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IT351 - Mobile & Wireless Computing Tutorial_1

1. The ISO/OSI 7-layer reference model, or simply the OSI model, has been influential in network desi n for o!er "# years now. i. $se a dia ram to show how a messa e is passed %physically and lo ically&, usin the OSI model, between two 'pplication-layer peers that are separated by a sin le data link layer de!ice %brid e&. ii. (hat are the main functions of the transport, network and data link layers of the OSI model) ". 'pplication de!elopers who work with mobile computin en!ironments ain a number of benefits o!er traditional desktop computin en!ironments. *riefly describe three applications that are enabled by mobile computin . +. (hy can wa!es with a !ery low fre,uency be used for submarine communication) (hy are they not used for data transmission in mobile phones and computer networks -. ./plain briefly what is meant by free space loss. 0. 'lthou h a 1ine-of-si ht is re,uired between a sender and recei!er for radio wa!es with fre,uency 2 +# 345, mobile phones can work in bi cities without such a 1OS. ./plain 6. Is it possible to transmit a di ital si nal , e. ., coded as s,uare wa!e as used inside a computer usin radio transmission without any loss) (hy) 7. Is a directional antenna useful for mobile phones) (hy) 4ow can the ain of the antenna be impro!ed ) 7. (hat are the main problems of si nal propa ation) (hy do radio wa!es not always follow a strai ht line) 8. ./plain how is reflection both useful and harmful 1#. Search the Internet and describe briefly the 1icense-free IS3 band. ./plain why is the International a!ailability of the same IS3 bands important.

Answers
1& OSI i& 'pplication @resentation Session Transport ;etwork <ata 1ink @hysical <ata 1ink @hysical 'pplication @resentation Session Transport ;etwork <ata 1ink @hysical

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Transport-layer functions9 Isolatin the application layer from imperfection of transmission, fra mentation /reassembly, multiple/in /demultiple/in of processes, reliable data transfer9 error control, flow control, con estion control , :oS and security functions ;etwork-layer functions9 'ddressin , routin %path determination, forwardin &, error reportin <ata 1ink layer functions9 =ramin , reliable data transfer o!er the link %error control, flow control&, 3ultiple access control.

"& >ehicles communication, .mer ency ser!ices, 1ocation-dependent ser!ices, smarthome ser!ices +& 1on wa!es can propa ate lon distances so they can be transmitted throu h the oceans to a submarine and can penetrate ob?ects easily. They are not suitable for mobile/ computer networks for the followin reasons9 i. 1ower fre,uencies also mean lower data rates so the a!ailable bandwidth is less. ii. 1ower fre,uencies also re,uire lar e antennas for efficient transmission and reception. This mi ht work for submarines, not for mobile phones. iii. 1ower fre,uencies penetrate material more easily. Thus fre,uency reuse is much more difficult. -& =ree space loss9 .!en if no matter e/ists between the sender and the recei!er, the si nal still attenuates and the recei!ed power is proportional to 1/d ". This is because

the sendin ener y is e,ually distributed o!er a rowin sphere surface as the distance increases between sender and recei!er. 0& Short wa!es that are used for mobile phone systems are affected by reflection, refraction, scatterin and diffraction. So si nals transmitted from a sender may bounce off the walls of buildin s and trees se!eral times till it reaches a recei!er. 6& ;o. 1oss-free transmission of analo ue si nals is not possible. 'ttenuation, dispersion etc. will always distort the si nal. 'dditionally, each di ital si nal is transmitted as AbundleB of analo ue sine wa!es %think of =ourierC&. ' perfect di ital si nal with rectan ular shape re,uires an infinite number of sine wa!es to be precisely represented %the di ital si nal can be represented as infinite sum of sine wa!es accordin to =ourier&. 4owe!er, no medium can transmit infinite hi h fre,uencies. Thus, the di ital si nal can ne!er be transmitted without any loss. 7& (ithout any additional Aintelli enceB directional antennas are not useful in standard mobile phones as users may not want to direct the phone to a certain antenna. $sers mo!e, rotate, flip the phones etc. @hones are in ba s, pockets, D while operated hands-free. There is no chance of directed transmission. There are se!eral ways of impro!in the ain of an antenna9 ri ht dimensionin %e. ., half the wa!elen th&, multiple antennas plus a si nal processor combinin the si nals, acti!e and passi!e components attached to the antenna %compare with traditional T> antennas, satellite dishes etc.&. 7& @roblems9 attenuation, scatterin , diffraction, reflection, refraction. ./cept for attenuation all other effects can di!ert the wa!es from a strai ht line. 8& Eeflection is useful9 Only in !acuum and without ra!itational effects radio wa!es follow a strai ht line. (ithout reflection radio reception in towns would be almost impossible. ' line.-of-si ht almost ne!er e/ists. Eeflection is harmful9 Eeflection is the main reason for multipath propa ation causin ISI.