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PHY 5200 Mechanical Phenomena
Projectile Motion
PHY 5200
Mechanical Phenomena
Newton’s Laws of Motion
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Claude A Pruneau
Physics and Astronomy Department
Wayne State University
Dec 2005.
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Claude A Pruneau
Physics and Astronomy
Wayne State University
1

CCoonntetenntt

• Projectile Motion

– Air Resistance

– Linear Air Resistance

– Trajectory and Range in a Linear Medium

• Charge Particle Motion

– Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Field

– Complex Exponentials

– Motion in a Magnetic Field

Description of Motion with F=ma

• F=ma, as a law of Nature applies to a very wide range of problems whose solution vary greatly depending on the type of force involved.

• Forces can be categorized as being “fundamental” or “effective” forces.

• Forces can also be categorized according to the degree of difficulty inherent in solving the 2nd order differential equation F = m a.

– Function of position only

– Function of speed, or velocity

– Separable and non-separable forces

• In this Chapter

– Separable forces which depend on position and velocity.

– Non separable forces.

Air Resistance

• Air Resistance is neglected in introductory treatment of projectile motion.

• Air Resistance is however often non-negligible and must be accounted for to properly describe the trajectories of projectiles.

– While the effect of air resistance may be very small in some cases, it can be rather important and complicated e.g. motion of a golf ball.

• One also need a way/technique to determine whether air resistance is important in any given situation.

Air Resistance - Basic Facts

• Air resistance is known under different names

– Drag

– Retardation Force

– Resistive Force

• Basic Facts and Characteristics

– Not a fundamental force…

– Friction force resulting from different atomic phenomena

– Depends on the velocity relative to the embedding fluid.

– Direction of the force opposite to the velocity (typically).

• True for spherical objects, a good and sufficient approximation for many other objects.

• Not a good approximation for motion of a wing (airplane) - additional force involved called “lift”.

– Here, we will only consider cases where the force is anti- parallel to the velocity - no sideways force.

Air Resistance - Drag Force

• Consider retardation force strictly anti- parallel to the velocity.

!f = ! f ( v )vˆ

  vˆ = ( v! v ) v! = bv + cv 2 = flin + f quad

• Where

f(v) is the magnitude of the force.

• Measurements reveal f(v) is complicated - especially near the speed of sound…

• At low speed, one can write as a good approximation:

f

!f = ! f ( v )vˆ vˆ
w! = mg!

Air Resistance - Definitions

f

( v ) = flin bv ! + bv cv 2 = flin + f quad

Viscous drag

• Proportional to viscosity of the medium and linear size of object.

Inertial

• Must accelerate mass of air which is in constant collision.

• Proportional to density of the medium and cross section of object.

For a spherical projectile (e.g. canon ball, baseball, drop of rain):

b

c

= = ! ! D D 2

Where D is the diameter of the sphere

βand γ depend on the nature of the medium At STP in air:

\$ ! = 1.6 0.25 " N 10 i s #4 / N m i 4 s / m 2

=

Air Resistance - Linear or Quadratic

• Often, either of the linear or quadratic terms can be neglected.

• To determine whether this happens in a specific problem, consider

!"D v = (1.6 # 103 ms2 !f !f )Dv = = ! ! cv bv! 2 '& vˆ " 1: quadratic linear case case

Neither term can be neglected.

\$%& ! 1:

f

flin

cv 2 =

bv

=

• Example: Baseball and Liquid Drops

• A baseball has a diameter of D = 7 cm, and travel at speed of order v=5 m/s.

f

f

f

• A drop of rain has D = 1 mm and v=0.6 m/s

• Millikan Oil Drop Experiments, D=1.5 mm and v=5x10 -5 m/s.

Air Resistance - Reynolds Number

• The linear term drag is proportional to the viscosity, η

• The quadratic term is related to the density of the fluid, ρ .

• One finds

f

!

R ! D#v "

Reynolds Number

Case 1: Linear Air Resistance

!f = ! bv!
w! = mg!
x
y

• Consider the motion of projectile for which one can neglect the quadratic drag term.

• From the 2nd law of Newton:

m"r!" mv!" mv! mv! y x = = = = F! mg! ! mg bv = ! x ! mg! bv bv! y !

bv!

• Independent of position, thus:

A 1 st order differential equation

• Furthermore, it is separable in coordinates (x,y,z).

Two separate differential equations Uncoupled.

• By contrast, for f(v)~v 2 , one gets coupled y vs x motion

!f = ! cv 2 vˆ = ! c v x2 + v y2 v! mv! mv! y x = = ! mg c ! v c x2 + v v x2 y2 + v x v y2 v y

Case 1: Linear Air Resistance - Horizontal Motion

• Consider an object moving horizontally in a resistive linear medium.

• Assume v x = v x0 ,

• Assume the only relevant force is the drag force.

x = 0

at

t = 0.

dv v x x = ! kdt v! k x = = mb dv dt x = dv v ! x v! x kv x = x = " ! k mb ! dt v x !f = ! bv! ln v x = ! kt + C

!

• Obviously, the object will slow down

• Define (for convenience):

• Thus, one must solve:

• Clearly:

• Which can be re-written:

v x (t ) = v x 0 e ! t / "

with ! = 1 / k = m / b

Velocity exhibits exponential decay

Case 1: Linear Air Resistance - Horizontal Motion (cont’d)

• Position vs Time, integrate

 t ddxt ! d t ! = x (t ) # x ( 0 ) " 0

• One gets

t

\$

x ( 0 ) + v

0

x

x (t ) =

x ! (t = ) \$ = 0 v + x x 0# %& ! ! (1 v x " e " t / # )

0 e ! t " / # d t "

x

0# e ! t " / # '( t o

xx v (t x ) \$ (t = v x ) x 0# ! = (1 v " x e 0 " e t / ! # ) t / "
!

Vertical Motion with Linear Drag

w! !f = = vˆ mg! ! bv!
x
y

• Consider motion of an object thrown vertically downward and subject to gravity and linear air resistance.

0 = mv! mg y ! = bv mg y ! bv y vter = v y ( a = 0 ) = mbg

• Gravity accelerates the object down, the speed increases until the point when the retardation force becomes equal in magnitude to gravity. One then has terminal speed.

Note dependence on mass and linear drag coefficient b. Implies terminal speed is different for different objects.

Equation of vertical motion for linear drag

• The equation of vertical motion is determined by

mv! y = mg ! bv y

• Given the definition of the terminal speed,

vter mv! y = = mbg ! b (v y ! vterm )

• Or in terms of differentials

mdv y = ! b (v y ! vterm )dt

• Separate variables

v y ! dv vterm = u du ! = bdtm = v y dv ! y vterm duu = ! bdtm = ! k kdt = mb

y

where

• Change variable:

Equation of vertical motion for linear drag (cont’d)

! duu duu = = = ! " bdtm k ! = dt ! kdt

u

u

• So we have …

• Integrate

ln u = ! kt + C

• Or…

v

= v Ae y ! ! kt vterm y y y 0 = ! vter v vter y 0 e + ! = t (v / " Ae y + 0 !0 vter ! / vter " (1 = )e ! A ! e t ! / t / " )

=

"

• Remember

v y ! vter = Ae ! t / " with ! = 1 / k = m / b

• So, we get

• Now apply initial conditions: when t = 0, v y = v y0

• This implies

• The velocity as a function of time is thus given by

v

v

Equation of vertical motion for linear drag (cont’d)

• We found

v

y = v

v

• At t=0, one has

y y 0 = e ! v t / y " 0 + vter (1 ! e ! t / " )

• Whereas for

t ! " v y = v y 0

• As the simplest case, consider v y0 =0, I.e. dropping an object from rest.

v y = vter (1 ! e ! t / " )

percent vter of
t/tau time
0
1
2
86.5 63.2 0.0
3
4
5
99.3 98.2 95.0

Equation of vertical motion for linear drag (cont’d)

• Vertical position vs time obtained by integration!

• Given

y = = vter vter t ! + " (v (v y 0 y 0 ! ! vter vter )e )e ! t ! / " t / " + C

y

v

• The integration yields

• Assuming an initial position y=y 0 , and initial velocity v y = v y0 . One gets

y0 = = y0 !" + (v vter y 0 t ! + C vter ! = (v ) y0 + y 0 + C " ! vter (v y )(1 0 " " vter e " ) t / ! )

y

• The position is thus given by

x w! !f = = vˆ mg! ! bv!
y

Equation of vertical motion for linear drag (cont’d)

• Note that it may be convenient to reverse the direction of the y-axis.

• Assuming the object is initially thrown upward, the position may thus be written

y = y0 ! vter t + " (v y 0 + vter )(1 ! e ! t / " )

w! !f = = vˆ mg! ! bv!
y
x

Equation of motion for linear drag (cont’d)

• Combine horizontal and vertical equations to get the trajectory of a projectile.

(1 "

yx((tt )) == vyx

0

e " t " / ! (v y 0 + vter )(1 ! e ! t / " )

)

0!

! vter t +

• To obtain an equation of the form y=y(x), solve the 1st equation for t, and substitute in the second equation.

(t ) = y0 + v y 0 + vter x + vter ! ln #\$% 1 " v x 0! &'(

y

v x 0

x

Example: Projectile Motion

m

tau

 5 b 0.1 50
 vx0*tau 100 (vy0+vter)*tau 34500 vter*tau 24500
 vx0 2 vy0 200 vter 490
Linear friction
No friction
x (m)
y (m)

Horizontal Range

• In the absence of friction (vacuum), one has

xy ((tt )) == vv

Rvac = 2 yo xo v t t xo ! v 0.298 yo t 2

• The range in vacuum is therefore

g

• For a system with linear drag, one has

0

= v y 0 + vter R + vter ! ln #\$% 1 " v R 0! &'(

v x 0

x

A transcendental equation - cannot be solved analytically

Horizontal Range (cont’d)

• If the the retardation force is very weak…

)

x R 0" + 12 #\$% v R R 0" ! &'( 2 + v xo! 13 #\$% v 0 R 0" = &'( v y ,- 0 v+ R + vter ! ln #\$% 1 " v R 0! &'(

)

x

vter

3

x

0

x

x

• So, consider a Taylor expansion of the logarithm in

• Let

!

R

= ln(x1o"! v " ) = ! (" + 12 " 2 + 13 " 3 +

0 = v y 0 v+x 0vter R 3 ! vter "

!

We get

• Neglect orders beyond

• We now get

R

R ! = = Rvac 2 0 v xgo " v yo 3v2 ! xo# 3v2 Rv2ac xo" *++ R v = Rvac \$%& 1 " 43 vv '()

R

2

ter yo

• For macroscopic projectiles, it is usually a better approximation to consider the drag force is quadratic

!f mv!" = ! = cv mg! 2 v! !

• Newton’s Law is thus

cv 2 v!

• Although this is a first order equation, it is NOT separable in x,y,z components of the velocity.

• We have to solve

m

dvdt = ! cv 2

• Rearrange

• Integration

Yields

• Solving for v

• Note: for t=τ ,

Separation of v and t variables permits

dvv 2 = ! v0 v cdt = m )*+ v1 0 ! 1v ,-. ! ct v = vo

v (t ) = 1 + cvv0 0 t / m = 1 +vt0 / ! with ! = cmvo

independent integration on both sides of the equality…

m

vo v

#\$% ! dv !v2! v1" &'( = # c dt !

"

"

0 t

m

m

where

at t = 0.

v

(! ) = 1 +v!0 / ! = v0 / 2

Horizontal Motion with Quadratic Drag (cont’d)

• Horizontal position vs time obtained by integration …

t

 x (t ) = " v x 0# + ln(1 v (t + ! )d t / t ! 0 # ) =

• Never stops increasing

• By contrast to the “linear” case.

x (t ) = v x 0! (1 "

e " t / ! )

• Which saturates…

• Why? ! ?

• The retardation force becomes quite weak as soon as v<1.

v (t ) = (t ) 1 = +vt0 v0! / ! ln(1 + t / ! )

x

• In realistic treatment, one must include both the linear and quadratic terms.

• Measuring the vertical position, y, down.

• Terminal velocity achieved for

vter = mcg

m

dvdt = mg ! cv 2

• For the baseball of our earlier example, this yields ~ 35 m/s or 80 miles/hour

• Rewrite in terms of the terminal velocity

dvdt = g "#\$ 1 ! v %&'

2

vt2er

dv

vgter v = arctanh vter tanh !"# !"# \$%& 1 = ! \$%& t vt2er = gdt

y

= (vter )2

g

v 2

vv ter

ln '() vgt ter cosh !"# vgt ter \$%& *+,

• Solve by separation of variables

• Integration yields

• Solve for v

• Integrate to find

• Equation of motion

upward m"r!" == mmgg!! !! ccvvv2!vˆ

• With y vertically

c v x2 + v y2 v x

mv! mv! x =

!

y = ! mg ! c v x2 + v y2 v y

Motion of a Charge in Uniform Magnetic Field

• Another “simple” application of Newton’s 2nd law…

• Motion of a charged particle, q, in a uniform magnetic field, B, pointing in the z-direction.

• The force is

x

B!
Z
v!

F! mv!" = = q v! qv! ! ! B! B!

• The equation of motion

• The 2nd reduces to a first order Eq.

• Components of velocity and field

v! B! = = (v ( 0, x , 0, v y , B v ) z ) v! = (v y B, ! v x B, 0 )

y

Motion of a Charge in Uniform Magnetic Field (cont’d)

• Three components of the Eq of motion

mv! mv! mv! z y x = = = ! 0 ! qBv v! v! x x = qBv , v = = qBm y y ) ! "! ! x v transverse y v x v z velocity = constant

(v

y

• Define

Cyclotron frequency

• Rewrite

Coupled Equations

Solution in the complex plane …

Complex Plane

O

part) v y ! = v x + iv y
y
i = !1
(imaginary
v
Representation of the velocity vector
x
x (real part)

Why and How using complex numbers for this?

• Velocity

! = v x + iv y

• Acceleration

!! !! v! v! y = = = = v! ! " v! "! x x i#! v + + y v iv! x iv! y y = " v y # i" v x = # i" (v x + iv y )

!! =

• Remember Eqs of motion

x

• We can write

• Or

Why and How using … (cont’d)

• Equation of motion

!! dt = = = Ae " " i# i# t Ae " i# t = " i#!

d!

" i#!

• Solution

!

• Verify by substitution

Complex Exponentials

• Taylor Expansion of Exponential

e

z = 1 + z + z 2 ! + z 3! 3 + !

2

• The series converges for any value of z (real or complex, large or small).

• It satisfies

dzd (Ae kz ) = k (Ae kz ) dfdz( z ) = kf ( z )

• And is indeed a general solution for

• So we were justified in assuming η is a solution of the Eqs of motion.

Complex Exponentials (cont’d)

The exponential of a purely imaginary number is

(i! )3 + (i! )4

e! = 1 + i! + (i! 2 ! )2 3! 4 ! + !

+

where θ is a real number

Separation of the real and imaginary parts - since i 2 =-1, i 3 =-I

e! = #\$% 1 " ! 2 ! cos + ! 4 ! 4 ! " !&'( + i #\$% ! " sin ! 3! ! + !&'(

2

3

We get Euler’s Formula

e i! = cos ! + i sin !

Complex Exponentials (cont’d)

• Euler’s Formula implies e i θ lies on a unit circle.

e i! = cos ! + i sin !

y e i! cos sin ! !
!
cos 2 ! + sin 2 ! = 1
1
O
x

Complex Exponentials (cont’d)

• A complex number expressed in the polar form

A = ae i! = a cos ! + ia sin !

where a and θ are real numbers

cos !

a
!
y
a
O
x

a 2 cos 2 ! + a 2 sin 2 ! = a 2

A = ae a sin i! !

Amplitude

Phase

! = Ae " i# t ! i" t ! = Ae " i# t = ae i (\$ " # t )

Angular Frequency

Solution for a charge in uniform B field

• v z constant implies

(t = ) = x + z o iy + v zo t

z

!

• The motion in the x-y plane best represented by introduction of

complex number.

Greek letter “xi”

• The derivative of ξ

• Integration of η

!! = = + = iy # i"A x! "dt + = e iy! # Ce i" = = t ! + # i" v x Ae t constant + + \$ ( iv i% X+ y t dt = iY " )

!

!

x

Solution for a charge in uniform B field (cont’d)

x + iy = Ce ! i" t + ( X+ iY )

Redefine the z-axis so it passes through (X,Y)

x
C ! + = = iy qBm x = o + Ce iyo ! i" t
x o + iyo
! t x o2 + yo2
y
which for t = 0, implies
x
+ iy
Motion frequency
O
x

Solution for a charge in uniform B field (cont’d)

z
x (t (t ) ) = + iy z o (t + ) v = zo t Ce ! i" t
!
= qBm
x
x o + iyo
y
o2 + yo2
x
+ iy
!
t
O
x
Helix Motion