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Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar

Mechanical Engineering Lab (ME 352)


Lab Report 1
March 9, 2014

Submitted By:
Rounak Mehta 11110085 Group 7

INDEX

1. Calibration of Vernier Caliper 2. Measurement of cutting force in turning 3. Orthogonal machining 4. Assessment of Cylindricity and Circularity 5. Measurement of Gear Parameters 6. Machine Tool Testing

2 6 8 11 14 18

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EXPERIMENT 1 Calibration of Vernier Caliper


A vernier caliper is used to measure lengths in the order of one tenth of a millimeter. The aim of this experiment was to calibrate a given Vernier Caliper. Calibration is an essential activity while using any measuring instrument in order to account for externalities such as temperature and pressure variations, wear and tear, etc. Calibrating the measuring device helps identify and rectify the magnitude and nature of errors in the measurements recorded using the device. The apparatus used included a Vernier caliper and a set of slip gauges. The slip gauges were used as standards against which the Vernier readings were compared. OBSERVATIONS Vernier 1 Least Count = 0.01mm Total Length of Vernier = 150 mm Table 1. Vernier Readings for Vernier 1 and Slip Gauge Values S.No Vernier Reading Gauge Reading Error 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
ME 352 Lab Report

1.02 1.04 1.12 1.2 2 4 8 14.02 16 17.98 19.5 21.52 23.5

1 1.02 1.12 1.18 2 4 8 14 16 18 19.5 21.5 23.5

-0.02 -0.02 0 -0.02 0 0 0 -0.02 0 0.02 0 -0.02 0


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14 15 16

28 50 75

28 50 75

0 0 0

Vernier 2 Least count: 0.01 mm Total Length of Vernier = 300 mm Table 2. Vernier Readings for Vernier 2 and Slip Gauge Values S.No Vernier Reading Gauge Reading Error 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1.02 1.02 1.3 1.44 3 5 8.5 10 11.48 13 15 16.5 18 19.52 20 21 23.48 24.5 1.002 1.005 1.3 1.44 3 5 8.5 10 11.5 13 15 16.5 18 19.5 20 21 23.5 24.5 -0.018 -0.015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.02 0 0 0 0 -0.02 0 0 0.02 0

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19 20 21

50 75 100

50 75 100

0 0 0

SIGNIFICANT CONCLUSIONS The readings for both the Vernier Calipers show that both instruments were accurate for a large majority of the measurements. As seen in Figure 1, the error, when occurred, was small, of the order of one division of the scale which could be due to human error such as parallax. We must also consider the nature of the slip here. Some of the standards were made by wringing two gauges together. There is a possibility of the creation of an air gap in this process which might result in the error.

Figure 1. Variation of Percentage Error with Vernier Reading APPLICATIONS Vernier Calipers are easy to use and provide a quick way of measuring minute lengths. Hence, they are widely used. Thus, calibration becomes an important part of using any Vernier caliper. Some areas where calibration is useful is: 1. Scientific Instruments: Vernier calipers form part of many scientific instruments where errors may creep in if the instrument is not calibrated. 2. Quality Control: Another important application of Vernier calipers is in inspection and quality control of manufactured products. In such cases, an uncalibrated instrument may result in rejection of acceptable products and may prove costly.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES This experiment made us realize that the various precautions that need to be kept in mind even while using precision instrument such as the Vernier Caliper. We understood the importance of calibration in order to ensure that the measurements are reliable and accurate. The error in the observations also illuminated the effect of human error in making measurements. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT Besides using the traditional Vernier Calipers, the students could be introduced to using digital Vernier calipers. This eliminates human error to a certain extent. This could be compared with the readings from a traditional instrument as well as a standard slip gauge in order to demonstrate the need for calibrating digital devices.

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EXPERIMENT 2 Measurement of cutting force in turning


The Lathe is considered to be one of the oldest machine tools and its indispensability is evident from the fact that it continues to form an integral part of any workshop or manufacturing set up even today. In such a context, this experiment looks at an extremely important factor in the operation of a lathe. The aim of this experiment is to analyse the effect of velocity, feed and depth of cut on the cutting forces acting on the tool tip. This is done by observing the forces acting on the tool tip for cylindrical bars of different materials using a three component force dynamometer. The three dynamometer measures the radial, feed and cutting forces acting on the tool tip. The experiment is conducted for different values of feed rate and depth of cut. The measurement of cutting forces acting on the tool tip is an important factor in deciding the kind of tool to be used and the operation parameters for a particular operation.

OBSERVATIONS Radius of Specimen = 1.5 cm Tabe 1. Cutting Force Measurements for different Materials S. No Material Speed Feed Depth Px (rpm) (mm/rev) of Cut (kg(mm) f) 0.07 0.07 0.67 0.67 0.07 0.07 0.67 0.67 0.07 0.07 0.67 0.67 0.07 0.07 0.67 0.67 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 3 6 10 12 3 6 9 19 8 15 19 45 5 11 16 42 Py (kgf) 5 8 7 3 2 5 6 7 1 8 7 15 3 6 4 18 Pz (kgf) 1 1 3 7 1 1 8 6 4 8 14 20 3 6 10 19 v Py Difference (m/s) Theoretical

Aluminium 54

Aluminium 224

Mild Steel

54

Mild Steel

224

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34

22.11 45.225 2.31 4.725 23.45 48.5 2.45 5 23.45 48.5 23.45 48.5 8 12 2.45 5

77.39 82.31 -203.03 36.51 91.47 89.69 -144.90 -40.00 95.74 83.51 70.15 69.07 62.50 50.00 -63.27 -260.00

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SIGNIFICANT CONCLUSIONS As seen in Table 1, the forces acting on the tool tip increase with increase in depth of cut for both materials as expected. However, the increase is much higher in Mild Steel than Aluminium. This might be due to the higher ductility of Aluminium as compared to MS. A huge amount of difference exists in the theoretical and actual cutting force measurements. This may be due to the following factors: 1) Faulty sensors: The dynamometer may not have been calibrated or may be damaged. 2) Invalid Assumption: The theoritcal value has been calculated assuming that the values of correction factors for rake angle, wear and cutting speed are 1. Seeing the huge difference in the theoretical and actual values, this assumption might not be valid for this case. APPLICATION Given the wide range of operations that are performed and the diverse nature of products that can be produced on a lathe, it is extremely essential to have an estimate of the cutting forces acting on the tool tip. Thus, the experiment is useful in the following applications: 1. Tool Selection: Knowing the magnitude of forces acting on the tool tip for a given material and operation parameters, this would help us choose the right tip which would safely withstand the forces acting during operation. 2. Mechanical Structure Design: This would also help design the support for the tool holder in order to effectively withstand the forces. 3. Power Calculation: From an economic perspective, knowing the cutting force will allow us to calculate the power consumption by a particular operation. This is extremely important in order to reduce the cost of production and maximise profits. 4. Wear and Tear: The abrasive forces acting on the tool tip will determine the extent of wear that it undergoes over time. 5. CNC turning: Estimating the cutting forces is extremely essential for CNC turning machines which are used for mass production. In such a case, knowing the optimal process parameters is important to extend tool life and minimise costs.

LEARNING OUTCOMES In light of the importance of a lathe and its diverse applications, this experiment helps us understand the magnitude of forces acting on the tool tip for a particular operation. It gives an idea of the kind of decisions that need to be taken before performing a turning operation such as choosing the right tool and process parameters. It also gives us a sense of the variation of forces with the speed, depth of cut and feed rate.

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EXPERIMENT 3 Orthogonal Machining


Orthogonal machining is one of the simplest forms of machining and though not commonly used, helps us study the various aspects of chip formation in a cutting process. The aim of this experiment is to carry out orthogonal machining on different materials with different depths of cut and study the nature of the chip formed. The orthogonal machining is done on a shaper and rectangular blocks of different materials are used as work pieces. The experiment is performed for different values of rpm and longitudinal feed and chips are collected at the end of each cycle and analysed. Chip formation and subsequently its removal is extremely crucial in any machining process and this experiment helps us witness this for the case of orthogonal machining. OBSERVATIONS Plastic: Rake Angle = 20 degree Sr. No 1 2 3 4 Stroke/Min tc 20 20 36 36 0.16 0.12 0.07 0.18 DOC (t) 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.75 r 3.125 6.25 88.71281 79.08802

7.142857 77.91687 4.166667 83.85673

Aluminum Rake Angle = 20 degree Sr. No 1 2 3 4 Stroke/Min tc 20 20 36 36 0.65 1 0.55 0.51 DOC (t) 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.75 r

0.769231 41.18343 0.75 40.35678

0.909091 46.77341 1.470588 62.81764

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Mild Steel Rake Angle = 12 degree Sr. No 1 2 3 4 Stroke/Min tc 20 20 36 36 0.78 0.84 0.46 0.73 DOC (t) 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.75 r

0.641026 35.90001 0.892857 47.02277 1.086957 53.9695 1.027397 51.97926

Formula used:

SIGNIFICANT CONCLUSIONS As seen in the below graphs, for a given depth of cut, plastic has the lowest chip thickness for the same longitudinal feed. This is due to the low ductility of plastic. It is also evident that the chip thickness is lower at higher longitudinal feed for all materials irrespective of depth of cut. This might be due to the fact that higher feed rate gives less time for accumulation material in order for chip formation.

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APPLICATIONS Though orthogonal machining finds limited applicability, the concepts of this experiment are highly relevant. Firstly, the effect of feed rate on chip formation studied here can be applied to other similar cutting operations. Secondly, the dependence of the nature of chip formation on the type of material illustrated here will help in designing machining tools for various materials in order to ensure effective chip removal and optimal performance. LEARNING OUTCOMES This experiment provided a great opportunity to understand the fundamentals of chip formation and its dependence on material and process parameters. We learnt the basics of shear angle calculations and its real life application.

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EXPERIMENT 4 Assessment of Cylindricity and Circularity


Cylindrical and circular elements are found in almost every mechanism such as shafts, bearings, housings, etc. This experiment aims at checking the errors in cylindricity and circularity of a cylinder. This will be done by mounting three different cylindrical bars made of aluminium, mild steel and stainless steel on a bench center. To check the circularity we check the periphery of the cross section of the cylinder using a dial gauge at twelve different points across the length of the cylinder. For checking the cylindricity we need to see the circularity along the axis of cylinder. OBSERVATIONS Table1. Measurement of Deviation for Mild Steel Deviation (0.01 mm) Section- Section- Section3 4 5 0 3 33 72 61 48 33 42 58 34 11 8 0 3 33 72 58 44 22 35 52 33 12 9 0 36 17 1 -18 -8 11 -7 -25 -29 -33 -29

At Point(Angular) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Section1 0 -8 -6 39 66 62 57 38 42 52 32 11

Section2 0 -10 -7 18 64 56 45 30 33 49 22 9

Section6 0 -22 -44 -61 -55 -38 -49 -52 -60 -64 -50 -32

Table 2. Measurement of Deviation for Aluminium Section1 0 3 1 2 Section2 0 2 1 1 Deviation (0.01 mm) Section- Section3 4 0 0 2 2 2 8 2 11 Section5 0 1 7 10 Section6 0 1 6 8
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At Point(Angular) 1 2 3 4
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5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

7 6 8 10 9 9 10 11 7 5 7 9 10 1 0 4 5 7 -2 -4 -1 -1 1 -3 -5 -2 -2 -1 -5 -6 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -3 2 1 Table 3. Measurement of Deviation for Stainless Steel Deviation (0.01 mm) Section- Section- Section3 4 5 0 -2 -5 -9 0 18 27 35 28 38 5 8 0 -6 -7 -12 -5 5 15 25 25 25 10 -2 0 -5 -8 -8 -1 12 30 25 30 31 22 5

5 2 -3 -5 -5 -5 -1 2

At Point(Angular) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Section1 0 -30 -28 -35 -45 -46 -41 -25 -12 0 6 10

Section2 0 -17 -28 -35 -35 -32 -18 -5 5 7 8 -1

Section-6 0 0 0 3 10 20 25 20 31 33 22 8

SIGNIFICANT CONCLUSIONS Two significant conclusions can be made from the observations: 1. As seen from figure 1, Aluminium has the least average deviation of the three metals. 2. The deviation vs angular position graph is oval shaped for all the metals with the error increasing to a maxima and then decreasing to close to zero for each metal. This might imply a fault in the way the readings are taken as the beams are simply supported and might deflect under the load of their own weight. 3. The taper increased with increasing distance.

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4. The chuck showed significant deviation. This might be due to wear and tear over its usage in the lab.

APPLICATIONS

Figure 1. Average Deviation with angular position

Since cylindrical components are so widely used across diverse types of machines, measuring cylindricity is an important activity in using the cylindrical elements. Hence, this experiment can have a number of applications: 1. Quality control and Inspection: Mass production of cylindrical elements such as shafts will undergo inspection processes to check the cylindricity. Though the method adopted would be different, the underlying concept of this experiment would be used in quality control in such situations. 2. High precision engineering: Cylindricity measurement will also be performed with great care in the manufacture of products with low tolerances where the finished good must be extremely precise in order to get the right kind of fit in the whole assembly. 3. Vibration and Noise: The taper of cylinder contributes to vibrations and oscillations which may be undesirable in many cases.

LEARNING OUTCOMES This experiment was an opportunity to get a hands on experience of the concepts learnt during the Manufacturing Process II course studied last semester. The concept of tolerancing and cylindricity for different materials was understood and applied.

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EXPERIMENT 5 Measurement of Gear Parameters


The aim of this experiment is to measure various parameters of a spur gear. Gears are a ubiquitous and extremely important part of machines and thus, this experiment is practically relevant and highly important. Some of the key parameters which were measured are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) The outer and inner circle diameter Module Gear tooth Thickness Pitch Circle Diameter Flange Width

These are the defining characteristics of any gear and determine its applicability and performance. These parameters were measured using two apparatus: Gear tooth Vernier Caliper and Flange Micrometer. The Gear tooth Caliper was set to a vertical height equal to the addendum in order to measure the tooth thickness at the Pitch Circle. The Flange Micrometer was used for inspecting the flange width of a set of three teeth. An important application of this experiment is in measuring the error in the gear due to manufacturing errors and wear and tear. OBSERVATIONS Gear 1 Material: PVC No of Teeth (N) = 33 Pressure Angle = 20o Module (m)= 3 mm/ tooth Outer Diameter (OD)= 105 mm Inner Diameter (ID) = 92.5 mm Least count of Gear tooth Vernier Caliper = 0.02mm

Table 1. Measured Flange Width of 3 Teeth S.No 1 2 3 4 Measured Length (mm) 23.78 24.3 23.76 24.32

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Table 2. Measured Thickness of Gear Teeth S.No Thickness(mm) Error S.No Thickness(mm) Error 4.7 4.58 0.05 -0.07 1 17 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 4.86 4.88 4.7 4.76 4.72 4.94 4.62 4.34 4.64 4.8 4.82 4.6 4.72 5.2 4.9 0.21 0.23 0.05 0.11 0.07 0.29 -0.03 -0.31 -0.01 0.15 0.17 -0.05 0.07 0.55 0.25 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 4.32 4.59 4.69 4.56 4.54 4.58 4.5 4.58 4.74 4.54 4.78 4.4 4.6 4.56 4.52 4.32 -0.33 -0.06 0.04 -0.09 -0.11 -0.07 -0.15 -0.07 0.09 -0.11 0.13 -0.25 -0.05 -0.09 -0.13 -0.33

Gear 2 Material : Mild Steel No of Teeth (N) = 20 Pressure Angle = 20o Module (m)= 2.5 mm/ tooth Outer Diameter (OD)= 43.44 mm Teeth Width = 11.34 mm Least count of Gear tooth Vernier Caliper = 0.002mm
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Table 3. Measured Flange Width of 3 Teeth S.No 1 2 3 4 Measured Length (mm) 15.03 15.026 15.034 15.02

Table 4. Measured Thickness of Gear Teeth S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CALCULATIONS Gear 1 Theoretical PCD = OD 2m = 43.44 2*2.5 = 38.44 mm Gear 2 Theoretical PCD = OD 2m = 105 2*3 = 99mm Addendum = m = 3 mm Dedendum = 1.25*m = 3.75 mm From Table 3, Average Flange Width = (15.03+15.026+15.034+15.02)/4 = 15.028 mm Addendum = m = 2.5 mm Dedendum = 1.25*m = 3.125 mm Theoretical Flange Width = N*m*cos [tan - +/2N + S/N] = 23.52 mm From Table 1, Average Flange Width = (23.76+24.3+23.78+24.32)/4 = 24.04 mm Thickness(mm) Error S.No Thickness(mm) Error 3.24 3.1 3.14 3.16 3.16 3.24 3.14 3.26 3.12 3.16 0.08 -0.06 -0.02 0 0 0.08 -0.02 0.1 -0.04 0 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 3.14 3.06 3.08 3.1 3.12 3.26 3.12 3.16 3.3 3.14 -0.02 -0.1 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 0.1 -0.04 0 0.14 -0.02

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SIGNIFICANT CONCLUSIONS As seen in Table 2 and Table 4, there was a significant amount of variation in the tooth thickness. Depending on the nature of the application, this could affect the performance if the variation is beyond a certain acceptable limit. APPLICATIONS Given the wide variety of uses and applications of gears, this experiment is highly useful and relevant in various fields. Some applications of this experiment are: 1. Quality Control and Inspection: Gear measurement would be extremely important in quality control and inspection purposes in order to check to accuracy of gear manufacturing processes. This would also affect the cost of manufacturing the gear. 2. Wear and Tear : Since gears are used in a wide variety of applications from automobiles to industrial equipment, they are subjected to hostile environmental conditions. Thus, a second application of gear measurement is to determine the extent of wear and tear of the gear teeth over long periods of use. This will also determine the life span of the machines where these gears are employed. For example, the failure of gear teeth in automobile gear boxes could be catastrophic. 3. CNC Measurements : Another interesting application of this experiment is in automated gear inspection machines such as a Coordinate Measuring Machine. This would allow extremely high precision measurements to be made and would require a basic knowledge of gear measurements which is gained from this experiment. LEARNING OUTCOMES This experiment was a great opportunity to gain a first-hand experience of gear measurement techniques which are widely used in a variety of applications. It introduced us to the use of the Gear tooth Vernier Caliper and helped us appreciate the various aspects of a gear which can affect its performance. The significant variation in the thickness of the gear teeth made us realize the importance of quality control and inspection processes in gear manufacturing. SUGGESTIONS Another experiment could be conducted as a supplement to the above experiment or prior to this one. This could involve the students themselves making a gear with a given parameters. This would further help appreciate the various parameters of a spur gear.

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EXPERIMENT 6 Machine Tool Testing


Machine tools are the workhorses of any industrial unit. Given the high levels of productivity expected from any machine tool, it is extremely essential that they are robust and free from errors. This aim of this experiment is to analyse the errors in a machine tool. These are of two types geometric and alignment errors. We use a dial gauge on a magnetic stand to measure the parallelism between the axes of the main spindle and the slide ways of a lathe. We also analyse the cylindricity of the chuck in a manner similar to the one used earlier in the assessment of cylindricity experiment. This experiment is especially useful since it is essential to determine the defects in the machine tool to assess the quality and accuracy of production, besides other applications. OBSERVATIONS The following observations were made by mounting a stainless steel cylinder on a lathe. Radius: 1.5 cm Table 1. Taper Measurement for Stainless Steel Cylinder At Section(linear) Taper (1 m) 0 1 0 2 -4 3 -12 4 -16 5 -22 6 -30 7 -36 8 Table 5. Measurement of Deviation for Chuck At Point(Angular) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Deviation (1 m) 0 -2 -14 -34 -43 -55 At Point(Angular) 7 8 9 10 11 12 Deviation (1 m) -55 -39 -10 -4 7 9

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SIGNIFICANT CONCLUSIONS 5. From graph 1, it is evident that the magnitude of taper increased linearly with increasing distance. Since the dial gauge has a very fine resolution, this may be due to the deflection of the cylindrical shaft under its own weight. 6. As seen in Figure 2, the chuck showed significant deviation. This might be due to wear and tear over its usage in the lab.

Figure 1. Taper of Stainless Steel Cylinder APPLICATIONS While it is important to check products for defects, it is equally important to determine the extent of errors in the machine tools themselves. This experiment would thus be extremely useful in the following manner: 1. Acceptance Tests: To determine whether the machine tool meets certain minimum standards while purchasing new tools or assessing the impact of maintenance and repair. 2. Manufacturing Accuracy: To determine the extent of error introduced in the final product based on the inherent error in the machine tool 3. Quality control: This would also be useful in the quality control during the manufacture of machine tools themselves. LEARNING OUTCOMES This experiment made us realize another source of error that may creep in during manufacturing. While we usually think about errors due to manufacturing process, this experiment illustrates the nature and sources of error that may result due to defects in the machine tool itself. SUGGESTIONS The experiment was conducted only on a lathe. We could do measurements on other machines such as the shaper and milling machine in order to get a feel of some other sources of error.

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