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An Evaluation of Economic Prospects and Constraints of Coxs Bazar -A Rising Tourist Spot in the orld !

r" #ir A$dul Sofi%ue


Associate Professor& !epartment of Tourism #anagement& The 'niversit( of Burd)an&

Burd)an * +,-,./&

est Bengal& 0ndia

#o$ * 1,-1/-/2+3-34 Email- masofi%ue5(ahoo"co"in

An Evaluation of Economic Prospects and Constraints of Coxs Bazar -A Rising Tourist Spot in the

orld

A$stract
Present study mainly examines potential tourism products of Coxs Bazar (a major touristss zone) and its nearer areas, present performance of Bangladesh tourism and prevailing constraints and challenges of the same. he study results reveal that Bangladesh has huge prospects to flourish its economy through tourism and the !orld recognized heritage "Coxs Bazar has many tourism products to attract !orld!ide tourists. But due to lac# of resource constraints and other reasons government initiatives are not ade$uate to develop (specially infrastructure) tourism in the country and so, this industry is still unexplored to most potential tourists of the !orld. he study concludes that %oth government and private interventions are vital to develop and modernize the Coxs Bazaar (tourist capital of the country) including other potential tourism spots of Bangladesh. Key Words: ourism Products, &ro!th rend of ourism, Pu%lic and Private 'ector (nitiatives.

," 0ntroduction
,", Bac6ground
!t is "idel# recognized that the tourism industr# is ma$ing a significant contri%ution to the socio-economic development of man# countries in the Asian and Pacific region through its role in expanding their economic %ase& increasing foreign exchange earnings& providing emplo#ment opportunities and enhancing standards of living 'ESCAP T()R!S* +

RE,!E

-..+/0 The ne" millennium and the coming decades are a crucial time for the

relationship %et"een travel and tourism and sustaina%le development0 The need to preserve the "orlds inherent assets for future generations is %ecoming an imperative goal not onl# for travel and tourism& %ut also for all other industries that use the earths natural resources0 Travel and Tourism is one of the "orlds largest industries& emplo#ing some -.. million people and generating over +.1 of the "orlds 23P ' TTC& -..4/0 Tourism industr# is no" recognized as the the -+st centur# 'Siddi6ue -..7/0 According to the report of orld Tourism (rganization& the "orld"ide tourist movement orld5s third largest trade0 !t is a leading industr# of

reached 898 million in -..:0 This affiliated %od# of the )nited ;ation forecasts that %# -.+. international tourist arrivals "ill reach + %illion annuall# ' ee$l# Economic Times&
April 7& -..8/0 The revenues generated %# those tourists& i0e0 international tourism receipts&

amounted to )S<:4+ %illion in -..7& corresponding to almost )S<- %illion per da# or )S<8:7 per tourist arrival0 !nternational tourism receipts gre" %# ++ per cent per annum during the period +9=.--..7& a rate& "hich significantl# exceeds that of the "orld econom# as a "hole during the same period& and ma$es international tourism one of the largest categories of international trade 'The Bangladesh *onitor& >ul# +7 -..8/0 !n the #ear -..7& the theme of the orld Tourism 3a# is ?Tourism Enriches0? Tourism

enriches the econom# and the culture of a countr#0 !t %rings openness and friendliness among the peoples of the "orld0 !nternational tourism is the "orld5s largest export earner& and an important factor in the %alance of pa#ments of man# countries0 Asia and the Pacific are also pushing international tourism and have attracted 185 million visitors. The growth forecast is even more spectacular in the case of Asia and the Pacific where international arrivals are expected to leap almost fourfold from 111 million in 2000 to 41 million !" 2020. Asia has alread" overta#en the America $ in 2002 $ to !ecome the second most visited region in the world % The &ew &ation
'a" 20( 2008). !n the South Asian region particularl#& tourism industr# is ever vi%rant

and gro"ing steadil#0 Tourism is a gro"ing industr# in Bangladesh0 Recentl#& Coxs Bazar of Bangladesh has %een recognized as a rising tourists spot among the fastest gro"ing destinations in the

"orld 'BPC& -..7/0 Presentl#& it holds important position in the competition of "orlds natural %eaut#- ne" seven "onders '"""0ne":"onders0com@nature/ . So& this industr# has great potentials %oth as a foreign exchange earner and provider of Ao% opportunities "ith the resultant multiplier effect on the countr#s econom# as a "hole ' Rahman& -..:/0 Bo"ever& the potentials of this sector in Bangladesh still remain unexplored %# parties concerned mainl# due to poor infrastructure facilities and deterioration of la" and order s#stem 'corruption and terrorism/& "hereas this sector in different countries is a maAor source of revenue& emplo#ment generation and povert# alleviation ' The ;e"s Toda#
Ce%ruar# +8& -..8/0

Rationale of the Stud(


Cor at least one third of the developing countries& the tourism receipts are the main source of export revenue0 The exceptional gro"th of tourism over the last =. #ears is one of the most remar$a%le economic and social phenomena& of the -+st centur# 'Amin& -..7/0 The scale of travel and tourisms contri%ution to the glo%al econom# and its potential for ena%ling sustaina%le development are %ecoming more evident for governments& nongovernmental organizations ';2(s/ and industr# ali$e ' );EP& -..-/0 Tourism "as thought of %# the D3Cs& as the ECinderella "and used for ac6uiring the much "anted foreign exchange 'Bro"n& +998/ for managing their fragile and declining economies& characterized %# insufficient finance and expertise& "hich in turn ma$es them dependent on international aid 'Briedenhann and ic$ens -..4F 3ie$e& -..G/0

Tourism industr# in Bangladesh is %ecoming an emerging issue %oth for the pu%lic and private sector to esta%lish their eligi%ilit# for accomplishing a successful %usiness as "ell as mar$eting activities development 'A$teruzzaman H !shtia6ue -..+ p0+.:/0/0 Bangladesh is fast emerging as an alluring tourist spot on the glo%al map0 !t is a land of diverse attractions& %ountiful nature and millions of friendl# people "ith more than a millennium of cultural heritage0 The countr# has failed to utilize even +. per cent of its tourism potential due to lac$ of sufficient steps and entrepreneurship %# the government and private sectors 'The 3ail# Star *a# +9& -..7 /0 e need to ta$e pragmatic steps including developing our "e%sites to increase international tourist flo" to our countr#0 Cam%odia has its tourism "e%sites in eight languagesF Thailand& *ala#sia& !ndonesia in +languages& and "e have ours onl# in one language& in English0 Extensive training& G

increased government %udget and a long-term polic# "ill give a %oost to the tourism and hospitalit# industr# that hold tremendous potentials in Bangladesh 'The ;e"s Toda#
Ce%ruar# +8& -..8/0 San Amalan& the 2eneral *anger of

estin 3ha$a opined that the

num%er of tourists "ill mar$ a rise in Chittagong cit# if high 6ualit# hotels are set up at the port cit#& $no"n as the commercial hu% of the countr#0 Be also expressed the hope that Bangladesh should leave no stone unturned in inviting foreign direct investment 'C3!/ to develop road communications& construct motels and hotels& renovate old and historical places and monuments and protect mangroves and green areas '!%id/0 !f the government lifted visa restrictions on citizens of Europe& )SA and other "estern countries& around -. la$h foreign tourists "ould visit Bangladesh "ithin next couple of #ears '!%id/0 To get the enormous %enefit of tourism& our government needs to shed its ?polic# of reciprocit#? regarding issuance of visa to foreign nationals0 ''Basan& -..7/0 Crom the a%ove revie"s and discussions& it is seen that the development of the tourism industr# has %een constrained for man# reasons and as a result& it has not %een possi%le to earn the desired amount of foreign currenc# or to create emplo#ment opportunities that this sector could provide0 !n recent time& some researches have done on the different issues of tourism industr# of Bangladesh such asI tourism management and development& pro%lems and prospects of tourism industr#& investment opportunities& role and contri%ution of tourism in the econom# etc0 Cor instance& studies done and reports and ne"sletter pu%lished %# 'Siddi6ue '-..7/& A$teruzzaman H !shtia6ue '-..+/ Basan '-.../ highlight on pro%lems and prospects of Bangladesh tourism0 ;e"sletter pu%lished %# Em%ass# of Bangladesh& Stoc$holm '-..:/& Jhan '-..+/& Bo6ue 'n0d0/+ evaluate investment opportunities in the tourism industr# of Bangladesh& (n the other hand research conducted %# Si$der Kahed Busain and Bussain *d0 *oazzam 7+998/& discusses and anal#zes a%out tourism management and development of Bangladesh0 BPC '-..7/& ee$l# Economic Times April 7 -..8& TTC '-..=/& Siddi6ue '-..G/ examines prospects of Bangladesh tourism

industr#0 *izan Jhan and *ahfuzul Ba6ue 'see B!*STEC->apan cooperation in Tourism and EnvironmentI Bangladesh Perspective& *a# -..:/ provide a valua%le anal#sis on Bangladesh5s tourism sector0 The# note the strengths& "ea$nesses&
+

n0d0- 3ate of pu%lication is not mentioned0

opportunities and threats faced %# the sector0 But so far& no research is done on Coxs Bazar 'tourism capital of Bangladesh/ independentl# to flourish its economic via%ilit# as "ell as constraints0 !n this regard& this research is an initiative to ma$e up the gap %# the researcher0

Stud( 8$9ectives
The main focus of this stud# is to criticall# evaluate various potentials and performance of tourism sector of Bangladesh in general and The Coxs Bazar Spot in particular0 To have a proper idea a%out the issue the stud# includes the follo"ing aspects as follo"s: !0 To discuss a%out historical %ac$ground of Cox5s Bazar Spot as a tourism capital of Bangladesh and its nearer potential tourism productsF !!0 To anal#ze the present position as "ell as performance of tourism industr# of Bangladesh in generalF and Cox5s Bazar in particularF !!!0 To evaluate development initiatives and investment opportunities for developing tourism infrastructure "ith international competitivenessF

0;"

To identif# various constraints and challenges of tourism industr# in Bangladesh and finall# to suggest some pragmatic and realistic polic# measures for meaningful tourism development in Bangladesh

Stud( !esign
Present stud# is a descriptive one dra"ing on empirical data and a "ide range of literature from a variet# of disciplines& %ased on extensive search from various sources0 The des$ research method has %een follo"ed to revie" the existing literature on the aforesaid area0 Secondar# materials& li$e Report of Bangladesh ParAaton Corporation 'various issues/& Tourism Statistics of Bangladesh& -..4& Asian 3evelopment (utloo$& ); T(& TTC Report& the dail# ne"s papers& seminar papers& );CTAR3 Report-& online data%ases produced %# %oth academicians& consulting firms and institutions "ere used to develop the theoretical frame "or$ regarding economic prospects of Bangladesh Tourism !ndustr# and its existing constraints and challenges0 Besides& informal intervie" method "as follo"ed to discuss "ith the administrative officials of some service

providing organization in Coxs Bazaar spot0 Statistical tools li$e average& percentage& have %een used to anal#ze and interpret the data and information0

<" =indings and Results of the Stud(


<", An 8vervie) of >istorical Bac6ground of Cox?s Bazar and its ;arious Potential Tourism Products
<"<", Brief >istorical Bac6ground of Cox?s Bazar JL$sho BaAar or JL$s Bazar is a to"n& a fishing port and district head6uarter in Bangladesh0 !t is $no"n for its "ide sand# %each "hich is claimed to %e the "orld5s longest natural sand# sea %each '+-. $m/0 *iles of golden sands& to"ering cliffs& surfing "aves& rare conch shells& colorful pagodas& Buddhist temples and tri%es& delightful seafood--this is Cox5s Bazar& the tourist capital of Bangladesh0 The "arm shar$ free "aters are good for %athing and s"imming "hile the sand# %eaches offer opportunities for sun%athing0 *iles of golden sands& to"ering cliffs& surfing "aves& rare conch shells& colorful pagodas& Buddhist temples and tri%es& delightful seafood--this is Cox5s Bazar& the tourist capital of Bangladesh0 The to"n is named after lieutenant Cox& "ho died here in +:98 after he had esta%lished a colon# of *oth "ho sought shelter in British territor# after the con6uest of Ara$an %# the Burmese0 T"o third of the population of the to"n are descendants of these refugees0 Baving the "orld5s longest '+-.-$m/ %each slopping gentl# do"n to the %lue "aters of the Ba# of Bengal& Cox5s Bazar is the most attractive tourist spot in the countr#0 The attractive local variet# of cigars and handloom products of the Ra$h#ne tri%al families are good %u#s for the tourists0 Their uni6ue customs and costumes attract visitors from home and a%road0 Coxs Bazar tourist resort has a mine hole 2olf course in addition to varied other tourist facilities0 ,isits to the fascinating spots at !nani& Bimchari& Te$naf& southern most tip of Bangladesh& Buddhist temple at Ramu and near%# islands of Sonadia& *ohesh$hali and coral island St0 *artin are a memora%le experience of a lifetime0 Docal hotels arrange %eachside accessories for the tourists at Cox5s Bazar The

%each is the main attraction of the to"n0 Darger hotels provide exclusive %eachside area "ith accessories for the hotel guests0 ,isitors in other hotels visit the Da%oni %each "hich is the area of the %each closest to the to"n0 (ther than the %each there are several places of interest near the to"n "hich can easil# %e visited from to"n center0

<","< ;arious Tourist Attractions 7tourism products@ of Coxs Bazar and its nearer Areas : Bangladesh is fast emerging as an alluring tourist spot on the glo%al map0 (ur tourist attractions are "idel# spread throughout the countr#0 The countr#s historical legac# is composed of various strands& including !slamic& Bindu& Buddhist and British 'Rahman -..:/0 Bo"ever& maAor tourist attractions of Coxs Bazar 'tourists capital of Bangladesh/ are discussed %elo"I

Aa$oni BeachI This is the main %each of Cox?s Bazar and is considered the main %each due to the fact that it is closest to the to"n0 Close to the %each& there are small shops selling souvenirs and %each accessories to the tourists0

>imchariI !t is located a%out +8 $m south of Coxs Bazar& this picnic spot is famous for its "aterfalls0 The road to Bimchari runs %# the open sea on one side and hills on the other "hich ma$es the Aourne# to Bimchari ver# attractive0

0nani BeachI Docated G= $m south of Coxs Bazar& this "hite sand# %each is located "ithin )$hia Thana0 This %each is famous for its golden sand and cleans shar$ free "ater "hich is ideal for sea %athing0 *ost tourists prefer to come do"n here for relaxing %ecause it is free from the cro"d of tourists that is usuall# seen at the Da%oni %each0

Aggmeda Bh(angI a large Buddhist monaster#& and a place revered %# around 4..&... Buddhist people of Coxs BazarF and the Chittagong Bill Tracts0 The main sanctuar# is posted on a series of round tim%er columns0 !t has a pra#er cham%er and an assem%l# hall along "ith a repositor# of a large small %ronze Buddha image and a num%er of old manuscripts0

RamuI a%out +. $m from Coxs Bazar& is a village "ith sizea%le Buddhist population0 The village is famous for its handicrafts and homemade cigars0 There :

are monasteries& $h#angs and pagodas containing images of Buddha in gold& %ronze and other metals inlaid "ith precious stones0 (ne of the most interesting of these temples is on the %an$ of the Bagh$hali River0 !t houses not onl# interesting relics and Burmes handicrafts %ut also a large %ronze statue of Buddha measuring thirteen feet high that rests on a six feet high pedestal0 The "ood carving of this $h#ang is ver# delicate and refined0 The village has a charm of its o"n0 pagoda li$e houses '"""0%angladesh tourism0gov0%d@/0 8ther 0mportant Tourist Spots near the Cox?s Bazar #ahesh6hali I !t is a small island '-78 s6uare $ilometres/ off the Coxs Bazar coast0 The island offers panoramic scenic %eaut# and is covered %# lo" hills and mangrove forests0 Adinath& a temple of Shiva& and a Buddhist pagoda are also located on the island0

eavers

pl# there trade in open "or$shops and craftsmen ma$e handmade cigars in their

!ulhazra Safari Par6I This safari par$ is an extension of an animal

sanctuar# located along the Chittagong-Cox5s Bazar road a%out =. $m from Cox5s Bazar to"n0 The sanctuar# itself protects a large num%er of "ild elephants "hich are native to the area0 !n the safari par$ there are domesticated elephants "hich are availa%le for a ride0 (ther animal attractions include lions& Bengal tigers& Crocodiles& Bears& Chitals and lots of different t#pes of %irds and mon$e#s0

Sonadia 0sland : A small island of onl# 9 s6uare $ilometers0 The "estern side

of the island is sand# and different $inds of shells are found on the %each0 (ff the northern part of the island& there are %eds of "indo" pane o#sters0 3uring "inter& fisherman set up temporar# camps on the island and dr# their sea fish0 Sonadia !sland supports the last remaining part of mangrove forest in southeast Bangladesh0 Sonadia5s mangroves are distinct from the "ell-$no"n sunder%ans& due to their development in a coastal lagoon setting rather than in a delta0

Te6naf& a place situated %# the side of ;af river is the southernmost part of

mainland Bangladesh0 This also mar$s the end point of Cox5s Bazar %each0 Tourists usuall# come here to have a river cruise along %eautiful ;af river& "hich flo"s %et"een Bangladesh and *#anmar0

St" #artin?s 0sland& a small island in the northeast part of the Ba# of Bengal&

a%out 9 $m south of the tip of the Cox5s Bazar-Te$naf peninsula0 !t is the most %eautiful and onl# coral island in Bangladesh "here tourists "ill find live corals0 !t is onl# G. $m from Te$naf and visitors can go there %# local motor%oat& tourist %oats& Jeari Sinda%ad or Sea Truc$0 This small coral island a%out +.$m '7mi/ south"est of the southern tip of the mainland is a tropical clich "ith %eaches fringed "ith coconut palms and %ountiful marine life0 !t is a%out 8 $m "est of the north"est coast of *#anmar at the mouth of the ;af River0 The local name of the island is ?;arical 2ingira >anAina@>inAera?& Bangla& meaning 5Coconut !sland5'httpI@@en0"i$ipedia0org@"i$i@Cox5sMBazar/0 Crom the a%ove anal#sis& it can %e said that the tourism industr# of Bangladesh in general and Coxs Bazar spot in particular has great potentials %oth as a foreign exchange earner and provider of Ao% opportunities "ith the resultant multiplier effect on the countr#s econom# as a "hole0

<"< Present Status and Performance of Tourism 0ndustr( in Bangladesh


!t is "idel# recognized that tourism can pla# a ver# important role in the econom# of a developing countr#0 Besides improvement in the %alance of pa#ments& it generates man# other socio-economic %enefits including the expansion of economic activities and emplo#ment opportunities 'Jhan -..+/0 !t is stated in the previous section that recentl# Coxs Bazar of Bangladesh has %een treated as a rising tourists zone to most of the "orld"ide tourists to enAo# their holida#s0 Net& the countr# fails to attract huge potential tourists and income from home and a%road due to its inade6uate infrastructure facilities& social securit#& corruption and terrorism& etc0 The %elo" Chart 1& 2 sho" the picture vividl#0
Chart-,: Sho)ing Cro)th Trend of Tourists Arrival in Bangladesh 7,113-<..+@
* Num ber in Million 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

$+ ,

$0 0

$0 4

$0 5

$+ 8

$+ +

$0 2

$0 *

$0 , 20

$0

$+

1+

1+

20

20

1+

1+

1+

20

20

20

20

+5

+,

+8

++

00

01

02

0*

04

05

Fiscal Year

0,
&o. of visitors %-n 'illion)

$0

Source: Ta%le O+ in Appendix-+


Chart <: Sho)ing 0ncome from Travel and Tourism since ,113-<..3
Cro)th Trend of 0ncome from Travel and Tourism
Amount in million US$ 80 ,0 40 20 0
-ncome from Tourism

Source: Ta%le O+ in Appendix-+ The A%ove charts sho" the gro"th performance of tourist arrivals and income from travel and tourism in Bangladesh over the #ears0 The overall gro"th trend of tourist arrivals sho" disappointing picture except the #ear -..G0 Bo"ever& in the fiscal #ear -..7--..:& arrival of foreign tourists in Bangladesh gre" %# G=1 from the previous #ear '*edia Bangladesh& April& -..8/0 But the actual gro"th in the last five #ears is almost nil 'Ta%le O+ in Appendix -+/0 (n the other hand& chart-2 reveals the overall gro"th performance of income from tourism0 The period +998--..-& the gro"th trend of income@ foreign exchange sho"s ver# unsatisfactor# picture for Bangladesh0 But later #ears performance sho"s satisfactor# position except the #ear -..70 !f "e compare the SAARC tourists arrivals "e can easil# see the condition of Bangladesh0
Tourists Arrivals in SAARC countries

1+ +5 $+ 1+ , +, $+ 1+ + $+ 1+ 8 +8 $+ 1+ + ++ $0 20 0 00 $0 20 1 01 $0 20 2 02 $0 20 * 0* $0 20 4 04 $0 20 5 05 $0 ,

Fiscal Year

Chart-3: Sho)ing 0nternational Tourists Arrivals in SAARC Countries from ,11+-<..*000 2500 Num ber of tourists (in thousand) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Pa#istan -ndia /ri 0an#a &epal

.angladesh

+.

'aldives .hutan

Source: Ta%le O- in Appendix-+

!n comparison "ith SAARC countries statistics& Bangladeshs share from tourism is not up to the mar$0 The a%ove Chart- 3 reveals that in case of international tourist arrivals to SAARC countries& !ndia occupies the first position and second position is occupied %# *aldivesF Sri Dan$a is in the third position& then Pa$istan and others0 Bangladesh has not %een a%le to reap the full %enefits from this sector according to its potentialit#0 Bangladesh has a host of tourist treasures to offer to international tourists - %eaches& la$es& rivers& hills& forests& "ildlife& tri%al life& archaeological remains& including historical monuments& fol$lore& religious and cultural heritage& handicrafts and much more0 All these& com%ined& are enormous tourist products for international tourists& "hich properl# exploited& can fetch the countr# its due share of the ever-expanding "orlds tourist trade0 !n the a%ove context if "e compare the recent gro"th performance of tourist arrivals of SASEC- countries including Bangladesh& "e can see the %right future of this industr# in Bangladesh0 The %elo" chart -4 reveals the economic gro"th of tourists arrivals of SASEC countries0
Chart-4
ro! th Trend of Tourists Arrivals to SAS"C countries since #$$%& '(() 4hange 200230* 20.001 15.001 1 change %23$) 10.001 5.001 0.001 $5.001 .angladesh
-

4hange 1++530*

-ndia

&epal

.hutan

Countr(DRegion

SASEC-South Asian Su% regional Economic Cooperation

++

SourceI Ta%le O4 in Appendix -+ The a%ove chart reveals ver# attractive gro"th performance of Bangladesh ':081/in case of tourist arrivals compared to other SASEC countries since +99= to -..G/0 !n the same period& the chart-4 also sho" gro"th trend of !ndia 'G0:1/& Bhutan 'G09 1/ and ;epal 'O +0=1/ respectivel#0 Besides& in the #ear -..:& arrival of foreign tourists in Bangladesh gre" %# G=1 from the previous #ear '-..7/& "here in !ndia& the same #ear& the gro"th trend of tourism is +-0G4 1 'The &ew &ation 'a" 20( 2008 /0 Crom the a%ove anal#sis& it is cr#stal clear that tourism sector of Bangladesh has huge prospects to %e an important driving force of rapid economic development of the countr#0 Cor Bangladesh& it should %e a matter of great opportunit# to enrich its econom# %# developing its tourism sector& "hich unfortunatel# has %een at lo" e%% and could not %e an# significant contri%utor# factor for its economic development0

<"- Revie) of Existing Covernment 0nitiatives and 0nvestment 8pportunities for the Tourism !evelopment
<"-", Revie) Covernment 0nitiatives

Bangladesh possesses tremendous tourism potential& "hich has #et to %e exploited0 The !ndustrial Polic# of +999'Annex--/ included tourism as an industr# and identified it as Thrust Sector0 !n the national tourism polic# framed in +99-& tourism5s contri%ution to povert# alleviation has also %een recognized0 But in the later draft polic# -..G--..:& tourism "as not included as a thrust sector0 The so-called Thrust Sector has received no thrust this far 'The Bangladesh *onitor >ul# +7 -..8/0 All the governments of Bangladeshpast and present-transmitted strong signals a%out their seriousness to put tourism development on right-trac$ and to secure for the countr# some %enefits of current "orld"ide tourism %oom0 But all the promises and assurances "ere contradicted %# not providing ade6uate funds for the development of tourism infrastructure and promotion of Bangladesh to dispel its negative image 'Siddi6ue -..7/0 According to the official sources& for the development of tourism sector in Bangladesh& around T$0 =: crore had %een earmar$ed in the national %udget '-..:-.8/& "hich "as -0+ percent of the total

+-

government expenditure %ut in the latest %udget '-..8-.9/ no allocation "as made for tourism development 'The Bangladesh *onitor& >ul# += -..8/0 Collo"ing the independence of Bangladesh& tourism development plans "ere prepared "ith foreign assistance0 The latest five-#ear development plan and other perspective plans on tourism development "ere prepared "ith assistance from the orld Tourism (rganization ' T(/ and the )nited ;ations 3evelopment Programme ');3P/0 3omestic private sector investments in the development of this industr# have %een made in an uncoordinated manner& so the# have not achieved an# remar$a%le progress ' Jhan
-..+/0 Bo"ever& considering various prospective economic %enefits and glo%al

competition& the present careta$er government has initiated an effort to create a ne" ;ational Tourism (rganization ';T(/ to put tourism on right trac$ and $ic$-start its development0 Series of meetings of sta$eholders are no" %eing held to exchange vie"s to give final shape to the proposed ;T( ' The Bangladesh *onitor& >ul# + -..8/ 0 !n the first ever roundta%le on immediate needs to develop tourism in Bangladesh %rought together all the sta$eholders of tourism industr# and identified a num%er of immediate actions to %e ta$en to set the development on right trac$ 'The Bangladesh *onitor& >une +7& -..8/I
As recommended in $e#note paper& *ah%u% >amil& Special Assistant to Chief Adviser& in-charge of the *inistr# of Civil Aviation and Tourism announced that la" concerning formation of ;ational Tourism Authorit# ';TA/ is in final stage and the authorit# is li$el# to come next month '>ul#/0 Be also said that the proposed ;TA "ould %e po"erful and independent0 !n drafting the concerned la"& structures of national tourism organizations of *ala#sia& Singapore& Thailand& ;epal and Sri Dan$a have %een studied0 The proposed ;TA "ould perform the Ao% of regulator and facilitator0 The %usiness in tourism industr# "ill %e left for %usinessmen0 The Special Assistant to Chief Adviser said the 6uestion of countr# %randing "ould %e ta$en up after the formation of ;TA0 3evelopment of infrastructure "ould also %e ta$en up according to short& medium and long-term plans0 Polic# of pu%lic private partnership "ould %e follo"ed in developing tourism infrastructure0 Be said that the government should ta$e the lead in this %uilding infrastructure and "ould leave the field Ao%s to the private sector0 A%out the negative image of the countr#& *ah%u% >amil said& ? e are greatl# responsi%le for that0? Be

+G

mentioned practice of securit# screening at hotels in 3ha$a and said that this ma$es the visitors apprehensive "ithout an# valid reason0

Bo"ever& the success of the effort rests on the final outcome and the a%ilit# of the proposed ;T(@;TA to translate the vision %ehind its creation into realit#0 The past experience in this regard is %itter0 e can recall the fate of current ;T(-the Bangladesh ParAatan Corporation 'BPC/0 The vision and purpose %ehind creation of BPC as a corporation& "as to free it from government control0 But ta$ing advantage of ade6uate legal protection& it "as turned into an organization& "orse than a government department0 BPC enAo#ed no freedom even to spend its o"n earnings& emplo#& promote or transfer its emplo#ees0 Di$e government department it received no fund from revenue %udget ' The
Bangladesh *onitor& >ul# + -..8/0 Besides& as a main and onl# government institution in

tourism development& BPCs existing initiatives are not up to the mar$ to meet glo%al competition0 !t fails to attract foreign tourists due to some limitations ' The ;e" ;ation&
3ecem%er 7 -..7/0 Resource constraint ma# %e one of the main limitations of government

intervention to develop tourism sector "idel# in Bangladesh0 <"-"< Revie) of Private 0nvestment 8pportunities

Bangladesh is a developing countr#& and therefore& its econom# does not permit huge investments in the development of infrastructure facilities especiall# in identified areas for tourism development0 !nade6uate funding %# the government in the tourism sector is also a maAor impediment to tourism infrastructure development0 The government is therefore ta$ing appropriate measures to attach due priorit# to the tourism sector so that economic %enefits can %e realized as has %een done in other countries 'Jhan -..+/0 The Board of !nvestment in Bangladesh is "or$ing diligentl# to attract local and foreign investments in the private sector0 Crom an anal#sis of recent statistical data& it is evident that :: percent of the total investment in the national econom# is coming from the private sector& "hich is pla#ing a ver# significant role in the gro"th of 23P in the econom# of Bangladesh 'Em%ass# of Bangladesh& Stoc$holm -..:/0 To encourage more and more private investments in this sector& it is ver# important to ensure congenial investment environment in the countr# and government support is vital in this regard0 Considering the aforesaid issues& at present& government has ta$en necessar# measures to encourage

+4

the private sector to pla# a positive role in the development and diversification of tourist facilities and to promote domestic and international tourism in the countr#0 !n the a%ove context& present careta$er government is highl# $een to stimulate the econom# and transform a povert#-stric$en econom# "ithin short time0 2overnment has li%eralized the industrial and investment policies in recent #ears %# reducing %ureaucratic control over private investment and opening up man# areas0 *aAor incentives are sho"n in the as follo"ing figure -+I =igure -,: Sho)ing ma9or incentives for =oreign 0nvestors in Bangladesh +0 Tax ExemptionsI 2enerall# = to : #ears0 Bo"ever& for po"er generation exemption is allo"ed for += #ears0 -0 3ut#I ;o import dut# for export oriented industr#0 Cor other industr# it is P =1 ad valorem0 G0 Tax Da"I i0 3ou%le taxation can %e avoided in case of foreign investors on the %asis of %ilateral agreements0 ii0 Exemption of income tax up to G #ears for the expatriate emplo#ees in industries specified in the relevant schedule of !ncome Tax ordinance0 40 RemittanceI Cacilities for full repatriation of invested capital profit and divided0 =0 ExitI An investor can "ind up on investment either through a decision of the A2* or E2*0 (nce a foreign investor completes the formalities to exit the countr#& he or she can repatriate the sales proceeds after securing proper authorization from the Central Ban$0 70 ("nershipI Coreign investor can set up ventures either "holl# o"ned on in Aoint colla%oration "ith local partner0
Source: B(! Report& -..8 site availa%le atI httpI@@"""0%oi0gov0%d@investMincentive0php

3ue to ta$ing some drastic measures to open investment climate in Bangladesh& recentl#& some domestic private organizations li$e the Concord Croup and others have seen coming for"ard0 To esta%lish and develop tourism in Bangladesh& Concord 2roup has ta$en some proAects li$e Cantas# Jingdom& ater Jingdom& and Beritage Par$ etc0& especiall# in 3ha$a and Chittagong0 But no foreign investment is seen in this prospective industr# in Bangladesh li$e other sector till toda#0 Bo"ever& recentl#& foreign investors have sho"n $een interest to invest in tourism development of Bangladesh0 Proposed investment offers to develop Coxs Bazar and nearest tourism sites

+=

Ras Al Jhaimah ro#al famil# is interested to invest )S<- %illion to develop Sonadia !sland as tourist resort as "ell as Cox5s Bazar airport to facilitate movement of tourists China is also interested in %uilding a sort of China To"n near Cox5s Bazar for tourist coming from Junming to use the %each as the nearest %each for them& "hich is 7&=.. $ilometers a"a# 'The Bangladesh *onitor& >ul# + -..8/0 Bangladesh and China agreed to open a road lin$ %et"een the t"o countries through *#anmar to ease transportation of goods for further expanding %ilateral trade0 The t"o countries have also decided to s"ap air flights %# their national airlines to %oost %usiness and tourist exchanges0 The road lin$ "ill connect Bangladesh "ith Chinas south"estern Nunnan province& "hich is the closest in proximit# %et"een the t"o countries 'S3;P& -..4/0

<"/ Constraints and Challenges of Tourism Sector in Bangladesh


Crom the findings of the present stud#& it is seen that tourism industr# of Bangladesh has %een facing multisided pro%lems0 !t mainl# lac$s proper planning and infrastructure facilities& la" and order s#stem 'corruption H terrorism/ etc0 Bo"ever& according to the findings of this stud# and previous researches& the follo"ing are main %arriers of tourism development of Bangladesh especiall# in Coxs %azaarI 0nade%uate 0nfrastructure =acilities Existing infrastructure facilities is not modern and developed in Bangladesh0 Cor this reason in spite of the presence of man# tourism potentials& Bangladeshs share of income from tourism is ver# poor 'Ta%le--/0 ith poor infrastructure& little mar$eting sense and direction& and a national carrier too %us# serving the la%or traffic& tourism potentials of Bangladesh this far remained unexploited0 (ne of the $e# aspects of infrastructure is the availa%ilit# of monetar# funds during travel0 Even until recentl#& the AT*s outside 3ha$a aren5t connected to the international net"or$& and travelers che6ues are ver# difficult to cash0 3ue to counterfeiting& man# stores accept onl# ?%eautiful? 'crisp and clean/ %ills0

+7

Aac6 of #odern and Ade%uate Recreation =acilities Although Cox&s Bazar Spot is treated as a tourism capital of Bangladesh& its recreation facilities #et to developed0 Existing recreation facilities are not modern and sufficient according to the demand of the tourists especiall# for foreign tourists0 Cor example& %oating& "ind surfing& horse racing and other modern pla#ing instruments "ith local recreation facilities etc0 are not availa%le in the Coxs Bazaar and other tourism spots of Bangladesh0 Eegative 0mpact of Securit( and Safet( Social securit# and safet# have great impact on tourism development in an# region li$e Bangladesh0 Securit# s#stem is #et to develop in the main cities of all tourists spots Coxs Bazaar0 The condition of securit# and safet# are ver# disappointing in the roadsides for tourists coming especiall# from Chittagong to Coxs Bazar and other spots0 3ue to $idnapping and hiAac$ing issues& foreign tourists are reluctant to sta# longer period in Cox&s Bazar 'Amin & -..7& Siddi6ue& -..7/0 This issue leads to loss huge foreign currencies of the countr#0 *oreover& due to lac$ of sufficient securit# foreign tourists seldom sta# in the %each area after evening time to enAo# the rare natural %eaut# 'during sunset/ "ithout an# anxiet#0 Countr(?s Poor 0mage Bangladesh& "hose image a%road tends to revolve round its %eing one of the poorest countries in the "orld and prone to natural calamities li$e flood and c#clone& is not an o%vious tourist destination0 The tourism industr# has also suffered significantl# due to the %om% attac$s in the #ear -..=0 !n addition to this& negative image of the countr# in the international tourism mar$et has not helped change the vie" of the Aac6 of >uman Resources in !ifferent Par9atan Sector: Trained human resources pla# vital role to develop tourism in an# region li$e Bangladesh0 !n this regard Bangladesh ParAatan Corporation has esta%lished ;ational Botel Tourism Training ';BTT!/ in +9:40 A t"o-#ear diploma course on Botel*anagement has %een started in -..-0 Bo"ever& the a%ove initiatives of BPC are not sufficient to meet needs of all tourist spots in the countr#0 Besides& some recent research est for Bangladesh

+:

findings 'Siddi6ui -..7& Rahman -..:& and Parveen -..8 / prove that still there are acute shortage of tourism experts in most hotels and motets of tourist areas in Bangladesh0 ;isa Pro$lems ,isa polic# of government is one of the main reasons %ehind the foreign tourists5 un"illingness to visit Bangladesh0 !f the government lifts visa restrictions for visitors from Europe& )SA and other "estern countries& around -. la$h foreign tourists "ill come to Bangladesh in a couple of #ears 0 ;o" it re6uires a%out += to -. da#s for a Bangladeshi visa even for a European citizen 7The !ail( Star& #a( <1& <..4@" Aac6 of =!0 in Tourism 0ndustr( A good presence of C3! is seen in man# sectors 'li$e !T& 2arments& *edicine& Communications etc0/ of Bangladesh except tourism0 2overnment should provide special facilities to %oth local H foreign investors to invest in this industr# considering its economic gro"th and development0 Cor instance& Sri Dan$a encourages& +.. 1 C3! in the tourism sector development of their countr#02overnment ma# give Tax holida( to more and more development of tourism industr# and set up hotels and restaurants in the tourist areas all over the countr#0 As a result foreign investors "ill %e interested to invest in this industr#0 Aac6 of Proper and 'pdated 0nformation Cox5s Bazaar definitel# needs to %e advertised properl# on the popular tourist related "e% sites0 There should %e coordination of information and services %et"een these "e%sites and popular hotels& restaurants& shops and travel services of Cox5s Bazaar and other tourist spot s of Bangladesh0 e need to ta$e pragmatic steps to develop and update our "e%sites to increase international tourist flo"0 Cor instance& Cam%odia has its tourism "e%sites in eight languagesF Thailand& *ala#sia& !ndonesia in +- languages& and "e have ours onl# in one language& English

-" Concluding Remar6s and Polic( #easures


Cor at least one third of the developing countries& tourism receipts are the main source of export revenue and the tourism industr# generates su%stantial economic %enefits to the developing countries0 Crom the overall discussions and anal#ses of the research& it is ver# much clear that tourism industr# has a great impact on the overall econom# of Bangladesh0 Present careta$er government recentl# too$ significant steps to"ards +8

li%eralizing scopes and facilities for esta%lishing a transparent legal frame"or$0 *oreover& as "e have resource constraints and our per capita income is ver# poor ')S< 4=7/G& government can create more favora%le domestic conditions for attracting private sector investment0 To achieve the goals and meet the challenges set for the travel and tourism industr# in Bangladesh& a strong and co-operative partnership %et"een government departments as "ell as national tourism authorities& international and national trade associations& and the travel and tourism private sector is re6uired0 Bo"ever& as per findings& the present stud# and polic# guidelines of other recent researches& a num%er of suggestions& ho"ever& are made %elo" that "ould help to ensure proper and timel# development and modernization of tourism industr# in Bangladesh0 2overnment ma# esta%lish a have a high-po"ered independent tourism

authorit# 'Eational Tourism Board/ to guide tourism development in the countr#0 The authorit# must %e the facilitator and promoter of tourism and perform all campaigning activities including infrastructure development0 !t can coordinate "ith the authorit# of hotel& motel and tourists for the organized development of tourism industr# in Bangladesh0 )nder present organizational structure& BPC cannot function as regulator# and promotional %od# ' The Bangladesh *onitor& >ul#
+ -..8/&

Cor campaigning activities& government can emplo# trained manpo"er

countr#"ide "ho continuousl# "ill "or$ to include all scenic %eauties& prospective tourism products& and update previous tourism sites including Coxs Bazar0 Pu%lic and Private partnership ma# pla# vital role to develop and modernize

Bangladesh tourism as per glo%al competition0 2overnment should address such issues as creating a conducive environment& providing investment incentives& introducing ade6uate and supporting legislation and %uilding pu%lic sector capa%ilit# for the formulation and prioritization of proAects and negotiations0

Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs *a# -..:0

+9

!nvestment in converti%le foreign currencies %# foreign investors& and the

option to esta%lish pu%lic@private limited companies or sole proprietorship concerns& could %e allo"ed0 To ensure %etter communications telex& fax and international dialing

services& e-mail and !nternet connections through a satellite s#stem need to %e made availa%le in the tourist spot speciall# in the Exclusive Tourist Kones 'ETKs/ in Coxs Bazar and other important spots0 Ade6uate communication services especiall# railroads& and street in all

tourism spots must %e ensured0 Roads from 3ha$a to Chittagong& Chittagong to Coxs Bazar& and its other nearer spots need drastic improvement0 As 2ovt0 has resource constraints so& it should allo" Travel Agents Association of Bangladesh to import luxur# coaches at reduced tax to carr# tourists in the important spots0 As stated earlier& visa polic# of government is one of the main reasons

%ehind the foreign tourists5 un"illingness to visit Bangladesh0 ;o tourism development "ill %ring an# good& if visa is not relaxed& 2overnment can introduce an online visa trac$ing s#stem %# %ringing all the land ports and airports connecting through internal net"or$ and can monitor visitor5s entr# and exit date and time automaticall# 'The 3ail# Star& *a# -9& -..8/ BPC needs to %e turned into a self-governed and self-controlled %od# if the

government "ants to turn the tourism industr# into a profita%le venture ' The &ew
&ation 5une 15( 2008).

2overnment should ensure proper securit# and safet# s#stem in the countr#

in general and tourism spots in particular0 !n this regard more strong involvement of Aoint forces/4 pla# vital role to control un"anted events 'BiAac$ing or $idnapping tourists/ occurring "hile coming from main cit# to tourism spots 'Coxs Bazar and other spots/0 !n the remote areas and roads& involvement of 6tourist police63 7oint forces to ensure securit" and safet" will lead to increase more foreign tourists in 4ox8s .a9ar and other spots.
4

>oint forces- Police RAB and Arm#

-.

As the concept of economics has changed glo%all#& "e have to introduce

pu%lic-private partnership in this industr#0 *oreover& as our govt0 has resource constraints and %ureaucratic pro%lems& onl# govt0 initiatives are not ade6uate to develop tourismF rather pu%lic private partnership is a demand of the da# to develop infrastructure and modern recreation facilities 'li$e O%oating& "ind surfing& horse racing and other pla#ing instruments as per international standard/ as "ell as local cultural activities for the enAo#ment of tourists0 To control un"anted situation as "ell as death hazards in the %each areas& it

is ver# important to set up and develop "eather forecasting 'during sea %athing/ s#stem and li$e Fasir Aife Cuard& other institutions ma# set up for the rapid safet# and securit# of the tourists0

Bi$liograph( and References


Asian !evelopment Ban6 TA 7+G+ST) Cinal Report& -..4 A6hter& Shelina '-..+/I QTourism in BangladeshI An EvaluationR& >ournal of Bangladesh Asiatic Societ# Bangladesh& 3ecem%er -..+0 Amin Sa6i$-!in& QThe role of tourism in Bangladesh econom#R The ;e" ;ation& 7 th 3ec -..7& A6teruzzaman G 0shtia%ue '-..+/ Q Potenga Seashore& A Rising Borizon for TourismI Pro%lems and ProspectsR The Chittagong )niversit# >ournal of Commerce ,ol0 +7& -..+& p0 +.9+++0

Bangladesh >igh Commission& Q Tourism !n BangladeshR& Dondon& )J& availa%le atI http:DD)))"$hclondon"org"u6D Board of 0nvestment 'B(!/ Report August = -..8& availa%le at

"""0%oi0gov0%d@investMincentive0php
Bro)n& !"80 '+998a/0 Q!n Search of an Appropriate Corm of Tourism for AfricaI Dessons from the Past and Suggestions for the CutureR0 Tourism *anagement0 ,olume +9& ;um%er G& pp0-G:-4=& cited in Christina Joutra& 's0d0/0 Brohman& H0 '+997/ Q;e" 3irections in Tourism for Third Tourism Research& ,olume -G& ;um%er +& pp048-:.0& orld 3evelopmentR0 Annals of

BPC- Bangladesh ParAotan Corporations Report ',arious !ssues/ !ie6e& P"'"B" '-..G/0 ITourism in Africas Economic !evelopment: Polic( 0mplicationsJ" #anagement !ecision" ;olume /,& Eum$er -& pp"<4+-<12"

-+

>asan =aru%ue '-..7/& QBut does it enrich BangladeshSR& The 3ail# Star& Septem%er -:&

-..70
>asan& S"R" 7-...@& Pro%lems and prospects of Bangladesh Tourism !ndustr#?& %ureau of Business Research& )niversit# of 3ha$a -...0 >ua !u& 7-..8@& IBangladesh Econom#I (pportunities and ChallengesR& American Cham%er of Commerce in Bangladesh& Asian 3evelopment Ban$ +: >une -..8& site availa%le atI httpI@@"""0ad%0org@3ocuments@Speeches@-..8@sp-..8.G+0asp EASCAP 7EC(;(*!C A;3 S(C!AD C(**!SS!(; C(R AS!A A;3 TBE PAC!C!C/ T()R!S* RE,!E & ;o0 -+& )nited ;ations& availa%le atI

http:DD)))"unescap"orgDttd)DPu$licationsDTPTSKpu$sDTorevie)KEo<,K<,+<"pdf
Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs& #a( <..+ Hapan >erald& QCive million foreign tourists visited !ndia in -..:R -..80 availa%le atI httpI@@stor#0Aapanherald0com@inde@+ ednesda# *a# :

Bhan A$dul Balam '-..+/& )(pportunities And Challenges Cor Tourism !nvestmentI Bangladesh& *anager Bangladesh ParAatan Corporation ;ational Tourism (rganization 3ha$a& EASCAP T()R!S* RE,!E & ;o0 -+& )nited ;ations0 Em$ass( of Bangladesh& Stoc6holm '-..:/& QThe Colors of BangladeshR& JADE!3(SC(PE -;e"sletter of the ,olume +& !ssue ,! ;ov - 3ec -..:0 Bhan #izan R" and >a%ue #ahfuzul '-..:/& B!*STEC->apan Cooperation in Tourism and Environment-Bangladesh Perspective 3iscussion Paper T-:& Center for Studies in !nternational Relations and 3evelopment 'CS!R3/ Jol$ata #edia Bangladesh& Q Tourism sho"s Positive note on Port Entr# ,isaR April 7 -..8& )))"media$angladesh"netDne)s-political"phpS
available at*

Rahman !r" #ohammad #ah$u$ur ('((+), -.an/ladesh* A 0ost of Tourist Treasures1, Arab Ne!s, Monda2 '3 March '((+, Available at* http:DD)))"ara$ne)s"com Rasooldeen #ohammed& Q 4and of 5iverse Attractions:( Arab Ne!s, '3 March '((67 Siddi%i Ra%ui$ 7-..7@& QSecond SAARC Tourism *inisters meet ends "ith no Brea$throughR& The ;e" ;ation >une ++& -..70 Si6der Lahed >usain and >ussain #d" #oazzam 7 +998/ ?Tourism *anagement and 3evelopment- A stud# of some selected Areas in 2reater Chittagong?& The Chittagong )niversit# >ournal of Commerce ,ol0 +4& +998& p0 +:+-+8G0 S!EP- Sustaina%le 3evelopment ;et"or$ing Programme Bangladesh& Business H Cinance ;e"s& august .-& -..4& availa%le at httpI@@"""0sdn%d0org@sdi@ne"s@general-ne"s@August-..4@.--.8-.4@Business0htm The Report of Tourism Statistics of Bangladesh- !ssuesI -..4--..= The Bangladesh #onitor& >ul# + -..8 availa%le atI

http:DD)))"$angladeshmonitor"netDtourismKstor("phpMrecord0!N/3/
The Eastern Time& +G August -..:& availa%le atI )))"sara)a6tourism"comDcontent"cfmD The Ee) Eation& >une +=& -..8 availa%le atI http:DDnation"ittefa%"comDissuesD<..4D.3D,2Dall.<+,"htm The Ee)s Toda( Ce%ruar# +8& -..8

--

The !ail( Star& *a# -9& -..8& The !ail( Star *a# +9 -..7 The !ail( Star& August = -..8& availa%le atI httpI@@"""0thedail#star0net@stor#0phpS nidUG9:-: 'EEP- )nited ;ation Environment Preservation 7<..<@& ITourism !ndustr# as a partner for Sustaina%le developmentR& A report prepared %#I orld Travel H Tourism Council ' TTC/ )nited Jingdom& -..-& availa%le atI httpI@@"""0gdrc0org@uem@eco-tour@ SS3-tourism0pdf ee6l( Economic Times & 6uoted in *edia Bangladesh& April 7& -..8 availa%le atI http:DD)))"media$angladesh"netDne)sKpolitical"phpS orld Travel and Tourism Council ' TTC/& Bong Jong& -..4 availa%le atI)))")ttc"org orld Travel and Tourism Council ' TTC/& -..G--..=

Appendix-,
Ta$le-,: Cro)th of =oreign Tourist Arrivals and =oreign Exchange Earnings of Bangladesh over the (ears 7+99=--..:@"

Eo" of Fears
,113 ,11+ ,114 ,111 <... <.., <..< <..<../ <..2 <..3 <..+

Eo" of visitors 70n #illion@


+077 +08+0:+0:G +099 -0.: -0.: -08. -0+. -0.: -0.= -0:.

Percentage of change 7OD-@


9071 -=0=1 .071 +=1 41 G=0-71 --=1 -+=1 -+G1 G=1

=oreign Exchange Earnings 7!n *illion )S<


-80=9 7-04= =-0G: 4909= =.0G: 4:0=7 =:0-+ 7.0+. 7708:.0.+ 7=07. n0a0

Percentage of change 7OD-@


971 -+.1 -.0+1 :1 +0.1 -=1 -.0.91 +90841 .08G1 +-1 n0a0

Source: i/ Tourism Statistics of Bangladesh O-..4& ii/ for Shaded figures - Bangladesh Bigh Commission& Dondon& )J& availa%le atI http:DD)))"$hclondon"org"u6D& and *edia Bangladesh& April 7 -..8& availa$le at: )))"media$angladesh"netDne)s-political"phpS

-G

Ta$le-<: 0nternational Tourist Arrivals of SAARC Countries 7,11+-<../ 7;um%er !n Thousands


Countr(DRegion ,11+ Bangladesh Pa6istan 0ndia Sri Aan6a Eepal #aldives Bhutan
,4< G:= -G9= G84 4-G77 =

=iscal Fears ,114


,+< 4-9 -G84.9 474 G97 7

,111
,+4G-=.8 47= 494G. :

<...
,11 ==: -7:: 44= 474 47: 8

<..,
<.+ =.. -=9+ G9: G7+ 47+ 7

<..<
<.+ 498 -4-8 4=: -:= 48= 7

<..<// 479 -G84 =.+ GG8 =74 7

<../
<+, ;A -:-7 =77 ;A 7+7 9

Source:

T8 ' orld Tourism (rganization/ 6uoted in Tourism Statistics of Bangladesh& -..40p0-& ;A O

;ot Availa%le0

Ta$le *-: =oreign Tourist Arrivals to SASEC Countries since ,112-<..- ';um%er !n Thousands/ =iscal Fear
Countr(D Region Bangladesh 0ndia Eepal Bhutan ,112
,23 <,</ -3/

+997
+7: --88 G94 =

+99:
,4< -G9= 4-=

,114
,+< -G8474 7

,111
,+-=.8 49:

<...
,11 -7:: 474 8

<..,
<.+ -=9+ G7+ 7

<..< <..<.+ -4-8 -:= 7 <// -G84 GG8 7

Change <..<D.,4".P ,2"2P ,3"<P ,<".P

Change ,112D.+"4P -"+P -,"2P -"1P

SourceI Asian 3evelopment Ban$ TA 7+G+ST) Cinal Report& -..4

Appendix-<
Thrust sectors in the 0ndustrial Polic( ,111:
+0Agro-%ased !ndustr# -0Artificial Clo"er Production G0Computer Soft"are and !nformation Technolog# 40Electronics =0Crozen Coods 70Clo"er Cultivation :02ift !tems 80!nfrastructure 90 >ute 2oods +.0>e"elr# and 3iamond Cutting and Polishing ++0Deather +-0(il and 2as +G0Cultivation of Sil$ "orm and sil$ industr# +40Stuffed to#s +=0Textile !ndustr# ,3"Tourism 0ndustr( Source: http:DD)))"dha6acham$er"comD

-4

-=