero.
States.
4.

am

especially sorry that

'

232-233

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE, AUXILIARY \TiRBS

197

LESSON XL {LECCIN CUARENTA)


232.

Present Subjunctive of the Auxiliary Verbs


{Presente de Subjuntivo de los Verbos Auxiliares)

(1) ser,

Ho

be'
(that) I (that)

(2)

estar, 'to be'

sea seas sea

may

be, let

me
be,

thou mayest
it,

be be

(that) he (she,

him

(her, it) be,

you) be

may

be, let

est ests est

seamos
seis

(that)

(that)

sean

be, let us be ye may be, be (that) they (you) may be, let them be, be
(4)

we may

estemos
estis

estn

(3)

tener/ to have'
tenga tengas tenga
(that) I

haber, to have
'

may

(that) thou
(that)
let

have, let me have mayest have, have


it,

he (she,

you)

may

have,

haya hayas haya

tengamos
tengis

him (her, it) have, have (that) we may have, let us have
ye may have, have (that) they (you) may have,
(that)
let

hayamos
hayis

tengan

hayan

them have, have


233.

Present Subjunctive of Ten

Common

Irregular

Verbs {Presente de Subjuntivo de Diez


Verbos Irregulares Comunes)
{See Lesson

XXXI)

dar, 'to give': d, des, d, demos, deis, den

hacer, 'to make,' 'do': haga, hagas, haga, hagamos, hagis, hagan poner, 'to put': ponga, pongas, ponga, pongamos, pongis, pongan traer, 'to bring': traiga, traigas, traiga, traigamos, traigis, traigan
decir, 'to say,' 'tell': diga, digas, diga,

digamos, digis, digan

{See Lesson

XXXIII)

poder, ^to be able': pueda, puedas, pueda, podamos, podis, puedan querer, 'to wish,' 'hke': quiera, quieras, quiera, queramos, queris,

quieran
saber, 'to know': sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepis, sepan ir, 'to go': vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayis, vayan
venir, 'to come': venga, vengas, venga,

vengamos, vengis, vengan

198

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
aconsejar, to advise, counsel andar, irr. v., to go,^ walk buzn, the mail-box carruaje, the carriage despacio, adv., slowly dispensar, to excuse elegante, adj., elegant escaparate, the show-window estanco, the tobacco-shop estrecho, -a, narrow fama, the fame, reputation nacin, the nation
los negocios, the business

permitir, to permit, allow

el el

procurar, to try quiz {or qiiizs), adv., perhaps el sello, the. stamp; de correo,

postage-stamp
sorprender, to surprise
el transente, the pedestrian
el tranva,

el el

the street-car, street(i),

jailway
vestirse
to dress

la

la

cmo no!

of course, yes indeed; dado que, in as much as, since; darse prisa, to hurry; tener prisa, to be in a hurry; por supuesto,

of course, certainly

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Conjugue Vd.

el

presente de subjuntivo de ser; de estar;


2.

de tener; de haber.
el

Cules son las formas irregulares en


de poder?

presente de subjuntivo de dar?

de querer?

3.

Conjugue Vd.

el

presente de subjuntivo de hacer; de poner;


ir;

de traer; de decir; de saber; de

de venir.

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
2.

espaol:

1.

am

glad that you are here.

Will
I

it

not be possible for your brother to accompany us?


is

3.

am

sorry that he

not coming too.

4.

Allow

me

to

show

you the city now. 5. Let us take an automobile. 6. I wish you to visit some of the famous buildings. 7. I doubt that they have any better buildings in New York. 8. Do you not
think that the Teatro de Coln
9.
is

the best theater in America?


10.

I shall tell

them
11.

to let us see the building now.

What

large theater!
12. I

They say
will

that

it

has seats for 3500 persons.

hope that you


1

have an opportunity to attend an


in view, like a

Without destination

watch.

53

<

U
Q O O <

te

199

200
opera here.
13.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

We
14. I

must

{lit.

it is

necessary that we) come

some evening.
tickets to-night.

shall tell

my

brother to bring us the

15. I

advise you to wait until to-morrow

evening.

16.

Now let

us return to the hotel.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


1.

Dnde estn

las

mejores tiendas de Buenos Aires?

Estn en la calle Florida que se extiende desde la plaza de San Martn hasta la avenida de Mayo. 3. Quiere Vd. que vayamos all?' 4. Con mucho gusto, y le aconsejo que nos demos prisa porque ya es la hora cuando el mundo elegante fre2.

y despus de las cuatro de la tarde no se permite que pasen ms que tran8. Cmo no! dado sentes. 7. Qu escaparates ms ricos! que Buenos Aires tiene la fama de ser un segundo Paris. 9. Cree Vd. que yo pueda comprar unos sellos de correo en esta calle? 10. Por supuesto: aqu est un estanco donde se venden cosas del gobierno como sellos, tabaco, etctera. 11. Dispnseme Vd. un momento: quiero poner un sello en esta carta y echarla al buzn. 12. Permtame que yo lo haga por Vd. 13. Muchas gracias. 14. Ahora andemos ms despacio, porque yo quiero que Vd. tenga la ocasin de admirar la
6.

automviles aqu.
cuenta aquella
calle.

5.

Me sorprende que no haya carruajes ni


calle es

La

muy

estrecha

elegancia de las seoras

seoritas de esta ciudad.

15.

Yo
de

dudo que las de Pars Buenos Aires.

se vistan

con ms elegancia que

las

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

2.

En qu calle estn las mejores tiendas de Buenos Aires? Dnde est la calle Florida? 3. Hay tranvas en aquella
4.

calle?

Por qu no?

calle Florida el

Despus de qu hora frecuenta la mundo elegante? 6. Se permite que paSen


5.
7.

entonces carruajes y automviles?

Cmo son

los escapa-

EXERCISES
rates?
8.

201

Se visten con elegancia las seoras y seoritas de Buenos Aires? 9. Por qu tiene Buenos Aires la fama de ser
10.

un segimdo Pars?
hermosa de
la

Cul es
11.

la calle

ms grande y ms
est?
13.

ciudad?

Cmo
12.
'

se llama la residencia del

presidente de la repblica?

Dnde

Dgame

Vd. algo del palacio del congreso.

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN).


1.

Who
is is

can doubt that the Argentine republic


It is

is^

the most

important South American nation in which the Spanish lan-

guage
Aires

spoken?

2.

probable that you

know

that Buenos

the second Latin city (ciudad latina) of the world and

the fourth American city in the


3.

number
will

of its inhabitants.

That

it

may come

to (a) have, perhaps within a few years,

as
is

many

inhabitants as

New

York,

not surprise me.


[to]

4.

It

a pity that more North Americans have not tried


5.

enter

into business^ with this important city.

am

sorry that

you do not have the time


diately,
6. I
7.

to (de)
is

for this

season

come to Buenos Aires immethe most agreeable of the year.


and
to admire this

hope, however, that the next steamer will bring you.

I vsh.

you to
8.

see this wonderful port

beautiful city.

I advise
9.

you

to

come

as soon as (tan pronto

como

sea) possible.

Allow

me

to put

my

house at your

dis-

posal during your stay in Buenos Aires.


1

Use no before the dependent verb, Use plural.

after such interrogations of doubt.

202

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

234-236

LESSON XLI {LECCIN CUARENTA Y UNA)


SEQUENCE OF TENSES {CORRESPONDENCIA

DE LOS TIEMPOS)
234.

past or conditional tense in the principal clause

is

followed

by an imperfect

or a pluperfect^ subjunctive in the

dependent clause.
(deseara) que Vd. estudiara {or estudiase) Yo senta mucho que Vd. no hubiera {or hubiese) estudiado

Yo deseaba

wished (shoujd wish) you to study


'

was very sorry that you had not


studied

235.

The

logic of the sentence

may
I

sometimes require a vio-

lation of the rules of sequence.

Yo

siento mucho que estuviera estuviese) Vd. enfermo aquella noche


{or

am

very sorry that you were

ill

that night

236.

Imperfect Subjunctive of the Three Regular Conjugations {Imperfecto de Subjuntivo de las Tres

Conjugaciones Regulares)
First

Form {Primera Forma)


(that) I

Second Form {Segunda Forma)


hab ase hab ases hab ase hab asemos hab asis hab asen
II

hab ara hab aras hab ara


hab aramos hab aris hab aran

might (would, should)

speak, etc.

aprend iera aprend ieras aprend iera


aprend iramos aprend ierais aprendieran
1

(that) I

might (would, should)

learn, etc.

aprend iese aprend ieses aprend iese

aprendisemos
aprend ieseis aprend iesen
of the subjunctive,

jimctive of

The second compound tense haber+a past participle.

composed

of the imperfect sub-

237-238

IMPEREECT SUBJUNCTIVE
III

203

viv lera viv ieras viv iera


viv iramos

(that) I

might (would, should)

Hve, etc.

VIV lese viv ieses

viv iese
viv isemos viv ieseis

viv ierais viv ieran

viviesen
first

Note
237.

1.

Observe the accent mark on the


first

person plural.

The

person singular of the imperfect subjunctive


is

of all Spanish verbs, regular or irregular,

formed by dropping

the ending -ron of the third person plural of the preterit indicative

and replacing
never varies.

it

by -ra

or -se.

The conjugation

of

this tense

Imperfect Subjunctive of the Auxiliary Verbs {Imperfecto

de Subjuntivo de
ser estar tener
pret.

los

Verbos Auxiliares)
imp.
" " "
subj.,

jd
''

pl.,

haber
238.

" " "

"

" "

" "

fueron estuvieron tuvieron hubieron

"

" "

fuera fuese estuviera estuviese tuviera tuviese

hubiera

hubiese

Imperfect Subjunctive of Ten

Common

Irregular

Verbs {Imperfecto de Subjuntivo de Diez Verbos Irregulares Comunes)


{See Lesson

XXXI)
imp. subj. diera
,

dar hacer poner


traer

pret.

3d
i

pl. ,

dieron hicieron

diese

hiciera
a
(( l
l

(1

pusieron
trajeron dijeron

u
(

(( (

iC
(

decir
'

11

11

hiciese pusiera pusiese trajera trajese dijera dijese

{See Lesson

XXXIII)
imp.
11 11 11 11

poder querer saber


ir

pre.
ce

3d pl, pudieron
,

subj..
,

pudiera pudiese
quisiera quisiese supiera supiese fuera 1 fuese
viniera

10
i( (C

((
C(

C
l( ((

quisieron supieron

11 11

fueron

11
11

venir

vinieron
1

viniese

Same

as for ser.

204

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
celebrar, to celebrate
el cerro, the hill

la fortaleza, the fortress


el

contra, prep., against la costa, the coast

maz, the com mencionar, to mention

(la)
c/

Navidad, Christmas

cubierto, -a
el

(irr.

pp.

cubrir),
el
el

covered cuidado, the care


cultivar, to cultivate

el

descenso, the descent


erigir, to erect

la felicidad,

the happiness; pL, (good or best) wishes, greet*

el

ings
feroz, adj., fierce
al fin, at last;

el

el

ocupar, to occupy pacer, to graze parque, the park poema, the poem rpido, -a, rapid raro, -a, strange rebao, the herd, flock temer, to fear trigo, the wheat tnel, the tunnel

'

con destino a, bound cuando, from time to time

for, to;

de cuando

(or vez)

en

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


Qu tiempo del subjuntivo en la clusula dependiente sigue a un tiempo pasado o condicional en la clusula principal?
1.

2.

Cuntas formas tiene


3.

el

imperfecto de subjuntivo en espala


4.

ol?
la

Cules son las terminaciones de


en la segunda?

primera forma en
Escriba Vd. en
el

primera conjugacin?

pizarrn las dos formas del imperfecto de subjuntivo de los

cuatro verbos auxiliares.

5.

Cul es

la

primera persona del

singular de las dos formas del imperfecto de subjuntivo de dar?

de hacer?
la

de poner?

de traer?
las

de decir?

6.

Dgame Vd.
de venir.

primera persona del plural de

dos formas del imperfecto


ir;

de subjuntivo de poder; de querer; de saber; de

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: 1. He doubted that they would make the trip. 2. I did not believe that you would come. 3. We wished them to be there. 4. He told us that we should bring our friends. 5. Did you order him to go away? 6. I

as

u
ID

<

<
t

u
t

a
Q

O O <
C/5

205


206
FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH
tell

did not wish you to

him

that.

had given him the poem. 8. read it? 9. It would be necessary for him to know Spanish in order to read it. 10. They feared that he could not read the language. 11. We told him to set^ himself to [a] learning it. 12. I was sorry that you had so Httle time to (para) help him. 13. We had hoped that you would not be too busy. 14. We advised him to study a great deal. 15. Did you wish me to send him your [best] wishes? 16. I should be sorry for you to mention
it.

was very glad that you Would it be possible for him to


7.

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Santiago de Chile,
el

31 de diciembre de 19

Queridos padres:
1.

Esta

es la

primera carta que escribo desde Chile.

2.

Nues-

tros
el

amigos de Buenos Aires no queran que principisemos viaje antes del 26, porque deseaban que pasramos el
de
la

Navidad con ellos. 3. Nos pareci muy raro celebrar la Navidad en un da de verano. 4, Aquella noche el seor Gordon nos dijo que nos preparsemos para salir la
da

maana

siguiente.
el

26 principiamos

ocho y veinte de la maana del viaje a travs de las pampas argentinas con
5.

las

destino a Mendoza.

6.

Yo

tema que

los trenes argentinos

no

tuvieran las hiismas comodidades que los norteamericanos, pero

ms cmodos. 7. Durante muchas horas atravesamos inmensas pampas cubiertas de hierba muy alta donde
eran todava

pacan rebaos de ganado, a veces bajo


2

el

cuidado de algn

gaucho a caballo. 8. De cuando en cuando pasamos campos de trigo o de maz, pero, yo me maravillaba que tan poca tierra estuviera cultivada. 9. Despus de unas 24 horas de viaje llegamos a Mendoza, ciudad interesante donde pasamos un da. 10. De Mendoza fu preciso que tomramos un tren de la Com1

Use ponerse.

Argentine term for 'herdsman/ 'cow-bcv*

EXERCISES

207

paa del Ferrocarril Transandino/ y cruzamos los maravillosos "Andes en parte por un tnel muy largo, saliendo a Chile.
11.

Hicimos un rpido descenso a


a esta hermosa ciudad.

la costa del Pacfico,

llegando

al fin

12. Santiago, capital


13.

de Chile, es

una ciudad de ms de 400,000 habitantes.

Tiene muchos

monumentos

interesantes, pero sera imposible

cionase en esta carta

ms que su hermoso

capitolio

que yo meny el parque

que ocupa el cerro de Santa Luca. 14. El seor Gordon nos dijo ayer que l dudaba que hubiera en el mundo otro parque tan pintoresco como ste. 15. Aqu en el siglo diez y seis el
espaol Valdivia erigi ima fortaleza contra los feroces Araucanos, celebrados por Alonso de Ercilla en
cana.
af.^^2
el

poema La Araules

16.

Mil fehcidades para

el

ao nuevo

enva su hijo

Juan.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

Cul es
3.

la

fecha de esta carta?


la

2.

Desde dnde

la escri-

Navidad l y sus amigos? 4. Por qu no salieron antes de Buenos Aires? 5. Qu impresin le hizo a Juan la idea de celebrar la Navidad en un da de verano? 6. Cundo salieron de Buenos Aires? 7. Qu tal eran los trenes argentinos? 8. Dgame Vd. algo de las pampas. 9. A qu ciudad llegaron despus de imas 24 horas de viaje? 10. Cunto tiempo pasaron en Mendoza? 11. Qu lnea de ferrocarril fu preciso que tomaran para continuar el
bi Juan?

Dnde pasaron

viaje?

12.

Despus de atravesar
13.

el

largo tnel, a qu pas

salieron?
14.
les

Cmo

era

el

descenso a la costa del Pacfico?


15.

Cuntos habitantes tiene Santiago de Chile?


16.

Cu-

son los dos monumentos notables que menciona Juan en su

carta?

Quin erigi una fortaleza en


diez
este

el

cerro de Santa
la

Luca en
18.

el siglo

Qu celebra
1

y seis? poema?

17.

Quin escribi

Araucana?

Transandina Railway Company. Abbreviation for afectsimo, 'most affectionate.*

208

FIRST COUUSE IN SPANISH

239

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

in

had wished that we might be able [to] spend Christmas Buenos Aires. 2. It was necessary, however, for us to begin
I
3.

our journey before that date.


friends,

After taking leave of our

we

entered the train that was to (iba a) take us to


4. I

had feared that the Argentme trains were not very comfortable. 5. But they had many more conveniences
Mendoza.
than the trains of the United States.
fields of
6.

We

passed

first

som.e

wheat and corn. 7. Then ,we entered into the immense pampas. 8. Many herds of cattle were grazing in the tall grass, but it surprised us greatly that so small a part was cultivated. 9. Our train arrived late at Mendoza, and we were very glad that that gave us an opportunity to (de) spend 10. Our a day there, before taking the Transandine train. journey across the Andes was extremely interesting. 11. We wished that our friends in the United States might have been able to accompany us. 12. I doubt that such wonderful views
can be seen (verse) in other moimtains.
at Santiago, where
13.

Then we

arrived

we now
it

are.

14. I

should like to spend the

whole year here, but

will

be impossible for us to stay more


city.

than a week in this beautiful

LESSON XLII {LECCIN CUARENTA Y DOS)


THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES {EL SUBJUNTIVO EN CLUSULAS ADJETIVAS)
used in adjective clauses (those troduced by relative pronouns) in the following cases:
239.
is
1.

The subjunctive

in-

When

the antecedent clause expresses negation, doubt or


There is no man who is perfect Does there exist a person who knows
the future?
If there is
it is

condition.

No hay hombre que

sea perfecto Existe una persona que sepa el porvenir? Si hay quien pueda ayudarme es

any one who can help me,

Vd.

vou

CM

<3

o m < <

>

<

.o

CO

to

209

210
2.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

240-242

When

the dependent clause characterizes qualities desired


clause.
I shall look for

by the antecedent
Buscar algo que

le divierta

something to amuse

him

Queremos una
francs
3.

criada que hable

We
is

wish a maid
j

who speaks French

When

the dependent clause

introduced by donde or by

a compound relative implying indefiniteness.


Ir

Que hagan

donde Vd. quiera lo que puedan

I will go

Est prohibido a qtiienquiera que sea


4.

wherever you wish Let them do whatever they can It is forbidden to every one (whoever
it

may

be)
is

Often (but not necessarily) when the dependent clause

in the perfect tense


lative or

and the antecedent clause contains a super-

word

of sim.ilar force.

Es el mejor hombre que jams haya (or he) conocido


240.

He

is

the best

man whom

have

ever

known

When

the relative clause merely states a fact with reis

spect to a definite antecedent, the indicative

used.

Tenemos una
francs

criada que habla

We have

a maid
^

who speaks French

241.
Ver, 'to see'

Irregular Forms {Formas


Past Part.:
Pres. hid.:

Irregulares)

visto

Imp. Ind.:
Pres. Subj.:

veo, ves, etc. vea, veas, vea, veamos, veais, vean vea, veas, veas, veamos, veis, vean

242.
S^lir, 'to go (come) out';

de, 'to leave'


Irregulares)

Irregular Forms {Formas


Pres. Ind.:

salgo, sales, etc. Put. and Cond.: saldr, etc.; saldra, etc. saiga, saigas, saiga, salgamos, salgis, salgan Pres. Subj.:

Imptv.:

sal,

saUd

EXERCISES

211

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
the archbishop asesinar, to assassinate la calidad, the quality caracterizar, to characterize
el arzobispo, el indio,

the Indian the lake

la ingeniera, the engineering


el lago,

la

la carga, the

load
irr. v.,

la

manada, the drove mula, the mule

contener,
tains)
el depsito,

to contain
(of

el nitrato, the nitrate

la Cordillera, the

range

moun-

the deposit
(ie),

describir, to describe

empezar
gin

to

commence, be-

la guerra, the

war

paradero, the stop, stoppingplace el pico, the peak primitivo, -a, primitive la riqueza, the wealth la ruina, the ruin volcnico, -a, volcanic
el

de via estrecha, narrow-gauge; en espera de, waiting

for

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cmo

se

llaman
2.

las clusulas
la

que empiezan con pronomantecedente expresa


se

bres relativos?

Cuando

clusula

negacin, duda o condicin qu

modo

usa en

la clusula de-

pendiente?

3.

Qu modo

se

usa en

la clusula

dependiende

cuando

se caracterizan calidades deseadas

por

la clusula ante-

cedente? cuando la clusula dependiente empieza por donde o

im relativo compuesto? 4. Es preciso usar el subjuntivo en una clusula dependiente, cuando la clusula antecedente contiene un superlativo? 5. Cules son las formas irregulares del
verbo ver? del verbo
salir?

ORAL EXERCISE (EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en espaol: 1. Is there any one who has no faults? 2. I know no one who is always right. 3. I wish to
study something that interests me.
4.

There

is

no study

is more interesting than this one. 5. I am looking for a book which contains a description of that country. 6. If there is any one who can describe it, it is you. 7. This is the miost

which

interesting place that I

have

seen.

8.

Wherever

(a

donde-


212
quiera que) you
9.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

may

go,

you

will see

nothing more wonderful.

some beautiful colors on the mountains. 10. Let us see what we can. 11. Is there a city which contains more interesting ruins than Cuzco? 12. We shall try to find some mules which can take us through

Whoever comes out

early will see

the mountains,

READING EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Lima,
Querida
1.

el 1

de febrero de 19

mam:

Llegamos a esta vieja ciudad hace ms de una semana. 2. Lima me interesa mucho y dudo que haya ciudad sudamericana que tenga un carcter tan espaol como sta. 3. Entre los edificios ms antiguos estn la catedral y el
palacio del arzobispo, donde fu asesinado Pizarro.
tiene la universidad
5.

4.

Lima
1535.

ms antigua de Amrica, fundada en


el

Yo

tratar de describir

viaje

que hicimos para


viaje

llegar ac,

pero no hay palabras que puedan dar una idea de los lugares
pintorescos que vimos.
6.
7.

Es

el

ms

interesante que

jams yo haya hecho.

Saliendo de Santiago nuestro primer

paradero fu Valparaso, ciudad de unos 200,000 habitantes y, despus de San Francisco, el puerto americano ms importante de
la costa del Pacfico.
8.

Nos quedamos
9.

all

algunos das,

esperando un buque que nos llevara a Antafogasta, puerto que


Chile quit a Bolivia en la guerra de 1879.
el

tren que nos llev por

Oruro en Bolivia. 10. el camino fueron los grandes depsitos de nitrato del norte de
Chile, principal riqueza de aquel pas,
la cordillera. 11.

un ferrocarril de Las cosas que ms nos interesaron en

De all tomamos va muy estrecha a

los picos volcnicos

de

principal

Nos detuvimos dos das en La Paz, ciudad de Bolivia y la ms alta del mundo. 12. Despus de
el

atravesar

inmenso lago Titicaca, fuimos a Cuzco para ver


13.

sus famosas ruinas.

Quienquiera que pase por ah no de^

CM

< s t H

213

214

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

jar de visitar la antigua fortaleza de los incas, maravillosa obra

de ingeniera primitiva. 14. De Cuzco fuim^os llevados en muas hasta Huancayo, donde tomamos el tren para Lima. 15. Te envo una fotografa que hice en San Mateo de una manada de llamas en espera de carga.

Con toda mi

devocin,

Carlos.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
Desde dnde escribi Carlos esta carta? 2. Cunto tiempo haba pasado en Lima? 3. Hay ciudad sudamericana que tenga ms carcter espaol que sta? 4. Cules son algunos de los edificios ms antiguos de Lima? 5. Quin fu
1.

asesinado en

el

palacio del arzobispo?


7.

6.

Cundo

se

fund

la

universidad de Lima?

Cul fu

el

primer paradero de
8.

los

viajeros despus de salir de Santiago?

Es im puerto imall

portante
10.

Valparaso?
es

9.

Qu esperaban
11.

los

viajeros?

Qu

Antafogasta?
12.

Cmo

hicieron

el

viaje de

An-

Qu cosas los interesaron en el camino? 13. Dnde est La Paz? 14. Dnde est el lago Titicaca? 15. Por qu fueron los viajeros a Cuzco? 16. Haba un ferrocarril de Cuzco a Huancayo? 17. Cmo hicieron el viaje por aquella parte de los Andes? 18. Es una parte pintoresca de la cordillera? 19. Para qu usan las llamas en las montaas sudamericanas?
tafogasta a Oruro?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


1.

When
2.

our travelers

left

Santiago they went directly to

Valparaiso to wait for a boat that should take them to Antafogasta.

Antafogasta, which was formerly a port of Bolivia,

and now the country has no sea port.^ 3. From there the train which our travelers took crossed the great nitrate deposits and climbed the mountain-range to

was

lost in the

war

of 1879,

Puerto de mar.

MpmiP;

,_^

^.JHHHHRHHilHH

^^ h 1-^
1
*
^

'

v*^B

i^^^^^

-~*^,-'

^^^gr^A21_

J^^S^KKKt^^^m

'

E' '^^^HI^
^^^Ht'
*^^2r

t^^^Wf '^^^Wlf 'i^HBr ny?^^^^^


i
^
'.

ty.,i^>,j^.,

^^

>......

"w-

1
1

^^^^^#^^^V^W^

"^'"'-^

-^^^^^^^^

s:

Im
^x

*^
-^''T^

^v^jL^y^?^^^^^^^^g^

jw

m^ H* SHKiLffi

*'

^^^flfi

^^^.^^^
1

^.

^*^

fl|H|'
^

'-^^^^^hBHbhIH
215

216
Oruro
city of
in Bolivia.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


4.

243

They stayed

for a

some 60,000 inhabitants. 5. the world which is situated at such a


than half of
its

few days in La Paz, a There is no other city in


(tanta) height.
7.

6.

More
is

inhabitants are Indians.

To go
8.

to Cuzco,

they were obliged to cross (the) lake Titicaca.

This lake

more than
of the sea

(est a

ms

de) 12,500 feet above the level (nivel)


9.

and

is

as large as (the) lake Ontario.

Whoever
fail
is

has any interest in the history of the Incas must (debe) not
to (de) visit Cuzco.
10.

The

history of these Indians


11.

the

most
12.

interesting that I

have ever read.

There

is

no place

that contaias so

many

wonderful ruins of the Incas as Cuzco.

From

there our travelers were obliged to (a) take mules

as far as Huancayo, the last station on the rauroad from Lima.

LESSON XLIII {LECCIN CUARENTA Y TRES)


THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN ADVERBIAL CLAUSES {EL SUBJUNTIVO EN CLUSULAS ADVERBIALES)
243.

The subjunctive

is

used in adverbial clauses (those

in-

troduced by conjunctions) in the following cases:


1.

After temporal conjimctions

(conjunciones temporales)

when

indicating anticipation (anticipacin), such as


cuando, 'when' hasta que, 'until'
etc.

antes (de) que, 'before'


as que, 'as soon as'

Yd. escribir antes (de) que saiga Cuando venga, Yd. me lo dir
2.

You will write before you leave When he comes, you will tell me

After conjunctions indicating purpose (propsito), such as


para que, 'so that,' 'in order that' que, 'so that,' 'in order that'

de manera que, 'so that' de mode que, 'so that'

(with negative idea or indicating fear)


sin que, 'without'
etc.

por miedo (de) que,


'lest'

'for fear that/

244
di dinero

SUBJUNCTIVE IN ADVERBIAL CLAUSES


para que
lo

217

Le

comprase
l

gave him money that he might buy


it

Trate Yd. de hablarle sin que


se ofenda
3.

Try

to speak to

him without

his be-

ing offended

After conjunctions indicating hypothesis (hiptesis), such

as

dado que,
that'

^in case

that/ ^supposing

con tal que, ^provided that' supuesto que, 'supposing that'


etc.

a menos que,

'unless'

dado que lo sepa, in case he knows it con tal que venga esta noche, provided he come
'

to-night

4.

After conjunctions indicating concession (concesin), such

as
aunque, 'although'
por
etc.
.

que, 'however'

No

le

temo aunque sea ms fuerte temo por fuerte que sea

que yo

No

le

do not fear him, although he be stronger than I do not fear him, however strong he may be

244.

Many
el

of these conjunctions

may

take the indicative

when they
Cuando

indicate simply a fact (un hecho).


the teacher speaks, I understand him He spoke so that I understood him
I did not learn the lesson,

profesor habla, le com-

When

prendo Habl de manera que yo le comprend No aprend la leccin, aunque estudi

though I

mucho

studied

much

\'OCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
la agricultura, the agriculture

ajustar, to

fit

artstico, -a, artistic bajo, prep., under, beneath

bloque, the block cemento, the cement la ciencia, the science la civiHzacin, the civilization el cobre, the copper
el
el

conocimiento, the knowledge, acquaintance desarrollarse, to develop encerrar (ie), to shut up, confine el engao, the deceit
el

enorme,

adj.,

enormous

escaparse, to escape
estallar, to

break out

estrangular, to strangle

218

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


el preso, el

el hierro,

exacto, -a, exact the iron

el imperio, el oro, the

the empire gold prender, to seize, capture

the prisoner sistema, the system transportar, to transport vengar, to avenge

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARM) GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cmo
3.

se

llaman
2.

las clusulas

que estn introducidas por

conjunciones?
rales.

Dgame Vd. algimas conjimciones tempo4.

Qu conjunciones pueden indicar propsito? hip-

tesis? concesin?

Toman

el

subjuntivo estas conjunciones

cuando indican solamente im hecho?

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


Dgame Vd. en
2.

espaol:
tell

1.

I will not

do

it

until

you come.
shall leave

When
5.

you see him,

him

to

come

too.

3.

We

as soon as he arrives.

4.

Speak so that we

may

understand^
6.

you.

He

spoke so that

we

all

understood^ him.
7.

Do

not

go away without our seeing you.


fear that I should not
in order that

I studied all
8.

know my you too may know

lesson.
it.

morning for Study your lesson


will learn the lan-

9.

You
11.

guage, provided you study enough.


will

10.

Unless you study, you

not be able to speak the language.

However much
12.

study, I shall not be able to speak

it well.

Although the
it.

language
13.

may

be

difficult,

it

is

not impossible to learn

Although he had spent much time in Spain, he did not


the language.

know

READING EXERCISE (EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Los Incas

Hasta que vinieron los espaoles, el imperio de los incas, por Manco-Cpac, tena una extensin fundado en el siglo enorme. 2. Su civilizacin, por primitiva que fuera, se haba desarrollado de un modo maravilloso. 3. Los indios tenan un
1.

Use entender.

< O t < u
t

<
t

xn
t

<

<

219

220

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

excelente sistema de leyes

cierto conocimiento de las ciencias


4.

de

la agricultura

y de

la ingeniera.

Aunque no

conociesen^

el hierro,

trabajaban

la piedra

transportando enormes bloques

y ajustndolos exactamente sin cemento. 6. Trabajaban artsticamento el cobre, el oro y la plata. 7. Un poco antes (de) que llegaran los espaoles, el inca HuayanaCpac haba muerto,^ dejando su imperio a dos de sus hijos, de manera que Atahualpa tuviera la regin del norte con Quito como capital y Huscar, la regin- del sur con Cuzco como
a grandes distancias
capital.
8.

Muy

pronto

la

guerra estall entre los dos hermay,

nos.
le

9.

Atahualpa venci a Huscar


10.

para que no

se escapara,

encerr en una fortaleza.

En

este

momento
con
tal

llegaron los

espaoles bajo Francisco Pizarro.

11.

Prendiendo a Atahualpa

por engao, Pizarro


de oro
el

le

prometi
le

la libertad
12.

que llenara
le

cuarto donde

tena preso.
el

As hizo Atahualpa,

pero Pizarro, por miedo de que

inca llegara a vengarse,

mand

estrangular.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
1.

En qu

siglo se

fund

el

imperio de los incas?

2.

Por

quin fu fundado?

3.

Cmo

era la civilizacin de los incas


4.

hasta que vinieron los espaoles?


5.

Conocan

el

hierro?

Qu metales (^metals') conocan? 6. Qu hacan con la piedra? 7. Dnde se hallan algunas ruinas de los incas hoy
da?
9. 8.

Cules eran las principales ciudades de los incas?es el

Quin
11.

emperador (^emperor') de
los espaoles?
10.

los incas

que muri
dej su im-

poco antes que llegaran


perio?

Cmo

En

la

guerra que estall entre los hijos de Huayana-

Cpac cul de
dio su libertad?
1

los

dos hermanos venci


13.

al otro?
le

12.

Cmo
14.

prendi Pizarro a Atahualpa?

Qu

prometi?

Le

The

Fast part,

indicative may be used here, (Cf. of morir, 'to die.'

if

preferred.

274.)

EXERCISES

221

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


In Cuzco the boys begged Mr. Gordon to tell them something about the Incas before they should visit the ruins.
1.

2.

With much

their history,
3.

Mr. Gordon, the ruins which you will see


pleasure, said

for,

unless

you know

will

not interest you.

You probably know that developed much more than


Spaniards came to America.

the civilization of the Incas had


that of most Indians before
4.
':iie

They had

a government and

a system of laws which were excellent. 5. It is certain also that these Indians had a knowledge, however primitive it was,
of the science of engineering [in order] to

have been able to use such enormous blocks of stone in their walls and roads. 6. And all this was done without their knowing the use of iron.
7.

Cuzco coQtains many

of these

wonderful walls.

8.

We

are

now in the capital of the ancient empire of the Incas, we arrive at Quito, we shall see their principal city of
9.

and,

when

the north.

Before the Inca Huayana-Cpac died, he divided his empire

between his two sons, ^o that Atahualpa should have Quito as his capital and Huscar should have Cuzco. 10. Atahualpa

had conquered
Incas

his brother

and was the

sole

monarch

of the

when the Spaniards arrived in (al) Peru. 11. Pizarro captured him by deceit, and, although he had promised^ Atahualpa his liberty, provided the Indians should fill a room with gold,^ he had him strangled [on] the 29th of August, 1533.
1

Use

a.

Use

this

word order, 'with gold a room.'

222

245-248

SI

IN CONDITIONS

223

LESSON XLIV {LECCIN CUARENTA Y CUATRO)


245. After
si,

meaning 4f (not ^whether',


'

cf.

95), use the

imperfect subjunctive instead of the conditional.

This

is

the

usage required in past conditions contrary to fact.


Si

Vd. estudiase {or estudiara) ms, aprendera mejor


si

If

you should study {or studied) more, you would learn better
not

But: Yd no saba paara o no


1.

me

acom-

I did

know whether he would


or not

accompany me

In present or future conditions, use the present indicasi,

tive after

as in English.
I shall see him,
if

Le

ver, si viene

he comes

246.

In the apodosis (result clause) of a conditional sentence

the

first

form

of the imperfect subjunctive

may

sometimes

re-

place the conditional.


Si buscase {or buscara) su libro, lo
If

he looked for his book, he would


find it

encontrara

{or

encontrara)

247.

Quisiera, ^I should like' (from querer),

is

regularly used

instead of the conditional to soften the assertiveness of the

present quiero, ^I wish,' and


subjunctive.

may

be followed by the present

Yd

quisiera que Vd.


{or

me acompaAndar /to
Forjis

I should like

you

to

accompany me

ase
248.

acompae)
go,' 1'

walk*

Irregular
Pret.:

{Formas Irregulares)

anduve, anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, anduvisteis, anduvieron Imp. Subj.: anduviera, etc.; anduviese, etc.
1

Without destination

in view.

224
249.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


Or,
;

249

to hear'

Irregular Forms {Formas


Gerund:
Pres. Ind.\
Pret.:

Irregulares)

oyendo
oigo, oyes, oye, omos, os,
o, oste,

oyen

oy, omos, osteis, oyeron Pres. Suhj.'. oiga, oigas, oiga, oigamos, ^oigis, oigan Imp. Suhj.: oyera, etc.; oyese, etc. oye, oid Imptv.:
^I have heard,' etc., meaning 'I have heard said,' *I have heard spoken of,' etc., must be expressed in Spanish by he odo decir, he odo hablar de, etc.

Note.

VOCABULARY {VOCABULARIO)
actual, adj., actual, present
alto, adv.,

habitar, to inhabit, live (dwell)


in

loud
la

ante, prep., before, in the face


of

huir, to flee, escape

asegurar, to assure, secure atento, -a, attentive la ayuda, the aid, help, assistance el continente, the continent la edad, the age se, to be educar, to educate;

independencia, ence lento, -a, slow

the

independ-

el libertador, the liberator

la

memoria, the memory; aprender de to memorize nombrar, to name, appoint

educated
entretanto, adv., meanwhile equivocarse, to be mistaken la facilidad, the ease, facility feliz, adj., happy, fortunate

la patria,

the

fatherland,

native

country
la presidencia, the presidency

rebelarse, to rebel, revolt


la suerte, the luck, fortune, sort la superioridad, the superiority

al

menos,

at least; ni siquiera, not even

GRAMMATICAL DRILL {CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Se puede usar
'if?
2.

el

condicional despus de
3.

si

cuando

signi-

fica

Qu se usa en este caso?


4.

Dgame Vd. un
5.

ejemplo de este uso.

Cul de

las

dos formas del imperfecto

de subjuntivo se puede usar en vez del condicional?


se usa ms, quisiera o querra, en
6.
el

Cul

sentido de 'I should like?


el

Conjugue Vd.

el

pretrito de andar;

imperfecto de sub-

1 ,

<^

J <

^
I
1

u
<;

<

"^
Si

H-

O
h~^

^
g o
--^

^
^

G
-<^

'^

^ ^
<:>
^3

P g
CJ

225

226

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


7.

juntivo (primera forma).


cativo del verbo or;
el

Conjugue Vd.

el

presente de indiel

presente de subjuntivo;

imperfecto de

subjuntivo (segunda forma).

ORAL EXERCISE

{EJERCICIO^ ORAL)

Dgame Vd. en espaol: 1. If you are^ attentive, you will hear what I say. 2. If you were^ attentive, you would hear me. 3. If you spoke louder, I should hear you better. 4. Listen attentively and you will hear me. 5. I should like you to memorize these expressions. 6. I should be very happy if I could remember the words. 7. Where do you wish to go tonight?
8.

I should like to go to the theater.


10. I

9.

Well, let us
11. If I
little

go at once.

wish you would not walk^ so


so slowly,

fast.

were you
faster.

(si

yo fuera de usted), I should try to walk a

12. If

we walk

we

shall

not arrive in

(a)

you that you are mistaken, and, if we time. should hurry, we would arrive before they opened the doors.
13. I assure

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


Bolvar

Han odo Vds. hablar del gran general Simn pregunt im da el seor Gordon a los dos jvenes.
1.

odo nombrar, contest Juan, pero yo quisiera acerca de su vida.

Simn Bolvar naci en Caracas (Venezuela) en 1783. 4. Se educ en Espaa y antes de regresar a su patria en 1810, pas algn tiempo viajando por Europa y 5. Entretanto, las cosas andaban muy los Estados Unidos. mal en su pas bajo la dominacin espaola. 6. Los venezolanos se rebelaron y en 1812 nombraron a Bolvar como su
3.

Le he saber algo ms
2.

Bolvar?

general.

7.

En poco

tiempo venci a
patria.
8.

los espaoles
si

y fu pro-

clamado Libertador de su
1

Pero,
2

Vds. creyesen que

Use the verb

estar.

Use the verb andar.

EXERCISES

227

todo se acab con tanta facilidad, se equivocaran. 9. Nuevas tropas espaolas llegaron y Bolvar tuvo que huir a Santo

Domingo ante
ejrcito,
les,

la

superioridad del nmero.

10. All reimi otro

volvi de nuevo a Venezuela, y derrot a

los

espao-

recibiendo la presidencia de la repblica.


la

11.

En

pocos

aos asegur

independencia de toda aquella parte de Sud


las

Amrica que ocupan


Colombia, Bolivia,
el

repblicas

actuales

de Venezuela,

Ecuador y el Per, recibiendo en una parte de su trabajo la ayuda del ejrcito del hroe argentino, San Martn. 12. Bolvar muri en 1830, a los cuarenta y siete
aos de edad.

CONVERSATION {CONVERSACIN)
Qu pregunt a los jvenes el seor Gordon? 2. Cmo contest Juan? 3. Dnde habitaba Simn BoKvar? 6. Qu hizo antes 4. Cundo naci? 5. Dnde se educ? de regresar a su patria? 7. Cmo andaban las cosas en Venezuela bajo la dominacin espaola? 8. Qu hicieron los venezolanos en 1812? 9. Qu suerte tuvo Bolvar en la guerra contra los espaoles? 10. Por qu fu obligado a huir a Santo Domingo? 11. Volvi de nuevo a Venezuela? 12. Qu hizo 13. De qu pas recibi la presientonces a los espaoles? dencia? 14. A qu otros pases sudamericanos ayud Bolvar
1.

a obtener su independencia? hroe sudamericano?


16.

15.

Cmo

se

llama

el

otro gran

Cundo muri Bolvar?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


had studied the history would know the names of its great men.
1.

If

you

{pi.)

of
2.

South America, you


Fortunately

we

are

beginning
schools.
least read

now
3.

to (a) learn something of that continent in our

If

we cannot

travel in South America,


its life

we can

at

books which describe


I shall ever

not

know whether

and history. 4. I do have the good fortune to (de)

228
go there, but,
try.
5.
if

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


I go, I shall

250

I should like to

know something about the counknow how many in this class can name
6.

the great Argentine hero. obtain their independence.

wish you

{pi.)

would

tell

me
(a)

the names of the countries which San Martin helped to


7.

How many
do not
tell

have heard

of Boli-

var?
9.

8.

Is it possible that I

hfear

even one voice?

Listen attentively and I will


10.

you

{pL) something of his

life.

Bolivar was
11.

bom

in

Venezuela and was educated in

Europe.

He

returned to his country in 1810 and was very


12.

soon appointed general.

He
all

conquered the Spaniards and


the northern part of South

secured the independence of

America, as San Martin had done for (por) the southern part.

LESSON XLV {LECCIN CUARENTA Y CINCO)


INDEPENDENT USE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE INDEPENDIENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO)
250.

{USO

In addition to

its

use as a polite imperative


less

99), the subjunctive is

employed more or

62, independently as
(cf.

follows:
1.

After ojal,

Svould that,'

'I

hope

that,'

to express a

desire.^

Ojal que venga! Ojal (que) fuese verdad!


2.

hope that he
that
it

Would

will come! were true!

In indeterminate expressions involving indifference.


venga lo que venga, come what may que lo hiciera no, whether he should do
it

or not

3.

In modified assertions after an interrogative or a negative,


subjunctive
of saber,

the present

recordar, ver

and

similar

verbs

is
1

used.
rare elliptical usage after quin also expresses a desire.
escribir!
If

The somewhat

Quin supiera

one could only write!

251

EXERCISES
tu padre?

229

Ha venido
yo sepa

No

que

No

le

he

visto

jams que yo re-

cuerde

Has your father come? I know of I have never seen him remember

Not

that

so far as I

251.

Valer,

Ho be

worth,' 'be of value'


Irregulares)

Irregular Forms {Formas

valgo, vales, etc. Pres. Ind.: Fut. and Cond.: valdr, etc.; valdra, etc. valga, valgas, valga, valgamos, valgis, valgan Pres. Subj.:

Imptv. :

val (or vale)

valed

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
la

amistad, the friendship

durar, to last

aproximadamente,
el

adv.,

approx-

encontrar (ue), to find, meet


la esclusa, the lock, sluice
existir, to exist

imately asimto, the subject,

affair

atmientar, to increase bastar, to be enough, suffice el billete, the ticket el compaero, the companion,

la

hermosura, the beauty


intimo, -a, intimate
jimto, -a, together
lleno, -a, full

comrade
continuo, -a, continuous the opposition, la contrariedad, trouble
delicioso,

pasearse, to walk, go walking


perfecto, -a, perfect
la pirmide, the

pyramid

la salud, the health

-a,

delightful,

deli-

seguro, -a, sure


las vacaciones, the vacation

cious
el

deseo, the desire, w^ish

verdadero, -a, true

de buen humor, in good humor

GRAMMATICAL DRILL (CUESTIONARIO GRAMATICAL)


1.

Cul es
el

el

uso independiente ms

2.

Cuando

presente

comn del subjuntivo? de subjuntivo se usa como imperativo

afirmativo dnde se colocan los pronombres complementos?

Dgame Vd. un ejemplo del subjuntivo usado con ojal. 4. Dgame Vd. otros dos ejemplos del subjuntivo usado en frases ms o menos independientes. 5. Conjugue Vd. el pre3.

sente de indicativo del verbo valer;


el

el

presente de subjuntivo;

futuro.

230


EXERCISES
231

ORAL EXERCISE {EJERCICIO ORAL)


I shall be his friend. 2. May he not forgood comrades. 4. He is the most been have We intimate friend that I have ever had. 5. We often used to go walking together. 6. You have never seen him, so far as I know. 7. We have never met each other, so far as I remember.
1.

Come what may,


3.

get me!

8. 9.

Have they
Whether he

ever been together?


desires
it

Not
I

that I

know
is^

of.

or

not,

shall

accompany him.
truly
13. If it

10.

Would

that

we were
it

friends!
it

11.

The vacation
last^ longer.

too short.

12. I

wish that

might
she.

were^ continuous,
think that he
is

would not

suffice^ for
15.

you.

14. I

do not

worth as much as
of them.^

You

will

be worth

more than both

READING EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE LECTURA)


La Habana, Cuba,
Queridos padres:
1.

el

15 de

marzo de 19

sta ser mi ltima carta, porque dentro de algunos das


el

tomaremos
tros billetes

vapor para Nueva York.


verlos.
4.

2.

Ya tenemos

nues-

y pronto volver a

3.

Ojal que todos

gocen de buena salud!


rante todo
meses.
5.
el viaje,

La

nuestra ha sido perfecta dusiete

que ha durado ya aproximadamente


6.

Qu vacaciones tan largas!

Cada

da ha estado

verdaderamente lleno de inters y estoy seguro de que me ha valido mucho el viaje. 7. El seor Gordon ha encontrado los
asuntos de las varias sucursales de su casa comercial en excelente estado.

No ha tenido ninguna contrariedad que yo sepa y regresa de muy buen humor. 9. Carlos y yo hemos estado juntos continuamente, somos muy buenos compaeros
8.

y,

venga lo que venga, seremos siempre ntimos amigos. 10. Les envi ima fotografa de nuestro vapor atravesando la esclusa
1

Use

plural.

Lit. 'the two.'

232

EXERCISES
de Pedro Miguel en
el

233
11.

Canal de Panam.

Pasamos

tres

semanas en Mjico.
simo.
sura.

La ciudad de Mjico me gust much13. Tiene un clima delicioso y edificios de gran hermo14. Su catedral es la ms bella del nuevo mundo. 15. Las
12.

ruinas
16.

de

los

indios

primitivos
la

me

interesaron sobre todo.


sol

Visitamos entre otras,


17.

gran pirmide del

de San Juan
la

Teotihuacan.
bana.
18.

De

Mjico vinimos directamente a

Hadas,

Este puerto es

muy hermoso y

la

vida de esta ciulos

dad nos divierte mucho. 19. Nos paseamos todos porque todava no hace mucho calor. Su hijo afectsimo,

Juan.

CONVERSATION (CONVERSACIN)
Desde dnde escribe Juan esta carta? 2. Por qu sera sta su ltima carta? 3. Cul era el deseo que Juan expres acerca de la salud de sus padres? 4. Qu tal haba sido la suya durante el viaje? 5. Por cunto tiempo haba durado el
1.

viaje?

6.

Le haba gustado a Juan

el

viaje?
el

7.

Qu

tal

haba encontrado sus asuntos comerciales


8.

seor Gordon?

Qu dice Juan acerca de sus relaciones con Carlos durante el viaje? 9. De qu enva una fotografa a sus padres? 10. Cunto tiempo pasaron los viajeros en Mjico? 11. Por qu le gust a Juan la ciudad de Mjico? 12. Cul es la catedral ms bella del nuevo mundo? 13. Entre las ruinas de los
indios primitivos mejicanos, cul le interes sobre todo a Juan?
14.

15.

A dnde fueron directamente los viajeros de Mjico? Les gust la ciudad de la Habana a los jvenes?

TRANSLATION EXERCISE {EJERCICIO DE TRADUCCIN)


have finished the grammar, and I beheve that the study of these lessons has been of great value to us. 2. Come what may, we shall not forget easily what we have learned.
1.

We

234
3.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

Would

that

we might have
and John.

the opportunity to take ^ a trip


4.

like that of Charles


tr.avel

Would

that

we

too might

through Spain, South America, Mexico and Cuba, as


5.

That is the best way to learn the Spanish language and at the same time to understand the life of those 6. Unfortunately there are not many men like Mr. nations.
they have done.

Gordon, so far as

know.

7.

However,

if

one has a real desire

some day. 8. Meanwhile, we can prepare ourselves to (para) profit by the opportunity when it comes. 9. Now that we know the most important rules of the Spanish grammar, we must acquire (adquirir) a more intimate acquaintance with the language [by]
to (de) travel, the opportunity will present itself

reading a great deal.


of America.

10.

And we

shall try to (de) increase the


all

friendship which ought

[to] exist

between

the great republics

Use hacer.

235

APPENDIX

238

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

252

THE REGULAR VERBS


1.^

Infinitive {Infinitivo)

252.

hab

Gerund {Gerundio)
Past Participle {Participio Pasivo)

speak hab ando, speaking


ar, to

habl ado, spoken

Indicative {Indicativo,

Present
I speak, do speak, am speaking, etc.

{Presente)

I learn, do learn,
lear7iing, etc.

am

live,

do

live,

am

living, etc.

habl habl as

habla
habl amos habl ais habl an

aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend

o es
e

viv viv es viv e

emos
is

vivimos
viv is viv en

en

liLPERFECT {Imperfecto)

/ was speaking, used


to

I was learnhig, used


to learn, etc.

I was
viv viv viv viv viv viv

living,

used

speak,

etc.

to live, etc.

habl habl habl habl habl habl

aba abas aba

abamos
abais

aban

aprend ia aprend ias aprend ia aprend iamos aprend iais aprend fan

ia ias ia

iamos
iais

ian

Preterit
I spoke,
etc.

{Pretrito)
etc.

I learned,

lived, etc.

habl
habl aste

habl
habl amos habl asteis habl aron

aprend aprend iste aprend io aprend imos aprend isteis aprend ieron

viv viv viv viv viv viv

iste io

imos
isteis

ieron

Future
I shall or will
speak,
etc.

{Futiiro)

I shall or will
learn, etc.

I shall or will
live, etc.

hablar hablar hablar hablar hablar hablar

as

emos
is

aprender aprender aprender aprender aprender aprender

vivir
\'ivir

as

as

emos
is

vivir vivir emos vivir is vivir n

253-2o4

THE REGULAR VERBS

239

(LOS

VERBOS REGULARES)
2.^

3.^
.

233. aprend er, to learn aprendiendo, learning aprend ido, learned

254. vivir,

to live

viv iendo, living

viv ido, lived

Subjunctive (Subjuntivo)

Present
That I
speak,

(Presente)

may
etc.

That I

may
a
as

That I

may

learn, etc.

live, etc.

hable
hab hab hab hab hab
es
e

emos
is

en

aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend

viva vivas viva


viv am.os viv ais viv an

amos
ais

an

Impekfect, First Form (Imperfecto, Primera Forma) That I might {should) That I might {should) That I might {should)
speak,
etc.

learn,

etc.

live, etc.

hab hab hab hab hab hab

ara aras ara

aramos
aris

aran

aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend

iera ieras iera

iramos
ierais

ieran

viv iera viv ieras viv iera viv iramos viv ierais viv ieran

That I might {should)


speak,
etc.

Imperfect, Second Form {Imperfecto, Segunda Forma) That I might {should) That I might {should)
learn,
etc.

live, etc.

habl hab hab hab hab hab

ase ases ase

asemos
asis

asen

aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend

iese ieses iese

isemos
ieseis

iesen

viv viv viv viv viv viv

iese ieses iese

isemos
ieseis

iesen

That I
speak,

may
etc.

Future {Futuro) That I may


learn,
etc.

That I
viv viv viv viv viv viv

may

live, etc.

hab hab hab hab hab hab

are ares are

aremos
aris

aren

aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend aprend

iere ieres iere

iere ieres iere

iremos
iereis

iremos
iereis

ieren

ieren

240

PIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

255

THE REGULAR VERBS


Indicative {Indicativo)

Conditional {Condicional)
I should or would
speak,
etc.

I should or ivould
learn, etc.
i

/ should or would
live, etc.

hablar a hablar as hablar a

aprender a aprender as aprender a

vivir a vivir as vivir a

hablar amos hablar ais hablar an

aprender amos aprender ais aprender an

vivir amos vivir ais vivir an

The Compound Tenses


Infinitive
{Infinitivo)

of the Regular Verbs

255. haber hablado, to have spoken


habiendo hablado, having spoken

Genmd

{Gerundio)

Indicative {Indicativo)

I have spoken, etc. he hablado has hablado, etc.

Perfect {Perfecto) I have learned, etc. he aprendido has aprendido, etc.


Pluperfect {Pluscuamperfecto)

I have

lived, etc.

he vivido
has vivido,
etc.

I had spoken,

etc.

I had learned,

etc.

I had

lived, etc.

haba hablado,

etc.

haba aprendido,

etc.

haba vivido,

etc.

Past Anterior
I had spoken,
etc.

{Pretrito Anterior)
etc.

I had learned,

I had

lived, etc.

hube hablado,
I

etc.

hube aprendido,

etc.

hube
I

vivido, etc.

Future Perfect
shall have spoken,
etc.

{Futuro Perfecto)
shall have lived,
etc.

I shall have learned,


etc.

habr hablado,

etc.

habr aprendido,

etc.

habr vivido,
Perfecto)

etc.

I might {or should) have spoken, etc.

Conditional Perfect {Condicional I might {or should)


have learned^
etc.

I might

{or should) have lived, etc.


etc.

habra hablado,

etc.

habra aprendido,

etc.

habra vivido,

256-257.

THE REGULAR VERBS

241

{LOS

VERBOS REGULARES)
Imperative {Imperativo)

Speakj

etc.

Learn,

etc.

Live,

etc.

habl a (t) hab e (Vd.,

etc.)

aprend e (t) aprend a (Vd.,

etc.)

viv e (t) viv a (Vd., etc.)

habl emos (nosotros) aprend amos (nosotros) viv amos (nosotros) aprend ed (vosotros) viv id (vosotros) hab ad (vosotros)

hablen

(Vds., etc.)

aprendan

(Vds., etc.)

vivan

(Vds., etc.)

{Los Tiempos Compuestos de los Verbos Regulares)

256. haber aprendido, to have


learned

257. haber vivido, to have


lived

habiendo aprendido, having


learned

habiendo vivido, having


lived

Subjtmctive (Subjuntivo)

Perfect

(Perfecto)

I may have spoken, etc. I may have learned, etc. haya hablado haya aprendido hayas hablado, etc. hayas aprendido, etc.

I may have

lived, etc.

haya vivido hayas vivido,

etc.

Pluperfect, First Form (Pluscuamperfecto, Primera Forma) I might (or should) I might (or should) I might (or should)
have spoken,
etc.

have learned,

etc.

have lived,
etc.

etc.

hubiera hablado,

etc.

hubiera aprendido,

hubiera vivido,

etc.

Pluperfect, Second Form (Pluscuamperfecto, Segunda Forma) I might (or should) I might (or should) I might (or should)
have spoken,
etc.

have learned,

etc.

have lived,
etc.

etc.

hubiese hablado,

etc.

hubiese aprendido,

hubiese vivido,

etc.

Future Perfect
I

(Futuro Perfecto)
etc.

may

have spoken,

etc.

hubiere hablado,

etc.

I may have learned, hubiere aprendido,

etc.

I may have lived, etc. hubiere vivido, etc.

Note, The compound tenses of a verb are composed of the proper forms of the auxiliary haber and the past participle of the verb.

242
258.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

258

Passive Voice of a Verb of the First Conjugation


Infinitive {Infinitivo)

Gerund {Gerundio)
Past Participle {Participio Pasivo)
Indicative {Indicativo)

Present
I
soy llamado, -a eres llamado, -a es llamado, -a

{Presente)

am

called, etc.

somos llamados, -as


sois llamados, -as son llamados, -as

I was

called,

Impereect {Imperfecto) was hehtg called, used to


era llamado, -a, etc.

he called, etc.

Preterit {Pretrito) 1 was called, etc.


-

fui llamado, -a, etc.

Future
I

{Futuro)
etc.

shall he called,

ser llamado, -a, etc.

Conditional {Condicional) I should he called, etc.


sera llamado, -a, etc.

Compound Tenses
Infinitive {Infinitivo)

haber sido llamado,

-a,

Gerund {Gerundio)
Indicative {Indicativo)

habiendo sido llamado,

Perfect

{Perfecto)

I have heen called, etc. he sido llamado, -a, etc.

Pluperfect {Pluscuamperfecto)
I had heen called, etc. haba sido llamado, -a, etc.

Past Anterior

{Pretrito Anterior)

I had heen called, etc. hube sido llamado, -a, etc.

Future Perfect

{Futuro Perfecto)
etc.

I shall have heen called, habr sido llamado, -a,

etc.

Contditional Perfect {Condicio7ial Perfecto) I should have heen called, etc. habra sido llamado, -a, etc.

258

THE REGULAR VERBS


de
la

243

(Voz Pasiva de un Verbo

Primera Conjugacin)

ser llamado, -a, -os, -as, to be called

siendo llamado, -a, -os, -as, being called

llamado, -a, -os, -as, called

Subjunctive (Subjunjo]

Present
I
sea llamado, -a seas llamado, -a sea llamado, -a

{Presente)
etc.

may

be called,

seamos llamados, -as


seis llamados, -as

sean llamados, -as I:viPERFECT, First Forai {Imperfecto, Primera Forana) I 7night {or should) he called, etc. fuera llamado, -a, etc. Imperfect, Second Form {Imperfecto, Segunda F orina) I might {or should) he called, etc.
fuese llamado, -a,
etc.

Future I may he

'-(Futuro)

called, etc.
etc.

fuere llamado, -a,

Imperative {Imperativo)

Present
he {thou) called

{Presente)

he {ye) called

s llamado, -a

sed llamados, -as

{Tiempos Compuestos)
-os,
-a,

-as, to have been called

-OS, -as, having been called

Subjunctive {Subjuntivo)

Perfect

{Perfecto)
etc.

I may have been called, haya sido llamado, -a,

etc.
,

Pluperfect, First Form {Pluscuamperfecto Primera Forma) I might {or should) have been called, etc. hubiera sido llamado, -a, etc. Pluperfect, Second Form {Pluscua?nperfecto, Segunda Forma)
I might {or should) have been called, hubiese sido llamado, -a, etc.
etc.

Future Perfect {Futuro Perfecto) I may have been called, etc.


hubiere sido llamado, -a,
etc.

Note. The passive voice of a verb is formed by the use of the proper form of the auxiliary ser and the past participle of the verb.

244
259.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

259-262

The

future subjunctive, which


is

is

not given in the earHer


is

part of this book and

omitted in the later paradigms,

tense so rarely used that the student hardly needs to


it.

memorize
(or, after

It is usually replaced

by the present subjunctive

si, ^if,'

by the present

indicative).

260. Verbs in Spanish tend to preserve throughout their con-

jugation the sound of the infinitive stem.

For
IX,

this reason, cer-

tain orthographic changes occur in the conjugation in accord

with the rules given in the Introduction,


261.
1.

1.

Verbs with Orthographic Changes


sacar,
2.

deHnbe

3.

'to

take

quir, 'to

'to

pagar, pay'

out'
c to

delinquent'

4. distinguir, 'to distinguish'

qu

qu

to c

g to gu

gu tog
distingo distingues
etc.

Present Indicative
{Presente de Indicativo)

delinco delinques
etc.

Preterit Indicative
(Pretrito de Indicativo)

saqu
sacaste
etc.

pagu
pagaste
etc.

Present Subjunctive
(Presente de Subjuntivo)

saque saques saque


saquis

delinca delincas delinca


delincis

pague pagues pague


paguis

distinga distingas distinga


distingis

saquemos delincamos paguemos distingamos


saquen
delincan

paguen

distingan

262.
i

Verbs with stems ending

in

11

or

absorb an imstressed

of the ending.
1.

bullir, 'to boil'

2.

bruir, 'to polish'

Gerund

(Gerundio)

bullendo

bruendo
bru brueron
bruera
etc.

Preterit Indicative
(Pretrito de Indicativo)

jd jd

sing, plur.

bull

bulleron
bullese
etc.

Imperfect Subjunctive
(Imperfecto de Subjuntivo)

bullera
etc.

bruese
etc.

263-265

VERBS WITH ORTHOGRAPHIC CHANGES


of tenses

245
simpli-

263.

The names

adopted
the

in this

book are a

fication of the terms used in

Academy and
grammars
264.
for

are in accord v^ith

Grammar of the Spanish the common usage in Spanish

American students.

The

progressive tenses are formed from the gerimd of

the verb in question preceded

by the

auxiliary estar (somerest, e.g.,

times replaced by some verb expressing motion or


ir,

quedar,

etc.).

estoy hablando, I
le

am

speaking

estaban escribiendo, they were writing

bamos enseando, we were teaching him

(Verbos con Cambios Ortogrficos)


5.

averiguar,

6.

gozar,

7.

'to ascertain'

'to enjoy' 'to

vencer, conquer'
c to z

8.

zurcir,

'to darn'

10. diri9. coger, 'to catch' gir, 'to direct'

gu

to

z to c

c to z

g to
cojo coges
etc.

gtoj
dirijo

venzo
vences
etc.

zurzo zurces
etc.

diriges
etc.

averig averiguaste
etc.

goc
gozaste
etc.

averige averiges averige

goce goces goce

venza venzas venza

zurza zurzas zurza

coja cojas coja

dirija dirijas dirija

averigemos
averigis

gocemos
gocis

venzamos
venzis

zurzamos
zurzis

cojamos
cojis

dirijamos
dirijis

averigen

gocen

venzan

zurzan

cojan

dirijan

265.

Verbs of the second conjugation, with stem ending in a


i

vowel, change the

of the

ending

ie, io

to y

(cf.

IX,

4,

84).
|

creer, to 'believe'

Gerund

(Gerundio)

creyendo
3d sing, 3d plur.
creyera
etc.

Preterit Indicatr^
{Pretrito de Indicativo)

crey creyeron

Imperfect Subjunctive
{Imperfecto de Subjuntivo)

creyese
etc.

246
266.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

266

Radical-Changing Verbs
Gerund and Past Participle
(Gerundio y Participio Pasivo)

Present
Indicative
(Presente de Indicativo)

Present
Subjunctive
(Presente de Subjuntivo)
"

Imperpect
Indicative
(Imperfecto de Indicativo)

Infinitive
(Infinitivo)

1.

pensar

pensando

(e=ie),
'to think'

pienso piensas piensa

piense pienses piense

pensaba

pensado

pensamos
pensis

pensemos
pensis

piensan
2.

(e

entender = ie),

entendiendo

'to

understand'

entiendo entiendes entiende

piensen entienda entiendas entienda

entenda

entendido

entendemos
entendis

entendamos
entendis

entienden
3.

entiendan
discierna disciernas discierna
discerna

discernir
(e

discerniendo

= ie),
discernido

'to discern'

discierno disciernes discierne discernimos


discerns

discernamos
discernis

disciernen
4.

disciernan

adquirir
(i=ie),

adquiriendo

'to acquire'

adquirido

adquiero adquieres adquiere adquirimos


adquirs

adquiera adquieras adquiera

adquira

adquiramos
adquiris

5.

contar

contando

(o

= ue),
contado

'to count'

adquieren cuento cuentas cuenta

contamos
contis

adquieran cuente cuentes cuente contemos


contis

contaba

cuentan
6.

cuenten

mover
move'

moviendo

(o=ue),
'to

movido

muevo mueves mueve movemos


movis

mueva muevas mueva movamos


movis

mova

mueven
7.

muevan
juegue juegues juegue juguemos
juguis

jugar

jugando

(u

= ue),
jugado

'to play'

juego juegas juega

jugaba

jugamos
jugis

juegan

jueguen

266

RADICAL-CHANGING VERBS

247

(Verbos con Cambios de Radical)


Future
Indicative
Futuro (de
Indicativo)

Preterit

Conditional
(Condicional)

Indicative
(Pretrito de Indicativo)

Imperfect Subjunctive
(Imperfecto de Subjuntivo)

Imperative
{Imperativo)

pensar

pensara

pens

pensara

pensase

piensa

pensad

entender

entendera

entend

entendiera

entendiese

entiende

entended

discernir

discernira

discern

discerniera

discerniese

discierne

discernid

adquirir

adquirira

adquir

adquiriera

adquiriese

adquiere

adquirid

contar

contara

cont

contara

contase

cuenta

contad

mover

movera

mov

moviera

moviese

mueve
moved

jugar

jugara

jugu

jugara

jugase

juega

jugad

248

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

267

Radical-Changing Verbs
Gerund and Past Participle
(Gerundio y Participio Pasivo)

Present
Indicative
(Presente de Indicativo)

Present
Subjunctive
(Presente de Subjuntivo)

Imperfect
Indicative
(Imperfecto de Indicativo)

Inpinitivk
(Infinitivo)

8.

sentir

sintiendo

(e = ie,i),
'to feel'

siento sientes siente

sienta sientas sienta

senta

sentido

sentimos
sents

sintamos
sintis

sienten
9. dormir (o=ue, u),

sientan

durmiendo

'to sleep'

dormido

duermo duermes duerme dormimos


dorms

duerma duermas duerma durmamos


durmis

dorma

duermen
10.

duerman
pida pidas pida
peda

pedir

pidiendo

(e

= i),
pedido

'to a^k'

pido pides pide

pedimos
peds

pidamos
pidis

piden
11. rer
(e

pidan
ra

riendo
(not ri-iendo)

ro

rea

= i, ab-

sorbed in i of ending),
'to

res re

as
ra

redo

remos
res

namos
nais
ran
/

laugh'

ren

267.

When

initial,

the stressed e and o of radical-changing

verbs become ye and hue respectively, as no Spanish words begin with


ie or

ue

(cf.

IX,

3).

1.

Errar, 'to err':

Pres. Ind. yerro, yerras, etc. Pres, Suhj. yerre, etc.

Imptv.
2.

yerra

Oler, 'te smell': Pres, Ind. huelo, hueles, etc. Pres. Suhj. huela, etc. huele Imptv.

Note.

In

desosar, 'to bone,'

and desovar,

'to

spawn/ h

is

in-

serted before ue (deshuesa, deshueva, etc.).

268

RADICAL-CHANGING VERBS

249

{Verbos con Cambios de Radim)


Future
Indicaiiv'x
(Futuro de Indicaiho)

PlETERIT

Conditional
iCondicio'ricl)
'

Indicative
{Pretrito de

Impkrpect Subjunctive
{Imperfect de Subjuntivo)

Imperative
{Imperative)

Indicativo)

sentir

sentira

sent sentiste sinti

sintiera

sintiese

siente

sentimos
sentisteis

sentid

sintieron

dormir

dormira

dorm
dormiste

durmiera

durmiese

duerme
dormid

durmi dormimos
dormisteis

durmieron
pedir
pedira

ped pediste
pidi

pidiera

pidiese

pide

pedimos
pedisteis

pedid

pidieron
reir
reira
re

riera

riese

re

reiste ri

remos
reisteis

red

rieron

Verbs with Inceptive Endings. Verbs in -cer and -cir having a vowel before these endings insert a z before the c when
268.
it is

followed by an a or an o in the ending.


1.

Conocer,

'to

know': Pres. Ind.

conozco, conoces, etc. Pres. Suhj. conozca, conozcas, etc.


Pres. Ind. luzco, luces, etc. Pres. Suhj. luzca, luzcas, etc.

2.

Lucir, ^tohine':

Exceptions: mecer,
(cuezo, cueces, etc.),
decir, etc.).

'to

rock' (mezo, meces,

etc.),

cocer, 'to cook'

and derivatives and a few irregular verbs (hacer,

250
269.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

269, 271

and -uar learned by observation) take an accent mark on the throughout the singular and in the third person plural present indicative and subjunctive, and in the singular
certain
of verbs in -iar

number

(to
i

be

or

of the
of the

imperative.
1.

Enviar, 'to send':

Pres. Ind.

envo, envas, enva ... en-

van
Pres. Suhj. enve, enves, enve
. . .

en-

vien
Imptv.
2.

enva
contino,
continas,
.

Continuar,

'to continue': Pres.

Ind.

conticonti-

na

continan
contines,
.

Pres. Suhj. contine, tine


.

continen

Imptv.

contina

The commonest verbs not taking the accent mark are: Note. anunciar, 'to announce,' cambiar, 'to change,' estudiar, 'to study,' iniciar, 'to initiate,' premiar, 'to reward,' presenciar, 'to witness,' principiar, 'to begin.'

271,

IRREGULAR VERBS
Gerund and
Present
Indicative
(Presente de Indicativo)

Present
Subjunctive
(Presente de Subjuntivo)

Impereect
Indicative
(Imperfecto de Indicativo)

Infinitive
(Infinitivo)

Past Participle
(Gerundio y Participio Pasivo)

1.

andar,
'to go'

andando

ando andas anda

ande andes ande

andaba

andado

andamos
andis

andemos
andis

andan
2.

anden
asga asgas asga
asa

asir.

asiendo

asgo
ases

'to grasp'

ase

asido

asimos
ass

asgamos
asgis

asen

asgan

270
270.

IRREGULAR VERBS
Verbs in
-iiir,

251

which the u is pronounced (not those a. Morein -gtiir^ or -quir), insert a y between u o, u e, u over, the i of the endings -io and -ieron changes to y, because an unstressed i may not stand between two vowels (cf. IX,
in

4).

Verbs in -gir. retain the


etc.).
'to flee':

diresis only before

(arguyo,

but arg,
Huir,

Gerund
Fres. Ind.

huyendo
huyo, huyes, huye
. .
.

huyen

Pres. Suhj, huya, huyas, huya

huyan

Imptv.
Pret. Ind.

huye huy
.

huyeron
huyese,
etc.

Imp. Suhj. huyera,

etc.;

1 Erguir, 'to erect,' may be conjugated yergo, yergues, etc. irgues, etc. (cf. 266, lO).

(cf.

266,

3),

or irgo,

{VERBOS IRREGULARES)
Future
Indicative
{Futuro de
Indicativo)

Preterit
Conditional
(Condicional)

Indicative
{Pretrito de

Imperpect Subjunctive
{Imperfecto de Subjuntivo)

Imperative
{Imperativo)

Indicativo)

andar

andara

anduve
anduviste

anduviera

anduviese

anda

anduvo anduvimos
anduvisteis

andad

anduvieron

asir

asira

as

asiera

asiese

ase

asiste

asi

asimos
asisteis

asid

asieron

252

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

271

IRREGULAR VERBS
Infinitive
(Infinitivo)

Gerund and Past Participle


(Gerundio y Participio Pasivo)

Present
Indicati\te
[Presente de Indicativo)

Present
Subju-nctivt:
(Presente de Subjuntivo)

Imperpect
Indicative
(Imperfecto de Indicativo)

3.

caber,
fit'

cabiendo

quepo
cabes cabe

qdiepa

caba

'to

quepas quepa

cabido

cabemos
cabis

quepamos
quepis

caben
4.

quepan
caiga caigas caiga
caa

caer,

cayendo

'to fall'

caigo caes cae

cado
"

caemos
cais

caigamos
caigis

caen
5.

caigan

conducir,

conduciendo

'to

conduct'

conducido

conduzco conduces conduce conducimos


conducs

conduzca conduzcas conduzca

conduca

conduzcamos
conduzcis

6.

dar,

dando

conducen doy
das

conduzcan d
des

daba

'to give'

da

dado

damos
dais

demos
deis

dan
7.

den
diga digas diga
deca

decir,

diciendo

'to say,'

'teir

digo dices dice

dicho

decimos
decs

digamos
digis

dicen
8.

digan
est ests est

estar,

estando

'to be'

estoy ests est

estaba

estado

estamos
estis

estemos
estis

estn
9.

estn

haber,
have'

habiendo

'to

he has ha

haya hayas haya

haba
-

habido

hemos
habis

hayamos
hayis

han

hayan

271

IRREGULAR VERBS

253

(VERBOS IRREGULARES)
Future
Indicative
(Futuro de
Indicativo)

Preterit
Conditional
(Condicional)

Indicative
(Pretrito de

Iaiperfect Subjunctive
(Imperfecto de Subjuntivo)

Imperative
(Imperativo)

Indicativo)

cabr

cabra

cupe
cupiste

cupiera

cupiese

cabe

cupo cupimos
cupisteis

cabed

cupieron
caer
caera
ca caste
-

cayera

cayese

cae

cay camos
casteis

caed

conducir conducira

cayeron conduje
condujiste

condujera

condujese

conduce

condujo condujimos
condujisteis

conducid

condujeron
dar
dara
di

diera

diese

da

diste dio

dimos
disteis

dad

dieron
dir
dira

dije
dijiste

dijera

dijese

di

dijo

dijimos
dijisteis

decid

dijeron
estar
estara

estuve
estuviste

estuviera

estuviese

est

estuvo

estuvimos
estuvisteis

estad

estuvieron

habr

habra

hube
hubiste

hubiera

hubiese

he

hubo hubimos
hubisteis

habed

hubieron

254

FIRST COtlRSE IN SPANISH

271

IRREGULAR VERBS
Infinitive
(Infinitivo)

Gerund and Past Participle


(Gerundio y Participio Pasivo)

Present
Indicative
(Presente de Indicativo)

Present Subjunctive
(Presente de Subjuntivo)

Impertect
Indicative
(Imperfecto de Indicativo)

10.
'to

hacer/

haciendo

hago
haces hace

iaga

haca

make/
'do'

hagas haga

hecho

hacemos
hacis

hagamos
hagis

11.

ir,

yendo

'to go'

hacen voy vas va


*

hagan vaya
vayas vaya

iba ibas iba

ido

vamos
vais

vayamos
vayis

bamos
ibais

van
12. or,
'to hear'

vayan
oiga Olgas oiga

iban
oa

oyendo

oigo

odo

oyes oye omos


os

oigamos
oigis

13.
'to

poder, be able'

pudiendo

podido

oyen puedo puedes puede podemos


podis

oigan

pueda puedas pueda podamos


podis

poda

14.
'to

poner,
put'

poniendo

pueden pongo
pones pone

puedan ponga
pongas ponga

pona

puesto

ponemos
ponis

pongamos
pongis

ponen
15. querer,
'to wish,'
'like'

pongan
quiera
quera

queriendo

quiero quieres quiere

qmeras
quiera

querido

queremos
queris

queramos
queris

quieren
16. saber.
'to

quieran

sabiendo

know'
sabido

s sabes

sabe

sepa sepas sepa

saba

sabemos
sabis

sepamos
sepis
'

saben
1

sepan
f

I/icuefacer, rarefacer, satisfacer

and tumefacer retain the

of the

Latin original.

271

IRREGULAR VERBS

255

{VERBOS IRREGULARES)
Future
Indicative
{Futuro de
Indicativo)

Preterit
Conditional
{Condicional)

Indicative
{Pretrito de

Imperfect Subjunctive
{Imperfecto de Subjuntivo)

Imperative
{Imperativo)

Indicativo)

har

hara

hice
hiciste

hiciera

hiciese

haz

hizo

hicimos
hicisteis

haced

hicieron
ir ira

fui fuiste

fuera

fuese

ve

fu

fuimos
fuisteis

Tdi

fueron
oir
oira
o

oyera

oyese

oye

oste

oy omos
osteis

od

oyeron
podr
podra

pude
pudiste

pudiera

pudiese

pudo pudimos
pudisteis

pondr

pondra

pudieron puse
pusiste

pusiera

pusiese

pon
poned

puso pusimos
pusisteis

pusieron
querr
querra

quise
quisiste

quisiera

quisiese

quiere

quiso
qixisimos quisisteis

quered

quisieron

sabr

sabra

supe
supiste

supiera

supiese

sabe

supo supimos
supisteis

sabed

supieron
1 Some grammars include a 1st pers. plur. vamos. This is, however, an older form of the subjunctive vayamos, which it has replaced in all optative expressions.

256

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

271

IRREGULAR VERBS
Intinitive
(Infinitivo)

Gerund and Past Participle


(Gerundio y Participio Pasivo)

Present
Indicative
(Presente de Indicativo)

Present
Subjunctive
(Presente de Subjuntivo)

Imperfect
Indicative
(Imperfecto de
Ifidicativo)

17. salir,
'to

saliendo

salgo
sales sale

isalga

sala

go out/
salido

aeave'

salgas salga

salimos
sals

salgamos
salgis

salen
18. ser,
'to be'

salgan

siendo

soy eres es

sea seas sea

era eras era

sido
'

somos
SOIS

seamos
seis

eramos
erais

19. tener, 'to

teniendo

son tengo
tienes tiene

have'
tenido

sean tenga tengas tenga

eran
tena

tenemos
tenis

tengamos
tengis

tienen
20. traer,
'to bring'

tengan
traiga traigas traiga
traa

trayendo

traigo traes trae

trado

traemos
trais

traigamos
traigis

traen
21. valer,
'to

traigan

valiendo

valgo
vales vale

be worth'
valido

valga valgas valga

vala

valemos
valis

valgamos
valgis

valen
22. venir,
'to

valgan

viniendo
.

vengo
vienes viene

come'
venido

venga vengas venga

venia

venimos
vens

vengamos
vengis

23. ver,i
'to see'

viendo

vienen veo
ves

vengan vea
veas vea

ve
visto

vea veas vea

vemos
veis

veamos
veis

veamos
veais

ven
1

vean
is

vean
its

Proveer,

to provide,'

regular in

conjugation, though

271

nREGULAE. VERBS

257

(VERBOS IRREGULARES)
Future
Indicative
{Futuro de
Indicativo)

Preterit

Conditional
{Condicional)^

Indicati\'E
{Pretrito de

Imperfect Subjunctive
{Imperfecto de Subjuntivo)

T\rPERATIVE
{Imperativo)

Indicativo)

saldr

saldra

sal

saliera

saliese

sal

saliste
sali

salimos
salisteis

salid

salieron
ser sera
fui fuiste

fuera

fuese

fu

fuimos
fuisteis

sed

fueron
tendr
tendra

tuve
tuviste

tuviera

tuviese

ten

tuvo

tuvimos
tuvisteis

tened

tuvieron
traer
traera

traje trajiste trajo

trajera

trajese

trae

trajimos
trajisteis

traed

trajeron

valdr

valdra

val valiste

valiera

valiese

val(e)

vali

valimos
valisteis

valed

valieron

vendr

vendra

vine
viniste

vmiera

vieniese

ven

vino

vinimos
vinisteis

venid

vinieron
ver'
vera
.

vi

viera

viese

ve

viste

vio

vimos
visteis

ved

vieron
it

has the two frms provedo and provisto as past participle.

258
272.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

272-274

Derivatives of decir are conjugated like decir, except

that they have -dice instead of -di in the second person singular

olthe imperative.

(Cf. 271, 7.)

contradecir, to contradict desdecir, to gainsay entredecir, to interdict interdecir, to interdict predecir, to predict

Imp erative

bendecir, to bless maldecir, to curse


etc.

Sing, contradice " desdice " entredice " interdice " predice " bendice
i

"

maldice

273. Bendecir

and maldecir are

also regular in the future

and
etc.,

conditional: bendecir, etc., maldecir, etc.; bendecira,

maldecira, etc.

Moreover, they have regular past parti-

ciples,

bendecido, maldecido; the forms bendicho and mal-

dicho are

now

obsolete;

and the forms bendito and maldito are

used only as adjectives.


Irregular Past Participles {Participios Pasivos Irregulares)

274.

The

following verbs have irregular past participles:

(Otherwise regular)
abrir, to

open

cubrir, to cover
escribir, 1 to write imprimir, to print

abierto cubierto
escrito

impreso

(Radical changing)
morir, to die (cf. 266, 9) solver, to solve (cf. 266, 5) volver, to return (cf. 266, 6)

muerto
suelto vuelto

(Irregular)
decir, to say, tell (cf. 271, 7) hacer, to make, do (cf. 271, 10) poner, to put (cf. 271, u)

dicho

hecho
puesto
visto
have also the forms inscripto

ver, to see
1

(cf.

271, 23)
proscribir, 'to proscribe,'

and

Inscribir, 'to inscribe,' proscripto.

and

275-279

DEFECTIVE VERBS

259

275. There are a few verbs which have two past participles,

one regular and the other irregular, the latter having generally

an adjectival value. of such verbs:

The

following are

among

the

commonest

bendecir, to bless (cf. 271, confundir, to confound


elegir, to elect (cf. 266, lo)
fijar,

7)

bendecido confundido
elegido
fijado

bendito confuso
electo
fijo

to fix

frer, to fry (cf. 266, ii)

fredo

frito

incluir, to include (cf. 270)

incluido
7)

incluso

maldecir, to curse (cf. prender, to arrest proveer, to provide

271,

maldecido prendido
provedo

maldito preso
provisto roto

romper, to break

rompido

Note.

In

the last three cases the irregular past participle

may

also be used verbally.

Defective Verbs (Verbos Defectivos)


276.

The verbs
(ie),

aplacar, ^to please,' ataer, ^to appertain,'

concernir
singular

^to concern,' are

used only in the third person


in the case of concernir.

and

plural, or in the

gerund

277.

The verbs

placer,

Ho

please,'

and

yacer,

Ho

lie,'

are

likewise used generally in the third person,

though other forms,

following the rules in 268, exist, as well as

some

irregular

forms

(pret.

plugo, pres. subj. plega or plegu, imp. suhj. plu-

guiera, pluguiese; pres. ind. yazgo or yago, pres. suhj. yazga or

yaga, etc.).
278.

Soler (ue),

Ho be

accustomed,'

is

rarely used except in

the present and imperfect indicative.


Suelo hacerlo
Solan
I

am

accustomed to do so
to

acompaarme

They were wont

accompany me

279. There are ten verbs of the third conjugation which are

commonly used only by i. These are:


abolir, to abolish
a?:uerrir, to

in the

forms where the stem

is

followed

arrecirse, to
aterirse, to

accustom to war

become numb become numb

260

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


empedernir, to harden garantir, to guarantee manir, to grow tender

280-282

desmarrirse, to grow sad {or weak) despavorir, to become frightened embar, to impose upon

{of meats)

These verbs usually lack the present indicative singular and


third person plural,
all

the forms of the present subjunctive


All other forms are regular.

and the

singular of the imperative.

Impersonal Verbs {Verbos Impersonales)


280.

Impersonal verbs are verbs which are used only in the


participles

and the third person singular of the various tenses. They properly have no subject expressed. The verbs most commonly so used are those which refer to the phenomena of nature.
infinitive,

alborear, to

dawn

amanecer, to dawn anochecer, to grow dark


deshelar, to thaw diluviar, to rain hard, pour
lloviznar, to drizzle

escampar, to clear up, stop raining escarchar, to freeze, frost granizar, to hail
helar, to freeze
llover, to rain

nevar, to snow

relampaguear, to lighten tronar, to thunder


etc.

For haber and hacer used impersonally,

cf.

158, 159.

Note. Helar, deshelar, nevar, tronar and llover change the final e or o of the stem to ie and ue respectively when the stress falls on the syllable in which they occur (cf. 266, i, 5, 6).
hiela, it
is

freezing

llueve,

it is

raining

281.

These verbs are sometimes used with a subject expressed.


el

Amaneci Tronaban
282.

da

los

caones

The day dawned The cannons thundered


their

Amanecer and anochecer are sometimes used in complete conjugation, with the meaning to arrive {or be ent) at dawn' or ^at nightfall.'
'

pres-

Amanec en Madrid y anochecer


en Sevilla

was

in

Madrid

at

dawn and

shall

be in Seville at nightfall

283-285

LIST OF RADICAL-CHANGING

VERBS

261
of nature

283.

Besides the verbs referring to the

phenomena

there are a
sonally:

number

of other verbs

which are often used imper-

acaecer, to happen acontecer, to happen bastar, to suffice constar, to be clear, evident


etc.

convenir, to suit, be fitting, agree importar, to matter, be important parecer, to seem, appear suceder, to happen
It

Sucede siempre

as

No

importa

It doesn't

always happens thus matter


fre-

284.

Ser and estar, followed by nouns or adjectives, are

quently used impersonally:

Es verdad Es evidente
Era demasiado tarde Est muy nublado Estaba muy oscuro
Note.
,

It is true It It
is

evidentlate

was too

It is

very cloudy It was very dark

Ser followed by de and an active infinitive is sometimes used impersonally, and the following active infinitive has then the force
=-

of a passive.

Es de creer Es de querer

It is to be believed
It is to

be desired

List of Radical-Changing

Verbs

{Lista

de

los

Verbos

con Cambios de Radical)


285.

Verbs

like

pensar

(cf.

266,

l).

The

following verbs

and

their

compounds are the most

common

verbs that are conjugated like pensar:


concertar, to agree, harmonize confesar, to confess despertar, to awaken desterrar, to exile

acertar, to conjecture aright acrecentar, to increase adestrar, to train; break (horses) alentar, to breathe, encourage

apretar, to squeeze atravesar, to cross calentar, to warm


cerrar, to close, shut

empezar, to begin encomendar, to commend


to correct, repair enterrar, to bury fregar, to rub, scour

enmendar,

: :

262
gobernar, to govern
helar, to freeze

FIRST COTIRSE IN SPANISH


reventar, to burst segar, to reap, mow

286-289

manifestar, to manifest, show

sembrar, to sow
sentar, to seat,
serrar, to
fit,

merendar, to lunch negar, to deny


nevar, to snow
plegar, to fold

become,

suit

saw

quebrar, to break recomendar, to recommend regar, to water remendar, to repair, patch


etc.

sosegar, to appease, calm temblar, to tremble tentar, tq touch, try (contentar, detentar and intentar are regular)

286. Verbs like entender


ascender, to ascend, mount atender, to mind, heed
cerner, to
sift

(cf.

266, 2)

defender, to defend, protect descender, to descend


etc.

encender, to kindle, light entender, to hear, understand extender, to extend, stretch forth tender, to stretch out, extend verter, to spill, shed

287. Verb like discernir

(cf

266, 3)

concernir, to concern {used only in jd person)

288. Verb like adquirir (cf 266, 4)


.

inquirir, to inquire

289. Verbs like contar (cf 266,


.

5)

acordarse, to remember acostarse, to lie down, go to bed almorzar, to breakfast apostar, to wager, bet avergonzar, to shame
colar, to strain, filter

mostrar, to show probar, to prove, try recordar, to remind, remember


rodar, to roll rogar, to ask
soltar, to untie, loosen, utter

colgar, to hang,

hang up

concordar, to accord, agree


consolar, to console, comfort costar, to cost

sonar, to sound soar, to dream


trocar, to exchange, barter

tronar, to thunder
volar, to fly

encontrar, to find, meet forzar, to force, constrain


holgar, to rest
etc.

volcar, to upset, capsize

290-294

LIST OF RADICAL-CHANGING

VERBS

263

290. Verbs like


absolver, to absolve

mover

(cf.

266,

6)

morder, to bite
resolver, to resolve, determine
solver, to solve, loosen
torcer, to twist

disolver, to dissolve, separate


doler, to ache, feel pain Hover, to rain moler, to grind
etc.

volver, to turn, return

291.

Verbs

like sentir (cf. 266, 8):


inferir, to infer,

advertir, to warn, notify

deduce

arrepentirse, to repent conferir, to confer


convertir, to convert
deferir, to defer,
diferir, to defer,

invertir, to invert

mentir, to

lie

pervertir, to pervert
preferir, to prefer

pay deference delay


amuse

proferir, to proffer, utter


referir, to report, relate

digerir, to digest
divertir, to divert,

requerir, to require, notify


sugerir, to suggest
transferir, to transfer,
etc.

herir, to

wound

hervir, to boil

move

292. Verb like dormir (cf 266,


.

9)

morir, to die

(irr.

pp. muerto ^

293.

Verbs

like pedir (cf. 266, 10):


regir, to rule

ceir, to gird,

surround

colegir, to infer

rendir, to render,
repetir, to repeat

subdue

corregir, to correct
derretir, to melt, dissolve
elegir, to elect, choose

reir, to scold, reproach

seguir, to follow, continue


servir, to serve

embestir, to assail, attack gemir, to groan henchir, to fill, puff up medir, to measure
etc.

teir, to

dye

vestir, to dress, clothe

294. Verbs like rer

(cf.

266, ll):

sonrer, to smile,
1

and

all other verbs

in -eir.

Muerto =' killed,'

if

transitive with personal object (not reflexive,

when matado

is

used).

. .

264

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH

295

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS {LISTA

DE

VERBOS IRREGULARES)
t

295.

The

following

list

comprises most of the irregular verbs,

including radical-changing verbs (indicated

by

ie,

ue,

i,

etc.),

except the verbs that undergo orthographic changes

(cf.

261)

and the unexceptional verbs ending in -cer or -cir preceded by a vowel (cf. 268). The numbers refer to the sections where the verb itself or a paradigm is to be found.
adherir

(ie,
8.

i),

to

adhere,

cf.

266,

abnegar

(ie),

to

renounce,
cf.

cf.

adormir

(ue, u), to fall asleep,

cf.

266, 1. abolir, to abolish,

279.

266, 9. adquirir (ie), to acquire,

cf.

266,
5.

4.

abrir, to open, cf. 274.

aducir, to adduce,
cf.

cf.

271,

absolver
266,
19.

(ue),
6,

to

absolve,

advertir

(ie, i),
8.

to advise, warn,

cf.

274.
cf.

266,

abstenerse, to abstain,

271,

afollar (ue), to

blow with bellows,


cf.

abstraer, to abstract, cf. 271, 20. abuolar (ue), to turn eggs in frying,
cf.

cf. 266, 5. aforar (ue), to give a charter,

266,

5.

266,

5.

agorar (ue), to divine,


aguerrir, to

cf.

266,

5.

acentuar, to accent, cf. 269, 2. acertar (ie), to hit the mark, suc266, 1. aclocarse (ue), to brood,
cf.

accustom to war,

cf.

279.
alebrarse (ie), to squat, cf. 266, 1. alentar (ie), to breathe, animate,
cf.

ceed,

cf.

266,

5.

acordarse (ue), to remember,

cf.

266,

1.

266,

5.

aliarse, to be allied,

cf.

269,

1.

acornar (ue), to butt, cf. 266, 5. acostar (ue), to lay down, cf.
266, 5.

aliquebrar

(ie),
1.

to break the wings,

cf 266,

almorzar (ue), to breakfast,


(ie),

cf.

acrecentar

to

increase,

cf.

266, 1. actuar, to act, cf. 269, 2. acuantiar, to determine a quan-

266, 5. alongar (ue) to prolong, cf. 266, 5 amoblar (ue) to furnish, cf. 266, 5 amolar (ue), to whet, grind, cf.
,

tity, c/.

269,1.
(ie),
1.

266,

5.

adecentar
cf.

to render decent,

amover

(ue) to remove,
,

cf.

266,
1.

6.

266,

adestrar

(ie),

to train,

cf.

266,

1.

ampliar, to amplify, cf. andar, to go, cf. 271,

1.

269,

295

LIST OF
cf.

Irregular Verbs
7,

265
cf.

antedecir, to predict, 272.

271,

atraer, to attract^

271,

20.
cf.

atfavesar

(ie),

to

traverse^

anteponer, to prefer, c/. 271, 14. antever, to foresee, cf. 271, 23. apacentar (ie), to graze, cf. 266, i. apercollar (ue), to seize by the
coUar,
cf.

266,

1.

atribuir, to attribute,

cf.

270.

atronar (ue), to thunder,


avenir, to reconcile, aventar (ie), to fan,
cf. cf.

:/.

266,
1.

5.

271, 266,

22.

266,

5.

apernar
cf.

(ie), to seize

by the

legs,

avergonzar

(ue),

to

shame,

cf.

266, 1. aplacer, to appease, apostar (ue), to bet,

cf.

276. 266,
cf.
5.

266, 5. averiarse, to sustain damage,


266,

cf.

cf.

apretar
1.

(ie),

to compress, to

268, 1. aviar, to get ready, cf. 269, 1. azolar (ue), to dress timber,

cf.

aprobar (ue), 266,5.


argir, to argue,

approve,
270.
cf.

cf.

266,

5.

B
cf.

arrecirse, to

grow numb,

279.
cf.

bendecir, to bless,

cf.

271,
271,

7,

arrendar

(ie),

to rent, bridle,
to repent,

266, 1. arrepentirse

272, 273, 275. bienquerer, to esteem,

cf.

15.

(ie, i),

cf.

266, 8. arriar (naut.), to lower, strike,

cf.

269,

1.

caber, to
cf.

fit, cf.

271, 271,

3.
4.

arruar, to grunt,

269,

2.

caer, to
2

fall, cf.

ascender
asentar
asentir

(ie)

to ascend,
i),

cf.

266,
i.

calentar

(ie),

to

warm,

cf.

266,

1.

(ie), to seat, cf.


(ie,
8.

to

266, coincide,

cf.

cf. 269, 1. cariarse (med.), to grow carious,

calofriarse, to shiver,
269,
(ie),
(i),

266,

cf.

1.

aserrar

(ie),

to saw,

cf.

266,

i.

cegar
ceir

to blind,
cf.

cf.

266,
10.

1.

asir, to seize, cf. 271, 2.

to gird,
to

266,

asolar (ue), to level, destroy,

cf.

cerner
cerrar
ciar, to

(ie), (ie),

sift, cf.
cf.

266,
l.

2.
1.

266,

5.

to close,
cf.

266,

asoldar (ue), to hire,

asonar (ue),

266, to be assonant,
cf.

5.

back up,
(ie),

269,

cf.

cimentar

to found,

cf.

266,
5.

1.

266,

5.

circuir, to encircle, cf. 270.

asosegar (ie), to calm, cf. 266, i. ataer, to appertain, cf. 276. ataviar, to adorn, cf. 269, i. atender (ie), to attend, cf. 266, 2. atenerse, to abide by, cf. 271, 19. atentar (ie), to attempt a crime,
cf.

clocar (ue), to cluck,

cf.

cf.

266,

cocer (ue), to
7,

boil,

bake,

261,
cf.

266,

6.

coextenderse
266, 2. colar (ue),

(ie)

to co-extend,

to

strain,

filter,

cf.

266,

1.

atenuar, to attenuate,
aterirse, to

cf.

cf.

grow numb,
to terrify, to cram,
cf.

269, 2. 279.

266, 5. colegir (i), to collect, cf. 266, 10. colgar (ue), to hang up, cf. 266, 5.

aterrar atestar

(ie),
(ie),

cf.

266, i. 266, i.

comedirse
10.

(i),

to behave,

cf.

266,

266
comenzar

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


(ie),

295

to

commence,
cf.

cf.

266,

1.

competir
10.

(i),

to compete,

266,

contener, to contain, cf. 271, 19. continuar, to continue, cf. 269, 2. contorcerse (ue), to be distorted,
cf. 266, 6. contradecir, to

complacer, to please, cf. componer, to compose,


14.

277.

contradict,

cf.

cf.

271,
cf.

271,7,272.
contraer, to contract, cf. 271, contrahacer, to counterfeit,
20.
cf,

comprobar

(ue),

to

verify,

266,

5.

concebir
10.

(i),

to conceive,

cf.

266,
2.

271,10. contraponer, to oppose,


14.

cf.

271,
i.

conceptuar, to judge, cf. 269, concernir (ie), to concern,


266,
3,

contrariar, to oppose,

cf.

269,

cf,

contravenir,

to

contravene,
cf.

cf,

276.
(ie),

271,22.
to

concertar

concert,

cf.

contribuir, to contribute,

270.

266,

1.

controvertir
cf.

(ie, i),
8.

to controvert,

concluir, to conclude,

270.

cf.

266,

concordar (ue), to accord, agree,


cf.

266,

5.

convenir, to agree, cf. 271, 22. convertir (ie, i), to convert, cf.
266, corregir
10.
8.

condescender
cf.

(ie),

to condescend,

266,
6.

2.

(i),

to correct,

cf.

266,
i.

condolerse

(ue),

to

condole,

cf.

266,

correntiar, to irrigate,

cf.

269,
5.

conducir, to conduct, cf. 271, 5. conferir (ie,i), to confer, cf. 266,8. confesar (ie) to confess, cf. 266, i
,

costar (ue), to cost,


creer, to believe,
cf.

cf. 266, 265.


i.

criar, to rear, cf. 269,

confiar, to confide,
confluir, to join,
cf.

cf.

269,

i.

cuantiar, to appraise,
cubrir, to cover,
cf.

cf.

269,

i.

270.

274.

confundir, to confound,

275.
affect,

conmoyer
cf.

(ue),
6.

to

move,
cf.

Ch
chirriar, to squeak, cf. 269,
l.

266,

conseguir
10.

(i),

to obtain,

266,

consentir

(ie,

i),

to consent,
to to

cf.

266,

8.

consolar

(ue),
5.

console,

cf.

dar, to give,

cf.

271,
cf.

6.

266,

decaer, to decay,
(ue),

271,

4.

consonar

rhyme,

cf.

decentar

(ie),

to begin to lose {as

266, 5. constituir, to constitute, cf. 270. constreir (i), to constrain, cf.

of health), cf. 266, l. decir, to say, cf. 271, 7.

266,

10.

deducir, to deduce, cf. 271, 5. defender (ie), to defend, cf. 266,


deferir
(ie, i),
,

2. 8.

construir, to construct,

cf.

270.

to defer,

cf.

266,

contar (ue), to count, cf. 266, 5. contender (ie), to contend, cf.

degollar (ue) to behead, cf. 266, 5. demoler (ue), to demolish, cf,

266,

2.

266,

6.

295
demostrar
cf.

LIST or
(ue),
5.

IRREGULAR VERBS
desatentar

267
to

to

demonstrate,

(ie),

perturb,

cf.

266,

denegar (ie), to deny, cf. 266, i. denostar (ue), to insult, cf. 266, 5. dentar (ie), to indent, cf. 266, 1. deponer, to depose, cf. 271, u. derrenegar (ie), to abhor, cf.

266, 1. desatraer, to separate, cf. desavenir, to discompose,


22.

271,

20.

cf.

271,

descarriar, to mislead,

cf.

269,

1.

descender

(ie),

to

descend,
cf.

cf.

266,

1.

266,

2.

derrengar
266, derretir
1.

(ie),

to

cripple,

cf.

desceir
10.

(i),

to ungird, to

266,

(i),

to melt,

cf.

266,

10.

descolgar

(ue),

unhang,

cf.

derrocar (ue), to pull down,

cf.

266,5.
derruir, to demolish,
cf.

266, 5. descollar (ue), to stand forth, excel, cf.

270.
cf.

266,

5.

desacertar

(ie),

to

blunder,

descomedirse
ful, cf.

(i),

to

be disrespectcf.

266,

1.

desacollar (ue), to dig up ground {about vines), cf. 266, 5.

266, 10. descomponer, to discompose,

271,

14.

desacordar

(ue),

to

make

dis-

desconcertar

(ie),

to

disconcert,
269,

cordant, cf. 266, 5. desadvertir (ie, i), to give no heed,


cf.

cf. 266, l. desconfiar, to distrust,

cf.

1.

266,
1.

8.

desconsentir
to

(ie, i),

to dissent,

cf.

desaferrar

(ie),

loosen,
269,

cf.

266,

8.

266,

desconsolar (ue), to
cf.

make

discon-

desafiar, to challenge,

1.

solate,

cf.

desaforar

(ue),
(ie),

to

infringe,

cf,

descontar

266, 5. (ue), to discount,

cf.

266,
266,

5.

266,

5.

desalentar

1.

to discourage,

cf.

desconvenir, to disagree,
22.

cf.

271,

desamoblar
ture,
cf.

(ue), to

remove

furni-

descordar (ue), to remove cords,


cf.

desandar, 271,1. desapretar

266, 5. to retrace
(ie),

266,

5.

steps,

cf.

descornar (ue), to remove horns,


cf. 266, 5. descriarse, to weaken,

to

slacken,

cf.

cf.

269,

i.

266,
266,
266,

1.

desaprobar (ue), to disapprove,

5.

cf.

desarrendar

1.

(ie),

to unbridle,
to

cf.

descubrir, to uncover, cf. 274. desdar, to take back, cf. 271, desdecir, to gainsay, cf. 271, 272.

6.
7,

desdentar
(ie),

(ie),
1.

to

remove

teeth,

desasentar
266,
1.

disagree,

cf.

cf.

266,
1.

desempedrar
c/.

(ie),

to unpave,

cf.

desasir, to let go,

desasosegar

(ie),

to

271, disturb,
2.

c/.

266,

266,

1.

desatender

(ie),

to disregard,

cf.

desencerrar (ie), to release from confinement, cf. 266, 1. desencordar (ue), to unstring, cf.

266,

2.

266,

5.

268

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


desolar (ue), to

295

desengrosar (ue), to make lean,


cf.

make
to

desolate,

cf.

266,

5.

266,

5.

desentenderse
cf.

(ie),

to disregard,
disinter,

desoldar

(ue),

unsolder,
cf.

cf.

266,

2.

desenterrar

(ie),

to

cf.

266, 5. desollar (ue), to flay, 266,

266,

5.

266,1. desenvolver (ue), to unfold,

desosar (ue), to remove bones,


cf.
5,

cf.

266,

6.

desovar
to neglect dutv,
cf.
5,

(ufe),

267, note. to spawn,

cf.

266,
279.

deservir

(ie, i),

266, 8. desflocar (ue), to remove flocks

267, note. despavorir, to be terrified,

cf.

despedir
10.

(i),

to dismiss,

cf.

266,

(of wool), cf. 266,

5.

desgobernar

(ie),

to

misgovern,
271,
cf. lo.

despedrar
cf.

(ie),
1.

to clear of stones, to

cf. 266, 1. deshacer, to undo,

266,
1.

cf.

despernar

(ie),

remove
to

legs, cf.

deshelar
1,

(ie),

to thaw,

266,

266,

280.
(ie), to
1.

despertar

(ie),

awaken,

cf.

desherbar
cf,

pluck out herbs,

266,

1.

266,

despezar
to unchain,

(ie),

to diminish, {arch.)

desherrar

(ie),

remove

horseshoes,

cf.

desinvernar
quarters,
desler
(i),

(ie),
cf.

266, l. to leave winter


l.

cf. 266, l. desplacer, to displease, cf. 277. desplegar (ie), to unfold, cf. 266,
1.

bond

stones,

266,
to

to dilute,
(ie),

cf.

266,

ii.

despoblar (ue), to depopulate,

cf.

deslendrar

remove

nits, cf.

266,5.
desproveer, to leave unprovided, cf. 275, footnote to ver, p.
256.

266,

1.

desmajolar (ue), to uproot vines,


loosen shoe-strings, cf. 266, desmarrirse, to become sad,
5.

cf.

destentar
tation,

(ie), to
cf.

lead out of temp1.

279. desmedirse (i), to go beyond bounds, cf. 266, 10. desmelar (ie), to take honey from
a hive,
cf.

266,

desteir

(i),

to discolor, fade,

cf.

266, 10.

desterrar

(ie),

to exile,
to

cf.

266,

i.

266,
(ie),

l.

destituir, to deprive,

cf.

270.
cf.

desmembrar
266,1. desmentir (ie,
cf.
8.

to

dismember,
cf.

destorcer
266,
6.

(ue),

untwist,

i),

to belie,
to

266,

destrocar (ue), to return a thing bartered, cf. 266, 5.


destruir, to destroy, cf. 270. desvariar, to rave, cf. 269, i. desventar (ie), to vent, cf. 266, i. desvergonzarse (ue), to be shameless {or impudent), cf. 266, desviar, to divert, cf. 269, i. desvirtuar, to pall, cf. 269, 2.
5.

desnegar

(ie),
1.

retract,

cf.

266,

desnevar
cf.

(ie),

to

thaw

(of

snow),

266, 1. desobstruir, to remove obstruction, cf. 270. desor, to feign not to hear, cf.

271,

12.

desvolver (ue), to alter the shape

295

LIST OF
cf.

IRREGULAR VERBS
6,

269
become related

of a thing, plow,

266,

emparentar

(ie), to
cf.

274.

by marriage,

266,

l.

detener, to detain, cf. 271, 19. detraer, to detract, cf. 271, 20. devolver (ue), to give back, cf.
266,

6,

empedernir, to harden,

cf.

279.

274.
to defer, delay,
cf.

empedrar (ie), to pave, cf. 266, 1. empezar (ie), to begin, cf. 266, 1. emporcar (ue), to soil, befoul, cf.

diferir (ie,

i),

266,

5.

266,

8.

encender
encentar
8.

(ie), to light, cf.

266,

2.

cf. 270. digerir (ie, i), to digest, cf. 266, diluir, to dilute, cf. 270.

difluir, to

be diffused,

(ie), to
cf.

begin the use of a


1.

thing,

266,

discernir (ie), to discern,


3.

cf.

266,

encerrar (ie) to shut up, c/. 266, 1 enclocar (ue), to cluck, cf. 266, 5.

encomendar
cf.

(ie), to

commend,

cf.

disconvenir, to disagree,
22.

271,

266,

1.

discordar
266, disentir
5.

(ue),

to

disagree,
dissent,

cf.

encontrar (ue), to meet, cf. 266, 5. encorar (ue), to cover with leather,
cf.

266,

5.

(ie,
8.

i),

to

cf.

encordar (ue), to string


instruments)
,

(of musical
5.

266,

cf.

266,

disminuir, to diminish, cf. 270. disolver (ue), to dissolve, cf. 266, 6, 274. disonar (ue), to be in dissonance,
266, 5. dispertar (ie),
cf.

encornar (ue), to horn, gore, cf. 266,5. encovar (ue), to put into a cellar,
conceal,
cf.

encubertar
to

(ie),

266, 5. to caparison,
gear,

c/.

cf.

awaken,

cf.

266,

1.

266, 1. disponer, to dispose, cf. 271, 14. distender, to distend, cf. 266, 2.

endentar

(ie), to

1.

266,

1.

enfriar, to cool,

cf.

269,

engorar (ue), to addle,


engrer, to elate,
en,
cf.

cf.

266,

5.

distraer, to distract,
divertir (ie,

cf.

271,

20.

distribuir, to distribute,
i),

cf.
cf.

270.

266, 11. engrosar (ue), to fatten, strength


cf.

to divert,

266,

8.

dolar

(ue),

to

hew
5.

{of

wood
266,
cf.
6.

or

enhestar

(ie),

266, 5. to erect,
to honey,

cf.

266,

1.

stone), cf. 266,

enmelar

(ie),

doler (ue), to pain,

cf.

enmendar
1.

(ie),

cf. 266, 1. to amend, cf. 266,

dormir (ue, u), to


9.

sleep,

266,

enrodar
wheel,
blood,

(ue),
cf.

to

break
5.

on the

266,
(ie),

ensangrentar
cf.

to cover with
1.

266,

educir, to bring out, cf. 271, efectuar, to effect, cf. 269, 2. elegir (i), to elect, cf. 266,
275.

5.

entender
cf.

(ie),
2.

to hear, understand,

266,

10,

enterrar (ie), to inter, cf. 266, 1. entortar (ue), to make crooked,


cf. 266, 5. entredecir, to interdict, 7, 272.
cf.

embar,

to

impose,
to assail;

deceive,
266,

cf.

279.
(i),

271,

embestir

cf.

10.

270

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

295

entremorir (ue, u), to pine away,


flicker, cf. 266, 9, 274. entreor, to hear indistinctly,

ferrar
cf.
cf.

(ie),

to garnish with iron,


1.

271,12. entrepernar

266,

put the legs in between (something else), cf.


(ie),

to

fiar,

to trust,

cf.

fijar, to fix, cf.

269, 275.

1.

266,

fluctuar, to fluctuate,
foliar (ue), to
cf.

1.

cf.

269,

entreponer, to interpose,
14.

cf.

271,

fluir, to flqw, cf. 270.

blow with bellows,

entretener, to delay, entertain,

266,

5.

cf.

271,19.
entrever,
to
see imperfectly,
to invest,
cf.

271,23.
envestir
10.
(i),

forzar (ue), to force, cf. 266, 5. fregar (ie), to rub, cf. 266, 1. frer (i), to fry, cf. 266, 11, 275.

cf.

266,

enviar, to send,

c/.

269,

i.

ganzuar, to pick locks,


garantir, to guarantee,

envolver (ue), to involve, wrap


up, cf. 266, 6, 274. equivaler, to equal, cf. 271, 21. erguir, to erect, cf. p. 251, foot-

cf.

269,

2.

cf.

279.
10.
1.
.

gemir

(i),

to groan,

cf.

266,
269,

gloriarse, to glory,

cf.

note

1.

errar, to err,

cf.

267,

1.

gobernar (ie), to govern, cf. 266, 1. graduar, to graduate, cf. 269, 2. gruir, to cry like cranes, cf. 270.
guiar, to guide,
cf.

escarmentar (ie), to take warning by example, correct severely,


cf.

269,

1.

266,

1.

escocer (ue), to smart,


escolar (ue), to strain,
escribir, to write,
cf.

cf.
cf.

268.

H
5.

266,

274.
cf.

haber, to have, cf. 271, habituar, to accustom, cf.

9.

esforzar

(ue),

to

strengthen,
269,
8.
1.

hacendar

(ie),

to

269, 2. transfer prop-

266, 5. espiar, to spy,


estar, to be,
cf.

cf.

erty, cf. 266, 1. hacer, to do, make,

cf.

271,
1.

10.

271,

hastiar, to loathe,
270.

cf.

269,

estatuir, to establish,

cf.
cf.

heder
1.

(ie),

to

have a stench,
cf.

cf.

estregar estreir

(ie),
(i),

to rub,

266,

266, 2.

to bind,

cf.

266,

10.
1.

helar
280.

(ie),

to freeze,
to

2^6,

1,

estriar (arch.), to flute,

cf.

269,

evaluar, to value, cf. 269, 2. exceptuar, to except, cf. 269, 2. excluir, to exclude, cf. 270. expedir (i), to expedite, cf. 266,
10.

henchir

(i),

stuff,

cram,
cf.

cf.

266,
(i),

10.

hender
heir
10.

(ie),

to cleave,

266,

2.

to

knead dough,

cf.

266,

expiar, to expiate,

cf.

269,

1.

herbar
2.
2.

(ie),
cf.

to dress skins (with

exponer, to expose, cf. 271, H. extender (ie), to extend, cf. 266, extenuar, to attenuate, cf. 269,
extraer, to extract,
cf.

herbs),

266,

1.

herir

(ie, i),

to

wound,
\a,

cf.

266,

8.

herrar

(ie),
1.

to shoe

horse),

cf.

271,

20.

266,

295

LIST OF

IRREGULAR VERBS

271

hervir (ie, i), to boil, cf. 266, 8. holgar (ue), to be idle, cf. 266, 5.
hollar

(ue),
5.

to

trample on,

jugar, to play,

cf.

266,

7.

cf.

266,

huir, to flee,

cf.

270.
leer, to read, cf. 265.

to bind, cf. 269, licuefacer, to liquefy,


liar,

i.

cf.

p.

254,

imbuir, to imbue,

cf.

270.

footnote

1.

impedir (i), to impede, cf. 266, lo. imponer, to impose, cf. 271, u.
imprimir, to print,
cf.

luir, to gall,

wear away,
LI

cf.

270.

274.

improbar

(ue), to disapprove, cf.


5.

266,

llover (ue), to rain,


,

cf.

266,

6,

incensar

(ie)

to incense,

cf.

266,

280.

incluir, to include, cf. 270, 275.

indisponer, to indispose,
14.

cf.

271,
272, 273, 275.

M
maldecir, to curse,
cf.

271,

7,

individuar,

to

distinguish,

cf.

269, 2. inducir, to induce,

malherir
cf.

(ie, i),
8.

to

wound

badly,

271,

5.

cf.
2.
8.
i.

266,

infatuar, to infatuate,
inferir (ie,
i),

cf.

269,

malquerer, to

dislike, c/. 271, 15.

to infer,

cf.

266,

malsonar
noise,

(ue), to

make

offensive
271,
(or
20.

infernar
ingerir

(ie), to

damn,

cf.

influir, to influence, cf.


(ie, i),
8.

266, 270.

266, 5. maltraer, to maltreat,


cf.

cf.

to insert, graft,
to erect,
266, 266,

cf.

mancornar
together,

(ue),
cf.

to join

tie)

266,

inhestar

(ie),

cf. cf.

i.

manifestar

(ie),

266, 5. to manifest,

cf.

inquirir (ie), to inquire,


inscribir, to

4.

inscribe,

cf.

p. 258,

266, 1. manir, to mellow,


cf.

mature meat,
cf.

footnote

1.

279.

insinuar, to insinuate,
instruir, to instruct,

cf.

269,

2.

mantener, to maintain,
19.

271,

instituir, to institute, cf. 270.


cf.

cf.

270.

interdecir, to interdict,

271,

medir melar

(i),

to measure,

(ie),
c/.

cf. 266, lo. to boil clear, deposit

7, 272. interponer, to interpose,

honey,
cf.

266,
to

i.

271,

mentar
mentir

(ie),

to mention,
lie, cf.

c/.

266,
8.

i.

14.

(ie, i),

266,

intervenir, to intervene,
22.

cf.

271,
5.
i.

introducir, to introduce,

c/. cf.
cf. cf.

271,
266,
266,

invernar
investir
10.
ir,

(ie),
i),

to winter,
to invert,

merendar (ie), to lunch, cf. 266, i. moblar (ue), to furnish, c/. 266, 5. moler (ue), to grind, cf. 266, 6. morder (ue), to bite, cf. 266, 6.
morir (ue, u), to
274.
die, cf. 266, 9,

invertir (ie,
(i),

8.

to invest,

266,

mostrar
cf.

(ue), to show,

cf.

266,
266,

5.

to go,

271,

11.

mover

(ue), to

move,

cf.

6.

272

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


presentir (ie, 266, 8.
i),

295
to forebode,
cf.

negar nevar
280.

(ie),

to deny,

cf.

266,

i.
i

(ie),

to snow,

cf.

266,

presuponer, 271,14.

to

presuppose,
cf.

cf,

O
obstruir, to obstruct,
cf.

prevaler, to prevail,
22.

271,

21.

prevenir, to forestall,
270.
19.

cf.

271,

obtener, to obtain,
or, to

cf.

12.

271,
2.

hear,

cf.

271,
c/.

oler, to smell, cf. 267,

prever, to foresee, cf. 271, 23. probar (ue), to prove, cf. 266, 5. producir, to produce, cf. 271, 5.
proferir
(ie, i),

oponer, to oppose,

271,

14.

to utter,

cf.

266,

8.

promover 266,6.
lO. 14.

(ue),

to

promote,
cf.

cf.

proponer, to propose,
pedir
(i),

271,

to ask,

cf.

271,

pensar (ie), to think, cf. 266, i. perder (ie), to lose, cf. 266, 2. perniquebrar (ie), to break the
legs, cf. 266,
1.

proscribir, to proscribe,

cf.

p. 258,

footnote 1. proseguir (i), to pursue,


10.

cf.

266,

perpetuar, to perpetuate,
2.

cf.

269,

prostituir, to prostitute, cf. 270.

perseguir
10.

(i),

to pursue,
i),

cf.

266,
cf.

pervertir

(ie,

to

pervert,

proveer, to provide, cf. 275, footnote to ver, p. 256. provenir, to proceed, cf. 271, 22. puntuar, to punctuate, cf. ^ 269, 2.

266,8.
piar, to peep, cf. 269,
i.

placer, to please,

cf.

277.

plegar (ie), to fold, cf. 266, i. poblar (ue), to found, people, cf

quebrar

(ie), to break, cf. 266, 1. querer, to wish, like, cf. 271, 15.

266,

5.

poder, to be able, cf. 271, 13. poner, to put, cf. 271, 14. porfiar, to contend, cf. 269, i. poseer, to possess, cf. 265. posponer, to postpone, cf. 271,
14.

rarefacer,

to

rarefy,

cf.

p.

254,

footnote 1. reapretar (ie), to squeeze again,

cf.

predecir, to predict,
272.

cf.

271,

7,

266,1. reaventar (ie), to winnow again, cf. 266,1.


rebendecir, to bless again, cf. 271,7, 272, 273, 275. recaer, to fall back, c/. 271, 4. recalentar (ie), to heat again, cf.

predisponer,
271, 14. preferir (ie,
i),

to

predispose,
cf.

cf,

to prefer,

266,

8.

premorir
266,

(ue),
9,

to

die

first,

cf.

274.

266,

1.

prender, to arrest, cf. 275. preponer, to put before, cf. 271,


14.

recentar (ie), to leaven, cf. 266, 1. receir (i), to regird, cf. 266, 10.
recluir, to seclude,
cf,

270.

295
recocer
(ue),

LIST OF
to
boil

IRREGULAR VERBS
cf.

273
to boil again,
cf.

again,

rehervir

(ie,

i),

266, 6, 268. recolar (ue), to strain again,

cf.

266, 8. rehollar (ue),


foot,
cf.

to

trample under
5.

266,

5.

266,

recomendar
cf.

(ie),
1.

to

recommend,
cf.

rehuir, to withdraw,
rer
(i),

cf.

270.

266,
14.

to laugh,

recomponer,

to

recompose,

remendar
rementir

cf. 266, 11. (ie), to repair, cf. 266,

271,

(ie, i),
8.

to

lie

greatly,

cf.

reconducir, to renew a lease,

cf.

266,

271,5.
reconstruir,
to

reconstruct,
to

cf.

remoler (ue), to regrind, cf. 266, 6. remorder (ue), to bite repeatedly,


cf.

270.
recontar

266,
6.

6.

(ue),
5.

recount,

cf.

remover

(ue),

to

remove,
cf.

cf.

266,

266,

reconvenir, to accuse, cf. 271, 22. recordar (ue), to remind, remember,


cf.

rendir

(i),

to subdue,

266,

10.
1.

266,

5.

renegar renovar

(ie),

to deny,
to

cf.

266,

(ue),

renovate,

cf.

recostar (ue), to lean against,

cf.

266,

5.

redargir, to reargue, cf. 270. redituar, to yield, cf. 269, 2. redoler (ue), to pain continually,
266, 6. reducir, to reduce,
cf.

266, 5. reir (i), to quarrel, cf. 266, repedir (i), to request again repeatedly), cf. 266, 10.

10.

{or

repensar

(ie),

to

reconsider,
266,

cf.

cf.

271,

5.

266, 1. repetir (i), to repeat,


10.

cf.

]0.

reelegir

(i),

to reelect,
(ie),
1.

cf.

266,

reencomendar
again,
cf.

to

commend
266,
8.

replegar repoblar

(ie),

to refold,
to

(ue),
5.

266, 1. repeople, cf.


cf.

266,

266,

referir (ie,

i),

to relate,

cf.

reponer,
271,

to
14.

put back, reply,


to

cf.

refluir, to flow

reforzar
266, refregar

back, cf. 270. (ue), to strengthen,


(ie),

cf.

reprobar

(ue),

reprove,
cf.

cf.

5.

to

rub,

fray,

cf.

266, 5. reproducir, to reproduce,


5.

271,
1.

266, 1. refrer (i), to fry well,


11,

cf.

266,

requebrar
15.

(ie), to

court,

cf.
cf.

266,

275.

requerer, to wish much,

271,

regar (ie), to water, cf. 266, 1. regimentar (ie), to organize a regiment, cf. 266, 1.
regir
(i),

to rule,

cf.

266,

10.

requerir (ie, i), to investigate, 266, 8. resaber, to know well, c/. 271,
resalir, to project,
cf.

cf.

I6.

regoldar (ue), to belch, cf. 266, 5. rehacer, to make over, c/. 271, 10. rehenchir (i), to refill, cf. 266, 10. reherir (ie, i), to repel repulse, cf.

271,

17.

resegar

(ie),
1.

to

mow
to

again,

cf.

266,

resembrar
266, 1. resentirse

(ie),

sow again,

cf.

266,

8.

reherrar
cf.

(ie), to
1.

reshoe (a horse),

(ie, i),

to be impaired,
8.

266,

resent,

cf.

266,

274
resfriar, to cool,

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


cf.

295

269,

i.

resolver (ue), to resolve,


resollar (ue), to respire,

cf. cf.

266, 266,

6.
5.

salpimentar (ie), to season with pepper and salt, cf. 266, 1. sarmentar (ie), to gather prunings
of vines,
cf.

resonar (ue), to resound,


5.

cf.

266,

266,

i.

satisfacer, to satisfy,
(ie),

cf.

p.

254,
i.

resquebrar
266,
1.

to

crack,

cf.

footnote

1.

segar
seguir
i.
i.

(ie),
(i),

to

mow,

cf.

266,

restituir, to restore, cf. 270.

restregar

(ie), (ie),

to scrub,

c/.
c/.

retemblar
retentar
reteir

to shake,
cf.

266, 266,
19.

sembrar sementar
sentar

cf. 266, lo. (ie), to sow, cf. 266, i.

to follow^,

(ie),

to sow,

cf.

266,
i.

i.

retener, to retain,
(ie),
cf.

271,

(ie), to- seat, cf.


cf.
18.

266,

to threaten with a

sentir (ie,4), to feel,


ser, to be,
cf.

266,
i.

8.

relapse,

266,

l.

271,

(i),

to

dye over again,

cf,

serrar
servir

(ie),
(i),

to saw,

cf. cf.

266,
266,

266,

10.

to serve,

lo.

retorcer (ue), to twist, cf. 266, 6. retostar (ue), to toast again, cf.

situar, to station,

cf.

sobrentenderse
stood,
cf.

(ie),
2.

269, 2. to be under-

266,

5.

266,

retraer,

to

dissuade,

retire,

cf.

sobreponer, to put over,


14.

cf.

271,
cf.

271,20.
retribuir, to

recompense,

cf.

270.

sobresalir, to exceed, overtop,

retronar (ue), to peal {as of thunder), cf. 266, 5, 280. retrotraer, to antedate, cf. 271,
20.

271,

17.

sobresembrar
again,
266,
cf.

(ie),

to

sow over
cf.

266,

i.

sobresolar (ue), to pave again,


cf.

revenirse, to waste away,


22.

271,
i.

5.

sobrevenir, to happen,
(ie),

cf.

271,

reventar
reverter

to burst,
cf.

cf.

266,

22.

rever, to review,
(ie),
2.

to

271, 23. overflow,

cf.

266,

sobreventar (ie) (naut.), to get the weather-gage, cf. 266, i. sobreverterse (ie), to overflow, cf.

revestir

(i), to clothe, cf. 266, 10. revolar(ue), to fly again, c/. 266,5. revolcar (ue), to trample upon, cf.

266,

2.

sobrevestir
coat, sofrer
cf.
(i),

(i),

to

put on an outer
cf.

266,

5.

266, 10. to fry slightly,

266,

revolver (ue), to

stir, cf.
cf.

266,
i.

6.

11,

275.

rociar, to sprinkle,

269,

rodar (ue), to roll, cf. 266, 5. rogar (ue), to entreat, cf. 266, romper, to break, cf. 275.
ruar, to strut,
cf.

5.

solar (ue), to floor, cf. 266, 5. soldar (ue), to solder, cf. 266, 5. soler (ue), to be accustomed, cf,

269,

2.

266, 6, 278. soltar (ue), to untie,

saber, to know,
salir, to

cf. cf.

271,

16.
17.

go out,

271,

cf. 266, 5. solver (ue), to loosen, cf. 266, 6, 274. soUar (ue), to blow (as with hcU lows), cf. 266, 5. sonar (ue), to sound, cf. 266, 5.

295
sonrer
(i),

LIST OF IRIIEGULAR VERBS


to smile,
cf.

275

266, 266,

ii.

sonrodarse (ue), to stick in the

transcender (ie) or^ to transcend, trascender (ie), cf. 266, 2. J


transferir
(ie, i)
i),

mud

(of wheels), cf.

5.

or

to
to

transfer,

soar (ue), to dream, cf. 266, 5. sorregar (ie), to water in another


course,
cf.

trasferir (ie,

/
]

cf.

266,

l.

transfregar (ie) or trasfregar (ie),

266, 8. rub, cf.


i.

sosegar
1.

(ie),

to appease,

cf.

266,

transponer or

\ to

266, / transpose,

cf.

sostener, to sustain, cf. 271, 19. soterrar (ie), to put underground,


cf.

trasponer, J trascolar (ue),

271, 14. to percolate,


to
forget,

cf,

266, 266,

5.

266,
1.

1.

trascordarse
(ie),

(ue),

cf.

subarrendar

to

sublet,

cf.

5.

266,

trasegar
(ie),

(ie), to

upset,

cf.

266,

i.

subentender
(what
2.

to understand
cf.

trasor,

to

misunderstand,

cf.

is tacitly

meant),

266,
se-

subseguir (i), to be next in quence, cf. 266, 10. subtender (ie), to subtend,

271,12. trasoar (ue), to fancy (as in a dream), cf. 266, 5. trastrocar (ue), to change about,
cf. 266, trasverter
5.

cf,

266,

2.

(ie),

to

overflow,

cf.

subvenir, to aid, t:/. 271, 22. subvertir (ie, i), to subvert,

cf.

266,
266,

2.

trasvolar

5.

(ue),

to fly across,

cf.

266,

8.

sugerir
8.

(ie, i),

to suggest,

cf.

266,
271, 271, 271,

travesar
triar, to

(ie),

to cross,
cf.

cf.
i.

266,

l.

choose,

269,

superponer, to put over,


14.

cf.

trocar (ue), to exchange,


5.

cf.

266,

supervenir, to supervene,
22.

:/.

tronar (ue), to thunder,


5,

cf.

266,
266,

280.
(ie),

suponer, to suppose,
14.

cf.

tropezar
1.

to stumble,

cf.

sustituir, to substitute, cf. 270.

sustraer, to subtract,

cf,

271,

20.

tumefacer, to cause a swelling, p. 254, footnote 1. tumultuar, to raise a tumult,

cf.

cf.

269,2.
telegrafiar, to telegraph,
cf.

269,

i.

temblar (ie), to tremble, c/. 266,1. tender (ie), to stretch, cf. 266, 2.
tener, to have,
cf.

usufructuar,
269,
2.

to

be

fruitful,

cf.

271,

19.

tentar
teir

(ie),

to feel,

V
\.

cf.

266,

(i), to dye, cf. 266, lo. torcer (ue), to twist, cf. 266, 6. tostar (ue), to toast, cf. 266, 5. traducir, to translate, cf. 271, 5. traer, to bring, cf. 271, 20.

vaciar, to

empty,

cf.

269,

i.

valer, to be worth,

cf.

271,

21.

valuar, to value, cf. 269, 2. vanagloriarse, to be boastful,

cf.

269,

1.

276
variar, to change,

PIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


cf.

296-297

269,

i.

venir, to come, c/. 271, 22. ventar (ie), to blow, cf. 266,
ver, to see,
cf.

i.

yacer, to

lie, cf.

277.

verter
vestir

(ie),
(i),

271, 23. to pour, cf. 266,


cf.

yuxtaponer, to put in juxtaposi2.

tion, c/. 271, 14.

to dress,

266,
i.

lo.

vigiar, to

watch, cf. 269, volar (ue), to fly, cf. 266, 5. volcar (ue), to overturn, cf. 266, volver (ue), to return, cf. 266, 274.

5.

zaherir

(ie,

i),

to

reproach,
269,
i.

cf,

6,

266, 8. zurriar, to buzz,

cf.

THE INFINITIVE (EL INFINITIVO)


296.

^To' before an infinitive

in Spanish

sometimes
and

is

translated in various
it is

ways

it is

omitted, sometimes

by

and is a sometimes by de, sometimes by para, etc. source of much confusion even to advanced students of the language. Its proper use in each case can be learned only by oba,

translated

servation,

this requires time.

Some

helps, however,

may

be given.
297.

Many
is

verbs take a direct

Ho,' etc.,

not translated into

and in such cases Spanish by any introductory


infinitive,

preposition.

The most common

of such verbs are:


celebrar, to be glad confesar, to confess confiar,^ to confide, trust in, conjurar, to entreat, implore

aconsejar,^ to advise, counsel

acostumbrarse,^ to be accustomed acusar,^ to accuse advertir, to warn, advise


afirmar, to affirm, declare amenazar, to threaten

hope

anhelar, to long
ansiar, to be anxious

apostar, to wager asegurar, to assure, claim aseverar, to assert


atestiguar, to attest
bastar,^ to suffice
1

consentir ,3 to consent considerar, to consider convenir, to suit costar ,2 to cost creer, to think, believe deber,2 ought, is (was, etc.) to decidir (se),^ to decide declarar, to declare
dejar,2 ^^
jg^-^

allow, permit

2 3

Infinitives after this verb Infinitives after this verb


Infinitives after this verb

may may may

be introduced also by a. be introduced also by de. be introduced also by en.

297
demandar,
to

THE INFINITIVE
demand
poder, to be able
preferir, to prefer

277

desconfiar, to distrust descuidar ,2 not to be careful

prescribir, to prescribe

desdear (se), 2 to disdain desear, to desire, wish determinar,^ to determine detestar, to hate, detest dignarse, 2 to deign doler, to be sorry, grieve dudar,2 to doubt, hesitate elegir, to choose encargar, to charge escuchar, to listen to esperar, to hope
evitar, to

presumir, to presume pretender, to claim, try


probar,^ to try, endeavor procurar,^ to try prohibir, to prohibit

prometer,^ to promise proponer,^ to propose, purpose protestar, to protest proyectar, to plan querer, to wish querer decir, to mean
recelarse, to fear

avoid

figurarse, to imagine
fingir, to

recomendar, to recommend
reconocer, to acknowledge, confess recordar ,2 to remember

pretend

gustar ,2 to Kke, please (impers.) hacer, to make imaginarse, to imagine impedir, to prevent, hinder importar, to matter, be important
intentar, to try, attempt

rehusar (se),i to refuse repugnar, to loathe; to be repugnant to


resolver (se),!' - to resolve, decide rogar, to beg, request saber, to know how, be able sentir, to feel, hear, regret, be sorry fcil, to be easy
difcil,

jurar ,2 to swear juzgar, to judge lograr, to succeed in mandar ,1 to order meditar,^ to meditate merecer, to deserve mirar, to look at, watch necesitar, to need, want negar, to deny notificar, to notify ocurrir (se), to occur (to one)
odiar, to hate

ser

to be

hard

preciso,

menester,
etc.

to be necessary

servirse,^ to please, be so
significar, to

kind as

mean, signify

soler, to

be wont

ofrecer (se),i to offer


or, to

hear ordenar, to order osar, to dare parecer, to seem


pedir,2 to request, ask

sospechar,^ to suspect sostener, to maintain; to affirm sufrir,^ to suffer, allow sugerir, to suggest suplicar, to beg, entreat

suponer (se), to suppose temer to fear


,1

tocar, to be one's turn

pensar ,3 to think permitir, to permit


1

valer ms, to be better


ver, to see

Infinitives after this verb


Infinitives after this verb

Infinitives after this verb

may may may

be introduced also by a, be introduced also by de. be introduced also by en.

278

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


him to speak claimed to have done does not let me reply I think of doing it We^ wish to go I can say for my part
I advise

298

Le aconsejo hablar El asegur haberlo hecho No me deja contestar Yo pienso hacerlo

He He

it

Queremos

ir

S decir por mi parte

298.

Many

verbs require the preposition de before a follow-

ing infinitive.

The most common

of such verbs are:

absolver (se), to absolve (oneself) abstenerse, to abstain, forbear aburrirse, to be vexed, wearied acabar, to finish, have just acordarse, to remember acusar,^ to accuse admirarse, to wonder afligirse, to lament, repine afrentarse, to blush agraviarse, to be grieved, piqued ahogarse, to be suffocated alegrarse, to rejoice, be glad apercibirse,^ to perceive aprovecharse, to profit arrepentirse, to repent
arriesgarse,^ to risk oneself

desacostumbrarse, to lose the cus-

tom
desanimar (se),
to discourage, be

discouraged descansar, to tire, weary


descuidar,^ to neglect desdear (se),^ to disdain, be disdainful desesperar (se), to despair
desistir, to desist
^ to stop, tarry determinar,^ to determine dignarse, 1 to deign disculpar (se), to excuse disgustar (se), to disgust, be displeased dispensar, to excuse

detenerse,^'

asustarse, to be terrified avergonzarse, to be ashamed


bastar,^ to suffice

distraerse,2>

cansar (se),^ to
cesar, to cease

tire,

grow weary

to distract oneself disuadir, to dissuade dudar,^ to doubt, hesitate echar (se), 2 to come to; to succeed
^

concertar, to agree, covenant


concluir, to conclude

in (used especially with ver)

empacharse, to be surfeited with


encargarse, to take upon oneself enorgullecerse, to take pride entristecerse, to become sad evadirse, to evade, escape excusar(se), to excuse (oneself) eximir (se), to exempt, be exempt
faltar ,2.
3

confesarse, to confess contentarse, to be satisfied costar/ to cost cuidar (se),^ to take care not to,

keep from
culpar, to

blame

dar ,2

to give

to fail

deber,^

must (probably)

fastidiar (se), to weary, be

weary

dejar,^ to cease, leave off, fail


1

fatigar (se), 3 to tire, be tired

Infinitives

2 3

may also follow this verb directly. Infinitives after this verb may be introduced also Infinitives after this verb may be introduced also

by by

a.

en.

299

THE INFINITIVE
congratulate (one-

279

felicitar (se), to
self)

gozar(se),^ to enjoy guardarse, to avoid, guard against gustar,^ to take pleasure (active) haber, to have hablar, to speak, mention hartarse, to satiate oneself, be satisfied

privar (se), to deprive, be deprived procurar,^ to try prometer,^ to promise proponer,^ to propose quejarse, to complain recordar,^ to remember, recall
rerse, to laugh

resolver (se),!' 2 ^^ resolve reventar, to burst


sacar,2 to
ser, to

impacientarse, to be impatient

draw

out, extract

incomodarse, to be annoyed indignarse, to be indignant jactarse, to boast jurar,^ to swear


justificar (se),
(for)

sentirse, to feel

be

servirse,- to please, be so kind as

to justify (oneself)

sonrerse, to smile sonrojarse, to blush sospechar,! to suspect


sufrir,! ^Q suffer

lamentarse, to lament, grieve


librar, to free, deliver

lisonjear (se), to flatter (oneself)

sustraerse, elude

to

withdraw

oneself,

ofenderse, to be offended
olvidar (se), to forget pedir,^ to ask, request

temblar, to tremble terminar ,3 to finish


tratar, to try,

endeavor

persuadir (se), 2 to persuade pesar, to be sorry (impers.) picarse, to be vexed

valerse, to avail oneself of


venir,2'
3

to come,

have just

vivir, to live

Ha

acabado de hablar alegro de verle l debe de haber llegado No se olvide de decrselo Me pesa de verla tan triste Tratar de hacerlo

Me

He has just spoken am glad to see you He must have arrived


Don't forget to
I
tell

him

sorry to see her so sad I will try to do so

am

299. After
etc.,

most nouns,

adjectives,
is

before a following infinitive

and some adverbs, Ho,' expressed by de, unless para

or por would be used.


fcil

de hacer, easy to do

La hora de comer ha llegado


Slo de orlo le asusta

The time to eat has come The mere hearing of it frightens him
may may
be introduced also by a. be introduced also by en.

Infinitives

may

also follow this verb directly.

Infinitives after this verb Infinitives after this verb

280
300.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

300

Many

infinitive.

verbs require the preposition a before a following The most common of such verbs are:
conspirar, to conspire continuar,^ to continue contrariar, to oppose contribuir, fo contribute

abandonar(se), to give (oneself)

up

to

acceder, to accede, agree acercarse, to draw near, approach acertar,^ to succeed, happen

acomodarse, to conform oneself


aconsejar,^ to counsel, advise acostumbrar (se), 2 to accustom
(oneself)

convenir (se),i to agree convidar, to invite convocar, to convoke cooperar,^ to cooperate


correr, to run
dar,i'

acudir, to hasten adherir(se), to stick to


aficionarse, to

become addicted

agregarse, to join in
ajustarse, to agree, combine alcanzar, to reach, attain, succeed

to give decidir (se) ,2 to decide, determine dedicar (se), to dedicate (oneself) desafiar, to challenge
3

descender, to descend deshacerse/ to try hard; to outdo,


kill

andarse, to undertake, busy oneself with animar, to encourage


apercibirse,^ to

oneself in
^

destinar, to destine
detenerse,^'
to stop, tarry

make ready

aplicarse, to apply oneself

determinar (se),^ to determine disponer (se), to prepare, get ready


distraerse, 1'
^

aprender, to learn apresurar (se),^ to hasten, hurry


apretar, to
.
. .

to

divertirse,^ to

amuse oneself amuse oneself

hard (adds

to

the

echar (se),^ to begin, set oneself to


ejercitar (se),^ to exercise

force of the verb) arriesgarse,^ to risk oneself


aspirar, to aspire

empezar, to begin
ensear, to teach
entrar, to start

atreverse, to dare autorizar, to authorize


aventajar,^ to excel, surpass

entretener (se),^ to entertain (oneself)

aventurarse, to venture ajrudar, to aid, help circunscribir (se), to confine (oneself)

enviar, to send esf orzar (se),i to

attempt,

en-

deavor
excitar, to excite

comenzar, to commence, begin

exhortar, to exhort

comprometer (se), to engage, agree condenar, to condemn


condescender,^ to condescend conducir, to lead, conduct conformarse,^ to conform, agree consagrar (se), to devote (oneself)
1

exponer (se), to expose (oneself)


faltar,i> ^

to fail

forzar, to force

ganar,! to excel, surpass; to win, gain (by)

habituar (se), to accustom (oneself)

Infinitives after this verb


Infinitives

may
may

be introduced also by en. be introduced also by de.

2 3

may

also follow this verb directly.

Infinitives after this verb

301

THE INFINITIVE
probar,- to try

281

humillar (se), to humiliate (oneself)


igualar, to equal

impeler, to impel
incitar, to incite inclinar (se), to incline, induce

proceder, to proceed provocar, to provoke

quedar (se),^ to remain


reducir (se), to reduce bring (oneself) down
referirse, to refer
(oneself'),

inducir, to induce
inspirar, to inspire
invitar, to invite
ir,

rehusar (se), 2 to refuse


renunciar, to renounce resignarse, to resign, submit
resistirse, to struggle, resist

to go

jugar, to play (at) limitar (se), to limit (oneself)

come, succeed mandar,^ to send


llegar, to

matarse,^ to kill oneself meterse, to undertake

resolver (se), 2' 3 to resolve, decide retar, to challenge, dare romper,^ to break out in
sacar,^ to
salir, to

draw
{or

out, extract, invite

mover (se),

to impel (oneself)

go

come) out
sit

negarse, to decline, refuse


obligar (se), to oblige (oneself) ofrecer (se), 2 to offer, present (oneself)

sentarse, to be seated,
soltar, to start

down

someter (se),
subir, to go

to

submit (oneself)

up

oponerse to oppose, be adverse


;

pararse, to stop pasar, to proceed, pass persuadir (se),^ to persuade (oneself)

poner (se), to put

(oneself), begin

preparar (se), to prepare, make ready presentarse, to present oneself


prestarse, to offer oneself
principiar, to begin

sujetar (se), to subject (oneself) temer,^ to fear tender, to tend tirar, to tend, be inclined tornar, to return; to again urgir, to urge veneer (se),^ to outdo, excel, surpass venir (se),^' ^ to come, happen
. . .

volar, to fly

volver, to return; to

again

Acudieron a socorrerle Aprendi a cantar Aydema V. a salir Se han decidido a decrselo Me dispongo a contestar Voy a volver a probarlo
301.

to succor him learned to sing Help me to get out They have decided to tell him so I am preparing to answer I am going to try it again

They hastened

He

After .vrbs of motion,

to

before an infinitive

is

regu-

larly expressed

by

a.
I am going He runs to

yoy a

estudiar El corre a decrselo


1

to

study

tell

him

so

Infinitives after this verb

may

be introduced also by en.

2 3

Infinitives

may

also follow this verb directly.

Infinitives after this verb

may

be introduced also by de.

282

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

302-303

302. After verbs of beginning, teaching, learning, 'to' before

an

infinitive is also regularly expressed


I
I

by

a.

comprender Les enseo a hablar Aprenden a escribir


Principio a

am am

beginning to understand teaching them to talk


are learning to write

>

They

303.

Many

verbs require the preposition en before a follow-

ing infinitive.

The most common

of

such verbs are:

acertar/ to succeed (in) acordar, to agree actuarse, to discharge the duty of adelantar (se), to advance in adiestrar (se), to train (oneself)
aferrarse, to be bound, persist

divertirse,^ to

amuse

oneself

ejercitar (se),i to exercise (oneself)

empearse, to tr}^, insist emplear (se), to employ (oneself)


entenderse, to agree entretener (se),^ to amuse (oneself) equivocarse, to be mistaken e sf orzar (se),^ to attempt, endeavor esmerarse, to outdo oneself (in)
faltar,!'
^

alucinarse, to be deluded andar, to undertake apresurarse,^ to hasten, hurry apurarse, to hasten aventajar,^ to excel, surpass balancear, to hesitate, waver cansar (se),- to tire, grow weary complacerse, to take pleasure condescender,^ to condescend
confiar,^ to confide, trust in,

to fail

fatigarse, 2 to tire oneself (in)


fijarse, to pay attention ganar,! to excel, surpass, beat gastar, to spend gozar(se),2 to take pleasure incidir, to fall into (as an error)
insistir, to insist

hope

conformarse,^ to agree confimdirse, to be confounded consentir,^ to consent


consistir, to consist

instruir (se), to instruct (oneself)

consvunirse, to be consumed continuar,^ to continue convenir (se),i to agree cooperar,^ to cooperate cuidarse,- to take pains
dar,^'
-

interesar (se), to interest (oneself j matarse,! to kill oneself meditar,^ to meditate

mezclarse, to meddle with

moderarse, to moderate oneself


molestarse, to put oneself out
obstinarse, to persist in ocupar(se), to busy (oneself) parar, to stop
particularizarse, to specialize
to

to

come

to

deleitarse, to delight

descabezarse, to cudgel one's


brains (over) deshacerse,^ to try hard to; outdo, kill oneself in detenerse,^' ^ ^q ^^q^ determinarse,^ to determine distraerse,^' - to amuse oneself
1

pensar,^ to think perder, to lose perseverar, to persevere


persistir, to persist

prorrumpir, to burst forth, break out

Infinitives after this verb

may

be introduced also by

a.

2
^

Infinitives after this verb may be introduced also Infinitives may also follow this verb directly.

by de,

304
quedar/ to agree

THE INFINITIVE
titubear, to hesitate

283

recrear(se), to divert (oneself)

trabajar, to

work

romper/

to break out (into)

vacilar, to hesitate

sobresalir, to excel

veneer (se), 1 to outdo, surpass, excel

tardar, to delay

templarse, to be moderate terminar,^ to end (by)

vengarse, to avenge oneself (by) venir,!' 2 ^^ agree


aviso

Han

acordado en darle

el

They have agreed


warning

to give

him the

Se empeaba en trabajar Se ha equivocado en decirme esto


Gasta mucho en viajar Pienso en volver No vacilaron en ayudarla
304.

He insisted on working You have been mistaken in telling me this He spends much in traveling
I

They
por,

think of returning did not hesitate to help her

Some verbs take

meaning Ho/ before a following

infinitive.

Nos apuramos por darle gusto Lo dejan por probar


Est por salir Har por llegar a tiempo Se incomoda mucho por serle agradable a V. Se ingeniaba por llegar a tiempo Se mataba por servirle Me muero por hacer algo Rabia por comer Reventaba por hablar

We
He
He

They
is

exert ourselves to please leave it to be tried

him

(about) to go out

on time puts himself out greatly to be agreeable to you He endeavored to arrive in time
I will try to arrive

He tried hard to serve him I am dying to do something He is crazy to eat He was bursting to speak
infinitive

Note.
infinitive

Many verbs take por before a following


may

when

the

be translated in English by a present participle, and por by the English prepositions 'by,' 'for' or *on.' In such cases the perfect infinitive is generally used.

Han acabado

por hacerlo
la

Le alabo por decirme

verdad

They ended by doing it I praise him for telling me


truth
I

the

Le censuro por no habrmelo


dicho Nos felicitamos por haberlo terminado tan pronto
1
?

blame him

for not

having told

me

so

We
may may

congratulate ourselves on having finished it so soon

Infinitives after this verb

Infinitives after this verb

be introduced also by a. be introduced also by de.

284
305.

riRST COURSE in SPANISH

305-308

Some verbs

take con, meaning 'to' before a following

infinitive.

Amenazan con golpearle


Basta con decirlo Se content con tocarlo Yo cuento con hacerlo maana

They

threaten to beat him say so He was contented to touch it I expect to^do it to-morrow
It is suficient to

Many verbs take con before a following infinitive when Note. the infinitive may be translated in English by a present participle, and con by the English preposition -by.'
Todo se
dad
arregl con decir la ver-

Everything was arranged by

tell-

uno se alimenta con comer La disputa termin con salir de


casa
^

la

ing the truth One nourishes oneself by eating The dispute ended by (their) leaving the house

306.

Some

verbs,

when

followed

by an

infinitive,
is

have

differ-

ent meanings according to w^hether the infinitive


or
is

used directly

introduced by a preposition,

Deber followed by a direct infinitive indicates usually a moral obligation, and is translated by 'ought,' 'should,' 'must,'
307.
etc.

l debe hablarle maana Yo debera hacerlo


1.

He must
I

speak to him to-morrow ought to do it

Deber followed by de and an infinitive is used as an auxiliary, and indicates probability, presumption or suspicion.
Debe de
estar ocupado Deba de hacerlo as Debi de recibir malas

noticias

He probably is busy He must have done it thus He must probably have received
bad news

308.
'allow.'

Dejar followed by a

direct" infinitive

mean

'to let,'

Le dejo entrar
1.

I let

him come

in

Dejar followed by an
'cease.'

infinitive

introduced by de means

^to

fail,'

309-310

THE CARDINAL NUMBERS


I shall

285
it

No

dejar de hacerlo
escribirle

Deje V. de
309.

not fail to do Stop writing to him

There are

many

idiomatic expressions which

must be

learned by observation.

Note the
I

following:

Acabo de leer
Volvi a hablar Tom a hablar Se puso a trabajar

have just read


talking again
to

He began
He He He He
began

work
of traveling

Pens en escribir Soaba con viajar


Cont con verle

thought of writing

dreamed

counted on seeing him

310.

The Cardinal Numbers


cero

{Los

Nmeros
26
27 28 29

Cardinales)

un (o), -a
dos
tres

veinte veinte veinte veinte


treinta

y seis y siete y ocho y nueve

4
6
7

cuatro cinco
seis

30
31 32

treinta y un (o), -a treinta y dos

siete

8 9

ocho

nueve
diez

10
11

12
13

once doce
trece

14
15

catorce

quince
diez y diez y diez y diez y veinte veinte veinte veinte veinte veinte
seis
siete

16 17 18 19

ocho

nueve
y y y y

20
21 22 23 24 25

un (o), -a
dos
tres

40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900


1,000 2,000 1.000,000 2,000,000

cuarenta cincuenta sesenta


setenta

ochenta noventa
cien (to) doscientos, -as trescientos, -as cuatrocientos, -as quinientos, -as
seiscientos, -as

setecientos, -as ochocientos, -as novecientos; -as

cuatro cinco

mil dos mil un milln dos millones

Note.
dos, etc.,

The compound
may

words diez y seis, veinte y uno, treinta y be written diecisis, veintiuno, treintaiuno, etc.

286

riRST COURSE in SPANISH

311-316

311. Uno, alone or in numerical combinations, becomes


before a masculine noun, but

una

retains its

un form before a

feminine noun.

(Cf. 49.)

un

veinte

one pencil y un libros, books


lpiz,

twenty-one

las mil

xma pluma, one pen y una noches, the thousand


aiid

one nights

After the noun:


captulo veinte y uno, chapter twenty-one pgina treinta y una, page thirty-one

312.
used.

Before

ciento

and mil the

indefinite

article

is

not

313.

Ciento,
cien.

when

followed

by a noun

or a larger numeral,

becomes

(Cf. 52.)

cien pesos, a hundred dollars cien mil pesos, a hundred thousand dollars

314.

The

multiples of ciento (doscientos, -as, etc.) agree in

gender and number with the nouns they modify.


doscientas pginas, two hundred pages

315.
dreds,

Above a thousand one counts by thousands and and not by hundreds.


1920= mil novecientos veinte

hun-^

316.
sions

To ask a person's may be used:


Que edad
i.

age, either of the following expres-

tiene?

rf Xa or Cuntos Cuantos aos tiene? J

old u How

is

u he?

:>

In the reply, use tener followed by the proper cardinal number before aos.
Tiene veinte y un aos

He

is

twenty-one (years old)

317-319

THE ORDINAL NUMBERS


{Los

287
Ordinales)

317.
1st

The Ordinal Numbers

Nmeros

2 3d
4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th

primero, -a, -os, -as segundo, -a, -os, -as tercero or tercio, etc.
cuarto, etc.
quinto, etc.
sexto, etc.
,

23d
30th
31st

vigsimo tercero or tercio, etc.

trigsimo, etc. trigsimo primero or pri-

mo,
40th 50th 60th 70th SOth 90th lOOth
lOlst

etc.

sptimo, etc.
octavo, etc.

noveno

or nono, dcimo, etc. imdcimo, etc. duodcimo, etc.

etc.

dcimo tercero
etc.

or tercio,

cuadragsimo, etc. quincuagsimo, etc. sexagsimo, etc. septuagsimo, etc. octogsimo, etc. nonagsimo, etc. centesimo, etc. centesimo primero or
primo,
etc.

20th
21st

22d

cuadringentsimo, etc. quingentsimo, etc. noveno or nono, sexcentsimo, etc. etc. septingentsimo, etc. vigsimo, etc. octingentsimo, etc. noningentsimo, etc. vigsimo primero or primo. etc. l,000th milsimo, etc. 2,000th dosmilsimo, etc. vigsimo segimdo, etc. 500,000th quingentsimo milsimo, etc. l,000,000th millonsimo, etc.
sptimo, etc. octavo, etc.

dcimo dcimo dcimo dcimo dcimo dcimo

cuarto, etc.
quinto, etc.
sexto, etc.

102d 200th 300th 400th 500th 600th 700th 800th 900th

centesimo segundo, ducentsimo, etc.


tricentsimo, etc.

etc.

318.
in

The

ordinal

gender and number with the words they modify.


ordinals both parts agree.

numbers are used as adjectives and agree In com-

pound

They

usually follow, but

may

precede the noun.


las

Cardinals for ordinals always follow.

la leccin

primeras lecciones, the first lessons vigsima tercia, the twenty-third lesson la leccin veinte y tres, lesson twenty- three
in

Note.
ordinals.

-:-

Primo, tercio and nono are sometimes used For the apocopation of primero and tercero, cf.
ordinals are very

compound

49.

319.

The

much

less

used in Spanish than

in English.

288

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


series,

320-323

In a numbered paragraphs,
inclusive,

as with volumes,

chapters, pages,

etc., ordinals or

cardinals

may

be used up to ten

but from there on, the cardinals are more common.


rengln doce, the twelfth line y ocho, the eighteenth J chapter la pgina ochenta y dos, the eighty-second page
1
,
.

la leccin sexta, la leccin seis,

el

"

el captulo diez
.

320.

In naming sovereigns, popes,

etc.,

the ordinals are used

through dcimo (sometimes undcimo), and from there on the


cardinals are used.
Po Nono, Pius the Ninth Felipe Segundo, Philip the Second
Alfonso Undcimo, Alfonso the

Eleventh Luis Once, Luis the Eleventh Alfonso Trece, Alfonso the Thirteenth
in the case of primero, ordinals are replaced

321.

Except

by

cardinals in expressing dates.


dinals,
el

Centuries are designated


Siglo

by

car--

even the

first (Siglo I [uno],

XX

[veinte]).

el cuatro de julio, the fourth of primero de enero, the first of January July el veinte y cinco de diciembre, the twenty-fifth of December

Fractions {Nmeros Quebrados)


322.

The
an

fractions
i.e.,

as in English,

from thirds to tenths inclusive are formed the numerator is a cardinal and the denomi-

nator Y 4

is

ordinal.

un

tercio (not tercero)

f
yo

cinco novenos
*^s

(7iot

nonos)

cuatro sptimos

dcimos

y-^ the numerator is a cardinal, but the denominator is formed from the cardinal by adding the ending -avo. When -avo is joined to a word, a final -e or -a is often dropped and a preceding c becomes z.
323.
to

From -^

y\

un once-avo

or

onzavo
or

-^^

^^^ veintiun-avos

y\

siete quince-avos

quinzavos

y^

un centavo

or

centesimo

But:

Y^^Q-g^

un milsimo

ttow.foo^

un millonsimo

324-329

NUMERAL PHRASES

289

324.

Fractions are also formed by using an ordinal with

parte, 'part.'

una
325.

(or la)

cuarta parte

/^

tres vigsimas partes

'Half,' 'a half,' 'one-half,' 'half a'

may

be expressed

by
la

la

mitad used substantively or by medio, -a, used either


un medio, one

substantively or adjectively.
mitad de los alumnos, half
of

half

(-^)

the pupils (una) media hora, a half-hour

(una) hora y media, an hour and a


half

326.

Collective

Numbers (Nmeros

Colectivos)

par, m., pair, couple

decena, /., ten, group of ten docena,/., dozen qidncena. /., fifteen, group of teen

fif-

veintena,/., twenty, a score treintena, /., thirty, a group of thirty cuarentena,/., forty, twoscore ochentena,/., eighty, fourscore

miliar, m., thousand, a

centena,/., or centenar, w., hundred, a group of a hundred group of a thousand

327.

As

collective

nouns,

centenar and miliar are inter-

changeable with ciento and mil respectively.


ciento

To

express rate,

and miliar are used.

unos centenares

(or cientos) de animales, some hundreds of animals millares (or miles) de pjaros, thousands of birds puros a seis pesos el ciento, cigars at six dollars a hundred tejas a diez pesos el miliar, tiles at $10 a thousand

328.

Multiple

Numbers (Nmeros

Mltiplos)

simple, single, simple doble or duplicado, double, twofold


triple
i>r

quntuplo or qiiintuplicado, qintuple, fivefold

triplicado, triple, threefold

ctuplo, etc., octuple, eightfold dcuplo, tenfold

cudruple or cuadruplicado, quadruple, fourfold

cntuplo, a hundredfold

329.

Numeral Phrases (Locuciones Numerales)


diez veces, ten times cien veces, a hundred times mil veces, a thousand times
:'

una

vez, once dos veces, twice


tres veces, three times

-"^^

290
330.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

330-332

The Spanish terms


2+3 = 5 53 = 2 2x2 = 4
4--2

for

the

following

operations in

arithmetic are:
dos

=2

a dos dos por dos igual a cuatro cuatro dividido por dos igual a dos
cinco
tres igual

ms tres menos

igual a cinco

Weights and Measures (Pesas y Medidas)


331.

In Spain and the Spanish American coim tries the


is

metric system of weights and measures

generally used.

The

unit of weight

is

the gramo, 'gram/ equal in weight to

that of a cubic centimeter of distilled water.


ings the kilogramo or kilo,
'kilogram,'
is

In ordinary dealthe weight most

commonly employed. It contains 1,000 grams and is about equal to two Enghsh pounds. The old weight libra, 'poimd,' is still used in some quarters. The unit of liquid measure is the litre, 'liter,' containing a little more than the English quart. The unit of length is the metro, 'meter,' a little longer than
the English yard.
meters.'
meters,'
It is divided into 100 decmetros, 'deci-

Long

distances are measured

by

kilmetros, 'kilo-

equal to about f of the English mile. Lands are measured by hectreas (=100 reas or 10,000 square metros),

which are about equivalent to 2^ Enghsh acres. The old measures milla, 'mile,' vara, 'yard,' pie, 'foot/ and pulgada, 'inch,' are still used in some quarters.
'hectares,'

332.

The

following

expressions

concerning

weights

and

measures are useful to

know:
(lata)?

Cunto pesa esto? Cunto cabe en sta caja


Cul es
la
la longitud (la

How much How much


hold?

does this weigh? does this box (tin can)

altura,

la

anchura, profundidad, e\

What

is the length (width, height, depth, thickness)?

Tiene

grueso)? {o es de) un metro de largo (ancho, alto, hondo, grueso)

It is

one meter long (wide, high,

deep, thick)

333-334

AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES


What
is

291

Cul es la distancia de Nueva York a La Habana? Cunto dista La Habana de Nueva York? kilmeHay {o dista de) unos

the distance from

New

York

to

How

far

Havana? is Havana from New

York? It is some

kilometers

tros

333.

Money

(Dinero)

The peseta

(abbreviation pta.),

divided into 100 cntimos

and having the nominal value of the franc, is the standard unit for monetary computation in Spain. The current coins are silver pieces of |^, 1, 2 and 5 ptas., and copper pieces of 1, 2, 5 and 10 cents. The piece of 5 ptas. dollar.^ The copper coins of 10 is commonly called a duro, cents, and 5 cents, are called in colloquial language perro grande (or gordo), ^big (or fat) dog,' and perro chico (or perrito),
(abbreviation cents.)
^

perhaps a jocular allusion to the lion in the coat terms are sometimes also used in the feminine. These of arms. The pieces of 1 cent, and of 2 cents, are not very common. The old silver coins of 20 reales (5 ptas.), 10 rls. (2^ ptas.),
4ittle dog,'

rls. (1 pta.),

2 rls. (^ pta.)

and

1 rl.

(25 cents.) are not often

met with to-day, although reckoning by reales is still common. The Banco de Espaa, 'Bank of Spain,' at Madrid issues
billetes

de banco,
ptas.

'bank-bills,' of the value of 25, 50, 100,

500

and 1,000

The
of the

peso, 'dollar,'

is

the standard monetary unit in a

number

South American countries.

The peso

is

divided into 100

centavos, 'cents.'

Augmentatives and Diminutives (Aumentativos


y Diminutivos)
334. There are

many

suffixes in

Spanish employed to change

word in a way that can usually be done in Enghsh only by -the use of one or more qualifying adjectives or adverbs, or by a different term. Most of these suffixes add primarily an idea of form or size, although these meanings are
the meaning of a

292

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

335-336

often completely lost or absorbed in those of ugliness, iingainliness,

coarseness, etc., for the augmentative endings, or of


etc.,

endearment, affection, esteem, insignificance, meanness, for the diminutive endings.

The words changed by


dictionaries,

these suffixes are often not found in

and

it

is

essential for reading that the student


of the force of the various endings,

have some conception


sparingly.

and

of the rules for their use.

foreigner should use

them very

Augmentatives (Aumentativos)
335.

The more
-on
-azo
-ote

usual augmentative endings are:


Feminine {Femenino) -ona -aza
-ota

Masculine (Masculino)

-acho
:he following variations

-acha

terminating in -on:
-arrona -erona -atona -etona

-arron -eron -aton -eton

augments the quality expressed by the word, sometimes giving an idea of excess, awkwardness or Feminine nouns usually take the masculine grotesqueness. ending, unless sex is to be indicated.
336. -on,

-ona,

el

hombre, the man

el
el

strong youth ... la silla, the chair la soltera, the unmarried woman el zapato, the shoe
el zagal, the

hombr-on, the big man zagal-on, the overgrown lad


the big easy-chair

el sill-on,

la solter-ona, the old


el

maid

zapat-on, the large, clumsy shoe

In some words -on, Note. than an augmentative, meaning. lack of the thing mentioned.
la cascara, the peel, husk,
la

like -ote,
It

has a diminutive, rather

sometimes denotes a complete

bark

el

pluma, the feather

la rata, the rat

cascar-on, the egg-shell plum-on, the down el rat-on, the mouse


el

337-340
la ton*e, the
el pelo,

AUGMENTATIVES
tower
'

293
the ill-shaped turret bobtailed

el torr-ejon,

el rabo, the tail

rab-on
pel-on

{adj.),

the hair

{adj.), hairless,

bald

337. -azo
frequently.

is

about the equivalent of -on, but


to

is

not used so

Words

which the

suffix is

attached take the

ending corresponding to their

own

gender,

-azo

may

also in-

dicate a blow with an instrument.

hombre, the man luengo, long el vino, the wine el cuchillo, the knife
el

el hombr-azo, the large man long-azo, very long el vin-azo, the strong, thick wine el cuchill-azo, the knife thrust

338. -ote

is

sometimes merely augmentative in meaning,

but usually has a depreciative value of ridiculousness, monstrousness, etc.

The words

to

which the

suffix is

attached

sometimes take the ending corresponding to their gender, and

sometimes do not.
el picaro,

the rogue

el picar-ote,

the great rogue

la palabra, the la

word

la palabr-ota, the coarse expression


el

manga, the sleeve

mang-ote, the large and wide


sleeve

feo,

homely

fe-ote, very

homely

guapo, good-looking

guap-ote, quite good-looking


like -on,
el

Note.
la

In some words -ote,

has a diminutive force.

cmara, the room, chamber


the stick, cudgel

la isla, the island


el palo,

el isl-ote, el
el

la pipa, the cask,

hogshead

camar-ote, the cabin {of a ship) the small, barren island pal-ote, the drumstick pip-ote, the keg
is

339. -ache has an augmentative value that

almost always

tinged with depreciation, contempt or other pejorative meaning.


el pico, the point,

top

el,pic-acho, the peak,


el ric-acho,

summit

el rico, the rich

man

the very rich, but vul-

gar,
el

man

trmino, the word, expression

el

termin-acho, the "jaw-breaker"

340.

The endings

-arron, -eron, -aton, -eton, which are

variations formed from -on, are not of so frequent use as the

294

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

341-342

other forms already explained,

Feminine words are usually


unless
it

made masculine by
sex.

the

suffix,

is

desired to denote

fa boba' }
el viento,

^^^ dunce, simpleton the wind

el

bob-arrn,
| ^j^^
j

la bob-arrona,
el vent-arron,
el

^ ^^^j

la voz, the voice

la casa, the

house

la vira, the dart,


el

arrow

la

mozo, moza,

the strong wind voz-arton, the strong, heavy voice el cas-eron, the large, ill-proportioned house el vir-aton, the large arrow the strong, strap

]
j
-^

elmoc-etn,

la

moc-etom,
'

P^'^S ^^^^^^ P^"^'


I

la rosa, the rose

el ros-eton,

son the large rose

Diminutives (Diminutivos)
341.

There

is

much

augmentative endings.

number of diminutive than of For some of the diminutives there are


larger

quite definite rules governing the form to be used with a certain

word

or class of words.
is

Those whose use


I
ito

governed by customary practice are:


II
III
-ecito -ecico
-ecillo

IV
-ececito -ececico
-ececillo

-cito

ice
illo

~cico -ciUo

uelo
ete

-zuelo

-ezuelo

-ecezuelo

Note. The feminines are formed regularly, except becomes -eta.


342.

of -ete

which

The endings

in list

IV

are used only with monosyllables

ending in a vowel other than


el pie, the foot

y.
el pi-ecezuelo,

the

little

foot
e,

Note. The diphthong ie of pie may revert to its original Latin which is dropped before the ending, giving the form p-ecezuelo.

343

DIMINUTIVES

295

343.
1.

The endings

in list III are used: in a

With monosyllables ending

consonant or in

y.

la voz, the voice

la voc-ecita, the little voice


la flor-ecita, the little flower
el pec-ecico,

la flor, the flower


el pez, the fish

the small fish

la red, the net


el rey, the

la red-ecilla, the little net


el rey-ezuelo, the

king

petty king

Note.

There are some exceptions:


mean
niin-cillo,

ruin, base,

somewhat mean
of persons:

including the diminutives of

some proper names

Juan, John
Luis, Louis Bias, Blaise
Gil, Giles

Juan-ito, Johnny Luis-ico, Louie


Blas-illo, little Blaise
Gil-ito, little Giles

2.
ei, ie

With words
or ue in the queen

of

two

syllables ending in

-o or -a that have
queen

first syllable.

la reina, the

la rein-ecilla, the little

la pieza, the piece


el

la piec-ezuela, the little piece


el puebl-ecito, the small
el

pueblo, the town

town

huevo, the egg la cuerda, the cord


el

huev-ecico, the little egg la cuerd-ecilla, the small cord

Note 1. A number of words having ie or ue in the stem, coming from an original Latin e ot o respectively, may revert to the original e or 0, or keep the diphthong. They have therefore two forms:
ei

cuerno, the horn


'

/ } ^^^'^^^^P^
I

el

cuem-ecico,
^^^^^'.^^^^^^^

] the small
J

horn

el diente, the

tooth

| ^|
(

}
1

the small tooth


^^^ small bone
f

el

hueso, the bone

el os~ecillo
i

'il

la pieza, the piece la puerta, the

{ la
{ ^

the small piece 5S-"ud, }

door

^^'^^a, } ^^^

^^^^ ^oor

Note.

There are some exceptions:


the stone {of fruit)
el cuesqu-illo, the

el cuesco,

small stone {of

fruit)

bueno, good

bon-ito, pretty good, passable

296
3.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

344

With words

thongs -ia, -io,


in -0.

two syllables ending in one of the diph-ua, and with many two-syllable words ending
of

la bestia, the beast

la besti-ecita, the little beast


el geni-ecillo,

genio, the genius la legua, the league la cofia, the hair-net el brio, the strength
el
fro,

the small genius

la legii-ez^ela, the little league la cofi-ezuela, the small hair-net


el bri-ecico,

the

little

strength

cold

fri-ecillo, slightly

cold

Note.

There are some exceptions-:


agr-illo, sourish

agrio, sour

song rubia, fair, blonde el agua, the water la pascua, Easter


el aria, the

la ari-eta, the short

tune

rub-ita, rather fair


-

la ag-ita, the

water

la pascu-illa, the first

Sunday

after

Easter
el ro, the river
el indio, the
el ri-achuelo, el

Indian
of

the rivulet ind-ezuelo, the little Indian

4.

With words
dance

two

syllables ending in -e.


el bail-ecito,

el baile, the el

pobre, the poor person el cofre, the trunk triste, sad

the little dance the poor little thing el cofr-ecillo, the small trunk
el pobr-ecico,

trist-ezuelo^

somewhat sad

Note.
el

There are some exceptions:


el

pobre, the poor person

pobr-ete, the poor, unfortunate

person

344.

The endings

in

list

II

are

used with polysyllables

ending in -n or -r and accented on the last syllable, and with those ending in -n accented on the next to the last
syllable.
la

mujer, the

woman
song

la mujer-cita

el cantar, the el capitn, the el ladrn,

captain the thief la imagen, the image

the little woman song the ..xv. little .....^ ^^..^ el capitan-cillo, the little captain el ladron-zuelo, the little thief la imagen-cica, the little image
el cantar-cico,

Carmen, Carmen

Carmen-cita,

little

Carmen

345

DIMINUTIVES

297

Note.
el jardn,

There are exceptions, and some words have two forms:


the garden
el

jardin-cito

or

-ito,

the the

little

garden
el altar, the altar
el

altar-cillo

or

-illo,

small

altar
la sartn, the frying-pan la sarten-cilla or -ilia, the small

frying-pan
the pin el almacn, the storehouse
el alfiler,
el

el alfiler-ito, el

the little pin almacen-illo, the small storethe small volcano

house
volcn, the volcano
el volcan-ejo,

345.
el

The endings

in list I are

used with
el

all

other words.
little

hermano, the brother


the bird jaula, the cage navaja, the clasp-knife libro, the book burla, the trick

herman-ito, the

brother

el pjaro,

el pajar-ico,

la la
el

la
la
el

la

la

the little bird jaul-illa, the small cage navaj-uela, the small clasp-knife libr-ete, the small book burl-eta, the little trick

Note.
la
el rbol, el

There

are,

however, exceptions:
la man-ecita, the small
el arbol-ecico, el el

mano, the hand


the tree prado, the meadow verso, the verse obra, the work mulo, the mule cordel, the rope, cord
1.

hand
.

el

la
el

la
el el

el

the small tree prad-ecillo, the small meadow vers-ecillo, the little verse obr-ecilla, the little work mul-eto, the young mule cordel-ejo, the small rope

polysyllable ending in two vowels, of which the


i,

first is

accented e or

inserts
is

an h before the ending -uelo.

In com-

mon
some

speech this h
wTiters.

often changed to g, a practice followed

by

la aldea, the village

la correa, the strap

fla alde-huela, \ ., ..^^. . , J > the little village , ^ alde-guela, ) ria corre-huela, \ ^ > the small strap ^ I la corre-guela, j
..

I la

..

'

feo, ugly

fe- -huelo,

la lamprea, the
el judo,

sea-lamprey

l
el

ugly lampre-huela, the river-lamprey


judi-huelo,
1

the

Jew
roguery

^v

el judi-gelo, /

'^^

y"""'

J^^'

la picarda, the

la picar di-huela,
la picardi-giiela,

the prank

298
2.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

346-348

polysyllable ending in

-do

drcps the diphthong and

changes n to before the


el demonio, the demon Antonio, Anthony

suffix -uelo.
el

demo-uelo, the
little

Anto-uelo,

little demon Anthony

more frequently used than all others combined. They form pet names and phrases, often losing the diminutive meaning and having only
346. -ito, -cito, -ecito, -ececito are n|uch

that of endearment or affection.

They

are not applied to

things that are displeasing, except ironically.


participles

With

adjectives,

and adverbs the translated by right,' 'quite,'


^

force

of these endings

may

be

'nice,' etc.

el

hermano, the brother

pap, papa cama, the bed ahora, now cerca, near


la

herman-ito, the dear little brother papa-ito, dear papa la cam-ita, the nice little bed
el

ahor-ita, right

now

cerqu-ita, quite near

agua fresqu-ita,

nice, cool

water

347. -ico, -cico, -ecico, -ececico are endings of Aragonese


origin,

employed in regional speech, or in imitating it a sarcastic or jesting manner. Sometimes, however, even Castilian, they have merely a diminutive force.
are
el

and

in

in

ngel, the angel

el angel-ico,

the

little

angel {hu-

morous)
el carton,

the cardboard

el rbol,

the tree

la fuente, the fountain

the ticket {familiar speech by an Aragonese) el arbol-ecico, the small tree la fuent-ecica, the small fountain
el carton-cico,

348.

-illo, -cilio, -ecillo, -ececillo

have, for the most part,

merely a diminutive
ent,
is

force.

They

indicate a careless, easy atti-

tude toward the thing mentioned whether good, bad or indiffer-

sometimes mingled with condescension or pity.


it is

If

a thing

good,

depreciated;

if

bad, mitigated;

if

indifferent, only

made

smaller.

349-351
el

INTERJECTIONS
el banqu-illo,

299
the stool

banco, the bench

la candela, the candle

la candel-illa, the small candle


la rej-illa, the small grating

la reja, the grating


el ventorro, the inn
el viajero, the traveler

Colorado, red

the talk, conversation the shepherd el verso, the verse


el
(/.),

habla

el pastor,

the petty inn the little traveler colorad-illo, slightly red la habl-illa, the little report, gossip el pastor-cillo, the little shepherd el vers-ecillo, the little verse
el ventorr-illo,
el viajer-illo,

349. -uelo, -zuelo, -ezuelo, -ecezuelo sometimes have a

merely diminutive or caritative


use
el

force,

but more often the use of


Their

these endings adds contempt, either in jest or in earnest.


is

not nearly so
little

common
fellow

as that of -ito, etc., or of -illo, etc.


el

pequeo, the

peque-uelo, the dear

little fel-

low
el polio, the
el hijo, the

chicken

el

poll-uelo,

the

little

chicken,

chick

son

la plaza, the square


el ladrn, the thief

el pintor,

the painter, artist

young (c/ animals) la plaz-uela, the small square el ladron-zuelo, the contemptible petty thief el pintor-zuelo, the poor artist
los hij-uelos, the

350. -etc

is

of limited use, occurring with only a few nouns.


force, it has usually a

Although it sometimes has a depreciative merely diminutive value.


la burla, the jest, trick
el caballero, the el clavo, the nail
el lugar,

la burl-eta, the little trick


el caballer-ete,

gentleman

el clav-ete,
el

the village

the dude, dandy the small nail, tack lugar-ete, the small village,

hamlet

Interjections (Interjecciones)

351.

Interjections are exclamatory expressions that denote


It
is

strong feeling or emotion.


stract

very hard to give in the ab-

an exact translation, because the word should be so translated in the context as to iit normally into the English.

300
352.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

352-354

The

principal interjections are:


;Ea! {encouragement), Come Ea, ea! {impatience) Come, come! Ola! Hola! {recognition). Ah! Hello! Well! Ole! {enthusiasm, approval), Fine!
,

Abur! (or iAgur!) [coll.], Goodby! Farewell! Adelante! Onward! Forward! Go


on!

Adis! Good-by! Ah! Oh! Ah! Oh! Ay! Ah! Alas! Oh!

Bravo!
or

Bah!

{incredulity

disgust),

Ojal! {strong desire, see 250, Would that! God grant!

i),

Pshaw!
Ha! {delight or satisfaction). Ha! Eh! H! {surprise), Eh! Huy! {pain), Ouch! Owl

Quia!

Why,
XJf!

Ca! {indignant denial) no! Of course not!

Puf! {aversion), Ugh! {weariness) Oh! Ah!


,

There are in Spanish many ejaculations to express strong feeling which are used to avoid more profane terms. Many other expressions, if they were translated Hterally, would
353.

be profane in EngHsh, but are not so in Spanish. They must be translated by some suitable expression. Their use, in speaking,

can be learned only by practice and observation.


Canastos! Caracoles!
Cari!

Caramba!
Cspita!

Good Heavens! Gracious! Goodness! The dickens! The deuce! By Jove!

etc.

Crcholis!

Heavens! Demonio! 1 ^^^^c^^^^ ^


Cielos!

Diantre! j Dios! Gracious! Goodness! Heavens! Por Dios! For Heaven's sake! Dios mo! Dear me!

Jess! ^ Well I declare! Oh Heavens! Vlgame Dios! God help me! Bless me! Bless my Virgen santsima! For Heaven's sake! Bless me!

soul!

354.

There are certain exclamations that are used principally

in speaking to animals.
1 It is the custom in Spain to exclaim Jess! whenever any one present sneezes. Sometimes the entire holy family is included, Jess, Mara y Josl

355-357

INTERJECTIONS
jArre!

301

,^'

^>

{to

draft animals)

So! Jo! Cho! Whoa! Standstill! Miz miz! Kitty, kitty! Come, kitty!

Zape! Scat! Tus tus! Here, here! Come here! Ox!' Shoo! {to frighten fowls)

{to

dogs)

355.

Nouns, adjectives, and the imperative of verbs are

sometimes used as interjections.


Al asesino! Al ladrn!
Alto!

Murder! Stop thief!

Halt!

Alza! anda! {encouragement)

Anda! {incredulity) Pshaw!


,

Go on! Keep Come now!


,

it

up! Lively!

*2^^^^;
iBtdLYdil {to
,.

N woman)

) Fine!
,

ExceUent! Bravo!

Bueno! Good!
Calle!/

*i^^^'}Hush! Be

silent!

Shut up! ^ Nonsense!

Cuidado! Be careful! Look out!


Diga! Say! Firme! Steady!

Fuego! Fire! Oye! Oiga! Say! Listen! Hello!


Quita!
r^ -* Qmtese

ir

I V.!

Quit! ^

Get out!

Socorro! Help, help! Toma! Really! Well, well! There!

Vamos!

{impatie?ice, surprise),

Come, come! Well!

Vaya! {surprise), Well, I declare! Really!

356.
fore a

Adjectives used as interjections are followed

by de be-

noun or personal pronoun.


Pobre de m! Poor me! Alas for me! Triste de mi madre! My sad, dejected mother! Tontos de nosotros! We fools!

357.

The

interjection ay! also requires de before a following

noun or pronoun.
Ay de mi! Poor me! Woe is me! Ay de los cautivos! God help the captives! Alas for the captives!

302
358.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

358-359

In conversation, hombre and mujer, as well as certain


etc.,

other words such as hijo, hija, amigo, amiga, chico, chica,


are often used with an intensive force or
Bueno! hombre, bueno! No har Pero mujer, debe V. hacerlo Quia! chico, qu dices?
lo

by way

of remonstrance.
it

Well, well, I shall not do

But you ought to do it Come! what are you saying, boy?

359.

Idioms in General Use (Modismos de

Uso General)
a caballo acabar de acabar con acertar a
a a a a a a
a a a a
correo vuelto

on horseback to have just to put an end to to happen to, chance to

by return mail
at top speed

escape eso de
fe

about

ma
de de

upon
on a

my

word

falta
flor

for lack of
level with

al aire libre

in the open air

la pata (la) llana


la

redonda
de

la(s) barba(s)

las mil maravillas

y al cabo alguna que otra vez al pie de la letra a medio cerrar andar a tientas a pie apretar el paso
al fin

unceremoniously round about under the very nose of wonderfully, admirably in the end, at the end every now and then, occasionally
literally

half shut

armar una disputa


a saber a su alrededor a sus anchas a trueque de boca de jarro bueno va! cada cual ms cada vez ms
calle arriba (abajo)

to grope on foot to quicken one's pace, hasten to set up a quarrel to wit, namely

around him
at one's ease, to the heart's content
in

exchange for

point blank indeed! verily! in emulation

more and more up (down) the street

359
ciertos son los toros

IDIOMS IN GENERAL USE


it is

303
all

true after
in

cogidos del brazo

arm

arm knew how


it

como Dios le dio a entender cmo ha de ser! como si tal cosa como V. guste
I

as well as he

how can
as as to
if

what is to be done? nothing had happened


be!

cortar el paso costar los ojos de la cara

you please head off

to cost a pretty

penny

cuando menos
cuanto antes
cubrirse dale que le das

at least
as soon as possible, without delay to put to

on one's hat

persistently, without stopping

dar a dar al traste con dar calabazas dar con dar cuerda dar en dar en el blanco dar ganas a dar que rer dar razn a darse las manos darse por darse tono dar un paseo dar un paso dar voces dar vueltas a

open (look out) upon, face

to ruin, upset

to give the mitten to encounter,


to

meet
fall

wind

(a clock)

to strike, to hit the to

come across, mark


to

upon

make one wish

to cause to laugh to justify, prove a thing to


to shake

any one

hands
airs

to be,
to put

show
on

to take a walk to take a step to shout to turn (around), reflect on, dis-.

de all en adelante de buena (mala) gana de buenas a primeras de buen grado decir para s decir para su capote de corrido de da dejar (se) de de manos a boca de memoria de par en par desde luego de todos modos
dicho se est

pute (about) thenceforth


willingly (unwillingly)

at the very start, suddenly


willingly
to say to oneself

to say to oneself
hastily, glibly

in the

daytime

to cease, stop, leave off

digmoslo as

suddenly, unexpectedly by heart wide open (applied to a door) at once, naturally at all events it may be said, it is true so to speak

304

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


to sleep soundly

359

dormir a pierna suelta echar de menos echar de ver echar en saco roto echar flores echar himios echar la casa por la ventana echar pie a tierra^ echarse a echar im trago el mejor da
ello dir

to miss to notice
to forget

to

pay compliments

to put on airs

money recklessly to alight, disfnount, disembark to begin, start to


to spend to drink a glass

some fine day we shall see


the fact
is

que en alta voz en aquel entonces en el acto en los puntos de los dedos en pie
ello es

that

aloud
in those days, at that time

at once at one's fingers' ends

es decir eso es

standing that is to say


that's
it

segn y conforme estar a punto de


(eso)

estar estar estar estar

fresco

para por sobre

that depends to be on the point of to be disappointed to be on the point of


to be inclined to to be on one's guard to stare at facing, in front of to frown

fijarse

en

frente a fruncir el ceo

Fulano de Tal habrselas con


hablar por los codos hace poco hacer caso a (de) hacer dao a hacer falta hacer la corte a hacer novillos hacer pedazos hacer preguntas hacer pucheros hacer un papel

Mr. What's-his-name
to have to do with to talk volubly, chatter a short while ago to pay attention to, take notice of to injure, hurt to lack, be needed to pay court to
to play truant to break to pieces

to ask questions to pout


to play a role

hoy da
ir al

caso
la

gana leer por cima


le

da

nowadays to come to the point the fancy strikes him


to glance over

359

IDIOMS IN GENERAL USE


to

305

levantarse la tapa de los sesos


lo

blow out one's brains


the same

mismo da

it's all

cabo mal de mi grado ms bien dicho ms bueno que el pan mejor dicho meterse a mientras tanto mirar de hito en hito
llevar a

to carry out, effect


in spite of

me

rather, better said

as good as gold
rather, better said

to undertake to

meanwhile
to look at fixedly attention

mucho o ja ni mucho menos


ni por

not anything like


deal

it,

not by a great

asomos

no no no no no no no no no no no no no
no no no no

cabe duda dejar de estar para bromas


faltar

ms

not in one's wildest dreams there can be no doubt not to fail to to be in no mood for joking to be the last straw

fimiadores

hay de qu
importa pasar cuidado poder ms

poder menos de se me da un bledo s qu ser para menos


servir para

no smoking you are welcome, don't mention it no matter not to worry to be exhausted, to be able tP do no more to do no less than, not to help
I don't care a

straw
.

some

sort of, a certain

to deserve nothing less, not to be surprising

nada

tener inconveniente tener cuidado venir al caso para mis adentros para servir a V. pasar por alto pasarse sin una cosa pegarla a tmo

good for nothing have no objection not to worry


to be
to

not to suit the situation to myself


at your service to pass over, omit
to do without a thing
.

...._.
"
-

to abuse one's confidence,

oolany

one
pegarse un tiro pegar un brinco
pelar la pava
to shoot oneself

to give a leap,
to

bound

poner poner poner poner

carita

de 'Pascuas en limpio

por caso pimto en

love to look pleased, smile to copy, make a copy of to assume to put a stop to, end
.

make

306

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH


to set out, undertake to start out

359

ponerse a ponerse en camino ponerse encamado ponerse en pie por cierto por lo dems por poco (me caigo, etc.) por si acaso por tanto por un qutame all esas pajas posedo de s mismo prender fuego quebrarse los cascos
qu demonio! qu ha de ser?

to blush

to stand

up

certainly, surely

furthermore I came near (falling, etc.) in case anything should happen


accordingly, therefore
for the merest trifle

conceited to catch fire to rack one's brain the deuce! what is to be done, what can you expect?
to
to

querer decir qu tiene V.? saber de buena tinta sacar en limpio

mean
is

the matter with you? authority to clear up all doubts, find out, come to a conclusion

what

know on good

encuentro de alguien con salir del paso salirse con la suya


salir al
salir

to go to
to to

meet someone
with, propose

come out

to get out of the difficulty

have one's own way

sentar plaza ser cosa corriente ser de da ser parte a


servir para

to enlist to be a matter of firm belief

to be day(light) to contribute to
to serve for, be suited to
I

siento

mucho que

boca es ma sin pararse en pelillos


sin decir esta
soltar la carcajada (risa)
tal

am very sorry that without speaking a word without stopping at trifles to burst out laughing
tit for

para cual

tat

tener tener tener tener tener tener tener

buena cara en cuenta


gusto

to look well
to take into account

to take pleasure
(prisa, etc.)

hambre

la palabra

que ver (con)


sal

hungry (in a hurry, have the floor to have to do (with)


to be to to be attractive, witty to take to one's heels
to

etc.)

tomar
tratar

las

de Villadiego

con

have relations with,

visit,

be in

una buena pieza

society a good fellow

II

360
una que

EXAMPLES OF EPISTOLARY STYLE


once in a while to be worth while to employ, make use of Heavens! good gracious! to be opportune, seasonable to come to blows to dress in an elegant manner to (do) again to turn back yes indeed, I should say so

307

otra vez valer la pena valerse de

vlgame Dios! venir a cuento venir a las manos vestirse de veinticinco alfileres volver a (hacer) volver pies atrs ya lo creo
360.

Examples

of Epistolary Style {Ejemplos


Estilo Epistolar)

de

gain some idea of

From the following examples of epistolary style the student will how to wdte and address a letter in Spanish. The epistolary forms of salutation are many and varied, from

the formal

Muy

Seor mo, ^Dear

Sir,'

to the

most expansive
followed

expressions of regard.

Some

of those

most frequently used may

be seen in the ensuing

letters.

They should always be

by a
in

colon.

Conclusions are

much more

elaborate in Spanish letters than

EngHsh, and in those of Spain than in those of the Spanish


countries.

American

so often used

The latter usually avoid the Q. B. S. M. by Spaniards when writing to men and the Q. B. If there is great S. P. so often added when writing to women. intimacy, these endings are frequently omitted by Spaniards also.
Note.

The following abbreviations are often met with


afectsimo afecto atento
affectionate attentive

in

Spanish

correspondence:
af . or afp.oio
af.to

most affectionate

atto. OK att.

ave. B. L. M. or b. 1. m. B. L. P. or b. 1. p. C.a or

avenida besa la mano besa los pies

avenue
kisses the

hand

kisses the feet

CM

compaa
corriente

company
current (or present)

corr.te or cte.

month
B. or c. m. b. C. P. B. or c. p. b.
C.

M.

cuyas manos beso cuyos pies beso

whose hands I kiss whose feet I kiss

D.

or "D.^

Don

308
D.a
dha., dho.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

360

Doa
dicha, dicho

aforesaid
right

dra., dro., or dcha., dcho. derecha,

derecho

dnpA^
E. P. D. E. P. M.
etc.,

duplicado

duplicate

en paz descanse en propia mano


etctera

may

into (his)
l cetera

he rest in peace own hands, to be delivered in person


excellent,

&a.

Ex.nio
fha.
izq.a, izq.o,

Excelentsimo
fecha
or or

Most
date
left

Hon-

orable izqA^,
b.
1.

izqtderda, izquierdo
le

izq.do

L. B. L.
n.o,

M.

1.

m.

besa

la

mano

kisses

your hand

nra., nro.,
i?r

i?r

ntra., ntro.

nuestra, nuestro

our

num.

nmero
presbtero por ciento
^^

number
priest

Pbro., presb.

P%. P.P.
ppdo.
pral.

Pte Pagado
prximo pasado
principal

per cent post-paid ultimo (ult.)


principal (floor)

P. S.
ps.

Post scrptum pesos


pesetas
S.

postscript
dollars

ptas.

pesetas

m. que besa su mano que besa sus pies Q. B. S. P. or q. b. s. p. Q. E. S. M. or q. e. s. m. que estrecha su

Q.B.

M.

7r

q. b. s.

who who

your hand your feet w^ho claps your hand


kisses kisses

mano Q.D. G.
Q. D. D. G.
E. P. Q. E. G. E. R. R. I. P.
S. C.
i?r

que Dios guarde que de Dios goce

may God keep him may he be in God's


;

Q.D.

que descanse en paz que en Gloria est

may may

keeping he rest in peace he be in Glory

Reverendo
reqtiiescat in pace

Reverend

may

he rest in peace

(Latin)
s. c.

Sra.
Sr.

Sres.
Srta.
S. S.i
S. S. S.
ult.o
*

su casa Seora Seor Seores


Seorita seguro servidor su seguro servidor ltimo

your house

madame
Sir

Messrs.

Miss
faithful servant

your
last

faithful servant

V.da

viuda
1

widow

Plural SS. SS.

360

LETTERS
Envelopes (Sobres de Cartas)
Sr.

309

1.

D. Antonio Marzn,
Calle

Mayor, 23-2.-dcha.,
Madrid,
Espaa.

Sra. D.^ Engracia Godnez, V.^^ e Ferrugia,

San Andrs, N.

15, pral., izq.,

Barcelona,

Espaa.
In addresses, after the name of the street, it is customary put the number of the house (preceded or not by the abbreviation Unless the v/hole house is occupied by N.<^ for nmero, 'number'). the family, the number of the floor (or story) follows. One must not be deceived by the term segundo (2.), or second story, for one has to reckon frequently with a planta baja or piso bajo, 'ground floor,' an entresuelo, 'entresol' (not always present), a principal (abbreviation pral.), 'principal floor,' and aprimare, 'first floor,' before arriving at the segundo. Often the abbreviation dcha., for derecha, 'right,' or

Note.

to

izq.^, for

on which side

izquierda, 'left,' follows the number of the house, to indicate of the landing or corridor to find the apartment.

The

following terms are also often added to addresses:

En En

casa de
lista

Certificado

Impresos
2.

In care of General delivery Registered Printed matter

Particular

Personal

Precisa A reexpedir

Urgent
Please forward

Letter of Introduction (Carta de Presentacin)


Club Hispano- Americano, Ithaca, New York, Agosto 25 de 1920.

Seor

Don

Csar Emilio Arroyo y Pastor, Quito, Ecuador, S. A.^

Inol\tdable amigo mo 2; sta tiene por objeto, despus


mordial de saludarle

del prial

muy

afectuosamente,

de presentarle

por-

tador de esta carta, Sr. Dn. Felipe A. Boloa, Ingeniero Electricista.


1

Abbreviation for Sud Amrica, South America.' These introductory words may occupy a line by themselves, the
'

letter being continued

on the

line below.

310
El seor Boloa

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH


es

360

una persona

muy

estimable e interesante, piensa


el

pasar ima temporada en esa ciudad y no dudo que, desde harn ustedes buenas migas.

principio,

Todo cuanto Ud. haga en favor de dicho mente apreciado por su


.

Sr.

Boloa ser debida-

Viejo amigo
{

S. S.

Pedro Cano.

3.

Letter of Invitation (Carta de Invitacin)

San Sebastin,
Agosto 29 de 1920.

Seor

Don
la Torre,

Rafael de

Ciudad.

Estimado amigo ^:

En

unin de varios amigos he decidido celebrar mi cumpleaos


el

el

jueves prximo con una comida en

Hotel Continental.

Siendo

como es Ud. uno de mis mejores compaeros y camaradas, celebrara mucho tenerle presente en dicha reunin que, a no dudarlo, recibir mayor inters con su presencia.
Despus de cenar iremos al Casino, pues esta noche se representa La Gran Va en beneficio de la tiple Fuentes. Esperando ser favorecido con ima respuesta favorable, quedo como
siempre

Su

invariable amigo

y S. S. Francisco de Casablanca.

4.

Letter of Acceptance (Carta de Aceptacin)

San Sebastl^n,
Agosto 30 de 1920.

Seor

Don
Presente.^

Francisco de Casablanca,

Querido amigo: Agradezco a Ud. sinceramente


cin a
1

la

atenta invita-

una comida en

el

Hotel Continental con que Ud. se ha dignado


letter being

may occupy a line by themselves, the on the line below, as here. 2 Presente has the same meaning as Ciudad, 'city.'
These introductory words

continued

360
favorecerme.

LETTERS
La
acepto, desde luego,

311
y espero que en
feKcidades.
atto.
ella
el

tendr
da de

ocasin de manifestarle personalmente mis deseos por que

su natalicio le brinde las

ms cumplidas

De Ud.

amigo y

S. S.

Rafael de la Torre.

5.

Letters of Regret (Cartas de Excusa)

San Sebastin,
Agosto 30 de 1920.

Seor

Don
Ciudad.

Francisco de Casablanca,

Estimado amigo mo: Tengo mucho placer en manifestarle mi agradecimiento por su atenta invitacin para una comida en el Hotel
Continental
el

jueves prximo con motivo de su natalicio.


ella,

Siento muchsimo no poder asistir a

pues causas ajenas a mi

voluntad

me

obligan a salir de la ciudad esta

misma

tarde.

Verdadero placer hubiera tenido en expresar personalmente mis


mejores deseos por que
el

da de su cumpleaos le sea

el

pre-

cursor de mil felicidades, pero

ya que

esto

no

es posible, reciba al

menos, por medio de esta carta, mis ms sinceros recuerdos y agradecimiento.

Siempre su amigo

Vctor Oviedo.
Seora

Doa
Ciudad.

Mara Gonzlez de Murillo,

Muy
bailes

Seora, ma: Recib su amable invitacin para una serie de


el

y tengo
:

sentimiento de notificarle que

me

es imposible

aceptar por carecer de aptitudes para tan agradable pasatiemo.

Seora a los pies de V. su af .^


S. S.

Q. B. S.

M.

Antonio Jess Rubio,


B.\RCELONA, 13/XII/20.

'

312

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH

360

6.

Letter of Condolence {Carta de Psame)

Granada,
Seorita

Agosto 29 de 1919.
Sevilla.

Carmen Guerra^
estimada amiga ma: En este momento acabo de recibir la triste nueva del fallecimiento de su respetado padre el Sr. Dn. Armando Guerra (Q. D. D. G.). Considero el estado actual de Ud., lamento este triste acontecimiento, rae doy perfecta cuenta de su dolor y ni siquiera puedo brindarle palabras de consuelo: grande es su desgracia, amiga ma, y natural es que sufra. Eso s, suplico a Ud. me considere entre los que ms de cerca han participado de esta desgracia, pues, de corazn comparto con Ud. de su pesar. Dgnese aceptar mis votos por que en lo futuro pueda Ud. gozar de esa calma y bienestar que tanto ambiciono para Ud. y su atribulada familia.

Muy

stos son los deseos de su

Decidido amigo y

S. S.

Q. B. S. P.

Juan Manuel Campanera.


7.

Letter of Congratulation {Carta de Felicitacin)

Barcelona,
Seor

Don

Julio 25 de 1919.

Roberto Andrade, Madrid.

Querido amigo mo: El

correo de esta

maana me ha

trado su

atenta carta de 23 de Julio.

Por

ella

me

he impuesto del brillante

to que ha alcanzado Ud. en sus exmenes finales, logrando termiel Curso de Derecho en la Universidad de Madrid. Dgnese Ud. recibir mis ms sinceras felicitaciones as como tambin mis mejores deseos por que en lo futuro goce Ud. de todos los triunfos y consideraciones a que Ud. se ha hecho acreedor por su aprovechamiento y conducta durante los varios aos de su curso escolar. Hasta tener el placer de verle, se despide cariosamente Su afectsimo amigo y S. S.
nar lucidamente
Q. B. S.

M.
Jos Mara Falcon.

360

LETTERS
Friendly Letters {Cartas de Amistad)

313

8.

Madrid, 12 de Abril de

1920,

Muy Sr. mo y distinguido amigo: Fu en mi poder su muy atenta


carta de fecha 12 de diciembre pasado, a la cual no he contestado

antes no por falta de voluntad, sino por haber estado una temporada

ocupadsimo.

que tan cortsmente me enva, pues considero muy natural mi comportamiento, y mi deseo hubiera sido haber podido acompaarle ms tiempo y servirle mejor

No

admito de ninguna manera

las gracias

para

el fin

que

me

propona.
el

Salude V. en mi nombre a su Seora, aimque no tengo


conocerla,
ira

honor de

y V. mande como guste a su atto. S. S. que de buena gana a hacerle una visita y 1. b. 1. m.
Ignacio L. Corcuera.

Nueva York,

25 de Octubre de 1920.

nueve de la noche llegamos a sta despus de un buen viaje en el vapor francs France, que no ha tardado ms que cinco das y doce horas desde el Havre. Mi impresin de esta ciudad es de las que no se olvidan. La entrada del vapor al anochecer es grandiosa, y comprender mi entusiasmo y sorpresa al ver el movimiento vertiginoso de esta gran ciudad tan diferente a las conocidas por m. Todos me encargan muchos recuerdos afectuosos para tan distinguido amigo y Ud. mande como guste a su siempre amigo afmo. S. S. q. s. m. b.^
El da 23 a
las

Muy querido amigo:

Julio A. Santilln.

9.

Business Letters (Cartas de Negocios)


Madrid, 17 de Diciembre de
1920.

Seor

Don Juan
^

Daz,
a V.

Muy

Seor mo: Ciertamente habr extraado

mi

falta

de

cumpHmiento en
1

esta ocasin, debida a que^ convaleciente de larga


att.^ del

enfermedad, no he podido contestar antes a su

10 de Oc-

A variant

of Q. B. S.

M.

'

Xo

the fact that.'

314
tubre.

PIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

360

ficados

Los libros obran en mi poder y se los remitir en breve certicomo le promet. Perdneme si le causo algn trastorno y entretanto queda en espera de sus apreciables rdenes su ms att. y af.^ S. S.
Q. S.

M.

B.i

iEdARDO GADN.
Quito, Junio de 1919.

Seor Abelardo Pachano:

Los suscritos fundadores de Altos Relieves, publicacin que el buen gusto literario en la juventud intelectual de esta Repblica, tienen a honra dirigirse a Ud., suphcndole se sirva cooperar a tan alto fin, envindonos sus prestigiosas colaboraciones, las que por su mrito y belleza darn realce a nuestra Revista. En espera de ser favorecidos, quedamos de Ud. respetuosos y
tiende a difundir

atentos SS. SS,

Julio E. Rueda,

Aurelio Falcon,

Directores propietarios.

La Habana, Cuba, 20
La Catalana, Fbrica de Vinos,

de Febrero de 1920.

Rambla

42,

Barcelona, Espaa.

Muy

Seores mos: Tenemos informes del agente consular de nuestro

pas en sa, de

las ventajosas condiciones

en que estn ustedes exportando sus pro-

ductos, as

como de

los precios atractivos

fciles condiciones

de

pago,

y tenemos

la satisfaccin

de proponerles que nos nombren sus

representantes

en sta; recprocamente nosotros nombraremos a

ustedes nuestros representantes en ese pas para la venta del aperitivo Bacardi, nuestra especiaHdad.

Nosotros estamos establecidos en esta plaza desde hace ms de

y nos dedicamos a la exportacin e importacin de vinos en particular y de abaceras en general. La Ca. Exportadora de Catalua, de Barcelona, con la cual hemos hecho varias transacciones,
diez aos
1

variant of Q. B.

S.

M.

360

LETTERS

315

puede dar a ustedes referencias de nosotros, as como el Banco Nacional de Cuba y la Cmara de Comercio de esta ciudad.

Esperando que nuestras transacciones sern satisfactorias para ambas partes, tenemos el gusto de suscribirnos como sus atentos
af.^^os

SS. SS.

Pedro Caldern y Albes,


Obispo
25.

MJICO, 20 de Febrero de 1920.

The Remington Typewriter

Co.,

New

York.

Muy

Seores mos:

Habiendo abierto recientemente esta oficina, necesitamos diez mquinas de escribir y hemos decidido comprarlas de la marca de ustedes. Srvanse decirnos si podran hacernos un descuento, en la inteligencia de que queremos mquinas del ltimo modelo, para idioma espaol; tambin quisiramos nos mandaran su catlogo de cintas para mquinas de escribir y dems accesorios.

De

Uds.

muy

atto. S. S.

Carlos Canales,
Ave. de
la

Independencia,

Num.

5,

Ciudad de Mjico.

New
Seor Don Carlos Canales, Ave. de la Independencia,
Mjico.

York, 3 de Marzo de

1920.

Nm.

5,

Muy
el

Seor mo: Con referencia a su atenta

carta de fecha 20 del mes pasado, tenemos

honor de manifestar a Ud. que no podemos hacerle ninguna venta pues desde hace tiempo tenemos establecida una sucursal en esa ciudad para atender a los pedidos de esa plaza; pero puede Ud. estar seguro de que en ella sern atendidas sus rdenes debidamente.
directa,

Con esta fecha escribimos a nuestros representantes, avisndoles de sus deseos y visitarn a Ud. en sus oficinas para hablar sobre el
particular.

De Ud.

attos. SS. SS.

The Remington Typewriter

Co.,

New York

City.

316

riRST COURSE IN SPANISH


Buenos Aires, 20 de Febrero de

360
1920.

The Ford Auto

Co.,

Detroit, Michigan.

Muy

Seores mos:
las mltiples as

Convencidos de

ventajas que tienen los automviles


la

que ustedes fabrican


preguntarles
al
si

como de

necesidad ^ue hay en esta ciudad


les

de un vehculo de esas condiciones,

escribimos la presente para

podran comprometerse a entregarnos mil automviles

mes y

cuales seran sus precios

posible,

Esperando recibir tenemos la


attos. SS. SS.

y condiciones de pago. una respuesta de ustedes a la mayor brevedad satisfaccin de ofrecernos como sus afmos. y

muy

Vasconcelos y Jimenez,
Importadores y Exportadores.

10.

Wedding

Invitation {Parte de Matrimonio)

Claudio A. Martnez y Alvarez

y
Josefa Puig de Martnez
tienen la honra de participar a Vd.
el

enlace de su hijo

Carlos

con

la

Seorita Cristina Andrs

supHcndole asista a

la

bendicin nupcial
el Sr.

que

les ser

dada por

Pbro.^

Don
el

Luis G. Romo,

23 del actual a las once de la

maana en

la

Capilla de Ntra. Sra. del Pilar. Zaragoza, Noviembre de 1908.^


^

Presbtero, 'priest*

similar invitation on the part of the bride's parents generally accompanies this.

360

ANNOtJNCEMENT OF A DEATH
Announcement
of a

31 7

.11.

Death {Esquela Mortuoria^)

t
DON
Ha

JULIO GARCA NEZ

LICENCIADO EN LA FACULTAD DE DERECHO


Fallecido ayer a las lo de la noche

despus de haber recibido los Santos Sacramentos y la Bendicin Apostlica


a los 21 aos de edad

R.

I.

P.

Su desconsolada madre, doa Antonia Nez Gonzlez, hermanos, tos, primos y dems parientes:
a usted encomiende a Dios su alma y asista al Funeral y Misas que, por su eterno descanso, se celebrarn el da ij de los corrientes^ a las diez de la maana en la parroquial de este pueblo, por lo que le que-

RUEGAN

darn

muy

reconocidos.

ViLLARDEVs, Marzo 12 de 1910.

Such announcements are heavily bordered with black.


318
361.

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

361

Poems

to

be Memorized {Poesas para aprender de Memoria)

Qu

es poesa? dices mientras clavas

En mi
Qu
Poesa

pupila tu pupila azul;

es poesa?
.

me

lo

pregimtas?

eres t.

Gustavo Adolfo Bcquer (1837-1870):

Rimas.

Los suspiros son aire, y van al aire. Las lgrimas son agua, y van al mar. Dime, mujer: cuando el amor se olvida, Sabes t a dnde va? Bcquer:

Id.

Hojas del rbol cadas


Juguetes del viento son:
Las ilusiones perdidas

1
I

Ay! son hojas desprendidas

Del rbol del corazn!


Jos de Espronceda (1809-1842): El Estudiante de Salamanca (Extract)
Que descansada vida

La

del

que huye

el

mundanal

ruido,

Y sigue la escondida
Senda, por donde han ido

mundo han sido! Fray Luis (Ponce) de Len (1527-1591):


Los pocos sabios que en
el

Oda

(Extract),

Un frenes. Qu es la vida? Una ilusin, Qu es la vida? Una sombra, una ficcin,

Y el mayor bien es pequeo;

361

1>0EMS TO BE

MEMORIZED

319

Que toda

la

vida es sueo,

Y los sueos

sueo son.

Pedro Caldern de la Barca (1600-1681): La Vida es Sueo (Extract).


Cuentan de un
sabio,

que im da

Tan pobre y msero estaba, Que slo se sustentaba

De

unas yerbas que coga.


s

Habr otro (entre

deca)

Ms

pobre y

triste

que yo?

Y cuando el rostro volvi,


Hall la respuesta, viendo

Que

iba otro sabio cogiendo


l arroj.

Las hojas que

Caldern:
S corts sobremanera, S liberal y esparcido;

Id. (Extract).

Que

sombrero y el dinero Son los que hacen los amigos.


el

Caldern:

El Alcalde de Zalamea (Extract).


MADRIGAL

Ojos
Si de

claros, serenos,
sois alabados,

un dulce mirar
si

Por qu,
Si

me

miris, miris airados?

cuanto ms piadosos,
bellos parecis a aqul

Ms

Por qu a m solo
Ojds

me

que os mira, miris con ira?


al

claros, serenos.

Ya

que

as

me

miris,

miradme

menos!

Gutierre de Cetina (1520?-1560?).

320

FIRST COURSE IN SPANISH

361

Nada te turbe; Nada te espante; Todo se pasa;


Dios no se muda,

La

paciencia todo lo alcanza.


tiene,
^

Quien a Dios

Nada

le falta.

Solo Dios basta.

Santa Teresa de Jess (1515-1582):


Letrilla que llevaba por registro en

su breviario.

UN SONETO

Un

soneto

Que en

me manda hacer Violante, mi vida me he visto en tal aprieto,


los tres delante.

Catorce versos dicen que es soneto.

Burla burlando van

Yo
Mas

pens que no hallara consonante,


cuarteto,

Y estoy a la mitad de otro


si

No

veo en el primer terceto hay cosa en los cuartetos que me espante.

me

Por el primer terceto voy entrando, Y aun parece que entr con pie derecho. Pues fin con este verso le voy dando. Ya estoy en el segundo, y aun sospecho. Que estoy los trece versos acabando:

Contad

si

son catorce, y est hecho.

Lope Flix de Vega Carpi (1562-1635)

POEMS TO BE MEMORIZED

321

DOLORAS
Ni amor
canto, ni hermosura,

Porque sta es un vano alio, Y adems Aqul una sombra obscura. No es ms que sombra el cario?

Nada ms.
flores

Esas

con que ufana

Tu

frente se diviniza,

Ya

vers

Nada ms son que ceniza? Nada ms,


Y en tu contento no escaso;
Qu
dirs

Cual son ceniza maana.

que

es

un contento,

Nada ms, nia, que viento.


Nada ms!

Qu dirs? Nada ms que viento acaso?

En

la

edad de

las pasiones,

A vueltas
Aire,

de mil enojos.
e ilusiones:

Hallars

sombras

Nada ms,

luz de

mis

ojos,

Nada ms!

Ramn de Campoamor

(1819-1901):
la

Vanidad de
Volvern
las

Hermosura,

obscuras golondrinas
ala a sus cristales

En

tu balcn sus nidos a colgar,


el

Y, otr^ vez, con

Jugando llamarn. Pero aqullas que el vuelo refrenaban Tu hermosura y mi dicha a contemplar,

322

FIRST COUE.se in SPANISH


Aqullas que aprendieron nuestros nombres
. .

361

sas ... no volvern!


Volvern
las tupidas

madreselvas

De

tu jardn las tapias a escalar,

Y otra vez a la tarde,


Sus

aun ms hermosas,
roco,

flores se abrirn;

Pero aqullas, cuajadas de

Cuyas gotas mirbamos temblar Y caer, como lgrimas del da


.

sas

.no volvern!

Volvern del amor en tus odos

Las palabras ardientes a sonar;

Tu

corazn de su profundo sueo

Tal vez despertar;


Pero

mudo y absorto y de rodillas. Como se adora a Dios ante su altar. desengate, Como yo te he querido
.

As

no

te querrn!

Bcquer: Rimas.

FBULA
Los Dos Conejos
Por entre unas matas
Seguido de perros,

(No dir corra) Volaba un conejo.

De
Sali

su madriguera

Y le dijo: Tente,
Amigo, qu

im compaero,
es esto?
ser? responde;
. . .
'

Qu ha de
Sin aliento llego

Dos

picaros galgos
siguiendo.

Me vienen

361

POEMS TO BE MEMORIZED

323

Por

Si (replica el otro),

all los

veo,

Pues, qu son? Podencos. Qu? Podencos dices?


S,

Pero no son galgos.

como mi abuelo. Galgos, y muy galgos:


los tengo.

Bien visto

Son podencos: vaya, Que no entiendes de Son Digo que podencos.


eso.

galgos, te digo.

En

esta disputa
los perros,

Llegando

Pillan descuidados

A mis

dos conejos.

Los que por cuestiones De poco momento Dejan lo que importa,


Llvense este ejemplo.

Toms de Triarte

(1750-1791).

VOCABULARY (VOCABULARIO)
SPANISH-ENGLISH
actividad,/., activity, bustle actual, adj., actual, present; del
a,

prep., to, at, in; al, on,

upon

(with infinitive) abacera,/., provision, delicacy

of the present month acueducto, m., aqueduct acusativo, m., accusative


,

Abelardo, m., Abelard abogado, m., lawyer


abril, m., April

adems,

adv.,

moreover

abrir, irr.

v., to open; pp. abierto absoluto, -a, absolute absorto, -a, absorbed, ecstatic abuela,/., grandmother abuelo, w., grandfather; />/., grandparents ac, adv,, here, hither de, to acabar, to finish, end;

adentro, adv., within adjetivo, -a, adjective admirable, adj., admirable admirar, to admire
admitir, to admit adorar, to adore adquirir (ie), to acquire

aduana,/., custom-house
adverbial, adj., adverbial adverbio, m., adverb afectsimo, -a, most affectionate
{ahhreviation afmo.) afectuoso, -a, affectionate
afeitarse, to shave (oneself)

have just
acaso, adv., perhaps, perchance accesorio, m., accessory accin,/., action, act
aceite, m., (olive) oil

afirmativo, -a, affirmative


frica,/., Africa

acento, m., accent acentuar, to accent aceptacin,/., acceptance aceptar, to accept acera,/., sidewalk acerca de, prep., about, concerning achicar, to dwarf, lessen acoger, to welcome

agente, m., agent agosto, m., August agradable, adj., agreeable agradecer, to thank (for), appreciate

agradecimiento, m., gratitude, thanks


agricultura,/., agriculture

acompaar, to accompany, go with


aconsejar, to advise, counsel acontecimiento, m., incident, event, occurrence

agua,/., water ah, adv., there {near the person addressed)

ahora, adv.,
aire, m., air,

now
wind

acordarse (ue) de, to remember acostarse (ue), to go to bed acreedor, adj., worthy

airado, -a, angry

ajeno, -a, foreign, contrary to

325

326
ajustar, to
ala,/.,
fit

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
a menudo, adv., often, frequently Amrica,/., America; Central, Central America; Norte {or del Norte), North America; Sud {or del Sur) South America americana, /., ''sack" coat, business coat {called in Spanish

wing

alabar, to praise Alcal (la Calle de), Alcal Street


{one of the

principal streets of

Madrid)
alcalde, w.,

mayor

alcanzar, to attain, obtain, reach alczar, m., Moorish palace


alcoba,/.,

Americak countries

ssico)

bedroom
gay

alegrarse, to be glad alegre, adj., joyful, glad,

americano, -a, American a menos que, conj., unless amiga,/., friend amigo, m., friend
amistad,/., friendship amor, m., love ancho, -a, wide, broad anchura,/., width Andaluca,/., Andalusia andar, irr. v., to go, walk Andes (los), the Andes

alemn, -a,

adj.,

German

alfabeto, w., alphabet algo, indef. pron., something; adv.,

somewhat
alguien, indef. pron., any one, somebody,

some one, anybody

alguno, -a, indef. adj. a7id pron., any, some, a few; alguna cosa, something, anything; cosa alguna, nothing Aambra (la),/., the Alhambra aliento, m., breath
alio, m.,

animado, -a, animated, Hvely animal, m., animal animar, to animate


aniversario, m., anniversary

ornament
there, thither

all, adv., there, thither


all, adv.,

anoche, adv., last night anochecer, m., nightfall Antafogasta, /., Antafogasta ond port in Chile)

{sec-

alma,/., soul

almohada,/., pillow almorzar (ue) to lunch almuerzo, m., lunch, luncheon alrededor, adv., around; a su
,

ante, prep., before, in (the) face of anteanoche, adv., night before last anteayer, adv., day before yester-

day
antecedente, adj., antecedent antecedente, m., antecedent anterior, adj., anterior, former
antes, adv.,

around it (him, her) alrededores, m. pi., environs


altar, m., altar
alto, -a, high, tall, lofty, alto, adv.,

worthy

de,

first,

formerly, before;

prep., before {usually ap-

loud

plied to time);

altura,/., height

alumna,/., pupil

alumno, m., pupil


alzar, to raise

amabilidad,/., kindness

amable, adj., kind, charming ambicionar, to desire, covet ambigedad,/., ambiguity ambos, -as, both

de ayer, night before last; (de) day before yesterday; que, conj., before anticipacin,/., anticipation antiguamente, aJz;., formerly antiguo, -a, ancient Antonia,/., Antonia Antonio, m., Anthony anuncio, w., advertisement

de

anoche,

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
aadir, to add ao, m., year apellidarse, to be
apellido, m.,
artculo,
fu.,

327

article;

definite

article;

definido, indefinido,

named

indefinite article

surname, family name apenas, adv., scarcely, hardly


aperitivo, m., aperitive

a pesar de, prep., in "spite of; a pesar de que, conj., in spite of


the fact that
aplicar, to

apply

apcope,/., apocopation aposicin,/., apposition


apostlico, -a, apostolic

artsticamente, adv., artistically artstico, -a, artistic arzobispo, m., archbishop asado, -a, roasted, done; bien weU. done; poco rare asar, to roast asegurar, to assure, secure asesinar, to assassinate

as, adv., so, thus;

como, as well

as

apreciable, adj., valuable apreciar, to appreciate

aprender, to learn;
to

de memoria,
profit,

asiento, m., seat as que, conj., as soon as

memorize
vt.,

aprieto, m., extremity

be present at asombrar, to astonish asombroso, -a, astonishing, wonasistir (a), to attend,

aprovechamiento,
ress

progthe

aprovechar, to profit by,

make

most of aproximadamente, mately

adv.,

approxi-

derful aspecto, m., aspect, appearance asunto, m., subject, affair Atahualpa, m., x\tahualpa (Inca emperor executed by Pizarro, son
of

Huayana-Cdpac)

aproximarse, to approach, come near


aptitud,/., aptitude, ability

atencin,/., attention

aquel, aquella, defn. adj., that; aquellos, -as, those

pi.,

atender (ie), to attend atentamente, adv., attentively atento, -a, attentive, kind
Atlntico, -a, Atlantic
atracar,
to

aqul, aqulla, dem. pron., that one, the former; pL, aqullos, -as, those, the former. aquello, dem. pron., that aqu, adv., here, hither; por about here, around here

come

alongside,

be

moored
atractivo, -a, attractive

atravesar (ie), to cross a travs de, prep., through, across


atribular, to afflict

Araucana

the Araucana (poem by Alonso de Er cilla)


(la),

aula,/., hall, lecture-room

aimientar, to increase

Araucano, m., Araucanian (Indian


of Chile) rbol, m., tree

aun

(an),

adv.,

yet,
it

still,

even

(accented

when

follows a verb)

aunque,

conj.,

although

arcada,/., arcade
arco, m., arch

Aurelio, m., Aurelius

automvil, m., automobile


auxiliar, adj., auxiliary
auxiliar, m., auxiliary

ardiente, adj., ardent, burning aristocracia,/., aristocracy arquitectura,/., architecture


arrojar, to

avenida,/., avenue

throw (away), ing, dash

Avenida

de

Mayo

(la),

May

328
Avenue
{the

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
great

boulevard of

Buenos Aires)
avisar, to notify, inform
ay!, int., alas!

ayer, adv., yesterday


ajruda, /., aid, help, assistance a3rudar, to aid, help

azcar, m., sugar


azul, adj., blue

to the works of Christopher Columbus, in Seville) Biblioteca Nacional (la), the National Library {the most important library of Spain, located in Madrid) bien, m., good, benefit, blessing bien, adv., Well; good!

devoted

B
baJiia, /.,

bay
dance

bailar, to

bienestar, m., welfare, well-being billete, m., ticket bianco, -a, white bloque, m., block boca,/., mouth
Bolivia,/., Bolivia

baile, m., dance, ball

bajar, to go (come)

down; lower
,

bajo, prep., under, beneath

bajo, -a, low; piso

ground

floor

balaustrada, /., balustrade balcn, m., balcony (window) balneario, m., bathing resort banco, m., bank; bench bandera,/., flag banderilla, /., banderilla {small
decorated dart)

Bolivar (Simn), Simon Bolivar {Venezuelan hero and patriot [1783-1830]. He overthrew Spanish domination in the northern countries of South America) Bolonia, /., Bologna {city in Italy) bolsillo, m., pocket; reloj de

watch
bonaerense,
adj.,

(native) of

Buenos Aires
bondad,/., goodness, kindness bonito, -a, pretty bordo, m., board {ship)', a on board borrador, m., eraser

banderillero, m., banderillero {who sticks the banderillas into the top of the huWs shoulders)

baar (se), to bathe bao, m., bath barato, -a, cheap barba,/., chin; beard Barcelona, /., Barcelona {important
city

borrar, to erase, expunge bosque, m., wood, forest


botella,/., bottle

of Spain,

capital

of

Brasil

Catalonia)

enough, quite, adv., bastante, rather bastar, to be enough, sufiQce bal, m., trunk beber, to drink
belleza,/.,

(el), Brazil brasileo, -a, Brazilian brazo, m., arm

breve, adj., brief; en soon /., brevity; a la mayor posible, as soon as possible breviario, m., breviary
,

brevedad,

beauty

brillante, adj., brilliant

bello, -a, beautiful

bendicin,/., blessing
beneficio, m., benefit

besar, to kiss

Colombiblioteca, /., library; bina, Columbus Library {library

brindar, to toast, favor with, offer bueno, -a, good, kind, well; !, good!, all right! Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires {capital of the Argentine Republic) buque, m., boat, vessel
\

SPANISH-ENGLISH \'OCABULARY
Burgos, m., Burgos (city in northern Spain, famous for its cathedral)

329

cambio, m., change camino, m., way, road


camisa,/., shirt camisera, /., haberdashery, shirtstore

burla,/., jest
burlar, to ridicule; burla burlando,

fooling along

buscar, to look for, seek butaca, /., orchestra chair, armchair buzn, m., mail-box (hole through which letters are mailed)

campana,/., bell campo, w., field, country (in contradistinction to city) casa de country house
;

Canad

(el),

Canada
(el),

canal, m., canal

Canal de Panam ama Canal


cansado, -a, tired
caballero,
m.,

the Pan-

gentleman,

man;

(as term of address) sir on horsecaballo, w., horse; a

back
cabello, w., hair (usually used in
the plural)

cansar, to tire cantar, to sing (of) capa,/., cape capilla,/., chapel


capital, /., capital (of a country)

capitolio, m., capitol

cabeza., f., head cada, indef. adj., each, every

cara,/., face

Caracas,

/.,

Caracas

(capital

of

cada uno, -a,


caer,
irr. v.,

indcf. pron., each

one

to fall

caf, m., coffee, caf

Venezuela) carcter (pL caracteres), w., character


caracterizar, to characterize

Cairo

(el)

Cairo (capital of Egypt)

caja,/.,

box

cardinal,

calcetn, m., sock

calidad,/., quality
caliente, adj., hot
calificar, to

compass cardinal, m., cardinal (number)


es, points of the

adj.,

cardinal;

puntos

modify, qualify

calificativo, -a, qualifying

carecer, to lack; por lack carga,/., load


cargar,
to

since I

calma,/., calm calor, m., heat; hacer to be warm, hot (of weather) tener to be warm (of persons) callar, to quiet, hush; be !, quiet!, hush!

charge,

load;

en

cuenta, to charge (to one's account)


cario, m., affection, lov^e

carioso, -a, affectionate Carlos, m., Charles

calle,/., street

Carmen,
(la),

/.,

Carmen
story
flesh

(heroine

Calle Florida
(the

Florida Street
street

Mrime^s
opera)

and

of Bizet's

most elegant shopping

in Buenos Aires)

came,/., meat,

cama,/., bed cmara,/., chamber

caro, -a, dear, expensive

carrera,/., career

camarada, m., comrade cambiar (en) to change


,

carruaje, m., carriage


(to or into)

carta,/., letter

330
casa,
/.,

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
house, home; en
in the house; a

home,

to the house;

home, de huspedes,
,

at

Csar, m., Caesar Cid (el), the Cid

{Ruy Diaz of Vivar, the Spanish national hero


of the eleventh century)

boarding-house casado, -a, married casar, to marry;

se

cielo, m., sky,

heaven

con,

to

ciencia,/., science
ciento, adj., (a or one)

marry Casa Rosada

hundred

the Pink House {the residence of the President of the Argentine Republic, corre(la),

ciertamente, adj., certainly, surely cierto, -a, certain, sure


cigarrera,
/.,

cigar

{or

cigarette)

sponding to the White House Washington) casi, adv., almost


casino, m., club, casino caso, m., case

at

maker
cigarrillo, m., cigarette

cigarro, m., cigar

cinco, adj., five

castellano, -a, Castilian, Spanish;

subst, m., Castilian

Castilla,/., Castille

cincuenta, adj., fifty cinematgrafo, m., moving-picture show {called familiarly cine, 'movies')
cinta,/., ribbon

catlogo, m., catalogue cataln, -a, Catalonian, of Catalonia; subst. m., Catalonian

ciudad,/., city
civilizacin,/., civilization

Catalua,/., Catalonia catedral,/., cathedral catlico, -a, Catholic catorce, adj., fourteen causa, /., cause, reason causar, to cause, make
celebrar,
lighted;

claramente, adv., clearly


claro, -a, clear

clase,/., class; class-room; kind

Claudio, m., Claudius


clusula,/., clause
clavar, to nail, stick, fix

to

celebrate;
se, to

be

de-

clima, m., climate

take place

clebre, adj., celebrated,

famous

cemento, m., cement cena, /., supper


cenar, to sup, dine ceniza, /., ashes centro, m., center cepillo, m., brush, eraser cerca, adv., near; de nearly, intimately; de, prep., near,

cobre, m., copper cocido, m., boiled dish cocina,/., kitchen, cooking dormicoche, m., car, coach; torio, sleeping-car, sleeper

codo, m., elbow coger, to catch, gather, pick up colaboracin,/., collaboration; pL,
articles

colgar, to hang, suspend

about
cerrar
(ie),

to shut, close;

coleccin,/., collection
el

colocar, to place, put

paso

a,

to check

cerro, m., hill

Cerro de
de Chile)

Santa Luca

(el),

the

Hill of Santa Lucia {in Santiago


certificar, to register {of letters, etc.)

Colombia, /., Colombia {country in South America) Colombina, see Biblioteca Colombina
Coln, m., Columbus; Cristbal Christopher Columbus ,

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
color, w., color

331

colosal, adj.^ colossal

columna,/., column comedia,/., comedy, play comedor, m., dining-room comer, to eat, dine comercial, adj.^ commercial, business

condicin,/., condition condicional, m., conditional (tense) condicional perfecto, m., conditional perfect (tense)

conducta, /., conduct conejo, m., rabbit


conferencia,/., lecture congreso, m., congress conjugacin,/., conjugation conjugar, to conjugate; conjugue Vd. {pi. conjuguen Vds.), conjugate conjuncin,/., conjunction

comerciante, m., merchant comercio, w., commerce comida,/., meal, dinner

como, adv., as, like se dice?, cmo?, adv., how?; how does one say?, how do you

say?;

no!,
/.,

conmigo, with

me

of course, yes in-

conocer, to know, be (become) ac-

deed comodidad,
nience

quainted with
comfort,
comfortable,

convecon-

conocido,

adj.

pp.

of

conocer,

known
-a,

cmodo,
venient

compaero, m., companion, comrade compaa,/., company comparacin,/., comparison comparar, to compare comparativo, -a, comparative comparativo, m., comparative compartimiento, m., compartment compartir (de), to share (with)

conocimiento, m., knowledge, acquaintance conservar, to keep, preserve consideracin,/., consideration considerar, to consider consigo, wdth himself, herself, yourself, themselves, etc.
consistir (en), to consist (of)

consonante,/., consonant, rhyme constar (de), to consist (of)


constitucin,/., constitution construccin, /., construction, order, position construir, to build, construct consuelo, m., consolation consular, adj., consular consultar, to consult

complemento, m., object w., behavior, comportamiento, conduct compositor, m., composer comprar (a), to buy, purchase
(from)

comprender, to understand comprometerse, to agree compuesto, -a, compound comn, adj., common con, prep., with
concesin,
/.,

concession

concordar (ue), to agree

Concha (la), the Concha {Bay. at San Sebastin, so named on account of its similarity in form to
a
shell)

provided that contar (ue), to count, expect; tell, narrate; con, to count on contemplar, to contemplate contenir, irr. v., to contain contento, -a, glad, pleased; m., satisfaction, joy
conj.,

contado al con tal que,


;

for cash

contestar, to reply, answer


contigo, with thee

continente m., continent


J

332
continuado, tinuous
-a,

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
continued,
adv.,

con-

criado, w., servant


cristal, m., crystal,

window-pane

continuamente,

continuous-

cristiano, -a. Christian

ly, constantly continuar, to continue, go on continuo, -a, continuous contra, prep., against contraccin,/., contraction contrariedad,/., opposition, trouble convaleciente, adj., convalescent

Cristina,/., Christine

Cristbal, m., Christopher


cruz,/., cross; withers {highest part

of the hack, between the shoulderblades)


*

cruzar, to cross

cuaderno, m., notebook


cuadrilla,
/.,

cuadrilla {procession

convencer, to convince conversacin,/., conversation cooperar, to cooperate corazn, m., heart; de with one's heart

of bull-fighters) cuajado, -a, covered,

beaded

cual,
all

rel.

pron.

and

as

the one; el (la, lo) es, rel. pron. and

adj.,
,

which,

los (las)

adj.,'

corbata,/., cravat, (neck)tie


cordillera,/., range (of mountains),

whom, which; now;


(like);

tal

who,
,

just

cul, rel. pron., one,

Crdoba,

mountain ridge /., Cordova

correccin,/., correctness; con correctly, with correctness

another cul? {pi. cules?), inter, pron.

and

adj.,

which (one)?, what


{pi.

(one) ?

correctamente,
corregir

adv., correctly

cualquiera
def. adj.

cualesquiera), in-

correcto, -a, correct


(i), to correct correo, w., mail; sello de

and pron., any (what-

soever)
,

post-

cuan!, how! {abbreviation c/cuanto)


{or vez) cuando, adv., when; de from time to time en cundo?, inter, adv., when?

age-stamp
correr, to run, play {of fountains)

correspondencia, /., correspondence, sequence {of tenses) correspondiente, adj., suitable, proper, corresponding
corrida,
/.,

bull-fight;

de

toros,

bull-fight

cuanto, -a, as much {or pi. many) as; rel. pron. and adj., all that, as much {or pi. many) as; tanto as much ... as {pi. as
.
.

corriente, adj., current; del


los)

(c>r

de

many
.
.
.

(s), of

the present

month

... as); tanto ms


(less)
.

ms

(menos) (menos), the

corts, adj., polite


corto, -a, short

cosa,/., thing
/., coast costar (ue), to cost costimibre,/., custom, habit creer, to believe, think; ya lo creo, yes indeed; I should say so cra,/., breeding, raising

costa,

the more (less); (as), a few cunto, -a?, inter, pron. and adj., how much?, pi. how many?; a

more imos

(as)

cuantos

cunto?, how much the price of? cuarenta, adj., forty

is?,

what

is

criada,

/.,

maid, servant

cuarenta y cinco, adj., forty- five cuarenta y cuatro, adj., forty-four cuarenta y dos, adj., forty-two

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
y seis, adj., forty-six y siete, adj., forty- se ven y tres, adj., forty- three y uno, adj., forty-one cuarteto, m., quatrain
cuarto, -a, fourth

333

cuarenta cuarenta cuarenta cuarenta

dado que,

conj.,

in as

much

as,

cuarto, m., quarter; roorii


cuatro, adj., four

supposing that dar, irr. v., to give, strike {of a clock)', a, to look out upon, open upon; se a entender, to
since, in case that,

make

oneself understood

Cuba,/.,
cubrir,

Cuba
to cover; pp., cu-

datar, to date
dativo, m., dative

irr.- v.,

bierto, covered

de, prep., of, from, by, with, for,

cuchara, /., spoon cucharita, /., tea-spoon


cuchillo, m., knife
cuello, m., collar;

neck

cuenta,/., account, bill; cargar en to realto charge; darse

ize

cuerpo, m., body cuestin,/., question cueva, /., cave cuidado, m., care cuidar (de), to care for, take care
of cultivar, to cultivate

que (del que, de than debajo, adv.^ beneath, underneath; de, prep., under deber, to owe, ought, be obliged debidamente, adv., duly, properly debido, -a, due decidido, -a, decided, devoted
in,

than;

lo

la que, etc.),

decidir, to decide;

se

a, to

de-

cide to

dcimo, -a, tenth


decir, irr.
v.,

to say, tell

declaracin,/., declaration dedicar, to devote

cumpleaos, m., birthday cumplido, -a, plenteous, polite cumplimiento, m., courtesy
cpula,
/.,

dedo, m., finger,

mano,
dejar, to

finger;

del

toe;

de

la

pie, toe

definido, -a, definite

dome
/.,

curiosidad,

curiosity; tener

of

de, to

let,

allow, leave, neglect;

fail to

to be curious

curioso, -a, curious

delante, adv., before; ahead; prep., before, in front of

d,

curso, m., course

delicioso, -a, delightful, delicious


adj.,

cuyo,

-a,

rel.

whose,

which
cuyo, -a?, inter, adj., whose? Cuzco, m.. Cuzco {city in the Peruvian .Andes, once the capital of the Incas)

de manera que, conj., so that dems (lo, los, las), indef. adj. and
pron.,
(the)
rest,

remaining,

other(s)

Ch
Chacabuco, m., Chacabuco {small town in Chile, north of Santiago)
chaleco, m., waistcoat, vest Chile, m., Chile chocolate, m., chocolate

demasiado, adv., too, too much de modo que, conj., so that demostrativo, -a, demonstrative
dentro, adv., within; in, within

de,

prep.,

dependiente, adj., dependent dependiente, m., clerk


depsito, m., deposit derechOj -a, right

334

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
determinativo, -a, limiting detrs de, prep., behind, after devocin,/., devotion da, m., day; al medio at noon;

derecho, adv., straight ahead derecho, m., right, law de repente, adv., suddenly derrotar, to defeat, rout desagradable, adj., disagreeable desarrollarse, to develop desayuno, m., breakfast descansado, -a, restful descansar, to rest descanso, ?n., rest descargar, to unload descenso, m., descent desconsolado, -a, disconsolate
describir, irr.
;.,

buenos day; hoy

to describe; pp.,

good morning, good nowadays; ocho s, one week; quince s, two weeks) hace ocho (quince) s, a week (two weeks) ago; del domingo en ocho (quince) s, a week (two weeks) from Sunday; el ltimo domingo hizo ocho (quince) s, a week (two wxeks) ago last Sunday
s,

descrito

dialecto, m,, dialect


diario, -a, daily,

descripcin,/., description descriptivo, -a, descriptive

"every day'^

diciembre, m., December


dictado, m., dictation
dicha,/., happiness

descuento, m., discount descuidado, -a, careless, off guard luedesde, prep., from, since; go, at once desear, to wish, desire desembarcadero, m., landing-

dicho, -a, pp. of decir, said, aforesaid


diez, adj., ten;

de

en

by

tens diez y nueve, adj., nineteen diez y ocho, aJ/., eighteen diez y seis, adj., sixteen diez y siete, adj., seventeen diferencia,/., difference diferente, adj., different, various
difcil, adj., difficult,

place

desembocadura,
river)

/.,

mouth

(of a

desengaar, to undeceive deseo, m., desire, wish


desfile, m., procession,

march {m

columns)
desgracia,/., misfortune

hard

difimdir, to diffuse

desgraciadamente,

adv.,

unfor-

tunately desgraciado, -a, unfortunate despacio, adv., slowly despacho, m., office despedirse (i) (de), to take leave (of), say good-by se, despertar (ie), to awaken;

dignarse, to deign, be so kind as dinero, m., money Dios, m., God diptongo, m., diphthong directamente, adv., directly
directo, -a, direct
director, m., director
dirigir,

to

direct;

se,

to

to

wake up

desprender, to unfasten, loose despus, adv., afterwards, later,


de, prep., after then, since; a, destino, m., destination; con

toward, address, apply; palabra a, to address discurso, m., speech, address dispensar, to excuse dispocision, /., disposal; a la
v., at

go
la

de

bound

for
irr. v.,

your disposal
is

{often said

detener (se),

to stop

when

soincthing

ofcred)

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
disputa, /., dispute, argument, controv^ersy distancia, /., distance; a poca
de, near distinguido, -a, distinguished distinguir, to distinguish
distinto, -a, distinct, different
distribuir, to distribute

335

dulce, adj., sweet, gentle

durante, prep., during durar, to last duro, m., dollar {Spanish worth five pesetas)

coin

diversin,
sion

/.,

amusement, diverdiverse,
different,

e, conj.,
.

and {used instead of y before a word beginning with i or hi)


(el),

diverso,

-a,

ecuador, m., equator

various
divertido, -a,
divertir
(ie,

Ecuador
amusing
i),

Ecuador

echar, to throw, cast

entertain;
self,

to divert,
se, to

amuse,

edad,

/.,

age
building

amuse one-

edificio, m.,

have a good time

Eduardo, m., Edward


educacin,/., education educar, to educate; se,

dividir, to divide

divinizar, to sanctify

to

be
for

divisin,/., division

educated
ejemplo, m., example; por

doblar, to double, turn doble, adj., double doce, adj., twelve

example

docena,

/.,

dozen; media

ejercicio, m., exercise


,

half

ejrcito, w.,
el

army
def. art. w.,

a dozen
dolor, m., grief

{pL los),

the

l {pi. los), pers. pron. m., he;

him

dominacin,/., domination

electricista,

domingo, m., Sunday Domingo, w., Dominic Don, w., Don {a term
applied
to

niero

m., electrician; ingeelectrical engineer

of address a gentleman, used only

elegancia, /., elegance elegante, adj., elegant

elemental,
ella, pers.

adj.,

elementary
/.,

before the Christian

name)

pron.

she; her

donde, adv., where, wherever; a where where, whither; en dnde?, adv., where? dondequiera, adv., wherever, anywhere Doa,/., Doa, lady (a term of address applied to a lady, used only before the Christian name) dormir (ue, u), to sleep; se, to

ellas, pers. pron. f. pL, they; ello, pers. pron. 7i., it

them
they,

ellos,

pers.

pron.

m.

pi.,

them
Emilio, m., iEmilius emocin,/., emotion

emperador, m., emperor


(ie), to commence, begin emplear, to employ, use en, prep., in, on, upon, while, by encantar, to charm, delight encargar, to charge, commission

empezar

fall asleep dos, adj., two

drama, m., drama' duda,/., doubt; sin without doubt dudar, to doubt

doubtless,

encender

(ie),

to light

encerado, m., blackboard

{made

of blackened boards or cloth)

336
encerrar
(ie), to

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
shut up, confine

encomendar

(ie), to

commend

esconder, to hide Escorial (el), the


ace

Escorial

(pal-

encontrar (ue), to find, meet

enemigo, m., enemy enero, m., January enfermedad,/., illness, sickness enfermo, -a, sick, ill
enfrente,
adv.,

and monastery Philip II of Spain)


v.,

built

by

escribir, irr.
crito

to write; pp., es-

in

front;

escritor, m., writer


escuchai*, to listen (to),

de,

heed

prep., in front of

engao, m., deceit


Engracia,/., Grace

enjambre, m., swarm


enlace, m., wedding enojo, m., vexation, trouble

escuela,/., school ese, esa, dent, adj., that; pL, esos, esas, those se, sa, defn. pron., that (one);
pi.,

sos, sas, those


/.,

esfera,
clock)

face

(of

watch

or

'

enorme,

adj.^

enormous, huge

Enrique, m., Henry ensalada,/., salad en seguida, adv., at once, immediately

eso, dem. pron., that

espacio, m., space, blank; bianco, blank space espacioso, -a, spacious

en

ensear, to teach, show entender (ie), to understand, infer up entonces, adv., then; hasta to that time entrada,/., entrance, admission entrar (en), to enter, go in (into) entre, prep., between, among; por

espada,/., sword espada, m., matador (who slays the bull by a sword-thrust downward between the shoulders) adv., espalda, /., back; de s,

backwards
espantar, to terrify, frighten

through;

si,

to himself,

herself, etc.

entregar, to

hand

(over), send

Espaa,/., Spain espaol, -a, Spanish esparcido, -a, merry, festive


especial, adj., special, particular

entretanto, adv., meanwhile

entusiasmo, w., enthusiasm enviar, to send equivocarse, to be mistaken Ercilla (Alonso de), m., Alonso de Ercilla (Spanish soldier-poet of
the sixteenth century)
erigir, to erect

especialidad,/., speciality de, espera, /., expectation; en waiting (or hoping) for (or to) esperar, to hope, expect, wait (for) esplndido, -a, splendid esposa,/., wife

esposo, m.,

error, m., error, mistake

escalar, to scale

escalera,/., stairs, staircase

escaparate, m., show-window escaparse, to escape escaso, -a, small, limited


esclusa,/., lock, sluice

escoger, to choose
escolar, adj., school, college

esquela, /., esquina, /. corner establecer, to establish estacin,/., station, season estado, m., state, condition Estados Unidos (los), m. pi., the United States estallar, to break out estancia,/., stay
,

husband announcement, note


,

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
estanco,
vi.,
z^.,

337

lobacco-shop

estar, irr.

about

to;

to be;

para,

to be

por, to be disposed

fbrica,/., manufactory, factory


fabricar, to
fcil, adj.,

to {of persons), to be yet to {of things)


este, w., east este, esta, dem. adj., this; pi., estos, estas, these

make, manufacture

fbula,/., fable

easy

facilidad,/., ease, facility

facultad,/., faculty

ste, sta, dem. pron., this (one), the latter; pi., stos, stas,

these, the latter estimable, adj., estimable estimar, to esteem esto, dem. pron., this estrangular, to strangle estrecho, -a, narrow estudiante, m. or f., student

fachada,/., facade, front falta,/., mistake, fault, lack faltar, to be lacking (to);

to

need
fallecer, to die

fallecimiento, m., death, decease

fama,/., fame, reputation


familia,/., family
familiar, adj., familiar

estudiar, to study

estudio, m., study


etctera,
et
caetera,
etc.,

famoso, -a, famous favor, m., favor; en

and

so

of, for;

hgame

de, de, do V.
el

in fav^or

forth
eterno, -a, eternal
etiqueta,
traje
/.,

de

etiquette, formality;
,

me the favor of (to), please favorable, adj., favorable favorecer, to favor


favorito, -a, favorite

evening

clothes,

"dress suit" Europa,/., Europe

febrero, m., February fecha,/., date; de of the date,

exactamente,

adv., exactly

dated
felicidad,
/.,

exacto, -a, exact

happiness; pL, (good

examen, m., examination


excelente, adj., excellent

or best) wishes, greetings, joys

felicitacin,/., congratulation

excepcin,/., exception excursin,/., excursion excusa,/., excuse, regret


existir, to exist

Felipe,

7n.,

Philip

xito, m., result,

accomplishment

explicar, to explain

exportacin,/., exportation exportador, m., exporter exportar, to export expresar, to express expresin,/., expression extender(se) (ie), to extend extensin,/., dista'nce, extension extranjero, m., foreigner extraar, to wonder at extremo, m., end, extreme

Felipe Segundo, 7n.. Philip II (1527-1598. Son of the emperor Charles V and king of Spain) Felipe Quinto, m., Philip V (16831746. King of Spain)
feliz, adj.,

happy

felizmente, adv., fortunately femenino, -a, feminine femenino, m., feminine

Fernando, w., Ferdinand


feroz, adj., fierce
ferrocarril, m., railroad, railway

fiado; al

on credit

ficcin, /., fiction

338
fila,/.,
fin,

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
row
end;
al

m.y

finally,

at

last
final, adj., final

gabn, m., overcoat


galgo, m., greyhound gana,/., desire; de buena
ly;

flor,/., flower

fontico, -a, phonetic

forma,/., form formar, to form


fortaleza,/., fortress
fortificacin, /., fortification

tener s, to be desirous; tener muchas s, to have a great desire ganado, m., cattle, live stock
gastar, to spend

glad-

fsforo, w.,
frac,

match
photograph
coat,
''dres^'

gaucho,

m.,

herdsman,

cow-boy

fotografa,/.,

m.,

evening

coat francs, -a, adj., French Francia, /. France


,

{Argentine term) general, adj., general; por regla usually, in general general, m., general Generalife (el), the Generalife

frase, /., phrase

{celebrated
the

summer

residence of

Fray Luis de Len, Friar Louis of Len {a famous Spanish teacher and writer of the sixteenth century)

Moorish princes at Granada) generalmente, adv,, generally, usually

frecuencia, /., frequency; con frequently, often

frecuentar, to frequent, attend frenes, m., frenzy, folly frente, /., forehead, brow, front; en de, in front of fresco, -a, fresh, cool; hacer to be cool {of weather) fro, -a, cold fro, m., cold; hacer to be cold {of weather) tener -, to be cold

gnero, m., gender, kind gente,/., people gerundio, m., gerund Gibraltar, m., Gibraltar Giralda (la), the Giralda {Moorish tower in Seville)

gitana,/., gipsy

(woman)

gitano, m., gipsy

gobierno, m., government golondrina,/., swallow {bird) gorra,/., cap


gota,/., drop
gtico, -a, Gothic

{of persons)

-a, fried frontn, m., court {for playing pefrito,

Goya

(Francisco), Francisco

Goya

{famous Spanish painter [17461828])

lota)

fuente,/., fountain

gozar (de), to eujoy


;/>/., thanks, thank you gramtica, /., grammar gramatical, adj., grammatical

fumar, to smoke funcin,/., performance fundador, m., founder fundar, to found


funeral, m., funeral futuro, -a, future, next
futuro, w., future (tense)

gracias,/.

Granada, /., Granada Enrique (Enrique), Granados Spanmodern Granados {famous


ish musical composer) grande, adj., great, large,
tall

futuro perfecto, m., future perfect


(tense)

big,

SPANISH-ENGLISH' VOCABULARY
grandioso, -a, grand, magnificent
hasta, prep., to, up
until
to,

339
as far as,

Granja

(la),

la

Granja

residence built

{summer by Philip V of
m., the Guadal-

hasta que,

conj., until

Spain) Guadalquivir

Havre
(el),

(el),

Havre

{principal port

in northern France)

quivir {river in southern Spain) Guadarrama (el), the Guadarrama


{a mountain range in Castille) guante, m., glove

hay, there

is {or

must; no

que, one de que, you're welare);

come
hecho, m., fact, deed
herir
(ie, i),

guerra,/., war
gua,/., guide-book

to

wound

hermana,/.,

sister

gustar, to please, like

gusto, w., pleasure, taste

H
Habana
haber,,
(la),

hermano, m., brother hermosear, to beautify hermoso, -a, beautiful, handsome hermosura,/., beauty
hroe, m., hero hierba,/., grass, herb hierro, m., iron
hija,/.,

Havana
Cuba)

{capital and-

chief port of
irr. v.,

to have, to be {im-

daughter

personal)

hijo, m., son; pi., sons, son(s)

and

habitante, w., inhabitant habitar, to inhabit, live (dwell) in habitual, adj., customary hablar, to speak, talk hacer, irr. v., to make, do, cause, have; be {of weather) buenas migas, to get on well together; buen (mal) tiempo, to be good (bad) weather; calor,
;

daughter (s), children


hilera,/., row,
file

hiptesis,/., hypothesis

be warm; to be polvo, be to be dusty; be sunny; viento, be wdndy; un


to
fro,

hispano, -a, Spanish historia,/., history, story hoja, /., leaf, sheet (of paper) holgazn, -a, indolent, idle

hombre, m., man honor, m., honor


honra,
/.,

cold;

honor; tener a

to

fresco, to

cool;

have the honor


hora,/., hour, time, o'clock horario, m., hour-hand hotel, m., hotel Hotel Cecil (el), the Cecil Hotel
{a well-known hotel in Gibraltar) Hotel de Paris (el), the Paris Hotel {one of the best hotels of Madrid, centrally located in the Puerta del Sol) Hotel Plaza (el), the Plaza Hotel {in Buenos Aires. One of the best hotels in South America) Hotel Washington Irving (el), the Washington Irving Hotel {at Granada)

sol, to

to

pedido, to give an order; un viaje, to take a trip (journey; hace ocho (quince) das, a week (two weeks) ago; el ltimo domingo hizo ocho (quince) das, a

week (two weeks) ago

last Sunday; hgame Vd. el favor de, do me the favor of (to), please

hacia, prep., toward


hallar, to find;
self,

se,

to find one-

be

hambre, /., hunger; tener be hungry

to

340
hoy, adv., to-day;

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

da, nowadays Huancayo, m., Huancayo {s?nall

importar, to import, matter, be of

importance
imposible, adj., impossible impresin,/., impression
inca,

Peruvian town

at the

end of

the

Lima

railway)
in-

Huscar, w., Huscar {Inca who


herited fro7n his father,

m., Inca
or

{ancient

Peruvian

Huayana-

ruler
class)

me^nher of the ruling

Cpac, the throne of Cuzco; brother of Atahualpa)

incmodo,* -a, uncomfortable, in-

Huayana-Cpac, m., HuayanaCpac ([1487-1525] Inca emperor who divided his empire between his sons Atahualpa and
Huscar)
huella,/., trace

convenient
indefinido, -a, indefinite

independencia,/., independence independiente, adj., independent


indicar, to indicate

indicativo, m., indicative


indio, m., Indian

(mood)

husped, w., guest, lodger; casa de es, boarding-house huevo, m., egg

indirecto, -a, indirect

industria,/., industry
inferior, adj., lower, inferior

huir, to flee, escape

hmedo, -a, humid, moist humor, m., humor; de buen


good humor

infierno, m..
,

Hades,

hell

in

infinitivo, m., infinitive

informe, m., information


ingeniera,/., engineering

idea,/., idea

idioma, m., language, speech


iglesia,/.,

ingeniero, m., engineer Inglaterra,/., England ingls, -a, adj., English ingratitud,/., ingratitude
iniciacin, /., initiation

church

Ignacio, m., Ignatius


igual, adj., equal, similar igualdad,/., equality

inmensamente, adv., immensely inmenso, -a, immense


inolvidable, adj., never-to-be-for-

ilusin, /., illusion

gotten
intelectual, adj., intellectual

imaginar, to imagine imperativo, -a, imperative imperativo, m., imperative (mood) imperfecto, m., imperfect, past
descriptive (tense) imperio, m., empire

inteUgencia,

/.,

intelligence,

un-

derstanding
inters, m., interest

interesar, to interest;
interior, m., interior

interesante, adj., interesting se por, to

impersonal, adj., impersonal imponente, adj., imposing imponer, irr. v., to impose; se de^ to take note of, be impressed

be interested in (a person)
interrogativo, -a, interrogative

by
importacin,/., importation importador, ni., importer importancia,/., importance importante, adj., important

ntimo, -a, intimate introduccin,/., introduction introducir, to introduce invariable, adj., invariable,

un-

changeable
invierno, m., winter

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
invitacin,
ir, irr. v.,
i

341

/.,

invitation

to go;
let

se, to

go away;
indeed!;

lago, m., lake lgrima,/., tear

vamos!,
anger

us

go,

vaya!, indeed!
ira,/.,

irregular, adj., irregular

lamentar, to lament, deplore La Paz, La Paz {principal city of Bolivia, of about 60,000 inhahHants the highest city in the
\

Isabel,/., Isabella
itinerario, m., itinerary izquierdo, -a, left; a la izquierda,

world, 12,4:70 feet above sea4evel) lpiz, m., pencil


largo, -a, long

to the left

lstima,
pity,

/.,

pity; dar

to cause

make one
Latin

pity

latino, -a,

jams,

adv., never,
(el),

ever

lavandera,/., laundress
lavar, to wash;
self

Japn

Japan

se, to

wash oneto

jardn, w., garden


jarro, w., pitcher, jug

le

{pi.

les),

pers.
it,

pron., him,
it;

Jos, m., Joseph Josefa,/., Josephine joven, adj., young

him; to her;
leccin,
lectura,
/.,
/.,

to

you, to you

lesson

reading; libro de

joven, m.,

young man, youth

reader
leche,/., milk
leer, to

joya,/., jewel

Juan, m., John


juego, m., game jueves, m., Thursday jugar (ue), to play {a game) juguete, m., toy, plaything juguetn, -a, playful
julio, m.,

read

legiunbre,/., vegetable lejos, adv., far (off), distant lengua,/., language, tongue

lentamente, adv., slowly lento, -a, slow


len, m., lion

July

Julio, m., Julius

Leones

junio, m.,

June

junto, -a, together


justificar, to justify

(el Patio de los), the Court of the Lions {in the Alhambra)

letra,/., letter
letrilla,/.,

juventud,/., youth

rondelet

levantar, to raise;

se, to rise, get

up
ley,/.,

law

liberal, adj., liberal

la {pi. las), def. art.f., the


la {pi. las), pers. pron. /., her,
it,

libertad,/., liberty,

freedom

libertador, m., liberator


libro, m.,

you; {rarely) to her;


,

pi.,

them;

book

{rarely) to

them

licenciado, m., licentiate

laboratorio, m., laboratory lado, m., side; direction; al

beside; a1 otro other side of; a


either side

de,

cada

ds, on the on
,

ligero, -a, light; fast, rapid

ligero, adv., fast

Lima,

/.,

Lima

{capital of Peru)

limpio, -a, clean


lindo, -a, pretty, lovely

342
lnea,/., line
lista,/., list, roll;

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
maleta,/., valise malo, -a, bad, poor,

pasar
listo,

menu,

bill of fare;

ill

to call the roll

mam,

/.,

mamma

(familiar for

-a, ready

mother)

literario, -a, literary

literatura,/., literature
lo, def. art. n.,
lo, pers.

manada, /., drove Manco-Cpac, m., Manco-Cpac


you; so
(founder of the Inca empire cording t tradition)
^

the
it,

ac-

pron.j him,

localidad,/., locality, place


lograr, to succeed

mandar,
have;

hacer,
/.,
/.,

to order,

command,

send;

to order (have)
(of a

Londres,/.,

London

made
manecilla,

lucido, -a, brilliant

hand

watch or

luego, adv., then, next lugar, m., place; en primer

the first place; tener place Luis, m., Louis lujo, m., luxury; de lunes, m.y Monday
luz,/., light

clock)
,

in

manera,

manner, way; de

to take

que, conj., so that; de ima (correcta, etc.), in a (correct,


etc.)

way

luxurious

manifestar, to manifest, show, in-

form

mano,
LI

llama,/., llama llamar, to call, name; knock (at a door) se, to be named (called) Uegar (a), to arrive (at), reach
;

at hand /., hand; a manta,/., blanket mantel, m., table-cloth mantequilla, /., butter
,

Manuel, maana,
la

m.,

Emanuel
to-morrow;
(la tarde, la

adv.,

maana

per noche),

llenar, to

fill

lleno, -a, full


llevar, to carry, take, wear, bear;

se, to carry

away

lluvia,/., rain

M
madre,/., mother madreselva,/., honeysuckle

Madrid, m., Madrid madriguera,/., burrow


madrileo, -a, (native) of Madrid

to-morrow morning (afternoon, day after to-morrow in maana, /., morning; por la yesthe morning; ayer por la terday morning; maana por la to-morrow morning; a las at nine (o'clock) nueve de la in the morning mapa, m., map de escrimquina,/., machine;
evening); pasado

bir,

type-writer

madrugada,/., dawn, early morning; de early

magnfico, -a, magnificent

marcar, to mark mar, m. or f., sea maravilla,/., marvel maravillarse, to wonder, be surprised maravilloso, -a, marvelous, wonderful

Maipo, m., Maip {small town in


Chile, south of Santiago)

maz, m., corn mal, adv., badly,

ill

marca,/., mark,

make

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
marchaTj to walk; away, leave
Mara,/., Mary marido, m., husband martes, w., Tuesday marzo, w., March mas, conj., but

343
city

se,

to

go

Mendoza,/., Mendoza (small


in western Argentina)

menor,
/

adj.

(comp. of pequeo),

smaller, younger

menos,

adv. (comp. of poco), less, except; al at least; a que, conj., unless

ms, no

... que, no most most; de


.

adv. (comp.
. .

i>/

mucho), more;
.

but;

lo

masculino, -a, masculine masculino, m., masculine mata,/., bush, shrub matar, to kill matrimonio, m., wedding, marriage

mercancas,/, pi., merchandise merced, /., favor, grace; vuestra your honor ^ mrito, w., merit, worth mes, m., month; al a (per)

month
mesa,/., table metal, w., metal mezquita, /., mosque mi, poss. adj., my mi, pers. pron., me miedo, w., fear; tener to be afraid; por (de) que, conj.,

mayo, m., May mayor, adj. (comp.


greater,
larger,

of grande), older; la

parte (de), the greater part

(of),

most
mayscula,/., capital (letter), maysculo, -a, capital (of letters) me, pers. pron., me, myself; to me, to myself Meca,/., Mecca medianoche,/., midnight; a at midnight medida,/., measure medio, -a, half; media docena, half a dozen; al medio da, at noon; a media noche, at mid-

for fear that, lest

miembro, m., member

night

medio, w., middle, means, way; en de, in the midst of; por

mientras, adv., while, whilst; que, conj., while, whilst; ms (menos) ms (menos), the more (less) the more (less) mircoles, m., Wednesday miga,/., crumb; hacer buenas s, to get on well together Miguel, w., Michael mil, adj., (a or one) thousand militar, adj., military milla,/., mile

de,

by (way

of)

medioda, m., noon; al at noon mejicano, -a, Mexican Mjico, m., Mexico Mjico (Ciudad de). City of Mexico mejilla,/., cheek mejor, adj. (comp. of bueno),
,

milln, m., million; medio a million minscula,/., small letter

half

better;

adv.

('Comp.

of

bien),

better

memoria, /., memory; aprender to memorize de mencionar, to mention

minsculo, -a, small (of letters) minutero, m., minute-hand minuto, m., minute mo, -a, poss. adj., my, of mine mirador, m., observatory, lookout; Mirador de Daraxa (el), the Observatory of Daraxa (room in the Alhambra, Granada) mirar, to look (at), watch; w.,
glance

344

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
mundo,
m.,

misa,/., mass msero, -a, miserable mismo, -a, same, self, very; que, same as mitad,/., half, middle

world; todo

el

-,

everybody
muralla,/., wall Murillo, w., Murillo {famous Spanish painter [1618-1682])

modelo, m., model modificar, to modify

museo,
mode,
so

w.,

museum
rjiusic

msica,/.,

modo, de

que, ^este
,

w.,

mood,
conj.,

way;

muy,

adv., very,

decidedly

that; de

in this

way; de un

correcto, correctly, in a correct

N
nacer, to be born nacin,/., nation nacional, adj., national nacionalidad,/., nationality

way
momento,
w.,

moment

monarca, w., monarch montaa,/., mountain Montevideo, m., Montevidea (ca^ital of Uruguay) monumento, m., monument, public

nada, iiidef. pron., nothing, not anything


nadie,
iftdef.

pron.,

nobody, no

building, structure
irr.
v.,

one, not

any one

morir (ue, u),

to die; pp.,

naranjo, m., orange- tree


nariz, /., nose natalicio, m., nativity, birth, birth-

muerto
morisco, -a, Moorish moro, -a, Moorish moro, m., Moor mortuorio, -a, mortuary, of death mosaico, m,, mosaic mostrar (ue), to show, give evidence of motivo, w., motive; con de, to

day
natural, adj., natural

Navidad,/., Christmas
necesario, -a, necessary necesidad,/., necessity necesitar, to need negacin,/., negation negativo, -a, negative negocio (used often in the plural), m., business negro, -a, black

celebrate

movimiento, w., movement, activity

mozo, w., waiter, porter, youth muchacha,/., girl muchacho, w., boy mucho, -a, much; pL, many mucho, adv,^ much, a great deal, greatly, very mudar (se), to change, vary mudo, -a, mute, silent
muelle, m., wharf, quay mujer,/., woman, wife mula,/., mule
mltiple, adj.,

Nepttmo, m., Neptune


neutro, -a, neuter neutro, m., neuter ni, C071J., neither, nor; not even nido, m., nest
nieta,/.,
nieto, m.,

siquiera,

granddaughter grandson

nieve,

/.,

snow

many
worldly,
of

mundanal,
world

adj.,

the

ningimo, -a, indef. pron. and adj., no, none, not any; ninguna cosa, nothing
nia,/., child,
little girl

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
nio, m., child, little
nitrato, m., nitrate

345

boy

obrar, to work, act; de, to be received

en
by

el

poder

nivel, w., level

no, adv., no, not to-night; noche, /., night; esta at midnight; por la a media at night; ayer por la yesterday evening; maana por la to-morrow evening; a las

diez de la at ten (o'clock) at night; buenas s, good evening


,

obscuridad,/., obscurity obscuro, -a, dark obtenir, irr. v., to obtain ocasin,/., occasion, opportunity; tener to have the opportunity ocano, m., ocean octavo, -a, eighth octubre, m., October ocupacin,/., occupation

nombrar, to name, appoint nombre, w., noun, name;


pila,

ocupado, -a, busy

de

given

{or Christian)

name

norte, m., north

norteamericano, -a. North American

ocupar, to occupy ochenta, adj., eighty ocho, adj., eight oda,/., ode oeste, -m., west
oficina,/., office

nos, pers. pron., us, ourselves; to us, to ourselves

ofrecer, to offer
odo, m., ear; sense of hearing
or, irr.
;.,

nosotros us

(-as),

pers.

pron.,

we;

to hear

notable, adj<, notable, noteworthy


notificar, to notify,

ojal, interj.,

would

that, I

hope

inform

novecientos, adj., nine hundred

noveno, -a, ninth noventa, adj., ninety noviembre, m., November


nuestro, -a, poss, adj., our, of ours nueva,/., news Nueva York,/., New York nueve, adj., nine nuevo, -a, new; de again nmero, m., number ntmieroso, -a, numerous, large nimca, adv., never, ever nupcial, adj., nuptial

that ojo, m., eye olvidar (se), to forget omisin,/., omission


omitir, to omit

once, adj., eleven Opera,/., opera operacin, /., operation oracin,/., sentence
oral, adj., oral

orden, m., order, system;


order,

/.,

command

ordinal, adj., ordinal


ordinal, m., ordinal (number)
oreja,/., ear (outer ear)
orgullo, m., pridie
oro, m., gold

o, conj., either,
,

or (becomes u before a word beginning with o or

ortogrfico, -a, orthographic

Oruro, m., Oruro (small


Bolivia)
OS, pers. pron.,

city

in

ho)

objeto, m., object obligar, to oblige obra, /., work (of art, literature,

music,

etc.)

you, yourselves; to you, to yourselves otoo, m., autumn, fall otro, -a, other, another

346

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
parecido, -a, like, similar pared, /., wall; reloj de wall clock pariente, w., relative Paris, w., Paris parque, m., park parroqviial, c^j., parochial parte, /., part, place, side; invitation; la mayor (de), the greater part (of), most; en ninnowhere; por todas s, guna

Pablo, m., Paul


pacer, to graze paciencia,/., patience Pacfico, -a. Pacific padre, w., father; pi., fathers, parents, father(s) and mother(s)

pagar, to pay pgina,/., page pago, w., pay, payment pais, w., country palabra, /., word, speech; dirigir la a, to address

everywhere
participar, to share, inform of
participio, m., participle

palacio, w., palace

particular, adj., particular

Palacio del Congress (el), the Capitol {pj Buenos Aires) Palacio Real (el), the Royal Palace {palace of the king and royal family at Madrid) palco, m., box {7t a theater) palmera,/., palm-tree pampas, /. pL, pampas (extensive plains in Argentina) pan, m., bread
'

particular, m., matter

partida,/., departure
partir (de), to depart, leave

maana, pasado, -a, past, last; day after to-morrow; el domingo (lunes, etc.) pasado, last

Sunday (Monday,

etc.)

Panam,

m.,

Panama

pantaln, m. {used also in pL), trousers pauelo, m., handkerchief pap, w., papa {familiar for father) papel, m., paper; role, part; hacer un to take (play) a part, play a role par, w., pair para, prep., for, to, in order to; estar to be about to; que, conj., so that, in order that parada,/., stop, stay paradero, m., stop, stopping-place

pasado, m., past pasar, to pass, spend, go, come in; se, to change, pass away; lista, to call the roll pasatiempo, m., pastime pasearse, to walk, go walking to take paseo, w., walk; dar im a walk pasin,/., passion pasivo, -a, passive, past {of parti-

ciples)

paso, m., step, way; cerrar el


to check

a,

patata,/., potato
patio, w., court, inner court

Paraguar (el), Paraguay Paran (el), the Paran

River

Patio de los Leones (el) the Court of the Lions {in the Alhamhra) Patio de los Naranjos (el), the Court of the Orange-trees {Cor,

{important river in Arge^itina) parar (se), to stop parecer, to seem, appear; se (a), to resemble; qu le parece?,

dov'a)

patria,/., fatherland, native coun-

try

how do you

like?

pedido, m., order; hacer give an ordei

un

to

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
pedir
(i),

347

to ask, beg

pimienta,/., pepper
pintoresco, -a, picturesque pintura,/., painting pirmide,/., pyramid
piso,

Pedro, m., Peter


peligro, m., danger, risk

pelota,

/.,

ball,
to

pelota

{Basqtce

game similar

hand-ball)

m.,

floor,

pendiente, adj., steep peninsula,/., peninsula pensar (ie), to think; think of

ground

floor;

bajo, primer second


story;
,

floor

en, to

pizarra,/., slate, blackboard

peor, adj. (com p. of malo), worse;


adv. {comp. of mal), worse pequeo, -a, little, small perder (ie), to lose perdonar, to pardon, excuse
,

Pizarro (Francisco), m., Francisco Pizarro ([1475-1541]-, Conqueror of Peru)


pizarrn, m., blackboard (of slate)
placer, m., pleasure

planchar, to iron
planeta, m., planet
plata,/., silver
plato, m., plate, dish, course

perezoso, -a, lazy, idle perfectamente, adv., perfectly perfecto, -a, perfect perfecto, w., perfect (tense)
peridico, m.,

playa,/., shore, beach


plaza,
/.,

newspaper

plaza, square; business

permitir, to permit, allow

(center);

de
la

toros, bull-ring

pero, conj., but


perro, m.,

Plaza

dog

persona,/., person personal, adj., personal

Constitucin (la), Constitution Square (important square in Montevideo)

de

Per (el), Peru psame, m., condolence de, pesar, m., grief; a

Plaza de la Independencia (la). Independence Square (important square in Montevideo)


in spite of

Plaza de

Mayo

(la).

May
in

pescado, m., fish peseta, /., peseta (Spanish coin worth about twenty cents) peso, m., dollar (coin worth five pesetas)
piadoso, -a, compassionate pica,/., pike, pointed pole (or staff) picador, m., picador (who on horseback baits the bull with a long
staf) picaro, -a, rascally
pico, m.,
pie, m., foot;

(important Aires)

square

Square Buenos

Plaza de San Martin (la), the square of San Martin (important square in

Buenos Aires)

pltmia,/.,

pen

plural, adj., plural


plural, m., plural

pluscuamperfecto, m., pluperfect


(tense)

peak a

'

on

foot;

de

standing piedra,/., stone


foot,

on

pierna,/., leg
pila. /.,

pobre, adj., poor poco, -a, little, short; pi., few; a poca distancia, at a short distance, not far; imos (-as) pocos (-as), a few poco, adv., little, not much

de

pillar,

baptismal font; nombre given (or Christian) name to catch


,

podenco, m., harrier poder, irr. v., to be able, can poder, m., power; ser (obrar) en

348

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

el de {of mail, etc.), to be in one's hands, to be received by

Prensa

(la),

the Press {the great

poema, m., poem


poesa,
/.,

newspaper of Buenos Aires) preparar, to prepare


preparativo, m., preparation, preparative preposicin,/., preposition
preposicionjd, adj., prepositional presencia, /., presence presentacin,/., introduction presentar, to present, give, intro-

poetry,

poem

polvo, m.y dust; hacer (haber)


to be dusty

poner,

irr. v.,

to put, place, set


for

por, prep., by, in, at, for, through,

ejemplo, example; (de) que, que, fear that; por que, however; estar to be disposed
about;

miedo

conj.,

for

that,

lest;

conj.y

duce
presente, adj., present presente, m., present; present tense, present letter presidencia,/., presidency presidente, m., president preso, m., prisoner atencin, to prestar, to lend; pay attention

(so)

conj.,

to {of persons) things)

to be yet to {of

porque, conj., because, for por qu?, conj., why? por supuesto, adv., of course, certainly portador, m., bearer portugus, -a, adj., Portuguese posesivo, -a, possessive posibilidad,/., possibility posible, adj., possible posicin,/., position positivo, -a, positive positivo, m., positive postre, m., dessert postrero, -a, last practicar, to practise Prado (el), the Prado {a famous boulevard in Madrid) el Museo the Museum of the del

prestigioso, -a, excellent


pretrito, m., preterite, past abso-

lute (tense)

pretrito

perfecto,

m.,

past

an-

terior (tense)

prima,/., cousin primavera, /., spring primero, -a, first primero, adv., first primitivo, -a, primitive primo, m., cousin
primordial, adj.,
first (in

order)

principal, adj., principal

principiar, to begin,

commence

Prado
gallery)

{Madrid^ s
(a), to

famous

art

principio, m., beginning, start


prisa, /., haste, speed; darse fast; tener to hurry; de

preceder

precede

precio, m., price

preciso, -a, necessary

precursor,

m.,

harbinger,

fore-

to be in a hurry probabilidad,/., probability probable, z(/., probable

runner
predilecto, -a, favorite
preferir (ie,
i),

probablemente, adv., probably proclamar, to proclaim


procurar, to try producto, m., product profesor, m., teacher, professor profesora,/., teacher, professor profundo, -a, profound, deep

to prefer
(of)

pregunta,/., question preguntar (a), to question, ask prender, to seize, capture prensa, /., press

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
progresivo, -a, progressive
pron., which, what,
lo
. . .

349
who, whom;

prometer, to promise

pronombre, m., pronoun


pronto, adv., soon, quickly pronimciacion, /., pronunciation pronunciar, to pronounce propietario, -a, proprietary
propina,/., tip
propio, -a,

que, how qu, inter, pron. and adj., whati^, which?; !, how!, what a!; tal?, how? (asks about condition

or

quality;

especially about
off

and cmo?, more manner or way)

quedar (se), to remain, stay, leave


to propose

own

proponer,

irr. v.,

querer,

propsito, w., purpose

irr. v.,

to wish, like, love;

decir, to

mean

proteger, to protect

proximidad,/., proximity proximo, -a, next


proyectar, to plan, project publicacin,/., publication pblico, -a, public

querido, -a, dear, beloved quien, rel. pron., who, whom; he (she, they, the one) who (whom); quin, one, another quin, inter, pron., who?, whoan?;

pueblo, m., town, village, nation, people puente, m., bridge Puente de Alcantara (el), the x\lcantar Bridge (over the Tagus at Toledo)
puerta,/., door
(la), the Gate of the Sun {the fafuous Moorish gateway in Toledo) also the main public square in Madrid) de puerto, w., port, harbor; mar, sea port pues, conj., for, since; well; then s cardinales, punto, w., point; points of the compass; en

de ?, whose? quienquiera (pi. quienesquiera),


indef. pron.,

whoever

Puerta del Sol

quince, adj., fifteen quinientos, adj., five hundred quinto, -a, fifth quitar, to take away (off), remove; (a), to take (from); se, to take off, remove Quito, m., Quito (capital of Ecua-

dor)

quizs (or quiz), adv., perhaps

R
radical, adj., radical, of the root

sharp puntuacin,/., punctuation puntual, adj., punctual, on time pual, w., poniard, dagger
pupila,
/.,

eye, pupil

Rafael, m., Raphael rpido, -a, rapid raro, -a, rare, strange rato, m., while, space of time razn, /., reason, right; tener to be right; no tener to be

pupitre, m., (small) desk

wrong
real, adj., royal

realce, m., excellence, distinction realidad, /., reality

que, conj., that, so that, than, as,


for

que,

ret.

pron., that, which,


el (la, lo, los, las)

whom;

who,
,

rel.

rebao, m., herd, flock rebelarse, to rebel, revolt recibir, to receive reciente, adj., recent

350

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
Repblica Argentina Argentine Republic
la Argentina)
(la),

recproco, -a, reciprocal recitar, to recite recoger, to gather (up), pick up reconocer, to recognize, be grateful for

the

{called also

resfriado, w., cold

recordar (ue), to
rector,

recall,

remember
{of

residencia,/., residence respetar, to respect


respetuoso,^ -a, respectful

recto, -a, straight

w.,

president

a uni-

responder,

versity)

'to reply respuesta,/., reply

recuerdo, m., souvenir, brance; pl.j regards

rememredun-

restos, m, pi., remains


retirar (se),

redundantemente,
dantly
referencia,
referirse
/.,

adv.,

reference
to refer
*

to retire, withdraw, leave reunin,/., reunion, gathering reunir (se), to gather

(ie, i),

revista,/., review

reflexivo, -a, reflexive

rey, m., king; pL, kings, king

and

refrn, w., saying, proverb

queen
rico, -a, rich

refrenar, to check

regatear, to bargain regin,/., region registro, w., marker


regla,
/.,

rima,/., rhyme;
ro, m., river

pi.,

poetry

rule; ruler; por

gene-

Rio de Janeiro, m., Rio de Janeiro


{capital of Brazil)

usually regresar, to return regular, adj., regular


ral, in general,

Rio de
la

la Plata (el), the Rio de Plata {broad river separatijig

Uruguay from A rgentina, formed


by the waters of the Parana and

reina,/.,

queen reino, w., kingdom, minion


(i),

reign,

do-

Uruguay

rivers)

riqueza,/., wealth

rer

to laugh

Roberto, m., Robert


roco, m.,

relacin,/., relation
relativo, -a, relative

dew

relieve, w., relief; alto


lief;

bajo

high re-

rodear, to surround rodilla, /., knee; de

s,

on one's

bas

relief

religioso, -a, religious


reloj, m., timepiece,

knees rogar (ue), to beg, pray

de

bolsillo,

watch, clock; watch; de

rojo, -a, red

pared, wall clock remitir, to remit, send rengln, w., line repasar, to review repente; de adv., suddenly repetir (i), to repeat replicar, to reply representante, w., representative representar, to represent, perform repblica,/., republic

ropa,/., clothing rosado, -a, pink


rostro, m., face

rub, m., ruby ruido, m., noise

ruina,/., ruin

sbado, m., Saturday sbana,/., sheet saber, irr. v., to know,

know how

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
sabio, w., wise

351

man, sage

sacar, to take out

sacramento, m,, sacrament


sanete, w., farce
sal,/., salt

sala,/., drawing-room, parlor Salamanca, /., Salamanca (city in Spain and seat of the oldest Spanish university)
salir (de), irr.
v.,

satisfactorio, -a, satisfactory sayo, m., great-coat se, pers. pron., himself, herself, itself, yourself; themselves, yourselves;- to himself, etc.; (when used with a verb, may he translated by the indefinite subject 'one' or by a passive, e.g., se usa(n), *one uses,' 'is [or jLve]

to go (come) out,

leave
saltar, to skip,

jump

used') sed, /., thirst; thirsty

tener

to

be

salud,/., health

saludar, to greet, salute saludo, m., greeting

Segovia,/., Segovia (city of Spain) seguida: see en seguida seguir (i), irr. v., to follow, go on

San Francisco,
(California)

m.,

San Francisco
m.,

San Juan Teotihuacan,


Juan Teotihuacan
ico)

San

(ancient In-

dian ruins near the City of Mex-

segn, adv., according to, as segimdero, m., second-hand segundo, -a, second segtmdo, m., second segxiramente, adv., surely segur, -a, sure
seis, adj., six

San Martin (Juan

Jos),

John

Joseph San Martin (Argentine hero and patriot [1778-1850]. He overthrew the Spanish domination in the southern countries
of South America) w., San

m., stamp; postage-stamp semana,/., week senda,/., path


sello,

de correo,

sentarse

(ie),

to seat oneself, sit

San Mateo,

Peruvian station

Mateo (small on the way from

down
sentido, m., sense, meaning sentimiento, m., regret
sentir
(ie, i),

Huancayo to Lima) San Sebastin, m., San Sebastin


northern Spain, on the Bay of Biscay) Santa Lucia: seeX^eno de, etc. Santiago (de Chile), m., Santiago de Chile (capital of Chile, with population of about a half a
(city
7i

to feel, be sorry; lo

siento, I

am

sorry

sealar, to point out, indicate

seor, m., gentleman, man; lord, master; (as term of address) sir,

Mr.
seora,
/.,

lady,

million)

santo, -a, saintly, holy; Saint santo, m., saint

of address) seorita, /.,

woman; (as madam, Mrs.


young

term

(unmarried)

Santo Domingo, m., Santo Domingo (island of the West


Iridies)

sastre, w., tailor

sastrera,/., tailor-shop

lady; (as term of address) Miss septiembre, m., September sptimo, -a, seventh sepultar, to bury ser, irr. v., to be sereno, -a, serene
serie,/., series,

satisfaccin, /., satisfaction

sequence

352

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
sobre, m., envelope
,

servicio, m., service

servidor, m., servant

sobremanera,

adv.,

exceedingly

servidora,/., servant
servilleta,/-,

napkin
serve;

servir

(i),

to

(de),

to

sobrina,/., niece sobrino, m., nephew sol, m., sun; hacer (haber)

to

serve (as); se, to please; sirvase, please sesenta, adj., sixty setecientos, adj., seven hundred setenta, adj., seventy
Sevilla,/., SeviUe

sexto, -a, sixth


si,

be sunny solamente, adv., only soldado, m\ soldier solo, -a, alone, sole, only slo, adv., only sombra,/., shade, shadow sombrero, m., hat

conj.,

if,

whether

someter (se), to submit


sonar (ue), to sound, ring soneto, m., sonnet
sonreir
(i),

si, adv.,
si,

yes
oneself,

pers. pron., himself, herself, itself,

yourself;

them-

to smile

selves, yourselves

soar (ue), to dream;

con,

to

siempre, adv., always, ever sierra,/., range (of mountains) siete, adj., seven siglo, m., century
significado, m.,
significar, to

dream

of

sopa,/., soup

meaning

sorprender, to surprise sorpresa,/., surprise sospechar, to suspect


su, poss. adj., his, her,
their
its,

mean

your,

siguiente, adj., following, next


slaba,/., syllable
silencio, m., silence
silla,/., chair

subir, to go up, climb

sbito, -a, sudden, unexpected

subjimtivo,

m.,

subjunctive

Simn, m., Simon


sin, prep.,

without;

que,

conj.,

(mood) submarino, m., submarine (boat)


subrayar, to underline substantivo, -a, substantive substantivo, m., noun, substantive
sucio, -a, dirty, soiled

without
sincero, -a, sincere
sin

embargo,

theless,

adv., however, nevernotwithstanding

singular, adj., singular


singular, m., singular
sino, conj., but,
conj., but;

sucursal,

/.,

branch

{of a business

no

but rather; but


.
.

que,

house)

Sud Amrica,/., South America


sudamericano, -a. South American sueo, m., sleep, dream; tener to be sleepy

-,

siquier (a), adv. {usually used with


neg.),

even

sistema, m., system sitio, m., place, space, situation situacin,/., situation
situar, to situate

suerte,/., luck, fortune, sort


suficiente, adj., enough, sufficient
sufijo, m., suffix
sufrir, to suffer

sobre, prep., above, over, upon, about; todo, above all, espe-

sujeto,

7n.,

subject
adv.,

cially

smnamente,

extremely

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
superior, adj., upper, superior superioridad, /., superiority superiativo, -a, superlative superiativo, w., superlative suplicar, to beg, urge supuesto, -a, irr. pp. of suponer, of course, cersupposed; por

353

por la yesterday afternoon; a las tres de la at three (o'clock) in the afternoon; buenas tardes, good afternoon
,

tarde, adv., late


te,

tainly

pers. pron., thee, thyself, to thee, to thyself, you, yourself, to you, to yourself {familiar)

supuesto
that

que,

conj.,

supposing

teatro, m., theater;

de varie-

sur, w., south


surgir, to rise,

loom up
v.,

dades, vaudeville theater Teatro de Coln (el), the Columbus Theater {a famous theater
of

suscribir, irr.

to subscribe

Buenos Aires, seating some

suscrito, -a, undersigned

suspiro, m.y sigh

3,600 persons: the largest and most sumptuous theater in A merica)

sustentar, to sustain, feed suyo, -a, poss. adj., his, of his, her, of hers, their, of theirs, your, of

Teatro Sols
video)

(el),

the Sols Thea-

ter {a beautiful theater in

Monte-

yours

techo, m., roof, ceiling

tabaco, m., tobacco Tajo (el), the Tagus {a river in the central part of Spain) tal, indef. adj. and pron., such, such a (one); cual, just as
(like);

qu

?,

how?

{asks

about condition or quality; and cmo? more especially about

manner
tambin, tampoco, nor

or

tal vez, adv.,

way) perhaps

teln, m. curtain {of a theater) tema, m., theme, composition temblar (ie), to tremble temer, to fear temperatura,/., temperature tempestad,/., tempest, storm temporada, /., season, while, time temporal, adj., temporal temprano, adv., early tender (ie), to tend, aim
,

tenedor, m., fork


tener,

adv., also, too adv., neither, (not) either,

tan, adv., as, so

Tnger, m., Tangiers


tanto, -a, so (as)

... cuanto, as much cuanto ms (menos) ... ms (menos), the more (less)

many;

much;

pi.,

so (as)

as;

the

more

(less)

tapia,/., wall

be hungry; miedo, razn, be razn, be wrong; sueo, be


afraid;

irr. v., to have, possess, hold; to be, be the matter with; se, to stop; lugar, to take place; que, to have to, must; calor, to be warm; fro, to be cold; ganas, to be desirous, wish; hambre, to

to

be

to

right;

no

to

sed,

to

thirsty;

to be

tardar, to delay, take (long)

tarde,

in afternoon; por la the afternoon; maana por la to-morrow afternoon; ayer


/.,
, ,

sleepy; qu tiene?,

what

is

the

matter with?
tercero, -a, third
terceto, m., tercet

354

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
traduccin,/., translation v., to translate traer, irr. v., to bring tragedia,/., tragedy traje, m., suit (of clothes); de etiqueta, evening clothes, "dress'' Suit transaccin,/., transaction transandino, -a, transandine transexmte, m., pedestrian transportar, to transport tranva, m., street-car, street-rail-

tenninacin, /., ending terminar, to end, finish trmino, w., term


ti,

traducir, irr.
{familiar)

pers. pron.y thee,

you

ta,/.,

aunt

tiempo, w., time {duration) tense; weather; a on time; mucho a long while, long; hacer buen (mal) to be good (bad) weather; hacer un agradable, to be pleasant {of

to

weather)
tienda,/., shop, store
tierra, /., earth,

ground; a

way
,

trastear, to

worry

{excite the bull

the ground timbre, w., bell tinta,/., ink tintero, w., inkwell, inkstand to, m., uncle
tiple,/.,

soprano

Titicaca, w., Titicaca {large lake,

with a red cloth) trastorno, m., trouble, inconvenience tratamiento, m., address tratar, to treat, concern; de, to try to travs : see a travs de

about the size of Lake Ontario,

travesa,/., crossing,
trece, adj., thirteen
treinta, adj., thirty

voyage

on

the confines of

Peru and Bo-

12,500 feet above sea-level) chalk tocador, w., dressing-room, boudoir; el Tocador de la Reina, the Queen's Boudoir {room and
livia^

tiza,/.,

treinta y cinco, adj., thirty-five treinta y cuatro, adj., thirty-four treinta y dos, adj., thirty-two treinta y nueve, adj., thirty- nine treinta y ocho, adj. y thirty-eight treinta y seis, adj., thirty- six
treinta

tower in the Alhambra, Granada) todava, adv., still, yet, as yet todo, -a, indef. adj. and pron., all,

every,

everything;

sobre
all

siete, adj., thirty-seven

adv., especially,

above

treinta y tres, adj., thirty- three treinta y imo, adj., thirty-one


tren, m., train
tres, adj., three
trigo, m.,

Toledo, m., Toledo tomar, to take, assume

Toms,

m.,

Thomas

wheat
sad

torero, w., bull-fighter toro, m., bull; corrida de


fight; plaza

de s, bull-ring tower tortilla,/., omelet tortuoso, -a, winding, tortuous


torre,/.,

triptongo, m., triphthong


s,

bull-

triste, adj.,

gloom triumph tronco, m., trunk {of body or


tristeza,/., sadness,

triunfo, m.,

tree)

tropa,/., troop
tu, poss. adj., thy,

trabajador, -a, industrious trabajar, to work, work in trabajo, m., work, labor;

your {familiar)

t, pers. pron., thou,

you {familiar)

work-

tumba,

/.,

tomb

manship

tnel, m., tunnel

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
tupido, -a, dense, thick turbar, to disturb, perturb

355

vano, -a, vam vapor, m., steamer


variacin,/., variation

tumo, w., turn tuyo, -a, poss. adj., thy, of thine,


your, of yours {familiar)

variedad, /., variety; teatro es, vaudeville theater

de

varios, -as, various, several

vascongado, -a, Basque vascongado, m., Basque


u, conj., or {used instead of
before

a word beginning with o or ho) ufano, -a, proud last, at ltimo, -a, last; por

vaso, m., glass vecina,/., neighbor vecino, m., neighbor vehculo, m., vehicle
veinte, adj., twenty

last

un, una, a, an; some, a few

pi.,

unos, unas,

nicamente,

adv., solely

nico, -a, only, sole unin,/., union, company


unir, to unite, join

universidad,/., university

uno, adj., one imo, indef. pron., one, you, they

veinte veinte veinte veinte veinte veinte veinte veinte veinte

y y y y y y y y y

cinco, adj., twenty-five cuatro, adj., twenty-four

dos, adj., twenty-two

nueve,

adj.,

twenty-nine

ocho, adj., twenty-eight seis, adj., twenty-six


siete, adj.,

tres, adj.,

uno,

adj.,

twenty-seven twenty- three twenty-one

Uruguay Uruguay

(el),
(el),

Uruguay the Uruguay River


river

vela,/., candle

Velazquez,

between Uruguay and Argentina) uruguayo, -a, Uruguayan usar, to use uso, m., use usted, pi. ustedes, pers. pron., you til, adj., useful

{boundary

Velazquez {celebrated Spanish painter [1599-1660]) veneer, to conquer

vender, to sell venezolano, -a, Venezuelan, native of Venezuela Venezuela,/., Venezuela vengar, to avenge
venir,
irr. v.,

to

come

vacaciones,/. pL, vacation Valdivia (Pedro de), m., Pedro de Valdivia {one of the adventurers who accompanied Francisco Pizarro in his conquest of Peru) valer, irr. v,, to be worth, be of
value Valparaiso, m., Valparaiso {city in Chile, of some 200,000 inhab'

venta,/., sale ventaja,/., advantage ventajoso, -a, advantageous

ventana,/.,
ver,
irr. v.,

window
to see; a

let^s see;

veranear,

pp., visto to

summer, pass the

summer
verano, m.,

summer

verbal, adj., verbal

itants, chief
cific port)

South American Pa-

verbo, m., verb verdad,/., truth; es -, It is true; -? isn't it so?, ? or no es

vanidad,/., vanity

etc.

, ,

356
verdaderamente,
ly

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
adv., truly, real-

vocabulario, w., vocabulary vocal,/., vowel


volar, to fly

verdadero, -a, true verde, adj., green


Versalles,
city

w., Versailles

(French

volcnico, -a, volcanic voluntad,/., will, desire

near Paris)

verso, m., verse vertiginoso, -a, dizzying


vestirse
(i), to dress vez,/., time (recurrence); una once; dos veces, twice; otra again; a veces, sometimes; al-

volver (ue), to turn, return; a, to aeain vosotros (-as), pers. pron., ye, you voto, m., vote; pL, (best) wishes voz, /., voice vuelo, m., flight
.

vuelta,
after

/.,

turn, return; a
adj.,

s de,

gunas veces, sometimes; muchas veces, often; en de,


prep., instead of; tal
via, /.,

vuestro, -a, poss.

your, of

adv.,

yours

perhaps way, track; de narrow-gauge

estrecha,
Ximena,
Cid)
/.,

X
Chimene
(wife of the

viajar, to travel
viaje, m., journey, trip

viajero, m., traveler

vctima,/., victim
Victor, m., Victor
victoria,/., victory

vida,

/., life;

en mi

(never) in

conj., and (becomes e before a word beginning with i or hi) lo creo, ya, adv., now, already; yes indeed, I should say so;
y,

my

life

que, conj., since

viejo, -a, old

viento, m., wind; hacer (haber)


to be

windy

Yapeyu, m., Yapey (small Argentine town near the boundary of Paraguay, birthplace of San
Martin)
yerba,
/.
:

viernes, m., Friday


(a Villardevos, m., Villar de vos small village in Galicia, Spain) vinagre, m., vinegar vino, m., wine Violante,/., Violante
visita,/., visit
visitar, to visit

see

hierba
--

yo, pers. pron., I

zapatera,/., shoe-store

zapato, m., shoe

vista,/., view, sight

Zaragoza,

/.,

Saragossa

(city

in

Vivar, m., Vivar (birthplace of the Cid, near Burgos) vivir, to live

northern Spain) musical zarzuela, /., operetta

comedy,

ENGLISH-SPANISH
affectionate, afectuoso, -a;

most

afectsimo,

-a

(abbreviated

a, indef.

art,,

iin,

una;

/>/.,

unos,

afmo.)
affirmative, afirmativo,

unas

able; to be poder about, prep,, acerca de, cerca de, por, sobre all, sobre above, prep., sobre;
,

afraid; to

be

-a

tener miedo

Africa, frica, /. after, prep., despus de, detrs de;

todo
absolute, absoluto, -a accent, acento, m.\ to accept, aceptar

day ana

to-morrow,

pasado ma-

acentuar

accompany, acompaar according to, adv., segn


account, cuenta, /. accusative, acusativo, m. acquainted; to be (become) with, conocer acquaintance, conocimiento, m., conocido, m. acquire, adquirir (ie) across, prep., a travs de
act, accin, /.

por afternoon, tarde, /.; in the maana la tarde; to-morrow ayer por la tarde; yesterday por la tarde; at three (o^clock) a las tres de la tarde; in the buenas tardes good

action, accin, /.
activity, actividad,/.

actual, adj., actual

afterwards, adv., despus again, adv., de nuevo, otra vez against, prep., contra age, edad, /. ago, adv., ha, hace; a week (two hace ocho (quince) weeks) das; a week (two weeks) last Sunday, el ltimo domingo hizo ocho (quince) das agree, concordar (ue) agreeable, adj., agradable

add, aadir address, discurso, m., tratamiento, m.; to dirigir la palabra a adjective, adjetivo, m.; adj., ad-

agriculture, agricultura,
aid, ayuda,/.; to

/.

ayudar

Alcal Street, la Calle de Alcal Alcntara Bridge (the), el Puente

jetivo,

-a

de Alcntara

admire, admirar admirable, adj., admirable admission, entrada,/. advantage, ventaja,/. adverb, adverbio, m.
adverbial, adj., a^dverbial advertisement, anuncio, m. advise, aconsejar affair, asunto, m.

Alhambra

(the), la

all, indef. adj.

Alhambra, /. and pron., todo, -a

allow, permitir, dejar

almost, adv., casi


alone, solo, -a already, adv., ya
also, adv.,

tambin

although, conj., aunque always, adv., siempre


357

358

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY

ambiguity, ambigedad, /. America, Amrica, /.; Central Amrica Central; North Norte Amrica, Amrica del Sud Amrica, Norte; South Amrica del Sur American, americano, -a

aqueduct, acueducto, m.

Araucana

(the), la

Araucana

Araucanian, araucano, m.
arcade, arcada,/. arch, arco, m. archbishop, arzobispo, m. architecture^ arquitectura,

/.

among, amuse,

prep., entre

divertir (ie); to

oneself,

divertirse

Argentine Republic (the), la Repblica Argentina (called also la Argentina)


aristocracy, aristocracia, /. arm, brazo, m.

amusement, diversin,/.
amusing, divertido, -a ancient, antiguo, -a
and, conj., y, e (y becomes e before a word beginning with i or hi)

and

so forth, etctera
(the), los

arm-chair, butaca,/. army, ejrcito, m. around, adv., alrededor; her), a su alrededor


arrive (at), llegar (a)
article,

it

(him,

Andalusia, Andaluca,/.

Andes

Andes

artculo,

m.] definite

animal, animal, m. animate, animar;

artculo definido; indefinite


d,
adj.,

ani-

artculo indefinido
artistic, artstico,

mado, -a
anniversary, aniversario, m, another, otro, -a

-a

answer, contestar, replicar Antafogasta, Antafogasta, /. antecedent, antecedente, m. antecedent, adj., antecedente
anterior, adj., anterior
anticipation, anticipacin, /. any, indef. adj. and pron., alguno,

-a;

whatsoever, cualquiera
pron., alguien

-a; much tanto many, tantos cuanto soon que; well como; todava preguntar ask, pedir
as, adv., tan,

artistically, adv., artsticamente

prep., hasta;
(a);

como, segn; far much, tanto,


,

(-a)

(-as);

conj., as

as

yet,

(i);

to

of,

(a)

anybody, indef. any one, indef.

nadie anything, indef. pron., alguna cosa; nada not


,

pron., alguien; not

aspect, aspecto, m. assassinate, asesinar assistance, ayuda,/.

assume, tomar
assure, asegurar astonish, asombrar astonishing, asombroso, -a last, adv at, prep., a, en, por;

dondequiera apocopation, apcope, /.

anywhere,

adv.,

appear, parecer appearance, aspecto, m.


apply, aplicar

al fin

appoint,

nombrar
/.

Atahualpa, Atahualpa, m. Atlantic, Atlntico, -a


attend, asistir (a), frecuentar attention, atencin, /. attentive, atento, -a
attentively, adv.,

apposition, aposicin,

approximately, adv., aproximada-

mente
April, abril,

m.

atentamente

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
August, agosto, m.
aunt, ta,/.

359

sunny, hacer
sed; to

sol; to

maravillarse; to

automobile, automvil, m.

autumn, otoo, m.
auxiliary, auxiliar, w.; adj., auxiliar

avenge, vengar avenue, avenida,/.

awaken, despertar

(ie)

B
back, espalda,/.

hacer calor, {of persons) tener calor; to windy, hacer viento; worth (to to of value), valer; to wrong, no tener razn; yet to, {of things) estar to por beach, playa, /. bear, llevar beard, barba, /. beautiful, bello, -a, hermoso, -a
beautify, hermosear

warm,

surprised,
thirsty, tener
{of weather)

backwards,
badly, adv.,

adv.,

de espaldas

bad, malo, -a

mal

ball, pelota, /.

beauty, hermosura, /. because, conj., porque bed, cama, /.; to go to


tarse (ue)

acos-

balustrade, balaustrada, /. banderilla, banderilla, /. banderillero, banderillero, m.

bedroom, alcoba,

/.

baptismal font, pila, /. Barcelona, Barcelona,/.


bargain, regatear

before, prep., ante; {of place) delante de, {of time) antes de; adv., antes, delante; conj., antes (de)

que
m.)
adj.,

Basque, vascongado, vascongado, -a bath, bao, m.

beg, pedir (i) begin, empezar (ie), principiar behind, prep.^ detrs de; adv., detrs

bathe, baar(se) bathing resort, balneario, m. bay, baha, /. be, ser, estar, hallarse, tener, haable, ber {impersonal)', to about to, estar poder; to afraid, tener miedo; para; to to cold, {of weather) hacer fro, {of persons) tener fro; to cool, {of weather) hacer fresco; to desirous, tener ganas; to disposed to, {of persons) esdusty, hacer polvo; tar por; to

believe, creer

campana,/., timbre, m. beloved, querido, -a beneath, prep., bajo; adv., debajo beside, prep., al lado de adj., mejor {comp. of better, bueno); adv., mejor {comp. of
bell,

bien)

to

between, prep., entre big, adj., grande


bill,

glad, alegrarse; good


to

cuenta,/.

bill of fare, lista,/.

black, negro, -a

(bad) weather, hacer buen (mal) tiempo; to r- himgry, tener hambre; to pleasant, {of weather) hacer un tiempo agradable; to right, tener razn; to sleepy, tener sueo; to

blackboard, {of

slate) pizarrn, w.,

pizarra,/.; {of blackened hoards


or cloth) encerado, m. blank, espacio, m.\ space, espacio en bianco blanket, manta, /.

360
block, bloque, m. blue, adj. azul
J

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
que,

no

sino;

rather,

board (ship), bordo, w.; on a bordo boarding house, casa de huspedes boat, buque, m. body, cuerpo, w.
,

co7tj.,

sino

butter, mantequilla, /. buy (from), comprar (a)

by, pre p. por, de, en


J

Bolivia, Bolivia,/.

Bologna, Bolonia,/. book, libro, m. bom; to be nacer both, ambos, -as

caf, caf, m.

Cairo, Cairo
cali,

(el)

bottle, botella,/.

llamar; to be ed, llamarse; to the roll, pasar lista can, poder

boudoir, tocador, m.

Canada, Canad
canal,
canal,

(el)

bound
m.

for or to, con destino a


/.;

m.;

Panama

box, caja,

{in a theater) palco,

Canal de Panam
candle, vela,
cap, gorra, /.
/.

boy, muchacho, m. branch {of a business house), sucursal, /. Brazil, Brasil (el)

cape, capa,
capital,

/.

{of a country)

capital, /.;
adj.,

letter,

Brazilian, brasileo,

-a

{of letters)

mayscula, /.; maysculo, -a

bread, pan, m.

Capitol, capitolio, m., palacio del

break

out, estallar

congreso
capture, prender car, coche, m.; sleeping

breakfast, desayuno, m, breeding, cra,/. bridge, puente, m. bring, traer broad, ancho, -a brother, hermano, m,

coche dormitorio Caracas, Caracas, /. cardinal (number), cardinal, m.;


,

adj., cardinal;

brow, frente,

/.

cardinales

Buenos

Aires,

native of adj., bonaerense build, construir building, edificio, m, fight, corrida, bull, toro, m.; fighter, /., corrida de toros; ring, plaza de torero, m.; toros Burgos, Burgos, m. bury, sepultar business, negocio, m. {used often in the plural); adj., comercial bustle, actividad,/. busy, ocupado, -a but, conj.j mas, pero, sino, sino
,

Buenos

Aires, m.;

care, cuidado,
(

for)

points, puntos take m.;


to
/.

of

cuidar (de)

career, carrera,

Carmen, Carmen,/.
carriage, carruaje, w.
carry, llevar case, caso, m.; in
v

that, conj.,

dado que
cash; for

al

contado

casino, casino, m.
cast, echar

Castile, Castilla,/.

Castihan, castellano, -a Catalonia, Catalua,/. Catalonian, cataln, -a

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
catch, coger cathedral, catedral,
catholic, catlico,
cattle,

361

church,
/.

iglesia, /.

Cid

(the), el Cid,

-a

cigar, cigarro, m.;

w.

(or cigarette)

ganado, m.

cause, causa,/.; to
cer

maker, cigarrera,
,

/.

causar, ha-

cigarette, cigarrillo, m.
city,

ciudad,

/.

cave, cueva,

/.

Cec Hotel

(the), el

Hotel Cecil

civihzation, civilizacin, /. class, clase,/.

ceiling, techo,

m.

class-room, clase,

/.,

sala

de

clase,

celebrate, celebrar celebrated, adj., clebre

cement, cemento, m.
center, centro, m.

aula, /. clause, clusula, /. clean, limpio, -a


olear, claro,

century, siglo, m,
certain, cierto,
certainly,
adv.,

clearly, adv.,

-a claramente

-a
ciertamente,

clerk, dependiente, m.

por

climate, clima, m.

supuesto

cHmb, subir

Chacabuco, Chacabuco, m.
chair, silla, /.; orchestra

clock, reloj, m.; wall


,

reloj

de

bu-

pared
close, cerrar (ie)

taca, /.; arm chalk, tiza, /.


biar; to

butaca,

/.

change, cambio, m.; to

to

clothing, ropa,/.

(or into),

camcambiar

club, casino, m.

coach, coche, w.
coast, costa, /. coat, chaqueta,
/.;
,

en
chapel, capilla,/. character, carcter, m.
teres)
(pl.

carac-

business)
(called

"sack"

(or
/.

americana,
great
,

in

Spanish
;

American
sayo,

characterize, caracterizar
to one's accharge, cargar; to count, cargar en cuenta Charles, Carlos, m.

countries saco)
m., gabn, m.
coffee, caf,

m.

cold, fro, m., resfriado, m.\ adj.,


fro,

charm, encantar charming, adj., amable, encantador,

-a; to be
fro; to fro;

-a

hacer tener

be

(of weather)
,

(of persons)

to

catch

coger

cheap, barato, -a check, cerrar el paso a cheek, mejilla,/. child, nia,/., nio, m. Chile, Chile, m.

un

resfriado

collar, cuello,

m.
/.

collection, coleccin, /.
color, color,

Colombia, Colombia, m.

Chimne, Ximena,/.
chin, barba, /. chocolate, chocolate, m,

colossal, adj., colosal

Columbus, Coln, m.-, Christopher Cristbal Coln

choose, escoger Christmas, Navidad, /. Christopher, Cristbal, m.


Christian, cristiano,

Colimihus Library (the),


lioteca

la

Bib-

Colombina
(the), el

Columbus Theater
tro de

Tea-

-a

Coln

362

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY

column, columna, /. come, venir, llegar;

near, aproximarse; to alongside, atracar; to down, bajar; to in, entrar, pasar; to out,

to

contain, contener continent, continente, m. continue, continuar

continuous,

continuo, ~a,

conti-

nuado, -a
continuously, adv. continuamente contraction,! contraccin, /. convenience, comodidad, /. convenient, cmodo, -a conversation, conversacin, /. cooking, cocina,/. cool, fresco, -a; to be {of weather) hacer fresco copper, cobre, m.
y

salir

comedy, comedia,/. comfort, comodidad,/. comfortable, cmodo, -a commence, empezar (ie),


piar

princi-

commercial,

adj.y

comercial
7n.

common,

adj.,

comn

companion, compaero, company, compaa,/.

Cordova, Cordoba,

/.

comparative, comparativo, m. comparative, comparativo, -a

com, maz, m.
comer, esquina,/., rincn, m.
correct, correcto, -a; to
gir
(i)

compare, comparar comparison, comparacin, /. compartment, compartimiento, m. composer, compositor, m. composition, tema, m., composicin, /.

corre-

correctly, adv., correctamente, con

compoimd, compuesto, -a
comrade, compaero, m.
concern, tratar (de) concerning, prep., acerca de concession, concesin, /.

correccin, de un modo correcto correctness, correccin, /. correspondence, correspondencia,/. corresponding, adj., correspondiente cost, costar (ue) coimsel, aconsejar coimt, contar (ue); to on, con-

Concha

(the), la

Concha
,

tar con

condition, condicin,/., estado, m. conditional (tense) condicional, m. perfect, condicional perfecto confine, encerrar (ie) congress, congreso, m. conjugate, conjugar conjugation, conjugacin,/. conjunction, conjuncin, /.

coimtry, pas, m., {in contradistinction to city) campo, m.\ house, casa de campo course, curso, m.\ plato, m.\ of por supuesto, cmo no! court, patio, w., {for playing pelota) frontn, m. Court of the Lions (the), el Patio

conquer, veneer
consist (of), consistir (en), constar (de)

consonant, consonante,

/.

de los Leones Court of the Orange-trees el Patio de los Naranjos cousin, primo, m., prima,/.
cover, cubrir {pp.
cravat, corbata,/.
credit, crdito, m.\
y

(the),

constantly, adv., continuamente constitution, constitucin, /.


construct, construir construction, construccin, /. consult, consultar

cubierto)

cow-boy, gaucho, m.

cross, cruz,/.; to

on
,

al fiado
(ie)

atravesar

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
crossing, travesa, /.
y

363

Cuba, Cuba,/.
cultivate, cultivar

curious, curioso, -a; to ner curiosidad

be

describe, describir {pp. descrito) description, descripcin, /. descriptive, descriptivo, -a


,

te-

desire, deseo, w., gana, /.; to desear; to have a great tener

ciuosity, curiosidad, /. curtain {of a theater), teln,

muchas ganas
m.

custom, costumbre, /. custom-house, aduana, /. customary, adj., habitual Cuzco, Cuzco, w.

desirous; to be tener ganas desk, mesa,/., {small owe) pupitre,


,

m.
dessert, postre,
vi.

destination, destino, m, develop, desarrollarse

devotion, devocin,/,
dialect, dialecto,

dagger, pual, m,
daily, diario,

die,

m. morir (ue) {pp., muerto)

-a

dance, baile, m.; to danger, peligro, m. dash, arrojar


date, fecha,/.; to
dative, dativo, w.

diflicult, adj., difcil


,

bailar

difference, diferencia,/.
different, adj., diferente, distinto,

-a, diverso,

-a

datar

dine,

comer
^

daughter, hija,

/.

dawn, madrugada, /. day, da, m,; at noon buenos da; good adays, hoy da

dining-room, comedor, m. dinner, comida,/. diphthong, diptongo, m.


,

al

medio-

direct, directo, -a; to

dirigir

das;

now-

direction, direccin, /., lado, m. directly, adv., directamente


dirty, sucio,

dear, querido, -a, {in the sense of expensive) caro, -a


deceit, engao, m.

-a

disagreeable, adj., desagradable dish, plato, w.; boiled cocido,

December, diciembre, m.
declaration, declaracin, /.

m.
disposal,

deed, hecho, m.
defeat, derrotar, veneer
definite,

definido, -a, determina-

a la disposicin de V. {often said when one ofers something) distance, distancia,/., extensin,/,
,

disposicin, /.; at yoxir

do,

-a

distant, adv., lejos

delicious, delicioso,
delight, encanto,
vi.

-a
;

to

distinct, distinto,
,

-a

encan-

distinguish, distinguir

tar
delightful, delicioso,

-a

demonstrative, demostrative, w., demostrativo, -a


depart, partir (cje) departure, partida,/.

distinguished, distinguido, -a diverse, diverso, -a diversion, diversin, /.


divert, divertir (ie)

divide, dividir
division, divisin, /.

dependent,

adj.,

dependiente

do, hacer

deposit, depsito, m.

descent, descenso, m.

dog, perro, m. dollar, duro, m., peso, m.

364

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
eight, adj.,
/.

dome, cpula, /. domination, dominacin, Dominic, Domingo, m. dominion, reino, m. Don, Don, m.
Doa, Doa,/.
done,

ocho

eighteen, adj,, diez y ocho eighth, octavo, -a


eighty, adj., ochenta
either, conj., o {becomes

bien adj., asado, -a; well (rare), poco asado, -a; under asado, -a door, puerta, /. doblar double, adj., doble; to less (without doubt, duda, /.;

u before a word beginning with o or ho);

not aOA)., tampoco elbow, codo, m. elegance, elegancia,/.


,

dudar ), media dozen, docena,/.; half a docena drama, drama, m. drawing-room, sala,/. (of), sodream, sueo, m.; to
sin
,

duda; to

elegant, adj., elegante

eleven, adj., once

emotion, emocin, /. emperor, emperador, w. empire, imperio, m. employ, emplear end, extremo, m., fin, w., terminacin, /.

ar (ue) (con)
dress, vestir vestirse
(i);

to

(oneself),

end, terminar, acabar ending, terminacin, /. enemy, enemigo, in. engineering, ingeniera,

dress-coat, frac, m. dress-suit, traje de etiqueta, m. dressing-room, tocador, m.


drink, beber

drove, manada,/. dvuing, prep., durante dust, polvo, m. dwarf (verb), achicar dwell in, habitar

England, Inglaterra, /. EngHsh, adj., ingls, -a enjoy, gozar (de) enormous, adj., enorme enough, adv., bastante; to be
bastar
entertain, divertir
enter, entrar (en)
(ie)

E
each,
indef.
adj.,

cada;

one,

indef. pron.,

cada uno, -a

ear, oreja, /. early, adv., temprano, de

entrance, entrada, /. environs, alrededores, m. pL equal, adj., igual equaty, igualdad, /. equator, ecuador, m, erase, borrar eraser, borrador, m,, cepillo,
erect, erigir

in.

madru-

gada
earth, tierra, /. ease, facilidad,/.
east, este, m.

escape, escaparse, huir Escorial (the), el Escorial especially, adv., sobre todo etiquette, etiqueta,/.

easy, adj., fcil

Europe, Europa,/.
even,
(el)

comer Ecuador, Ecuador


eat,

when

educate, educar egg, huevo, m.

aun (an) (accented follows a verb)', siquier (a) (usually used with neg.); not
adv.,
it
,

ni (siquiera)

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
evening clothes, traje de etiqueta evening coat, frac, m. ever, adv., jams, nunca, siempre
every, indef. adj., cada, todo, -a; day, body, todo el mundo; thing, todo; adj., diario, -a; ^where, por todas partes

365

famous, famoso, -a, clebre


far (off), adv., lejos; not

a poca

distancia
farce, farsa,/., sanete, m.
fast, ligero, -a; adv., ligero

father, padre, m.)

and mother,

padres
fatherland, patria,/.
fault, falta, /.

exact, exacto,
exactly, adv.,

-a exactamente

example, ejemplo, m.\ for ejemplo


excellent, adj., excelente

por

favor, favor, m., merced,/.; in


of,

(please),
favorite,

en favor de; do me the of hgame V. el favor de


favorito, -a, predilecto,

except, adv., -menos, excepto, con

excepcin de exception, excepcin, /. excursion, excursin,/. excuse, dispensar exercise, ejercicio, m.


la
exist, existir

-a
fear, miedo, m.) to

miedo; for

temer, tener
conj.,

that,

por

miedo

(de)

que

February, febrero, m.
feel, sentir (ie)

expect, contar (ue), esperar, pensar


(ie)

feminine, femenino, m.\ femenino,

expectation, espera, /. expensive, adj., caro, -a explain, explicar

express, expresar expression, expresin, /. extend, extender(se) (ie) extension, extensin, /. extreme, extremo, m. extremely, adv., sumamente eye, ojo, m.

-a Ferdinand, Fernando, m. few, indef. pron. and adj.^ alguno, -a, pocos, -as; a rel, pron. and adj., algunos (-as), unos (-as) cuantos (-as), unos (-as) pocos (-as) field, campo, m.

fierce, adj., feroz

fifteen, adj.,
fifth,

quince

quinto, -a

fifty, adj.,
file,
fill,

cincuenta

hilera, /.

llenar

facade, fachada,/.
face,

finally, adv., al fin

cara,

/.,

{of

a watch or a

find, hallar,

clock) esfera, /.
facility, facilidad, /.

finger,

encontrar (ue) dedo, w,, dedo de

la

mano
first,

fact,

hecho, m.

factory, fbrica, /. faculty, facultad, /.


fail,

dejar de
/.

'

fall

{season of the year), otoo, m.

fame, fama,

terminar primero, -a first, adv., primero, antes fish, pescado, m. fit, ajustar five, adj., cinco
finish, acabar,
five
flag,

familiar, adj., familiar

hundred,
bandera,

adj., quinientos,
/.

-as

family, familia,

/.

366
flee, huir

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
French, adj., francs, -a frequency, frecuencia, /.

flesh, carne, /. fling, arrojar, echar flock, rebao,


floor,

m,

piso piso, m.; ground primer piso bajo; second Florida Street, la Calle Florida flower, flor,/.

frequent, frecuentar frequently, adv., a menudo, con frecuencia


fresh, fresco,

-a

Friar Louii^ of Len, Fray Luis de

Len
Friday, viernes, w.
fried, frito,

follow, seguir

(i)

following, adj,f siguiente foot, pie, m.; on a pie

-a
/.

pie,

de

friend, amigo, m., amiga,/.

friendship, amistad,

for, prep., para, por; conj.,

porque; example, por ejemplo; fear that, conj., por miedo (de)

from, prep., de, desde front, frente, /., fachada,


(of),

/.;

in

adv.,

delante,

enfrente;

que
forehead, frente,
jera, /.
/.

prep., delante de, enfrente de

foreigner, extranjero, w., extranforest, bosque,

fu, lleno, -a future (tense), futuro, m.; perfect (tense), futuro perfecto, m.

m.

forget, olvidar (se)

fork, tenedor, m.

form, forma,/.; to

/.

formar

formality, etiqueta,
ai//.,

game, juego, m. Gate of the Sun


del Sol

(the), la

Puerta

former, dem. pron., aqul, aqulla;


anterior;

ly, adv.,

antes,

gather (together), reunir (se)


gay, adj., alegre \ gender, gnero, m. general, general, m.; adj., general; por regla general in Generalife (the), el Generalife

antiguamente
fortification, fortificacin, /.

fortress, fortaleza, /.

fortimately, adv., felizmente

fortime, suerte,/.

fotmd, fundar
fountain, fuente,
four, adj., cuatro
foiu*teen, adj., catorce
forty, adj.,
/.

generally, adv., generalmente, por

regla general

forty-five, adj.,

cuarenta cuarenta y cinco forty-four, adj., cuarenta y quatro forty-one, adj., cuarenta y uno forty-seven, adj., cuarenta y siete forty-six, adj., cuarenta y seis forty-three, adj., cuarenta y tres forty-two, adj., cuarenta y dos
fourth, adj., cuarto,

gentleman, seor, m., caballero, m. German, adj., alemn, -a gerund, gerundio, m.


get up, levantarse Gibraltar, Gibraltar, m. gipsy, gitano, m., gitana,/. Giralda (the), la Giralda
girl,

muchacha,

/.

give, dar, presentar;


of,

evidence

-a

mostrar (ue)

France, Francia,/. freedom, libertad, /.

glad, adj., alegro, -a; to

be

ale-

grarse

, ,

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
glaas, v^so, m. gloom, tristeza,/. glove, guante, m. away, go, ir, andar, pasar; to down, bairse, marcharse; to

367

guest, husped, m., huspeda,/. guide-book, gua, /.

in entrer out, up, hacia; toward, walking, pasearse; subir; to with, acompaar gold, m. good, bueno, -a; bueno! good-by, adis; to say despejar; to
{or

H
haberdashery, camisera, /. habit, costumbre, /. Hades, infierno, m. half, mitad, /.; m^edio, -a; dozen, media docena
hall, aula, /., sala, /.

into),

(en)

to

salir (de)

to

dirigirse

to

to

oro,

!,

hair, cabello, m., pelo, m.

hand, mano,/.,
manecilla,

dirse

(i)

goodness, bondad,

/.

watch) a mano handkerchief, pauelo, m.


{of a clock or
/.; at

Gothic, gtico, -a government, gobierno, m. grace, merced,/. Grace, Engracia, /. grammar, gramtica,/. grammatical, adj., gramatical

handsome, hermoso, -a happiness, felicidad,/. happy, adj., feliz harbor, puerto, m. hard, adj., difcil hardly, adv., apenas
haste, prisa, /. hat, sombrero, m. have, haber, tener, hacer, mandar; to to, tener que

Granada, Granada, /. granddaughter, nieta,/. grandfather, abuelo, w. grandmother, abuela,/. grandparents, abuelos, m. grandson, nieto, m. Granja (the), la Granja
grass, hierba, /.

pi.

Havre,

el

Havre
l {pi. los)

graze, pacer
great, adj., grande; a

deal,

adv.,

he, pers. pron. m., head, cabeza, /. health, salud,/. hear, or heat, calor, m.

mucho
greater,
adj.,

mayor

grande); the mayor parte (de)


greatly, adv.,

(comp. part (of),

of
la

heaven, cielo, m. heed, escuchar


height, altura,
hell, infierno,
/.

m.

mucho

help, ayuda,

/.; to

ayudar
to

green, adj., verde greet, saludar greeting, saludo, m.;


des,/,
pi.

Henry, Enrique, m.

her, pers. pron.,


s, felicida-

/., ella, la;

su,

le,

{rarely)

la;

pass.

adj. y

ground,
tierra

tierra,

/.;

to

the

suyo, -a herd, rebao, m.

herdsman, gaucho, m.
floor, piso

ground
vir

bajo
el

Guadalquivir (the),

Guadalqui-

here, adv., ac, aqu; around por aqu hero, hroe, m.


herself, pers. pron., se,
si

Guadarrama

(the), el

Guadarrama

, '

368

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY

high, adj., alto, -a


hill, cerro, m. him, pers, pron. m,,
l,

le,

lo;

to

I,

pers. pron.,
/.

-le
himself, pers. pron.,
history, historia,/.
se, si

yo
holgazn, -a

idea, idea,

idle, perezoso, -a,

his, of his, poss. adj., su, suyo,

-a

if,

conj., si

hither, adv., ac

casa, /., a casa; at en casa that, interj., hope, esperar; I


,

home,

ill, malo, -ra; adv., mal imagine, imaginar immediately, adv., en seguida immense, inmenso, -a

immensely,

adv.,

inmensamente
,

ojal!

horse, caballo, caballo


hot, adj.,

m.',

on

back,
be

a
{of

imperative, imperativo, -a imperative (mood) imperativo,

caliente; to

weather) hacer calor, {of persons) tener calor


hotel, hotel, m.

hour, hora,/.

hour-hand, horario, m. en casa; house, casa,/.; in the a casa; boarding to the casa de huspedes; Pink (the), la Casa Rosada how, adv., cmo?, qu tal? {asks about condition or quality, and cmo?, more especially about

m. imperfect (tense), imperfecto, m. impersonal, adj., impersonal imposing, adj., imponente importance, importancia, /. important, adj., importante impossible, adj., imposible impression, impresin,/. in, prep., en, de, dentro de, por; as much as, conj., dado que; order to, para; order that, conj., para que

Inca, inca,

/.

manner
lo
.

or way)-,

-a;
sin

many, cuantos, -as


.
.

que;

cuan!,

qu!,

much, cuanto,
. . .

inconvenient, incmodo, -a increase, aumentar indeed, interj., vaya!; yes cmo no!, ya lo creo

however,

conj.,

por

que; adv.,

indefinite, indefinido, -a, indeter-

embargo Huancayo, Huancayo, m.


Huscar, Huscar, m. huge, adj., enorme

minado, -a independence, independencia,/. independent, adj., independiente Indian, indio, m.

humid, hmedo, -a himior, humor, m.', in good de buen humor hundred, adj., ciento hunger, hambre, /. hungry; to be tener hambre hurry, darse prisa; to be in a

indicate, indicar, sealar

indicative (mood), indicativo, m,


indirect, indirecto,

-a

indolent, holgazn, -a industrious, trabajador, -a industry, industria, /.


infer,

entender

(ie)

tener prisa husband, esposo, m., marido, m.

inferior, adj., inferior

ingratitude, ingratitud,
inhabit, habitar

/.

hush, callar
hypothesis, hiptesis,

inhabitant, habitante, m. or f.

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
initiation, iniciacin, /.

369

kind, clase,/., gnero, w., suerte,/.;


in.

ink, tinta,

/.

inkwell (inkstand), tintero, inner court, patio, m. instead of, prep., en vez de
interest, interesar; to interest, inters, m.

adj., amable, bueno, -a kindness, bondad,/., amabilidad,

/
king, rey,
in
m.',

be

ed

and queen, reyes


w.

kingdom,

reino,

(a person), interesarse

por

kiss, besar

kitchen, cocina,/.

interesting, adj., interesante


interior, interior,

knee,

rodilla, /.

m.

knife, cuchillo, m.

interrogative, interrogativo,

-a

intimate, ntimo, -a introduce, presentar, introducir introduction, introduccin, /. invariable, adj., invariable
invitation, invitacin,/.
iron, hierro, m.', to

knock {at a door), llamar know, saber; {he acquainted how, saber conocer;

with)

knowledge, conocimiento, m.

known
cido

{adj., pp. of conocer),

cono-

planchar

irregular, adj., irregular

it,

Isabella, Isabel, /. pers. pron., ello, lo, la; to s, poss. adj., su

le;

itinerary, itinerario,

m.

labor, trabajo, m. laboratory, laboratorio, m. lady, seora, /.

itself, pers. pron., si, se

lake, lago, m.

January, enero, m. Japan, el Japn


jewel, joya,
/.

John, Juan, m. join, unir, juntar Joseph, Jos, m. journey, viaje, m,


joy, alegra, /. joyful, adj., alegre

landing-place, desembarcadero, m, language, lengua, /., idioma, w., lenguaje, m. La Paz, La Paz, /. large, adj., grande, numeroso, -a larger, adj., mayor {comp. of grande) last, pasado, -a, postrero, -a, ltimo, -a; at al fin, por lti-

mo; to (Monday,

durar-;
etc.),

Sxinday

el

domingo

(lunes, etc.),

pasado

jug, jarro, m.

late, adv., tarde


;

July, julio, m, June, junio, m,


just,

justo, -a;

as
^j

later, adv., despus, Latin, latino, -a

ms tarde

(like),

tal

latter (the), dem. prn.y ste, sta;

cual; to

have

acabar de

justify, justificar

keep, conservar
kill,

pL, stos, stas laugh, rer (i) laundress, lavandera,/. law, ley, /. lawyer, abogado, m. lazy, perezoso, -a
learn, aprender

matar

370
least; at

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY

^,

al

menos

long, largo, -a; a

while, mucho
to
for,

leave, dejar, partir (de), salir (de), of, desretirarse (de) ; to take

tiempo
look
to

pedirse de lecture, conferencia, /. lecture-room, aula, /. left, izquierdo, -a; to the izquierda leg, pierna, /.
less, adj.,

mirar; out upon, dar a


(at),

buscar;

look-out, mirador, m. loom up, surgir


,

a la

lord, seor, m.
lose, perdfer (ie)

.
.

menos; the cuanto menos ... the tanto menos, mientras me-

menor;

adv.,

loud, adv., alto Louis, Luis, m. love, querer


lovely, lindo, -a

nos

menos
/.

lessen, achicar lesson, leccin,


lest, conj.,
let,

low, bajo, -a lower, adj., inferior; to


luck, suerte,
/.

bajar

por miedo (de) que

dejar

letter, letra,/., carta,/.

level, nivel,

m.

almuerzo, m.\ almorzar (ue) luxurious, de lujo luxury, lujo, m,


to

lunch

(limcheon),
,

liberator, libertador, m.
liberty, libertad,/.

library, biblioteca, /.
life,

M
madam
,

vida,

/.

light, ligero, -a; to

{term of address), seora,

encender

(ie)

/.

like, adj., parecido, -a; adv.,


?, qu le parece? Lima, Lima, /.

como;

verh, gustar, querer;

how do you

Madrid, Madrid, m. magnificent, magnfico, -a


maid, criada,/.
mail, correo,
in.

limiting, determinativo,
line, lnea,/., rengln,

-a

mail-box, buzn, m.'

m.

Maipo, Maip, m.

Hon, len, m.
list, lista, /.

make,

the most
llero,

hacer, causar, fabricar; to


of,

aprovechar

listen,

escuchar
adv.,

mamma, mam,/.
m., seor, m., cabam. manner, manera,/., modo, m. manufactory, fbrica, /. manufacture, fabricar

literature, literatura,/.
little,

man, hombre,

pequeo, -a, poco, -a; poco

live, vivir; to

in,

habitar

lively, adj.,

live

animado, -a stock, ganado, m.

many,

rel. adj.

llama, llama, /. load, carga,/.; to

-as; as
,

cargar

...
adj.,

and pron., muchos,

as, cuantos, -as; as

as, tantos, -as

locality, localidad, /.

tos, -as;

how

cuan-

inter, pron.

and

lock (of a canal), esclusa,/. lodger, husped, m., huspeda,/.


lofty, adj., alto,

cuntos, -as?

-a
/.

map, mapa, m. March, marzo, m.


march,
{in colun:,ns) desfile,

London, Londres,

m.

, ,

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
mark, marcar
married, casado, -a marry, casar, casarse con marvel, maravilla, /. marvelous, maravilloso, -a Mary, Mara,/. masculine, masculino, w.; masculino,

371

Miss

{term of address), seorita,/.

mistaken; to be mode, modo, m. modify, modificar, moist, hmedo, -a

equivocarse

calificar

moment, momento, m.
monarch, monarca, m,

-a

master, seor, m. matador, espada, w., matador, m. match, fsforo, m. May, mayo, m. me me, pers. pron., me, mi; to meal, comida, /. mean, significar, querer decir

Monday, lunes, m. money, dinero, m.


Montevideo, Montevideo, m. month, mes, m. monument, monumento, m, mood, modo, m.

moor

{a boat), atracar

Moor, moro, m.
Moorish, morisco, -a, moro, -a more, adv., ms (comp. c/ mucho); the ... the cuanto ms tanto ms, mientras ms

meaning, sentido, m., significado,


m.

meanwhile, adv., entretanto measure, medida, /. meat, carne, /. Mecca, Meca,/. meet, encontrar (ue) member, miembro, m. memorize, aprender de memoria memory, memoria,/. Mendoza, Mendoza, /. mention, mencionar

ms

menu,

lista, /.

merchandise, mercancas, /. pl. merchant, comerciante, m. metal, metal, m. Mexican, mejicano, -a City, CiuMexico, Mjico, m.; dad de Mjico Michael, Miguel, m. middle, mitad,/. midnight, media noche, /.; at a media noche

moreover, adv., adems morning, maana, /.; early madrugada, /.; in the por la maana; to-morrow maana por la maana; yesterday ayer por la maana; at nine o'clock in the morning, a las nueve de la maana; good buenos das mosaic, mosaico, m. mosque, mezquita, /. most, adv., ms, muy, sumamente; de lo ms; la mayor parte (de) mother, madre,/. mountain, montaa,/., monte, w.;

ridge, cordillera

mile, milla,/.

mouth, boca, /.; (of a river), desembocadura, /. moving-picture show, cinematgrafo ("movies," cine)

miHtary, adj., militar milk, leche, /. memillion, milln, w.; half a dio milln mine (of ), poss. adj., mo, -a

Mr. {term of address), seor, m. Mrs. {term of address), seora,/. much, mucho, -a; adv., mucho;
adv., demasiado; not poco; as as, rel. adj. and pron., cuanto, -a; tanto, -a, .

too

minute, minuto, in. minute-hand, minutero, m.

adv.,

372

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY

cuanto, -a; how -?, inter, pron. and adj., cunto, -a?; how is?, a cunto?; in as as, conj.y

neighbor, vecino, m., vecina,/. neither, conj., ni; adv., tampoco

dado que
mule, mula,
/.

nephew, sobrino, m. Neptune, Neptuno, m.


neuter, neutro, m.; neutro, -a never, adv., nunca, jams nevertheless, adv., sin embargo
|

Murilio, Murillo, m.

museum, museo, m. music, msica, /. musical comedy, zarzuela, /. must, deber, tener que; one
hay que my, poss. adj\, mi, mo, -a
'

new, nufevo, -a newspaper, peridico, m.


York, Nueva York, /. next, prximo, a, siguiente; adv., luego
niece, sobrina, /.
night, noche, /.; at por la noche; to-^ esta noche; last
,

New

jj

myself, pers, pron., me, mi; to

me

N
nail, clavar

name, llamar, nombrar;


apellidarse, llamarse

to

bo

d,

name, nombre; family (or surname), apellido, m.; given (or Christian) nombre (de pila)^

anoche; before last, antenoche, antes de anoche; tomorrow maana por la noche; at ten (o'clock) at -, a lal diez de la noche; at mid, a media noche; good buenas noches
,

nine, adj., nueve

'

:m.

napkin, servilleta,/. narrate, contar (ue) narrow, estrecho, -a; gauge, de via estrecha nation, nacin, /., pueblo, vt. national, adj., nacional National Library (the), la Biblioteca Nacional nationaHty, nacionalidad,/. native country, patria, /. native of Madrid, madrileo, -a native of Venezuela, venezolano,

nine himdred, a^/;'., novecientos nineteen, adj., diez y nueve


ninety, adj., noventa ninth, noveno, -a
nitrate, nitrato, m.

no, adv., no; indef. pron. and adj., ninguno, -a; one, indef. pron..,

ninguno, nadie nobody, indef. ^ro/^., nadie, ninguno none, indef. pron. and adj., ninguno, -a al, medionoon, medio da; at

-a
near, adv., a poca distancia, cerca; prep., cerca de necessary, necesario, -a, preciso,

da nor, conj., ni; adv., tampoco north, norte, m.

-a
neck, cuello, m. necktie, corbata,/. need, necesitar negation, negacin,/. negative, negativo, -a

North America, Norte Amrica, /., Amrica del Norte North American, norteamericano, -a
nose, nariz, /. even, ni (siquiera) not, adv., no; any, indef. pron. and adj., ninguno, -a

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
notable, adj., notable

37,

once, adv., una vez; at

en

se-

notebook, cuaderno, w. noteworthy, adj., notable nothing, itidf. pron., nada, cosa alguna notwithstanding, adv., sin embargo noun, nombre, m., substantivo, m. November, noxdembre, m. now, adv., ahora, ya

guida
one, adj., uno,
Uidef.
-a-; rel.

pron., cul;

what)
cul?

pron.,
,

uno;

which

(or

inter, pron. a^td adj.,

oneself, pers. pron., so,


only, adv.,
slo, solo, -a, nico,

si

solamente;

adj.,

-a
abierto;
to

open,

adj.

nowadays, adv., hoy da nowhere, en ninguna parte number, nmero, m. nimierous, numeroso, -a

abrir; to

upon, dar a

pp.,

object, objeto, m.,

complemento,

m.
oblige, obligar

opera, pera, /. operation, operacin, /. operetta, zarzuela, /. opportunity, oca^sin, /. opposition, oposicin, /., contraridad, /. or, conj., o, u (o becomes u before a word beginning with o or ho)
oral, adj., oral

obscurity, obscuridad,

/.

observatory, mirador, w. obtain, obtener occasion, ocasin, /. occupation, ocupacin, /. occupy, ocupar ocean, ocano, m. o'clock, hora, /. October, octubre, m. of, prep., de of course, por supuesto, adv., cmo no!
offer, ofrecer
office,

orange-tree, naranjo, m. order, orden (m. or f.), pedido, m., construccin,/.; to mandar;
to give

an

hacer un pedido

ordinal (mrniber), ordinal, m.; adj., ordinal orthographic, ortogrfico, -a

Oruro, Or uro, m.
other(s),
indef.
adj.

and

pron.,

otro, -a, -OS, -as,

dems
adj.,

ought, deber

our (of ours), poss. -a


tros; to

nuestro,

despacho, m.

ourselves, pers. pron., nos, noso-

often, adv., a
cia,
oil,

menudo, con frecuenmuchas veces


m.

nos

aceite,

over, prep., sobre, encima de overcoat, gabn, m., sobretodo^ m.

old, viejo,

-a

older,

adj'.,

mayor

(com p.

of

owe, deber own, propio, -a

grande) omelet, tortilla, /. omission, omisin, omit, omitir


on, prep.,
en,

/.

Pacific, pacfico,

-a
/.

sobre,

(with infinitive) al;

time,

encima de;
adj.j

puitual

page, pgina,/. painting, pintura, pair, par, m.

, ,

374

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
Moorish -
/.

palace, palacio, m.\


alczar, m.

palm-tree, palmera,

pampas, pampas,

/. pi.

Panama,

el

Panam;

Canal,

Canal de Panam papa, pap, m. paper, papel, m. Paran (the), el Paran Paraguay, el Paraguay Paris, Paris, m. park, parque, m.
parlor, sala

perhaps, adv., quizs, quiz, acaso, tal vez permit, permitir person, persona, /. personal, adj., personal Peru, el Per
peseta, pe^^eta, /. Peter, Pedro, m.
Philip, Felipe, m.

phonetic, fontico, -a

(de recibo or recibi-

miento)
part,
(de)

photograph, fotografia, /. phrase, frase, /. picador, picador, m. picturesque, pintoresco, -a


pike, pica,
pillow,
/.

parte,

greater
;

/.,

papel,

m.)

the

(of), la

mayor parte

to take (play) a

hacer

un papel
participle, participio,

almohada, pink, rosado, -a pitcher, jarro, m.


one)
dad,

/.

m.
the summer,

pity, lstima,/.; to

particular, adj., especial

pass, pasar; to

cause dar lstima

(to

make

place, lugar, w., sitio, m., locali/.,

veranear
passive, pasivo, -a
past,

parte, /.; in the first

pasado, -a, pasivo, -a

{of

en primer lugar; to take tener lugar; to colocar, poner

participles)

plan, proyecto, m., plan, m.\ to

past absolute (tense), pretrito, m. past anterior (tense), pretrito


perfecto, m.

proyectar
planet, planeta, m.
plate, plato, vi.

past

descriptive

(tense),

imper-

play, juego, m., comedia,/.; to


.

fecto,

m.

{a gante) jugar
tains) correr

(ue)

{of

foun-

Paul, Pablo, m. pay, pagar peak, pico, m. pedestrian, transente, w.


pelota, pelota, /.

playful, juguetn,

-a

plaza, plaza, /. pleasant, adj., agradable

pen, pluma,

/.

please, gustar pluperfect (tense),


fecto,

pluscuamper-

pencil, lpiz, m.

m.

peninsula, peninsula, /. people, gente,/., pueblo, m. pepper, pimienta, /. perfect, perfecto, -a; (tense),

plural, plural, m.', adj., plural

pocket, bolsillo, m.

poem, poema, m.
point, punto,
m.',

of the

com-

perfecto, m.
perfectly, adv., perfectamente

perform, representar performance, funcin,


sentacin,
/.

/.,

repre-

pass, puntos cardinales; to out, sealar pointed pole {or staff), pica,/. polite, adj., corts poniard, pual, m.

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
poor, adj., pobre, malo, -a port, puerto, m.
porter, mozo, m.
profit (by),

375

aprovechar

progressive, progresivo, -a
project, proyectar promise, prometer pronoun, pronombre, m. pronounce, pronunciar pronunciation, pronunciacin, /. proper, propio, -a, correspondiente protect, proteger proverb, refrn, m. provided that, conj., con tal que proximity, proximidad, /.

portugus, -a position, posicin,/., construccin,

Portuguese,
/

a^/;.,

positive, positivo, m.\ positivo,

-a

possess, tener possessive, posesivo, -a possible, adj., posible


possibility, posibilidad, /.

postage-stamp, sello de correo, m. potato, patata,/.


practise, practicar

public, pblico,

building, monumento, m.
/.

m.; pblico, -a;

Prado

(the), el

Prado
(a)
(ie)

precede, preceder
prefer, preferir

punctual, adj., puntual punctuation, puntuacin,


pupil,

prepare, preparar preparation, preparativo, m., preparacin, /. preparative, preparativo, ni. preposition, preposicin,/. prepositional, adj., preposicional present, presente, w.; adj., actual, presentar; to be presente; to

alumno, m., alumna,/. piu-chase (from), comprar (a) purpose, propsito, m.


put, poner, colocar

pyramid, pirmide,

/.

qualify, calificar;
ficativo,

ing, adj,, cali-

at, asistir (a)

-a

preserve, conservar presidency, presidencia, /. president, presidente, w.;


university), rector,

quality, calidad, /.

{of a

quarter, cuarto, m. quay, muelle, m.

m.

queen, reina,

/.

press, prensa,

/.

question, pregunta,

/.; to

pre-

Prensa preterite, pretrito, m.


(the), la

Press

guntar

(a)

quickly, adv., pronto

pretty, adj., bonito, -a, lindo,

-a

quiet, callado, -a; to

m. pride, orgullo, m.
price, precio,

callar;

be

!,

callar!

quite, adv., bastante

primitive, primitivo,

-a

Quito, Quito, m.

principal, adj., principal

prisoner, preso, m., prisione*-o, m. probability, probabilidad, /.

probable, adj., probable probably, adv., probablemente procession, desfil, m. proclaim, proclamar professor, profesor, m., profesora,
/

radical, adj., radical

railroad, ferrocarril, m.

railway, ferrocarril, m.
rain, lluvia, /. raise, levantar

raising, cra, /.

376
range
{of

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
mountains), cordillera,
return, regresar, volver (ue)

/., sierra,/. rapid, ligero, -a, rpido,

review, repasar

-a

revolt, rebelarse
rich, rico,

rare, raro, -a, {in regard to cooking)

-a

poco asado, -a rather, adv., bastante


reach, llegar (a) read, leer reader, libro de lectura reading, lectura, /. ready, listo, -a
reality, realidad, /.

a la derecha; to be tener razn Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, m. Ro de la^ Plata (the), el Ro de la Plata right, razn, /.; to be tener ra-

right, derecho, -a; to the

zn
rise, levantarse, surgir

really, adv.,

verdaderamente
/.

reason, razn,

rebel, rebelarse
recall, recordar (ue)

m. m. road, camino, m.
risk, peligro,

river, ro,

roast, asar; adj., asado,


role, papel, m.\ to play

receive, recibir
recite, recitar

un papel
roll,

red, rojo, -a

lista,/.; to call

the

-a a

hacer

pasar

redundantly,

adv.,

redundante-

lista

mente
refer, referirse (ie)

roof, techo, m. room, cuarto, m., habitacin,

/.,

reflexive, reflexivo,

-a

region, regin,

/.

regular, adj., regular


reign, reino, m.; to

aposento, 7n. rout, derrotar row, fila,/., hilera,/.


reinar
royal, adj., real

relation, relacin, /. relative, pariente, m.\ relativ^o,

ruby, rub, m.

-a

religious, religioso,

-a

ruin, ruina, /. rule, regla, /.


ruler, regla, /. run, correr

remain, quedar(se) remaining, lo (los, etc.) dems remains, restos, m. pi. remember, acordarse (ue) de, cordar (ue) remembrance, recuerdo, m. remove, quitar (se)
repeat, repetir (i) reply, contestar

re-

sadness, tristeza,/.
saint, santo, m., santa,/.; santo,

-a

salad, ensalada,
salt, sal,/.

/.

Salamanca, Salamanca,/.
salute, saludar

represent, representar republic, repblica, /. reputation, fama, /. resemble, parecerse (a) residence, residencia, /.
rest,
lo
(los,
etc.)

same, mismo, -a; que

as,

mismo

dems; to

descansar
retire, retirar (se)

Saturday, sbado, m. say, decir; good-by, despedirse (i); how does one ?,

cmo

se dice?

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
saying, refrn, m.
scarcely, adv., apenas

377

school, escuela, /. science, ciencia, /.


sea, mar, m. or f.;

shoe, zapato, m. shoe-store, zapatera shop, tienda, /. shore, playa, /.


port, puerto

short, corto, -a, poco, -a; at a

de mar
season, estacin,/.
seat,

distance, a poca distancia


w.; to

asiento,
(ie)

show, mostrar
oneself,

(ue),

ensear

show-window, escaparate, m.
shut, cerrar (ie); to
side,
al

sentarse

second, segundo, m.; segundo, -a second-hand, segundero, in. secure, asegurar


see, ver (pp., visto); let*s

up, encerrar lado, m.; on the other otro lado de; on either a
of,
,

cada lado
sidewalk, acera,
sight, vista,/.
silver, plata,/.
/.

a ver

seek, buscar seem, parecer Segovia, Segovia,/.


seize,
self,
sell,

similar, parecido, -a, igual

prender

Simon, Simn,
conj.,

/.

mismo, -a vender

since, prep., desde; adv., despus;

dado que, puesto que

send, enviar, mandar sense, sentido, m. sentence, oracin,/. September, septiembre, m. sequence, correspondencia,
rie, /.

sing, cantar

singular, singular, m.; adj., singular Sir (term of address), seor, w.,
caballero, m.
/., se-

sister,
sit

hermana, /. down, sentarse

(ie)

series, serie, /.

situate, situar

servant, criado, w., criada,/.


serve, servir
set,
(i)

situation, situacin,/., sitio, w.


six, adj., seis

service, servicio, m.

poner;

the

sixteen, adj., diez


sixth, sexto,

seis

table, poner la

-a

mesa
seven, adj., siete

sixty, adj., sesenta sky, cielo, m. slate, pizarra, /.

seven hundred,

adj., setecientos

seventeen, adj., diez y siete seventh, sptimo, ~a seventy, adj., setenta several, varios, -as
Seville, Sevilla, /.

sleep, sueo, m.,to


to fall a

dormir (ue)

sleepy; to be tener sueo slow, lento, -a slowly, adv., lentamente, despacio


,

dormirse

shade, sombra,/.

f:luice,

esclusa,/.

shadow, sombra,/.
sharp, (of time) en shave, afeitarse

small,

punto

pequeo, minsculo, -a

-a;

(of

letters)

smaller, adj.,

she, pers. pron. /.,' ella sheet, sbana, /.


shirt,

menor (com p. of pequeo) small letter, minscula, /.


smile, sonrer
(i)

camisa,

/.

shirt-store, camisera,/.

smoke, fumar

378
snow, nieve,
so,
adv.,
/.

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY

tan,

de

tanto, -a;

many, tantos, -as;

as,

lo;

spoon, cuchara, /; tea, cucha-

much,

rita,/.

spring, primavera,/.

that, conj.,

modo

de manera que, que, para que; it is

square, plaza,

/.

stairs, escalera, /.

es verdad; isn't it so?, no es verdad? or verdad? sock, calcetn, m. soiled, sucio, -a

stamp, sello, w.; postage de correp standing, e pie


state, estado, in.

sello

soldier, soldado,
solely, adv.,

in.

sole, solo, -a, nico,

a nicamente

station, estacin, /. stay, estancia,/., parada,/.

stay, quedar(se)

some,

indef. pron. aiid adj., algu-

no, -a, unos, -as;

one,

steamer, vapor, m.
steep, adj., pendiente
step, paso, m.

body, alguien something, indef. pron., algo,

al-

guna cosa
sometimes, a veces, algunas veces somewhat, adv., algo son, hijo, m.) (s) and daugh-

ter (s), hijos

soon, adv., pronto; as

as, tan

clavar aun, an {accented when it follows a verb) todava stone, piedra,/. stop, parada, /., paradero, m.\ to detener (se), parar(se) stopping-place, paradero, m.
stick; to
still,
,

adv.,

pronto como (sea)


sorry; to be lo siento

store, tienda,/.

sentir (ie); I

am

storm, tempestad,
story, historia, /., piso, m.
straight, recto, -a;

/.

{of a building)

sort, suerte,/.

soup, sopa,/. south, sur, m., sud, m.

ahead,

adv.,

(todo) derecho

South America, Sud Amrica, /., Amrica del Sur South American, sudamericano, -a souvenir, recuerdo, m.
space, espacio, m., sitio, time, rato, m.-, blank en bianco spacious, espacioso, -a Spain, Espaa,/. Spanish, espaol, -a speak, hablar
special, adj., especial

strange, raro, -a
strangle, estrangular
street, calle, /.

in.;
,

of

street-car, tranva, m.

street-railway, tranva, m.
strike, {of a clock) dar (la hora) structure, monumento, m., edificio,

espacio

m,

speech, discurso, m., idioma, m., palabra,/., lenguaje, w. speed, prisa, /. spend, pasar, gastar spite; in of, prep., a pesar de splendid, esplndido, -a

student, estudiante, m. or f. estustudy, estudio, m.; to diar subject, asunto, w,, sujeto, m. subjunctive (mood), subjuntivo,

m.

submarine

(boat), submarino, m.

submit, someter(se) substantive, substantivo, substantivo, -a

m.;

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
succeed, lograr such, such a one, indef. adj. and
pron., tal

379
(de); to

despedirse
sacar; to
talk, hablar
tall, alto,

out, place, tener lugar


(i)

sudden, subilo, -a suddenly, adv., de repente


suffer, sufrir
suffice, bastar

-a, grande

w. sugar, azcar, m.
suffix, sufijo,

suit (of clothes), traje, m.; "

dress"

traje de etiqueta

suitable, adj., correspondiente

summer, verano,

m.; to

vera-

near sun, sol, m.; to be sunny, hacer


(haber) sol

Tangiers, Tnger, m. taste, gusto, m. teach, ensear teacher, profesor, m., profesora, /., maestro, m., maestra,/. tell, decir, contar (ue) temperature, temperatura, /. tempest, tempestad,/. temporal, adj., temporal ten, adj., diez; by s, de diez en

diez

tense, tiempo, w.
tenth, adj., dcimo, -a

Simday, domingo, m.
superiority, superioridad,/.

superlative,
perlativo,

superlativo,

m.;

su-

-a

term, trmino, 7n. than, conj., que, de, de lo que (del que, de la que, etc.)

supposed, supuesto, -a (irr. pp. of suponer) supposing that, conj., supuesto


que, dado que supper, cena,/. sure, cierto, -a, seguro, -a surely, adv., ciertamente, segura-

thank you (thanks), gracias,

/. pi.

that, dent, adj., aquel, aquella, ese,

esa; dem. pron., aqul, aqulla,

aquello, se, sa, eso;

que; conj., que; so de manera que, de

re.

pron.,

conj., que,

modo
los),

que,

para que
the, def. art., el
{pl.

mente
surprise, sorprender

m., la

{pl. las),/., lo, n.

surround, rodear swarm,. enjambre, m. sword, espada,/.


syllable, slaba,/.

theater, teatro, m.; vaudeville

system, sistema, m.

teatro de variedades thee, pers. pron., te, ti; to te their, poss. adj., su, suyo, -a them, pers. pron., ellos, m. pl.,

ellas,/,

pl.',

los

{rarely les),

pl., las, /.

pl.) to

m.

les,

rarely

las

table, mesa,/.

theme, tema, m.
themselves, pers. pron.,

table-cloth, mantel, m,

Tagus

(the), el

Tajo

se,

s;

to

se

tailor, sastre,

m.

tailor-shop, sastrera, /. take, llevar, tomar; to

trip
'

(journey), hacer un viaje; to away (off), quitar (se); to from, quitar a; to leave (of),

then, adv., entonces, luego, despus; ^onj., pues there, adv., all, all, ah; is {or

are),

hay

these, dem. adj. pl., estos, estas; dem. pron. pL, Qgtos, stas

380
they,
pers.

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
pron.,
elloe,

m.

pL,

ellas, f.

pL

Titicaca, Titicaca, m. to, prep., a, hasta, para, por

thing, cosa, /. think, creer, f>ensar (ie); to

of,

pensar '(ie) en
third, tercero,
thirst, sed, /.

-a

thirteen, adj., trece


thirty, adj., treinta

tobacco, tabaco, m. tobacco-shop, estanco, m. to-day, adv., hoy toe, dedo, m., dedo del pie together, juntos, -as Toledo, Toledo, m.

thirty-eight, adj., treinta


thirty-five, adj., treinta

y ocho

y cinco thirty-four, adj., treinta y cuatro thirty-nine, adj., treinta y nueve thirty-one, adj., treinta y uno thirty-seven, adj., treinta y siete thirty-six, adj., treinta y seis
thirty-three, adj., treinta

tomb, tumba,/. to-morrow, adv., maana; day after pasado maana;

morning (afternoon, evening), jaaana por la maana (la


tarde, la noche) tongue, lengua, /. too, adv., demasiado, tambin

thirty-two, adj., treinta


this,

y tres y dos

dem.

adj.,

este,

esta;

pron., ste, sta, esto;

dem. one,

tortuous, tortuoso, -a towards, prep., hacia tower, torre, /.

town, pueblo, m.
trace, huella, /. track, va,/.; narrow-gauge

dem. pron.j

ste, sta

thither, adv., all, all

de

Thomas, Toms, m.
those, dem. adj. pL, aquellos, -as, esos, esas; dem. pron. pl., aqullos,

va estrecha

tragedy, tragedia,
train, tren,

/.

aqullas, sos, sas


adj.,

m. transandine, transandino, -a
translate, traducir

thousand,

mil

three, adj., tres

through, prep., a travs de, por throw, arrojar, echar Thursday, jueves, m.
thus, adv., as thy, poss. adj., familiar, tu, tuyo, -a
thyself, pers. pron., te,
ticket, billete,
ti;

translation, traduccin, /. transport, transportar


travel, viajar

traveler, viajer, m.
treat, tratar

to

tree, rbol,
trip, viaje,

te

m. m.

m.

time, her a, /.; (duration) tiempo, m.] {recurre4ice) vez,/.; on a tiempo; a long mucho tiempo; from to de cuando {or vez) en cuando; up to that hasta entonces timepiece, reloj, m., cronmetro,

triphthong, triptongo, m. troop, tropa, /. trouble, contrariedad, /. trousers, pantaln, m. {used also in pi.) es true, verdadero, -a; it is

verdad; isn't it dad? or verdad?


truly, adv.,

?,

no es ver-

m.
propina, /. tire, cansar tired, adj., cansado, -a
tip,

verdaderamente
tree)

trunk, bal, m., {of a body or tronco, m. truth, verdad, /.

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
try (to), procurar, tratar (de)

381
,

Tuesday, martes, m.
tunnel, tnel, m. turn, turno, w.; to

use, uso, m.] to useful, adj., til


usually,
adv.,

emplear, usar

generalmente,

por

volver (ue),

regla general

doblar twelve, adj., doce twenty, adj., veinte twenty-eight, adj., veinte y ocho twenty-five, adj., veinte y cinco twenty-four, adj., veinte y cuatro twenty-nine, adj., veinte y nueve twenty-one, adj., veinte y uno twenty-seven, adj., veinte y siete twenty-six, adj., veinte y seis twenty-three, adj., veinte y tres twenty-two, adj., veinte y dos twice, dos veces
two, adj., dos

vacation, vacaciones, /. pi. valise, maleta, /. Valparaiso, Valparaiso, w. valer value ; to be of variety, variedad, /.

various,

adj.,

diferente,

diverso,

-a, vario, -a

U
irncle, to,

m. uncomfortable, incmodo, -a under, prep., bajo, debajo de underline, subrayar underneath, adv., debajo understand, comprender, entender (ie) to make oneself understood, darse a entender unexpected, sbito, -a unfortunately, adv., desgraciada;

vaudeville theater, teatro de variedades vegetable, legumbre, /. Velazquez, Velazquez, m. Venezuela, Venezuela, /. Venezuelan, venezolano, -a verb, verbo, w. verbal, adj., verbal Versailles, Ver salles, m. verse, verso, m. very, mismo, -a; adv., mucho, muy
vessel, buque, m.
vest, chaleco, m.

victim, vctima,/.
victory, victoria,/.

mente
unite, unir

view, vista, /. village, pueblo, m. vinegar, vinagre, m.


visit, visita, /.
;

to

United States Unidos

(the), los

Estados

visitar

imiversityt universidad, /. unless, conj., a msnos que unload, descargar until, prep., hasta; cenj., hasta que upon, prep., sobre, en; {with infinitive) al

Vivar, Vivar, m. vocabulary, vocabulario, w. voice, voz, /. volcanic, volcnico, -a vowel, vocal,/. voyage, travesa,/.

up to, prep., hasta Uruguay, el Uruguay Uruguay River (the), el Uruguay Uruguayan, uruguayo, -a
us, pers. pron., nos, nosotros, -as;
to

W
waistcoat, chaleco, m. -ing for, en espera wait, esperar;

de
waiter, mozo, m.

nos

wake

up, despertar(se)

(ie)

382
walk, paseo,
ni.\

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
marchar, andar, dar un

pasearse; to take a

while,

paseo
wall, muralla,/., pared,/.

en; adv., mientras; mientras que; subst., rato, w.; a long mucho tiempo whilst, adv., mientras; conj., mienprep.,
conj.,

wall clock, reloj de pared war, guerra,/. wash, lavar(se)

tras

que

de bolsillo; mirar water, agua, /. way, manera,/., modo, w., va,/., camino, w., paso, m.\ in a correct de una manera correcta; in this de este modo, de esta
watch,
to

reloj, w., reloj


,

white, blanco, -a whither, adv., a donde who, re. prn., que, quien; inter. pron., quin?; he (she, they, the quien, el (la) cual, los one)

(las) cuales, el (la, los, las)

que

whoever,
{pl.

7idef.

pron., quienquiera

whom,

manera
we, nosotros (-as)
wealth, riqueza,
/.

quienesquiera) re. pron., que, quien; inter, pron., quin?; he (she, they, the quien, el (la) cual, los one)

(las)

cuales, el (la, los, las)


re.

que

wear, llevar weather, tiempo, w.; to be good (bad) hacer buen (mal) tiempo; to be pleasant, {of weather) hacer un tiempo agradable Wednesday, mircoles, m. week, semana, /. welcome, acoger well, bueno, -a; adv., bien; conj., pues; as as, adv., as como; done, bien asado, -a west, oeste, m. wharf, muelle, m. what, inter, pron. and adj., qu?, cul?; is the one, cul?; matter with?, qu tiene? wheat, trigo, m. when, adv., cuando; ?, cundo? where, adv., donde, a donde, en donde; ?, dnde?, a dnde?, en dnde? wherever, adv., donde, donde-

whose,

cuyo, -a; inter, adj., cuyo, -a?, de quin? why, conj., por qu? wide, ancho, -a width, anchura, /. wife, esposa,/., mujer, /. will, voluntad, /. wind, viento, m.; to be y, hacer (haber) viento winding, tortuoso, -a window, ventana,/. wine, vino, m. winter, invierno, m. es, felicidawish, deseo; good desear, querer, des,/. pL; to tener ganas you, contigo; with, prep., con; himself, herme, conmigo; self, etc., consigo
adj.,

withdraw, retirar (se)


withers, cruz,/. adentro, adv., within,
prep., dentro de

dentro;

quiera

whether, conj., si which, re., cual, que; er(la or


lo,

lo)

cual, los {or las) cuales; el (la,


los,

las)

cul?; of

que;
,

inter.,

re. adj.,

qu?, cuyo, -a

without, prep., sin; adv., afuera, de fuera; conj., sin que woman, mujer,/., seora,/. wonder, maravillarse wonderful, maravilloso, -a, asombroso, -a

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY
wood, bosque, in. word, palabra, /. work, trabajo, m.,
ture,

383
no!,

yes, adv.,

s;

indeed, cmo

ya
(of art, liter a-

lo creo

music, trabajar

etc.)

obra,/.; to

workmanship, trabajo, w. world, mundo, m. worry (a bull), trastear


worse, adj., peor {comp. c/ malo) worse, adv., peor {comp. of mal) valer worth; to be

yesterday, adv., ayer; day before anteayer, antes de ayer yet, adv., aun, an {accented when it follows a verb) todava you, pers. pron., t, te, ti; vos,

vosotros, os; usted, ustedes;


lo, la, les; to

le,

te, os, le, les

would that, int., ojal! wound, herir (ie)


write, escribir {pp., escrito) writer, escritor, w.

young, adj., joven younger, adj., menor pequeo)

{comp.

of

young lady, seorita, /. young man, joven, vi.


your, pass, adj., su, suyo, -a; {familiar) tu, tuyo, -a; honor, vuestra merced yourself, pers. pron., se, s; {familiar) te {pl. os); to

wrong;

to

be

no tener razn

pers. pron.,

Yapey, Yapey, m. year, ao, m.

se, te {pl. os)

youth, joven, m., mozo, m.

INDEX
used substantively, 47
see superlative

a: omission of accent,

X
,

(2 e)

accusative with

12,

90-92

with article, 12 with direct object, 12, 90-92 with infinitive, 222, 225, 300-302 with pronouns, 153, 154 see querer, tener
absolute, see superlative
abstract, see

uninflected, 41 adverb, 65-69, 161, 201 from adjective, 65 accent, (2 e) note 2

see

comparison of manner, 161 in -mente, 65-67, 161, 201 of negation, 131-136

noun

accent,

X,

64, 112, 190, 196

accusative, see object, direct


address, forms of, 5, 70-73 adjective, absolute superlative,
195, 198 agreement, 43, 44 of possessive, 57 of demonstrative, 55 of ordinals, 318 apocopation, 48, 52
capitalization,
see clause
see

see superlative adverbial, see clause; phrase age, expression of, 316

'ago,' 165 note agreement, see adjective; definite article; participle; verb
ai,

13

with

infinitive, 77

note

alphabet, I andar, see ir


anterior, past,
tive
see

tense,

indica-

XIII

(1)

apocopation, see adjective


apposition, see

comparison

noun

demonstrative, 54
indefinite,
inflection,

aprender, conjugation, 253


article, see definite; indefinite

203-209 40-42

intensified, 162

interrogative, 190-194
of nationality, 41 (1)

augmentatives, 334-340 aun, 163 an, 163


auxiliary, see verb; see also estar,

plural, 42

haber, ser, tener,


for,

etc.

position, 45,

46 change of meaning of ordinals, 318

45

B
-ble, changing to -bil, 198 body, parts of, definite article

possessive, 56, 59, 126, 127

replaced by article, 59 proper, XIII (1) relative, 175, 182, 183

with, 59
'but,' 135, 136

385

386

INDEX
concession, see conjunctions

c,

changed to qu, IX
196, 261 (1)

(1), (2), 106^

concessive, see clause condition, estar denoting,


(3)

78

to z,

IX

(1), (2), 107,

261
1,

(7), (8)

see

conjunctions

XIII, 23 note -car, verbs in, 106, 261


capitals,

26 note

conditional, see clause; tense; sen-

(1)

cardinal, see

numbers

tence conjugation,

'first,

252

Castilian, see pronunciation

compound
second
third
;
,

tenses, 255

-cer, verbs in, 107, 109, 261 (7),

passive voice, 258

268 changes, orthographic, see orthographic changes


characterization, see clause
Ciento, 52,
-cir,

253
tenses, 256

compound

254

312-315
in,

compound tenses, 257 conjunctions, introducing clauses,


(8),

verbs 268

109, 110, 261

243, 244
of concession, 243 (4), of condition, 243 (3)

244

clause, adjective, 228, 239,

240

adverbial, 228, 243 characterization, 239 (2) concessive, 243 (4), 244
conditional, 243 (3), 245, 259

of purpose, 243 (2), 244


of result,

244

of time, 243 (1), 244 of hypothesis, 243 (3)

dependent, 228 negative, see sentence noun, 229, 230 purpose, 243 (2), 244
relative, 115

conmigo, 152
consigo, 152
contigo, 152

contractions, 13
correlative,
see

pronoun;
,

quin

246 time, 243 (1), 244 of hypothesis, 243


result, 244,

and
(3)

cul, as

181

collective, see

numbers

commercial terms, 155 como, 123, 124 191 (2) cmo; qu tal for comparative of equality, 123-125 of inequality, 116-118
,

correspondence, see letters cosa alguna, 203 creer, 265 (1) cual, 178, 181
el

,178
,

lo

179
(cualesquiera)
203,

cul, 190, 192

cualquiera

comparison, of adjectives, 116-118, 120 of adverbs, 121, 122 ^than' in 117, 118 compass, points of, 157 compound, see numbers; pronoun,
,

206
cuan, 195 cuanto, 183
in comparison, 124

relative; subject; tense con, in adverbial phrases, 161

with infinitive, 305 with personal pronouns, 152

-ms, 125 cunto, 190 in exclamations, 194 207 cuantos, unos cuyo, 182 cuyo, 190, 194
,

INDEX
diphthong, IV, XI (1) at beginning of word, diversos, 209 don, 70, 71 doa, 70, 71

387

IX

(3)

dates, 23 note 2 dative, see object,

indirect

pro-

noun
days of week, 26 with article, 27
not capitalized, 26
gender, 26 de translating 'by,' 214

e,

changed to i, IX (3), 166 (1), 167, 168, 266 (8), (10), 291, 293
to ie,

IX (3),
(1),

164

(1), (2),

166

(1),

with infinitive, 222, 298 Id que, 118 manera que, 243 (2) in names, 76 to denote possession, 12, 58 quin, 193 after superlative, 119 (2) 'than,' 117, 118 lo ms, 162 deber, obligation, 307 followed by de, 221 note, 307 (1) followed by direct infinitive, 307 defective, see verb
definite article, 9-11, 74, 75

266
to ye,
el,

(2),

(3),

(8),

280

note, 285-287, 291

IX

(3),

-eir, verbs in, 168,

267 266 (11), 294


(2)

used for

la,

cual, 178

que, 178

en;

sa, 114
sta, 114

with infinitive, 303 wdth present participle, 77


endings, feminine, 17 masculine, 16 see tense epistolary style, examples
see letters

(2)

agreement, 10 with comparative to form superlative, 119 omitted, 53 (3), 74 (1), (2), 75, 129, 210 for demonstrative or personal pronoun, 115 for possessive adjective, 59 with possessive adjective, 128
repeated, 11

of,

360

equality, see comparative

-rrimo, 199 esperar with indicative, 229


estar, 29, 77 (3), 219,

(3 note)

220

used when not in English, 22, 74, 75, 211, 212, 227
dejar,

followed by direct infini308 followed by de and infinitive,


tive,

conjugation, 271 (8) used impersonally, 284 with gerund, 77 (3), 264 with past participle, 78 (3) para, 219 por, 220 expressions for class-room use,

XIV
of time, 34, 165 of weights

308
del, 13

(1)

and measures, 332

for weather, 158


'See

demonstrative,

adjective; pro-

noun
dependent,
see clause
'for,'

diferentes, 209

para, 215, 217, 219

diminutives, 334, 341-350

por, 215, 216, 220

388
fractions,

INDEX
322-325
167, 168,266(8), (10), 291,

utUTe^ see tense, indicative; sub-

293
-ia, indicating place
-iar, verbs in, 108,

junctive

where, 156 269

idioms,
g,

list,

359

changed to gu,
to
j,

IX

(1), 106,

196

of greeting

and leave-taking, 73

IX

(1),

107

-gar, verbs in, 106, 261 (3) gender, see letters; noun
-ger, verbs in, 107, 261 (9) gerund, 76, 77 with estar, 77 (3), 264
~gir, verbs in, 107, 261 (10)

gran, 50

grande, 50
greetings, 73, 191 (2) -guar, verbs in, 261 (5) -guir, verbs in, 107, 261 -gir, verbs in, 270

(4)

H
h, mute,

VI

with tener, 169 of weathfer, 158 with preposition and infinitive, 309 ie, changed to ye, IX (3), 267 to e, IX (3), 196 'if;' with imperfect subjunctive, 95 note, 245, 246 with future subjunctive, 259 with present indicative, 95 note, 245 (1), 259 imperative, 98-102, 140, 144 infinitive as, 226 object with, 64, 102, 140, 144 subjunctive used as, 62, 63, 99-102, 140, 144
imperfect,
see

haber, 78 (4), 79, 80, 158, 159 *ago,* 165 note in compound tenses, 78 (4), 80 conjugation, 271 (9) used impersonally, 158, 159, 165 note que, 159 hablar, article omitted after, 74 (1) conjugation, 252 hacer, with expressions of weather, 158 infinitive with 224^ ^ago,' 165 note hay, 159 hours of the day, 32
,

tense,

indicative;

subjunctive impersonal; se with, 147 see verb 'in,' after superlatives, 119
indefinite, see adjective;

(2)

pronoun

indefinite article, 8, 10, 11

omitted, 53, 208


indicative, see tense
indirect, see object, indirect pro-

noun
inferiority, see comparative, of in-

infinitive,

equality 77 (3

note),

221-227,

296-306
with with
after
a, 222, 223,

300-302

I
i,

a,

accented, 76 note, 84

meaning 'let us,' 225 hacer, mandar, 224

changed to

ie,

266

(3), (4),

288

dropped, 110, 168, 174, 266 (11), 271 (5), (7) changed to y, 111, 173, 271 (4),
(11), (12), (20)

e changed

to,

IX

(3),

166

(1),

with al, 77 note with con, 223, 305 with de, 222, 223, 298 direct infinitive, verbs 221, 297 with en, 223, 303

with,

INDEX
as imperative, 226

389

with prepositions, 222, 223, 296-

M
mandar, infinitive with mas, 135 ms, in comparison,
125
as intensive, 53 (2)
,

306
English present participle, 77 note instead of subjunctive, 230 as verbal noun, 227 with verbs of ordering, allowing, advising and the like, 230 note with por, 304
for
inflection, see adjective

224

116-118,

cuanto mientras

125 125
,

no
de
lo

136 162

intensives, 53 (2), 151, 162 interjections, 351-358

interrogation point, XII (1), (2) interrogative, see adjective; pro-

noun; sentence intransitive, see verb ir forming progressive tense, 264 andar, compared with 248 note, Vocab. XL. irregular, see participle; verb -isimo (-a), 195-198, 200, 201
,

masculine, see noun measures, expressions of, 332 medio, ZZ, 325 menos, in comparison, 116-118 cuanto 125 mientras 125
,

adverb metric system, 331 mil, 312, 315


see

-mente,

mismo, 151, 203 mitad, 325 money, ZZZ monosyllables,

(1 c),

(2

i^)

Latin words, (3) letter, see epistolary style


of acceptance,

IX

months, names of, 23 not capitalized, 23 gender of, 23 note 1


motion, verbs
of,

360

(4)

301

business letters, 360 (9) of condolence, 360 (6)


of congratulation, 360 (7) friendly letters, 360 (8)

mucho, 69
multiple, see

numbers

muy, 69
in superlative, 195, 199

360 (2) of invitation, 360 (3), wedding invitation, 360 (10) announcement of death, 360 (11) envelopes, 360 (1)
letter-writing, dates
see epistolary style
letters,

of introduction,

N
names, of countries, 90, 211 of days, 26 in forms of address, 70, 71
of languages, 74 (1)
of letters, I of

I-VIII

double, VII gender, I (a)


-'ly,'

months, 23

of seasons, 22

65-67, 161, 201


LI

nationality, see adjective

negatives,
\

5,

131-134

*no,' 5, 133
. . .

1-11,

verbs

in,

262

(1)

but, 136

390
no,
5,

INDEX
131-134
order of words in sentence,
ordinal, see
.^5,

36

.que, 136 sino, 136 ^not,' see negatives noun, in abstract sense, 74 in apposition, 119 (1), 210
. .

ms
.
.

numbers

orthographic changes, IX, 21 note, 84, 105-111, 260-262, 265-

270

see clause

required between connective two nouns, p. 86, footnote 4 with definite article, 74, 75 as direct object with a, 12, 90-92 feminine, 15, 17-19 gender, 15-19 in general sense, 74 masculine, 15, 16 plural for both genders, 61
plural, 14, 20, 21, 61

para, 215, Si 7-2 19 participle, past, 76, 78, 274, 275 with estar, 78 (3)

with haber, 78
withlo, 9
(1)

(4),

80

irregular, 76 note, 274, 275

in passive, 78 (2)

with ser, 78 (2) present, see gerund


verbs with two past
passive, see verb
,

275

partitive sense, 74 (2)

predicate, 53 (1) 70-72, 90 proper


,

verbal, 227

numbers, cardinal, 23 note 310-316


collective, 326, 327

2,

202,

past anterior, see tense, indicative past participle, see participle perfect, see tense, indicative; subjunctive
personal, see pronoun

phonetic changes, see orthographic


phrase, adverbial, 161

compound, 310 note, 314


see fraction

numeral, 329, 330


pluperfect,
see

multiple, 328
ordinal, 23 note 2, 317-321

tense, indicative;

subjunctive
plural, see adjective;

numeral phrase, 329, 330 numeral, see phrase

-ir, verbs in, 262 (2)

noun; verb, agreement poems to be memorized, 361


position, see adjective
of words, 35, 36 possession, 12 possessive, see adjective;

per, 213, 215, 216, 220

0,

changed to u, 166(2), 266(9), 292 changed to ue, 164 (3), (4), 166 (2), 266 (5), (6), (9), 267, 278, 280 note, 289, 290, 292 object, with a, 12, 90-92
direct

predicate, see adjective;


prefix,

pronoun noun

XI

(4)

personal

pronoun,

137-

present, see tense, indicative; subjunctive; participle preterit, see tense, indicative

142, 144

indirect personal pronoun, 137,

progressive form, ^ee verb pronoun, correlative, 18


indefinite,

139-141 ojal, 250 (1) 'on,' before days

of

week, 27

demonstrative, 112-115 203 interrogative, 130,^190-195

INDEX
personal,

391

made

intensive

by
radical changes in verbs, 164, 166168, 266, 267, 285-294 reciprocal, see pronoun, personal
reflexive,

mismo, 151
object, 102, 137-142, 144, 148,

149
loss of

verb endings when

added to imperative, 144


position, 64, 102, 139-141, 144, 148, 153
reciprocal, 142
reflexive, 142, 145-147 after prepositions, 58,

see

pronoun, personal;

verb
regular, see verb
relative, see adjective; clause; pro-

noun; superlative relative


150,
result, see clause;

conjunction

152-154 redundant use, 154 subject, 1-4 possessive, 128-130


relative, 175-181, 183

agreement, 176

compound, 239
note)

(3)
(1

wath subjunctive, 239, 250


indefinite, 203-205, 207 pronunciation, Castilian, 11

of letters, II, III, VI, VIII proper, see adjective propio, with possessive adjectives. '

euphony, 149 impersonal, 147 in passive sense, 146 position, 147, 148 reciprocal, 142 reflexive, 142 season, see names sentence, conditional, 95 note, 245 246, 259
se, for

interrogative, 36

60 punctuation, XII purpose, see clause; conjunction

order of words in, 35, 36 sequence, see tense, subjunctive


(2), d>7, 129 conjugation, 271 (18) used impersonally, 284 in passive, 7^ (2) with past participle, 78 (2) si = 'if,' with future subjunctive, 259 with imperfect subjunctive, 95
^

ser, 29,

159 118 in comparison, 116, 117 lo 179 with no, 133 see pronoun, relative with si, 133 qu, see adjective and pronoun, in-

qu, changed to c, IX (1), 261 (2) que, as conjunction, 2>^^ 133,

delo

note, 245 with present indicative, 95 note 245 (1), 259 si = whether,' 245 si- 'yes,' 133
*

si,

reflexive, 151,

157

sino, 135

no

136

terrogative
tal,

191 (2)
'

querer a, 92 quienquiera (quienesquiera), 203 -quir, verbs in, 261 (2) quisiera, 247

que, 135 'so,' 133, 138 'some,' not expressed, 74 (2), 204 stem-vowel, see verb, change of stress, IV (1), V, IX (3), strong, see vowel

392

INDEX
^past anterior, 89 perfect, 80 pluperfect, 89, 236 note 2 present, 1, 6, 7, 95, note 107, 108-111,245 (1), 259
preterit, ^Z, 84,

subjunctive, 104, 228 in adjective clauses, 228, 239,240 in adverbial clauses, 228, 243
in

dependent clauses, 228


expressions
of

in

indifference,

250

(2)

86

99-102 independent in clauses, 228, 250 noun clauses, in 229, 230


for imperative, 62, 63,

after
suffix,

si,

95 note, 245, 246, 259

subjunctiye; future, 259 imperfect, 95 note, 234, 236, 237, 245, 246 imperfect for conditional, 245-

augmentatives and diminutives accent (2 e note 1) sumamente, 195 superiority, see comparative, of inequality
see

247
-

perfect, 231

pluperfect, 234

names

of tenses, 263
,

progressive

superlative

absolute,

adjective,

sequence of Hhan,' 116-118

77 (3), 264 231, 234, 235

196-199
adverb, 200, 201 superlative relative, adjective, 119 adverb, 121 subjunctive after, 239 (4)
syllables, division of,

'there is' {or 'are'), 159 time, expressions of, 34, 165
see clause;

conjunction

of day, 32

repetition, 329
titled

XI

70-72

triphthong, V,

XI

(1)

tal;

191 (2) tan, 53 (2), 191 (1) como, 123 tanto, 124, 125 tener, 37, 79, 160 conjugation, 271 (19) a, 92 que, 38
,

qu

U
u,

changed to ue, 164 note, 266 changed to hue, IX (3), 267

(7)

tense,

compound,
257
1,

80, 89, 97,

255-

-uar, verbs in, 108, 269 ue, changed to hue, IX (3), 267 to 0, IX (3), 196 -uir, verbs in. 111, 270 uno, 49, 147 note, 203, 205, 311 as impersonal subject, 147 note,
^

endings,

6, 7, 81, 83, 93, 98,

unos,

103, 104, 236, 237 indicative; conditional, 93, 95,

96
conditional for imperfect indicative, 96

205 203 cuantos, 207 pocos, 207 usted(es), 2 note, 3


8,

redundant construction, 154 note

conditional perfect, 97
future, 93, 95, 96 future perfect, 97

vamos,

p. 83,

footnote

imperfect, 81, 82, 85

varios, 209

INDEX
verb, agreement, 3 auxiliary
'very,' 69
vivir,

39'3

conjugation, 254

haber; ser; tener of beginning, with a, 302 see conjugation defective, 276-279 of doubt, 229 (1) of emotion, 229 (3)
see estar;

voice, see verb, passive

vowel, see accent; diphthong pronunciation, III

change of stem changes


strong,
see

see radical

IV

(1)

endings, see tense


of hoping, 229 (3 note) impersonal, 147, 280-284 with inceptive endings, 268

triphthong weak, IV (1)

irregular verbs,
intransitive, 145
of learning,
see

list of,

271, 295

W
weak,
see

vowel

with a, 302 orthographic changes


(3),

passive, 78 (2), (3), 146, 258

progressive form, 77
see radical

264

weather, expressions for, 158 weight, expressions of, 332 whose,' interrogative, 130 word order, 35, 36
*

changes

reflexive, 78 (2 note), 145

regular, 252-258
of teaching,
see tense

with
(2)

a,

302

z before c, 109, 110, 268 changed to c, 21 note 2, 106,


196, 261 (6) -zar, verbs in, 106, 261 (6)

of will,

229

verbal, see

noun

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