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TASK 1. Write DO if the underlined word is a direct object and IO if it is an indirect object. 1. They washed the walls. 2.

The students cleaned the room. 3. The salesgirl sold us some handkerchiefs. 4. Their friends scrubbed the floor. 5. The thoughtful children gave their mother a gift. 6. The appreciative mother gave them a hug. _________________ A paradox is basically a sentence that presents a situation that defies logic or the usual way things are expected tobe. Despite this, the idea presented remains true. An example is : One has to die in order to live. An irony is said to be present when the presented meaning of a message is different from the one that is truly intended (verbal irony). This is also associated with sarcasm or mockery (e.g. Saying Im so happy when one is t ruly sad.). Irony is also observed in the theatre (dramatic or literary irony) when the audience knows more about the situation than the characters and this ignorance causes several conflicts. Situational irony is manifested when one does something for a specific reason but is met with a result that contradicts his intention (e.g. Exercising strenuously to be healthy but ending up ill because of exhaustion.) An oxymoron is a phrase or a two-word description where the two words contrast with each other (e.g. deafening silence, sweet sorrow, etc.). An oxymoron can be considered as a paradox reduced to two words. A hyperbole is an exaggeration. TASK 2 1. There is a real love hate you have got us into. 2. Suddenly the room was filled with a deafening silence. 3. My car is a million years ago. 4. You are clearly confused by the situation you have found yourself in. 5. I saw a fish drowning. 6. One of the identical twin says to the other, Youre ugly! ____________________ An embedded clause, as the term suggests, is a clause that is fixed within a larger clause or sentence which is called the matrix clause . The embedded clause is usually found in the beginning or at the end of sentences. Markers commonly accompany or introduce embedded clauses. These markers may be that, when, who, where, etc. However, there are instances when a marker does not precede an embedded clause. Such is the case with gerunds (e.g. swimming, eating, etc.). Ex. Manila Bay presents a magnificent sunset experience that will last a lifetime. Photographers take pictures of people sitting or walking along the bay area. An embedded clause does not have its own meaning, so it has to be attached to the matrix clause to present a complete meaning. TASK 3. Identify the embedded clause in the following sentences. Write your answers on a half sheet of paper. 1. Manila Bay is considered the finest harbor in the far east where the famous "Battle of Manila Bay" was fought. 2. The Bay is also known as a stopover for the Galleon Trade which lasted for 244 years. 3. The first Filipinos were Indo-Malaya migrants who established their first settlements along the bay and a nearby river (now the Pasig River). 4. They named the place Maynila or may nila which means there is nila here 5. Nila is a water plant that thrived in the area. TASK 4 Choose a prepositional phrase to complete the sentence. about a film of the parade with megaphone 1. A big throng of people ____. 2-3. A man ______ announced the route ______. 4. A simulation _____ was the motif of one of the floats.

along the street

of a fortress

TASK 5 Combine the simple sentences in Column A with the subordinate clauses in Column B. 1. Laughter is a medicine. 2. We will succeed 3. We become happy 4. The student narrated an anecdote 5. Mario is fun to be with A. because he has a fine sense of humor. B. which can cure a persons grief. C. that made the class laugh. D. if we try our best. E. when we have peace of mind.

1. similarly and likewise : To compare Use similarly when stating that there is a correspondence between the way that two things happen or are performed. Note in the example below how important parallel forms are for using this connector. Vitamin B6 is vital in the formation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from essential fatty acids and in the conversion of tryptophan into nicotinic acid. Similarly, it is needed to incorporate iron into haemoglobin and to transfer methinonine into energy, thereby avoiding an excessive accumulation of homocysteine which is toxic. 2. then: to Mark Time 3. in other words and in short : to Summarize or restate 4. as a result: to Relate Cause and Effect or Result 5. besides, to add, amplify or list

6. nevertheless: to contrast 7. eventhough: to express condition ___________

Task 1. 1 2. ________ doing the washing, Janet also went marketing this morning. 3. Everyone used less gas_____, we were not short of energy. 4. _____ he tries hard, he cant get anywhere. _____________________