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Piping, Fittings, and Valves

Abstract This article provides basic knowledge about piping engineering. It is known that there is no such formal educations in Indonesia which prepare engineers to have sufficient understanding on piping design and piping engineering. This article is written based on real experience in engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is not the purpose of this article if someone is looking for extensive and detail explanations of piping engineering. There are three main focus of this article, which are piping engineering, piping connectors, and valves selection. It is considered that briefly explanations about this three main aspects will equip engineers/designers from different background or area of expertise with basic knowledge and principle that mostly occurs in daily piping-related engineering activities.

The following discussion outlines the minimum explanations to accomplish such duties, and should be read in conjunction with respective codes and standards.

2. Piping Engineering
2.1 Piping Material Selection Material selection is a part of whole engineering decision that should be made before someone starts to build piping network. It must be carefully considered that the piping will retain the pressure, temperature and corrosion as an inherent operating condition. Table.1 in attachment simply can be used as guidance to select the proper pipe and fittings material based on the temperature conditions. In addition to this, if the predicted corrosion rate is high, carbon steel base material can be use either by adding or increasing the corrosion allowance. Somehow, it is preferred to use another materials such as 22% Cr Duplex (A-790 UNS SS31803) or ASTM A312 SS 316 instead of carbon steel with corrosion allowance higher than 6mm, concerning that carbon steel with excessive thickness a nd large diameter will increase stresses, reduce the flexibility of the piping system (especially at high temperature and pressure), and give more additional load to support and platform globally. Table.2 in attachment is presented here as additional information for 22%Cr Duplex SS. This material has been attracted many engineers in the past decade, as it offers some major benefits both in its mechanical properties and chemical resistance to corrosion. It must barely keep in mind that NACE MR01-75 certification would be required if the piping system is subjected to sour services. This standard states that metallic material under sour service must not have hardness greater than 22 HRC. This is important to avoid sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC). 2.2 Wall Thickness Calculation

1. Introduction
Piping in a plant is like a vein in human body. It plays important role of conveying any fluidic substance from one place to another, simply say that without it none of the whole process system can exist. However, its existence and behavior under hot or cold condition is sometimes neglected and considered as lower priority, causing major delay of project completion or detrimental effects on other equipments during operations. Many reasons related to this, one of them is probably caused by lack of understanding of piping work itself. As a matter of interest, the frequently asked questions of piping engineering and design are typically represented by the following questions: What kind of piping, fittings, flanges, and valves material should be selected to satisfy the condition requirements, described in PFD, P&ID, and Material Balance? What codes should be applied? What schedule number should be employed, concerning the pressure, temperature, and fluid service? How the piping joint should be constructed, fabricated and tested in accordance with the codes requirement? How the piping should be routed to allow inherent safety design, minimum piping in use, and flexibility without sacrifice aesthetical aspect or interfere the function and operation of connected equipments?

Developing new piping specification for a new project requires pipe wall thickness calculation. This is the second stage after the material has been selected. The wall thickness calculation is important as someone has to purchase the available piping size

in the market at standardized wall thickness (scheduled). The following formula should be used:

movement/displacement, acceleration, stress, forces, and moment. Stress analysis of piping system is primarily due to safety reason. Generally the purposes of flexibility analysis are to: calculate the stress within piping system and to validate whether they are exceeding the code stress or not calculate forces and moment at the equipment nozzle attached to piping such as vessel, tank, pump, compressors, etc, and then compare the obtained value with the allowable nozzle loads. Calculate the restrain loads Calculate the maximum displacement to check whether it is causing piping interference or not Solving dynamic analysis of equipment vibration, hammering, slugging, seismic, etc Optimize the general arrangement and piping lay out. The flexibility of piping system should be sufficient in order to have unhindered movement of piping under thermal expansion or contraction or movements of supports and terminal points, therefore it will not produce the following impacts: Failure of piping or support from overstress or fatigue Leakage at joints Detrimental stresses or distortion in piping or in connected equipment (pumps, vessels or valves for instance) resulting from excessive thrusts or moments in the piping. Flexibility denotes the measurement of the presence of necessary piping length in the proper direction. In conclusion, the purpose of piping flexibility analysis is to generate a piping layout that causes neither excessive stresses nor excessive end reactions. To achieve this, layout should be not stiff. However, the system with excessive flexibility is also not desirable because this requires excess materials, susceptible to seismic excitation, low natural frequencies, and increasing initial cost. For example, more length with many bends increase pressure drop, which inevitably increase operating cost. In analyzing piping mechanics, the following parameters must be considered: a. The appropriate code that applies to the system. The code will outline the allowable stresses. b. The pressure and temperature (operating and design) c. Type of material d. Pipe size and wall thickness of material e. Piping geometry including movements of anchor and restrain f. Limitations of forces and moments on equipment nozzles set by NEMA SM 23,

1 PD + C ..(1) tm = MT 2( SE + PY )
Where: tm = minimum required wall thickness (inches). P = internal design pressure (psig). T = selected pipe wall thickness (look at pipe schedules Table.3 below) D = outside diameter of pipe (inches). S = allowable stresses for pipe material (psi), per tables in ASME B31.3 (Appendix A) E = longitudinal weld joint factor, per tables in ASME B31.3 (Appendix A- normally 1.0 for seamless pipe). Y = temperature factor, per Table 304.1.1 in ASME B31.3 (Normally 0.4). C = the sum of mechanical allowances (groove depth and threading) plus allowances for corrosion and erosion (inches). MT = factor to account for mill tolerance on pipe wall thickness. 0.875 for seamless A-106 Gr. B pipe and seamless API-5L Gr. B pipe. 0.90 for API-5L Gr. B welded 20 inch NPS and above. Notes: (1) This formula should only be used for t less than D/6 and for P/SE less than or equal to 0.385. (2) This formula is derived from the basic formula for internal pressure design thickness from ASME B31.3 (ASME B31.4 and B31.8 have different formulae). (3) Threading allowances are as follows (from ASME B1.20.1, ASME B31.3, Sections 304.1.1 and 314): " - " NPS 0.0571" thread allowance 1" - 2" NPS 0.0696" thread allowance 2.3 Brief Philosophy of Piping Stress Analysis To design the proper piping system , engineers must understand the behavior of piping under loading or operating condition and also comprehend design code standard properly. The behavior of piping system is normally described by such factors, i.e.,



API 617, API 610, WRC 107, or the equipment manufacturers. Loading affecting the piping system should be determined first as load case basis, i.e., static load (weight effect, thermal expansion and contraction, effects of support, anchor and terminal movements, internal or external pressure loading) and dynamic load (impact forces, wind, seismic, vibration, and discharge load)

analysis requirement should be treated carefully as noted by ASME B31.3. 2.4 Line Numbering Another important document that must be issued regarding the identification of piping in a plant or installation is Line list. Every piping line must be named based on its operating conditions, class, material, how it is should be tested, type of coating, insulation, and any other inherent accessories. Each of these names then listed in one specific document, called line list. The method of how a segment of pipe is given the name can be different from one company to others. However, the following method is general one and can be applied in every condition:
NN - AA - ANN NN - AAAA N(N)AA Insulation Code. (Note 5)

In any piping system, these criteria must be considered and satisfied as minimum. For years, there have been many tools developed to calculate and analyze the stress in piping systems. However, these simplification methods will require exhaustive hours of working time if they are applied to analyze complex system. Recent pipe stress analysis software is available in the market, such as AutoPipe, CaesarII, Trifflex, etc. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages depend on the perspective of the user and interface system basically. Nevertheless, the analysis activity and philosophy itself would not be different whatever software we use. Before developing a piping system, preliminary assessment must be accomplis hed to select which piping line is more critical in term of its stress and in what level of stress the piping is. The complete information of piping stress analysis requirements (whether or not the comprehensive formal computer analysis is required) typically is detailed in critical line list document. Moreover, the level of piping stress analysis requirements will be: a. Level 1 Visual inspection only b. Level 2 Approximate analysis using tables, charts, for allocation of supports and restrains. c. Level 3 Comprehensive computer analysis The following formula is useful as a preliminary checking:

4 digits sequence number (Note 4)

System Number (Note 3)

Piping Class (Note 2) Product Service Code ( Note 1) Size in inches (1 or 2 Digits as required)




Dy C .(2) (L U ) 2
where : D = outside diameter of pipe, in y = resultant of total displacement strains to be absorbed by the piping system, in L = developed length of line axis between anchors, ft U = anchor distance (length of straight line joining anchors), ft C = 0.03 for US units Some companies apply different methods to assess a formal analysis requirement, for example by simple diameter and temperature graph, or simple diameter and temperature formula. Despite the simplicity, any shortcut way such the above method to assess the formal stress


Product service Code is a two alfa numeric characters which defines type of fluid service. For instance, PG means Process Hydrocarbon Gas, PF means Process Hydrocarbon Liquid, etc. Piping Class shows the d i entification of specific class. For example, A1 represents carbon steel pipe with ASME 150# rating. System Number shows the identification of service system. For instance 20 represents piping connected to individual system of Separation and Stabilization process. Sequence number consists of 4 digits number. First digit is usually a unique number of a particular process, or particular location. For example any piping in Offshore platform A of 3 platforms is started with 1, and others consecutively 2, and 3. The rest of the three digits is to any individual piping in that first digit category. In developing a line number for complex system, frequently people get confuse of when should a sequence number change. The following check items can be used as a guideline, i.e whenever pipe meets or goes to :

Connection with equipment pressure class change Branch from header Connection with nozzle Different System


In contrast, Sequence number doesnt change at the following items: Connection with valve (even if there is diameter change) At tee for the main stream At the change of insulation class Floor or wall penetration. e. Insulation Code shows the type of insulation, for example PP is for personal protection , FP for Fire Protection, HC for Heat Conservation. Moreover the first 2 digits define insulation thickness.

will be no longer cost effective if the stub end and flange are the same material. It offers benefit where alignment of bolt holes is difficult, as with spools to be attached to flange nozzles of vessels. Socket-Welding Flange. This type of flange is used for small pipe below 2. For details refer to socket-welded fittings section below.

In addition, there are some types of flange faces. The most common of them are FF (Flat Face) type, RF (Raised Face) type and RJ/RTJ (Ring Type Joint) type. RF flange is used for 600# and below, meanwhile RTJ is used for 900# and above. In addition to these, the face can have smooth or serrated face. Fig.1 above shows the typical example of RF type. Nowadays, hub-ended clamp connections have become a considerable alternative, especially for high pressure and large diameter piping or sub-sea pipe line. They are known respectively by their brand (Techlock/grayloc). The hub-ended clamp technology solves the problems of enormous weight, dimension for high-pressure large diameter flange, by using relatively small clamp and hub system (metal to metal connections). The rigidity of piping system produced by flange connections is smaller when the clamp system is applied, this will significantly increase the bending and tension capability of piping system. In overall, the application of clamp technology will save weight, time (flanges use 4 or 8 bolts or even more, clamp system only uses 4 bolts), space, and leakage (can withstand considerable bending moments/force, and axial loading due to pressure).

3.1 Flanges

Piping Connections

Flanged joints are made by bolting together two flanges with a gasket between them. The limitations of working pressure within flange connections are simply detailed in ASME B16.5. For flange size greater than 24, MS SP-44 should be used as reference. ASME B16.5 classifies pressure temperature ratings in some groups of materials. Each group of materials and each pressure rating (150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500#, 2500#) comprises of different values of pressure and temperature rating. Based on line list, P&IDs and Material Flow diagram, one can source Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) for the specific line of piping system. In some occasions, this MAWP is taken as design pressure input (P) for wall thickness calculation (full rating design). If this is applied, then the flange connection will be the weakest point along the piping. Any time the pressure in piping exceeds the MAWP, the flange connections will be the first part to be fail. There are several types of flange, herein: 1. Slip On Flange, for general application, nonflammable, non-toxic condition. This type of flange has poor resistance to shock and vibration, and causes irregularity in the bore. The internal weld is slightly more subjected to corrosion than the butt-weld. It is cheaper to purchase but costlier to assemble. It is also easier to align rather than weld neck flange. 2. Weld Neck Flange is suitable for wider application and ratings. Compare to slip on type, this flange is more advantageously suitable where extreme temperature, shear, impact and vibration exist. Moreover, the regularity of the bore is unobstructed. 3. Lap-Joint Flange. This type of flange is used where the stub end and the flange material is distinguished by economical consideration. It

Fig.1 Hub-end and Clamp Connection ( From

Fig.2 Illustration of Piping Modeling from AutoPlant. An Expansion loop is shown In Right hand side picture

3.2 Fittings These methods of joints are commonly used for most carbon steel and stainless steel pipe: A. Butt-Welded Used for most process, utility and service piping. Suitable for large pipes (2 and above) and fittings which offers reliable and leak-proof joints. The beveled end of pipe is aligned each other to fittings (beveled by manufacturers), tack welded, then continuous weld is made. Some items are included here: Butt-welding tee is used to make a 900 branches from the main run pipe. The tee could be equal branch size or reducing branch size Stub-in is used to make a direct branch from the main run pipe. Weldolet is employed to make a 900 branch, fullsize or reducing on straight pipe. Closer manifold is possible rather than tee. Butt-welding elbolet makes a reducing tangent branch on long radius and short radius elbow. Sweepolet makes a 900 reducing branch. It is usually employed in pipe line transmission and distribution system. B. Socket Welded Socket welding is used for smaller pipes (below 2). The applicability is for lines conveying flammable, toxic, or expensive material where no leakage can be permitted. The end of pipe is made flat. It is in the fittings, valve, or flange, and a continuous fillet weld is made around the outside meeting circumferences of pipe and fittings, valve, or flange. Compare to butt-welding, socket welding has advantages of easier alignment for small size, and no weld metal can intrude into the bore. Nevertheless, the 1/16inch recess at the inner joints between pipe plain end and fittings, valve or flange can cause pocket liquid. The use of socket welded is also prohibited as per ASME B31.1.0-1967 if severe erosion or crevice corrosion exists. Some items are included here: Full-coupling joins pipe to pipe Swage Nipples (Plain Both Ends) allows to joining either socket-ended items of different sizes or socket-ended item to a larger buttwelding pipe or fitting. Socket-welding elbow makes 900 or 450 changes of direction Nipolet is used for small valves connections Socket-welding tee is used to make a 900 branches from the main run pipe. The tee could be equal branch size or reducing branch size. Sockolet makes 900 branch full size or reducing in straight pipe Socket-welding elbolet makes a reducing tangent branch on long radius and short radius elbow C. Screwed Like Socket-welding piping, screwed piping is used for line of small pipe (below 2). Most of the screwed fittings are not utilized in process piping, although the pressure

and temperature ratings may be suitable. Screwed and socket fittings are rated at 2000, 3000, and 6000 PSI. D. Quick Connectors and Couplings It is used either for permanent or temporary application depending on service condition, and type of joints, It is especially useful for making repairs to lines, and for process modifications.

4. Valve Selection
The following brief explanation can be use as simple guideline: a. Ball Valves In general, Ball Valves should be used for on/off type services. Ball valves should not be used for flow modulation/throttling operation. Ball Valves in a flammable fluid service should be of a Fire Safe Design in accordance with the requirements of either API 6FA (for trunnion ball valves) or API 607 (for floating ball valves). Butterfly Valves Butterfly Valves should generally not be used in produced fluid service. Butterfly Valves should only be used in ASME Class 150 service, unless they are not required to provide tight shut off. Butterfly valves 8 and larger are usually gear operated, below 8 is equipped with locking lever. Check Valves Check Valves should not be installed in vertical down flow. For pulsating gas or liquid service, a piston type check valve or a special check valve designed similarly to a reciprocating compressor suction valve shall be used. Recently wafer check valves are more frequently used rather than swing check valves, concerning the save of space and weight. Gate Valves The gate valve is primarily a shut/open valve used for isolation purpose. Gate Valves should be used for small drain and vent valves, where the valve would be socket welded or seal welded. Gate valves are not recommended for throttling purposes Globe Valves Globe Valves are generally used in throttling services, such as bypasses around control valves, in drain lines, and for sample connections. The main advantage of this valve, in addition to its compact design, is its ability to be used for throttling and its tight s hutoff features. Globe Valves larger than 6" in size should be avoided, except in special circumstances.






5. Example of Piping Specification

Below is the example of how the piping specification is developed. Given the following data: Fluid Service: Hydrocarbons (Gas or Liquid), 1.5 mm Corrosion Allowance. Pressure (Ope/Des) : 50/150 psig. Temperature (Ope/Des) : -50/200 0 F. Task: Develop the piping specification based on the above information! a. Piping Material As piping system will be subjected to low temperature service, low temperature carbon steel (LTCS) base material will be sufficient. Form Table.1 we find the best material for this application i s A-333 Gr. 6 pipe, A-420 WP L -6 fittings, A-350 LF-2 Flange, A-320-L7 Bolts, and A-194-4 Nuts.


Pressure-Temperature Rating Discover from Table 1 ASME B16.5, A-350 LF2 flange is in Group 1.1 materials, and from Table 2-1.1 we take the following values: Pressure (psig) Temperature (0 F) 285 285 +100 260 +200 245 +250

It is clear that the design and operating pressure condition is within the permitted MAWP of flange. We will follow the full rating philosophy and take the highest MAWP as inputted pressure for wall thickness calculation. This will ensure that if the upset condition occurs, the piping will not rupture.


Wall Thickness Calculation. Corrosion allowance Internal design pressure Design temperature Material specification Allowable stress (B31.3) Longitudinal weld factor (B31.3) Y Coefficient (B31.3) CALCULATION t = P x Do 2(SE + PY) NB Do t+c mm mm 1/2" 21.3 1.65 1.89 80 (Table 3) 3.73 3/4" 26.7 1.69 1.93 80 3.91 -45.5/121 LTCS, ASTM A-333 Gr. 6 137.9 N/mm2 1 0.4 Do = Outside diameter of pipe in mm. t = Thickness required due to design pressure 1" 33.4 1.74 1.99 80 4.55 11/2" 48.3 1.84 2.11 80 5.08 2" 60.3 1.93 2.20 STD 3.91 3" 88.9 2.13 2.44 STD 5.49 4" 6" 8" (S) (E) (Y) 20 ksi 1.5 mm 1.97 N/mm2 Deg.C. (c) (P) 285 psig

-50/250 Deg.F

114.3 168.3 219.1 2.31 2.64 2.70 3.08 3.06 3.49 20 6.35

tm = 8/7 (t + c) mm Actual Schl. Actual W/T mm

STD STD 6.02 7.11

NB Do t+c mm mm

10" 273.0 3.44 3.93 20 (Table 3) 6.35

12" 323.8 3.80 4.34 20 6.35

14" 355.6 4.03 4.60 20 7.92

16" 406.4 4.39 5.01 20 7.92

18" 457.2 4.75 5.43 20 7.92



508.0 609.6 5.11 5.84 20 9.52 5.83 6.66 20 9.52

tm = 8/7 (t + c) mm Actual Schl. Actual W/T mm


It should be noted that for hydrocarbon services, threaded connections will n ot be used. Furthermore, Sch.20 for NPS 8-24 in may possibly be harder to be found immediately in the market, Sch.40 or STD is recommended as optional. The comprehensive piping specification for above application is then presented as per Attachment.

6. Reference
[1] ASME B16.5a-1998 Pipe Flange and Flanged Fittings. [2] ASME B31.3-2002 Process Piping. [3] ASME B36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. [4] Escoe, Keith A., 1986, Mechanical Design of Process System, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. [5] Kannappan, Sam., 1985, Introduction to Pipe Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Toronto. [6] Kentish, D.N.W., 1982, Industrial Pipework , McGraw Hill, London. [7] Sherwood, David R., Whistance, Dennis J., 1976, The Piping Guide, Syentek Book Company Inc, San Fransisco.

7. Bibliography
Indonesia, on May 14, 1978. He obtained his BS.c in Mechanical Engineering, from Gadjah Mada University (UGM), Yogyakarta on 2001 with cum laude. He is currently working for PT Ceria Worley (Worley International, Ltd subsidiary), a leading Engineering Consultant in Oil & Gas Industries as Mechanical/Piping Engineer with particular specialization in pipe stress analysis calculation.


7. Attachme nt
Table 1. Material selection

Table 2. Duplex Material Pipe Fittings Flange A-182 Gr. F51 or Seamless A-815 UNS A-182 Gr. F51 A-790 UNS S31803 S31803

Table 3. Pipe Schedule


Table 4 Example of Overall Piping Specification

PIPING SPECIFICATION ASME 150 Material : C.A : Hydrocarbons 1/2 80 3/4 80 LTCS 1.5 mm CLASS : Pressure/Temperature Limits: Service: Diameter Pipes Schedule Matr'l Fittings Flanges Ball Valves 3000# SW A-350 LF2 150lb RF SW A 350 LF2 Class 800lb SW, A350 LF2 316 Trim, PTFE Seals, Floating Ball Class 800lb, SW, A350 LF2 Stellite Coated, OS&Y Class 800lb, SW, A350 LF2 Stellite Coated, OS&Y Class 800lb, SW, A350 LF2, Stellite Coated, piston type, horizontal lift Press(psig) Temp(deg.F) 1 1 1/2 2 80 80 STD 3 STD 4 STD 6 STD 285 -50 8 20 10 20 285 100 12 20 14 20 260 200 16 20 18 20 245 250 20 20 24 20

ASTM A 333 Gr.6 Smls A420 WP L-6 BW as per pipe schedule

A-333 Gr6 SAW 100% radiography

150lb RF WN A 350 LF-2 as per pipe schedule A350 LF2 or A352 LC1 Body, A350 LF2 Ball, PTFE Seals, Flanged, Gearbox for 8" and above. Floating balls for diameter up to 6" and trunion for 8" and above A352 LC1 Body, Trim stellite coated for 2" to 4", F316 for diameter 6" and above, OS&Y, Flanged, Gearbox for diameter 14" and above A352 LC1 Body, Trim F316, OS&Y, Flanged

Gate Valves

Globe Valves

Check Valves

A352 LC1 Body, Trim stellite coated for 2" to 4", F316 for diameter 6" and above, Dual plate (wafer type)

Gaskets Bolting

1/8 Thick Flexitallic Style CGI, Spiral Wound, Teflon Filled, 316 SS Windings, per ASME B16.20 Studs Studs A320-L7, Nuts A194-4 HEADER SIZE 14" 12" 10" 8" SL SL SL SL W W W W RT RT RT T SL SL SL SL W W W RT RT RT T SL SL SL SL W W W RT RT T SL SL SL SL W W RT RT T LEGEND BRANCH SCHEDULE RT = REDUCING TEE T = STRAIGHT TEE W = WELDOLET SL = SOCKOLET

30" 1/2" B R A N C H S I Z E 3/4" 1" 1.1/2 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" 20" 24" 30" SL SL SL SL W W W W W W W W RT RT RT RT T









1.1/2" RT RT RT T

1" RT RT T

3/4" RT T

1/2" T