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PLC

1.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL

Automatic control is an operation of electronic devices or apparatus that take place the jobs of human operator.

HUMAN AUTOMATIC CONTROL

OBSERVATION (INPUT) SENSING (SENSOR)

JUDGEMENT (BRAIN) CONTROLLING (PROCESSOR)

DECISION (OUTPUT) OUTPUT (ACTUATOR)

2. COMPOSITION OF SEQUENTIAL/AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

SENSING

CONTROLLING HARD WIRE

ACTUATING

SENSOR INPUT MICRO SWITCH LIMIT SWITCH PUSH SWITCH REED SWITCH PROXIMITY SWITCH PHOTOELECTRIC SWITCH SENSOR ETC BOTTON

(CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM) RELAY TIMER COUNTER CONTACTOR ELECTRONIC LOGIC PNEUMATIC LOGIC HYDRAULIC LOGIC ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC LOGIC ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC LOGIC PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER (PLC) LOGIC

ACTUATOR MOTOR SOLENOID VALVE LAMP BUZZER ETC OUTPUT 1

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PLC

INPUT DEVICES

OUTPUT DEVICES

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PLC WHAT IS PLC? PLC Defination A digitally operated electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic to control, through digital or analog input/output modules, various types of machines or processes.- National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) In conventional/hard-wired systems we use relays as a main device to do sequential/automatic control. A PLC is a kind of micro computer which we compose programs by typing without wiring. Wiring only been done at input and output devices . PLCs provide ease and flexibility of control using software and executing simple logic instructions (ladder diagram). PLCs have internal functions such as timers, counters and relays. A PLC operates by reading the input signals (sensors) from process and carrying out logic instructions (ladder programming) on these inputs signals, producing output signal to drive output actuators. Standard interfaces built in to the PLCs allow them to be directly connected to process sensors and actuators without the need for intermediate circuitry or relays. Through the use of PLCs became possible to modify a control system without having to disconnect or re-direct a single wire. Its only necessary to change the control program(software) using a programming console, visual display unit or PC. PLCs also require much shorter installation and commissioning times than hard wired control systems. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND In 1968, a group of engineers from General Motors developed the concept of PLC with an initial specification. The PLC must be:

i. Easy to program and reprogram. ii. Easy to maintain and repair. iii. More relible in an industrial environment iv. Smaller in size than its relay equivalent v. Cost competitive
Before the 1980s, programmable logic controllers were called PCs.

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PLC COMPARISON BETWEEN PLC AND CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS. A PLC performs the functions of conventional relays, timers, counters. The Advantages (over conventional devices hardwire) i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.
V1 12V +V

Can be used for complex controlling. Fast operating speed Easy installation Very compact (Less space, more compact) Flexible in control changes (More flexibility) Simple maintenance Higher reliability (less mechanical parts) Modular (Easily connected to computer systems and to hardware)
PB1 START PB2 STOP
+24V START PB1 U1
i/p 0

RL1 12V

+24V

STOP PB2

i/p 1 i/p 2 i/p 3 i/p 4 i/p 5 i/p 6 i/p 7 i/p 8 o/p 0 o/p 1 o/p 2 o/p 3 o/p 4 o/p 5 o/p 6 o/p 7 o/p 8 COM

MOTOR

RL1 NO1

CPM1A20C DR

NO2 RL1 M1

i/p 9 i/p 10 i/p 11 COM

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PLC Control Function. PLC can perform various functions such as: 1) Sequential Control. a. Logic Control/function (AND, OR, AND NOT, OR NOT) b. Timer/Counter. c. etc 2) Arithmetic/Advance Control. a. Mathematical function (+-*/) b. P,I,D c. Temperature d. Servo motor speed e. Etc 3) Supervisory Control a. SCADA b. LAN c. WIFI d. etc TYPES OF PLC. PLC types are based on their size and features. The PLC size and feature are depends on manufacturer specification. They can be programed by using FIT, programming console and PC. they can be placed into : a. Pico or Nano, b. Micro or Mini c. Modular or Rack d. Etc such as RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) SCADA , PAC (programmable automation controllers) and DCS (distributed control system) (New Technology & Very Advance Features). ** (The most known are a, b and c)

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PLC

PICO or NANO PLC. Smallest PLC in the world. Programming can be done on the PLC itself or by PC. The function are based on their features. Example Allan Bradely PICO, OMRON Zen & Siemens LOGO

MICRO OR MINI PLC. Smaller size and highly integrated for a discrete and analog application in controls. Almost every industry used it. Programming can be done by PC or Programming Console. The function are based on their features. Example OMRON CP, Mitsubishi FX and Siemens S5 Sieries.

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PLC

MODULAR OR RACK PLC. Interchangeable modules and highly integrated for a discrete and analog application in controls. Can be expanded flexibly at any time via pluggable I/O, functional and communications modules, providing tailored solutions for our requirements. A wide range of performance, scope and interface options depending on our application. It have most advance features used in DCS and SCADA. Programming can be done by PC, FIT and HMI. Example OMRON CJ & Siemens S7 Sieries.

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PLC PLC MANUFACTURERS.

i. OMRON ii. KEYENCE iii. ALLAN BRADLEY iv. GE v. MITSUBISHI vi. FUJI vii. SIEMENS viii. FESTO ix. MICROLOGIC x. Etc.
Why PLCs used in Industries ? Advantages + many inputs and outputs, excellent for controlling and monitoring many processes + designed for industrial environments, robust and reliable + reprogrammable + modular + ideally suited to supervisory control (SCADA- Supervisory Control And data Acquisition) + easy to set up & maintenance, good for FMS(Flexible Manufacturing Systems) + inexpensive + predictible cost + high realibility (low maintenance) + standards i/o parts Disadvantages - do not use the full capabilities of the microprocessor - ladder logic programming style is cumbersome and prone to mistakes - only good for yes/no decisions - do not handle continuous inputs and outputs, not good for direct control - inflexible (compared to microprocessors)

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PLC

PLC HARDWARE (BLOCK) Power Supply Programming Unit/VDU/PC/HMI/GUI Programming Console

Signals from switches, sensors, etc Input interface

Central unit (CPU)

processing Output interface

Signals to actuators, solenoids, motor, etc

Memory

PLCs are similar to computers which also consists of three functional areas : processing, memory and input/output. Input signals to the PLC are read and then stored in memory, where the processor performs the programmed logic instructions on these input signals. Output signals are then generated to drive output devices. The action taken depends totally on the program which is stored in the memory. In addition a programming unit is used to download the programs to the PLC memory. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT(CPU) The CPU control, monitors and supervises all operations within the PLC. It also carries out programmed instructions stored in the memory. An internal communications highway also know as a bus systems, carries information to and from the CPU, memory and I/O units, under the control of the CPU. MEMORY SECTION The memory section is where the program sequence is stored. There are two group of memory.

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PLC i. ii. Volatile memories Data which lose their contents when power OFF Data that retain contents when power OFF

Non-volatile memories-

Volatile memories RAM(Random Access Memory) allows individuals signals or data words to be written in or read out when correct control signals are present. A battery backup is required to preserved the contents in event of power interruption. Non-volatile memories This group can be devided into erasable and non-erasable memories. i. Non erasable memory

ROM(Read

only

memory)

which

is permanently programmed

at

manufacture and cannot be altered. PROM(Programmable ROM) can be programmed by the user using a PROM programmer. ii. Erasable memory

EPROM (Erasable PROM) are programmed in a similar way to PROMs. Their contents can be erased by exposure to ultra violet light. It can be reprogrammed over and over again.

EEPROM(Electrically EPROM) are similar to EPROM but can be erased electrically while connected in the circuit.

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PLC

Input/Output interface The I/O units form the interface between the internal microelectronics of the PLC and the outside world. It must there fore provide all necessary signal conditioning isolation functions (opto isolator). This often allows a PLC to be directly connected to process inputs apparatus and actuators without the need for intermediate circuitry or relays.

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PLC

PLC INPUT WIRING

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PLC

PLC WIRING FOR TRANSISTOR OUTPUT TYPE

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PLC

PLC WIRING FOR RELAY OUTPUT TYPE

PROGRAMMING UNITS There are several types of programming units that can be use to program, monitor and force the plc : i. ii. iii. iv. Hand held programming console Visual display unit (VDU) Factory intelligent terminal (FIT) Personal Computer (PC)

Programming Console

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PLC

POWER SUPPLY The power supply is depends on its specifications : i. ii. AC Voltage 100 to 240V DC Voltage 24V

SEQUENTIAL LOGIC UNDERSTANDING

i. Knowledge of parts
Constructions Characteristics Specifications Functions Applications Selections

ii. Knowledge of circuits


Review Analyze Draw

iii. Creative designing


New idea by technical and engineering revolution

PLC PROGRAMMING AND WIRING. There are 4 steps that usually been used in designing using PLC :

i. List of Input/output assignment ii. Input/output wiring drawing iii. Ladder diagrams explanation iv. Logic instructions (mnemonic code/statement list)

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PLC Input/output assignment

Input device Push Button 1 Push Button 2

Name PB1 PB2

Input No 0000 / X00 0001/ X01

Output device Lamp

Name L1

Output No 1000 / Y00

Input/output wiring There are many types of wiring for input and output devices. Its depends on the specifications on PLCs. i) Input Wiring. a) DC inputs with common supply/source. b) DC inputs with common ground/sink. c) AC inputs. ii) Output wiring. a) b) c) d) Relay outputs with common supply. Relay outputs with common ground. Transistor outputs with common supply. Transistor outputs with common ground.

PLC I/O WIring

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PLC

Ladder diagrams explanation

Ladder Diagram

Logic instructions (mnemonic code)

Address 0000 0001 0002 0003 0004

Instructions LD OR AND NOT OUT FUN(01)

Operand 0000 1000 0001 1000

Mnemonic Code LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS(MNEMONIC) AND PROGRAMMING Logic instructions are used as the basic programming language for PLCs. Although logic instructions are easy to earn and use, it can very time consuming to check and relate a large coded program to the actual circuit function. Furthermore logic instructions tend to vary between different types of PLC. A factory plant may used

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PLC a range of different PLC, in which confusion can result over differences in the instruction sets. Another alternative is to use graphic programmer such VDU and PC. It enables the user to enter his program as a ladder circuit layout using standard logic symbols to represents inputs contacts, output coils and etc. This approach is more user friendly than using mnemonic programming.

MNEMONIC/Name LD Load

SYMBOL/KEY INPUTS

Descriptions Creates a Normally Open condition as the first conditions of the bus bar. All instruction lines begin with either LOAD or LOAD NOT

LD OUT LD NOT Load Not

000.00 010.00 Creates a Normally Closed condition as the first conditions of the bus bar. All instruction lines begin with either LOAD or LOAD NOT

LD NOT 000.00 OUT 010.00 AND And Combines a normally open conditions in series with a previous conditions LD AND OUT 000.00 000.01 010.00

AND NOT And Not

Combines a normally closed conditions in series with a previous conditions LD AND NOT OUT 000.00 000.01 010.00 Combines a normally open conditions in parallel with a previous conditions

OR Or

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PLC

LD OR OUT OR NOT Or Not

000.00 000.01 010.00 Combines a normally closed conditions in parallel with a previous conditions

LD OR NOT OUT AND LD And Load

000.00 000.01 010.00 Combines two groups conditions in series. These groups are called blocks.

LD 000.00 OR 000.02 LD 000.01 OR 000.03 AND LD OUT 010.00 OR LD Or Load

Combines two groups conditions in parallel. These groups are called blocks.

LD AND LD AND OR LD OUT OUT Output

000.00 000.01 000.02 000.03

010.00 Specifies an output bit is to be turn ON for an ON execution condition

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PLC and OFF for an OFF condition.

LD OUT OUT NOT Out Not

000.00 010.00 Specifies an output bit is to be turn OFF for an ON execution condition and ON for an OFF condition.

LD OUT NOT TIM Timer

000.00 010.00 Creates a 0.1s decrementing timer that stsrts from the set value (SV) when the execution conditions turns ON.

LD TIM CNT Counter

000.00 001 #0030 Counts down the number of times the input condition turns ON. Each time the input condition turns ON, the present values(PV) is reduced by 1 and when the count reaches 0, the completion flag turns ON.

LD LD CNT END(01) End

000.00 000.01 001 #0010 Indicates the end of the program. A program will not be executed unless the END instruction is used

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PLC KEEP(11) Keep Latches bit ststus. The bit is set when the input (I) turns on and stsys set until the reset (R) turns ON. The function are same as SELF HOLDING

LD LD KEEP

000.00 000.01 HR10.00

STANDARD AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS IN PLC Standards and special functions in PLC are not actual physical inputs and outputs. They are used within the controller which are call internal bits. Certain number ranges(bits) signed to each block of functions. This number range will depend both on the size of the PLC and manufacturer.

STANDARD/SPECIAL FUNCTIONS

DATA AREA OUT TIM CNT AR SR HR LR TR

i. Outputs and its contact ii. Timers and contacts iii. Counters and contacts iv. Auxiliary relays and its contacts v. Special relays and its contacts vi. Holding relays and its contacts vii. Link relays and its contacts viii. Temporary relays and its contacts

SELECTING A PLC Points to consider when selecting a PLC: i. ii. Input/Output capacity numbers of I/O relay/transistor Types of input/output required -

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PLC iii. iv. v. vi. vii. PLC size Memory size Types of software languages Future expension of systems Support and backup.

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