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1. - 16. sorularda, cmlede bo braklan yerlere uygun den szck ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.


Recent findings answer key questions about how tumour cells ---- residence in other parts of the body.. A) cut down


Vacationers in Bodrum and Marmaris are having a hard time finding ---- rental units, as prices have risen above $1,000 for houses close to the sea.. A) affordable B) productive C) attentive D) reducible E) prestigious 6.

B) pull up C) slow down D) wait for E) take up Solar heating never ---- in the US because of the cost and limited winter sunlight in most areas. . A) caught on B) played up


Soccers many creative possibilities ---in part from its being played on such a large field.. A) entail B) consist C) conclude D) claim E) derive 7.

C) turned over D) waited on E) looked back On long space flights, astronauts bones ----, much as if they ---- from osteoporosis, at a rate of 1-2% per month.. A) thin / were suffering B) will thin / suffer C) are thinning / have suffered D) will have thinned / would have suffered


In the opinion of most scientists, engineering does not ---- offer universally acceptable solutions. . A) randomly B) previously C) necessarily D) excessively E) extremely 8.

E) have thinned / will suffer For a long time now, Asias emerging economies---- the worlds most dynamic, with GDP ---- at an annual rate of 7.5%.. A) were / to have grown B) would have been / having grown C) have been / growing D) would be / to be growing E) are / to grow


The genetic fingerprinting technique, which was developed in the UK and is now used as a ---- of legal identification, determines the pattern of certain parts of the genetic material DNA that is unique to each individual.. A) benefit B) structure C) sufficiency D) combination E) means


During the past 40 years, research ---- to support the hypothesis that physical activity ---- with both cardiovascular health and improved psychological functioning.. A) is accumulating / has been associated B) accumulates / will be associated C) accumulated / had been associated D) has been accumulating / would be associated E) has accumulated / is associated

13. --- electric cars are a welcome development, they are neither as useful nor as green as their supporters claim.. A) Since B) Although C) Just as D) Because E) Before 14. Inhabitants of a nation generally possess a common history, geographical place and language; ----, a nation-state may be thought of as a place in which people follow the same cultural and social patterns.. A) though

10. It has been four centuries since the Catholic Church condemned Galileo Galilei ---- declaring that the earth revolved ---- the sun.. A) about / from B) against / with C) for / around D) with / near E) on / through 11. A bar code is a pattern of bars and spaces that can be read by a scanning device ---- a computer, which determines the code ---- the widths of the bars and spaces.. A) over / into B) through / at C) off / from D) on / by E) for / across 12. Animals such as raccoons and foxes eat almost anything edible that they come across---- specializing in one type of food.. A) just as B) as regards C) rather than D) owing to E) in terms of

B) otherwise C) besides D) therefore E) still 15. Some evolutionary biologists argue that if the clock of evolution ---- to the beginning and allowed to run again to the present day, the resulting animals on Earth ---- very different from the ones we know now. . A) has been rewound / would have been B) is rewound / will be C) might be rewound / will have been D) had been rewound / had been E) could be rewound / might be 16. Scientists recently completed the largest-ever astronomical survey of the sky, during ---- they retained images that are expected to help them understand the origins of galaxies.. A) whose B) that C) when D) whom E) which

17. - 21. sorularda, aadaki parada numaralanm yerlere uygun den szck ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.


. A) but B) as

The traditional Ottoman house was very practical. In fact, until the 19th century, (17) ---furniture was used. Space was used efficiently to meet the needs of daily life. Beds (18) ---- simply mattresses, aired with the rest of the bedding in the morning, then rolled up and stored until night-time. Meals were served on a large tray, cleared away after eating. A large brazier (mangal) (19) ---- the modern fire places used today. Low seating called sedir, was built on three sides (20) ---- a room, and was covered with rugs (kilims). It was easy to keep the rugs on the floor clean and in good shape, (21) ---outdoor shoes were replaced by soft indoor slippers before entering the house.

C) therefore D) unless E) although


. A) little B) many C) least D) most E) much


. A) had to be B) can be C) were D) have been E) should be


. A) kept away B) worked out C) turned down D) substituted for E) dealt with


. A) to B) near C) by D) at E) of

22. - 26. sorularda, aadaki parada numaralanm yerlere uygun den szck ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.


. A) just as B) even if

Not so long ago, doctors in the West were forbidden(22)---- remove kidney stones, since that was reserved for surgeons. However, the latest technology makes the distinction (23)----. Today, kidney stones can be dealt with by using a dose of shock waves to break them up with no cutting required. These waves are a particular sort of sound wave. More gentle sound waves, such as ultrasound, (24)---- in medicine to peer inside the body and produce images of internal organs. Now, (25)---- light rays focused by a lens can create extreme heat, so too can new ultrasound rays, generated from a specially-designed instrument, burn away tumours.Shockwave therapy, as it is known, is just one of arange of non-invasive techniques that reduce the need to slice people open in order to treat them.Such techniques promise to blur still further the(26)---- sharp distinction between physician and surgeon.

C) as though D) although E) whereas 26. . A) ambiguously B) hastily C) formerly D) infinitely E) rarely 27. - 36. sorularda, verilen cmleyi uygun ekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.


. A) about B) from C) by D) through E) to

27. ----, infectious disease continued to kill half of all Europeans before they reached the age of twenty.. A) Although famines became less common and less widespread in Europe in the eighteenth century B) Unless the total number of urban dwellers across Europe as a whole did not change markedly between 1600 and 1800 C) Because improved sanitation, together with a better diet, may have played some role in the rise of Europes population in the 1820s D) Since Naples went from a population of 300.000 in 1600 to nearly half a million by the late eighteenth century E) Just as many of the million or so men and women employed in the textile trade in northern France in the seventeenth century lived in cities


. A) inconsistent B) irrelevant C) incoherent D) particular E) contradictory


. A) will long be employed B) would long be employed C) had long been employed D) have long been employed E) would long have been employed

28. Hypnosis was first used as a surgical anaesthetic in India in 1845, ----.. A) if doctors had used hypnosis for patients who are allergic to anaesthetics B) since hypnotized patients will recover more quickly, with less pain and with fewer side effects C) although hypnosis as an alternative to sedation is making a comeback in the operating room D) but it was quickly abandoned with the introduction of ether the following year E) even if studies using advanced scanning technology have shed new light on how hypnosis works to block pain 29. ----, analysts had to rely on a more primitive urine screen for this purpose.. A) Unless drugs opened the way to a better system B) Although an athlete could beat the test by ingesting artificial testosterone throughout the testing period

31. Illegal aliens in America have been a problem ----.. A) when the early regulations encouraged immigration B) ever since the first immigration restriction was imposed C) if necessary precautions are not taken D) because it was virtually impossible to maintain control over them all E) although the use of false IDs increases at an alarming rate 32. Though all observed differences in the behaviour of men and women were long assumed to be due to biological factors, ----.. A) such effects are small and often different for male and female individuals B) it seems increasingly likely that many typical masculine and feminine characteristics are in fact acquired C) social psychologists were not totally sure of how self-confidence could be developed D) children are rewarded for engaging in genderappropriate behaviour E) recent studies provide much evidence concerning widely-held stereotypes 33. Unless governments take action to control population growth, ----.. A) a great majority of our environmental problems will be solved B) population control can be possible through strict policies C) the natural resources in the world will soon become insufficient D) sustainability policies were formulated by developed countries E) thousands starved to death in the poorer parts of the world

C) If later screens for testosterone levels matched the preliminary results D) Only if the body were able to make testosterone from an artificial compound E) Before the carbon isotope radio (CIR) urine test became standard protocol for testing athletes for doping 30. A person with leukemia has an unusually high number of leukocytes, ----.. A) since it is usually fatal unless treated B) although cancerous cells grow uncontrollably C) most of which do not function normally D) that is, cancer of the white blood cells E) whereas, in some cases, they do not respond to the standard treatments

34. ---- because they have been found to harm human health.. A) Some forms of plastic used in bottles have been banned B) The use of plastics and other synthetic materials in medicine is on the rise C) Recyclable plastic bottles are widely used in food industry D) Certain types of plastic are more suitable for recycling than some others E) Researchers are trying to develop a new type of plastic good for the environment 35. While heavy drinking is known to reduce lifespan, ----.. A) alcoholics develop a greater tolerance for alcohol B) alcoholism is becoming increasingly common in the modern world C) ethanol is the type of alcohol used in drinks like beer, wine, and brandy D) genetic, psychological, and social factors influence the development of alcoholism E) a moderate consumption of alcohol can reduce the risk of heart disease 36. Despite the political upheavals in the Arab world, ----.. A) the Middle East is gaining ground to become one of the worlds popular tourist destinations B) business boom, in places like Dubai and Abu Dhabi, has had little impact on the economies C) the airlines are rapidly expanding their routes in Europe and Asia D) emphasis on new policies is required to overcome recession in these countries E) stability, strong economic growth and value for money are the key factors of economic mobility

37. - 42. sorularda, verilen ngilizce cmleye anlamca en yakn Trke cmleyi, Trke cmleye anlamca en yakn ngilizce cmleyi bulunuz.

37. Many studies show that when people fight over ideas with mutual respect, they are more productive and creative.. A) Birok aratrmada, insanlarn karlkl sayg erevesinde tartmasnn, retkenlii ve yaratcl gelitirdiine dikkat ekiliyor. B) Birok aratrma gsteriyor ki insanlar sayg duyduklar fikirler zerinde tarttklarnda daha retken ve yaratc olabiliyorlar. C) Birden fazla aratrma insanlarn ortak tartmalarda yaratc ve retken fikirler ortaya kardn gsteriyor. D) ok sayda aratrma, karlkl sayg erevesinde belirli fikirler zerinde tartan insanlarn retken ve yaratc olduklarn gsteriyor. E) Birok aratrma insanlarn fikirler zerinde karlkl sayg erevesinde tarttklar zaman daha retken ve yaratc olduklarn gsteriyor. 38. It is difficult to handle health issues without knowing all the aspects of an individuals lifestyle and genetics.. A) Bir bireyin yaam tarz ve genetik zellikleri ile ilgili genel bilgiye sahip deilseniz salk sorunlarna zm retmek kolay deildir. B) Bir bireyin yaam tarzn ve baz belirgin genetik zelliklerini bilmeden, onunla ilgili salk sorunlarn ele almak zordur. C) Genetik zelliklerin yaam tarz zerindeki etkilerini bilmeden, bir kiinin salk sorunlarna zm retmek zordur. D) Bir kiinin hem yaam tarz hem de genetik zellikleri tm ynleriyle bilinse de o kiiyle ilgili salk sorunlarn ele almak zordur. E) Bir bireyin yaam tarz ve genetik zelliklerinin tm ynlerini bilmeden, salk sorunlarn ele almak zordur.

39. Because much is still unknown about breast cancer and no single treatment works all the time, doctors may have different opinions about the most appropriate treatment.. A) Gs kanseri iin her zaman sonu veren tek bir tedavi ynteminin bulunmamasnn yan sra hastalkla ilgili yeterli bilginin olmamas nedeniyle hekimler arasnda en etkili tedaviye ilikin farkl grler mevcuttur. B) Gs kanserine ilikin ok az ey ortaya konduu ve her zaman sonu veren belirli bir tedavi yntemi bulunamad iin, hekimler en geerli tedavi hakknda farkl dnceler ileri srmektedir. C) Hekimler gs kanseri iin en uygun tedavi hakknda eitli grler ileri srmektedir; nk, bu hastalk hakknda yeterli bilginin olmamas, tek bir tedavinin her zaman geerli klnmasn engellemektedir. D) Gs kanseri hakknda yeterli bilgi olmad iin her zaman sonu veren tek bir tedavi yntemi yoktur ve bu nedenle hekimler en uygun tedaviye ilikin elikili dnceler ortaya atmaktadr.

41. Projenin ok byk olduu ve deniz derinliklerini aratrmann birok gelimi tehizat gerektirdii dorudur.. A) It is true that the project of investigating sea depths is very big and requires a lot of special equipment. B) What is true is that the project is very big and investigating sea depths may require some sophisticated equipment. C) It is true that the project is very big a that investigating sea depths requires a lot of sophisticated equipment. D) That the project is very big is true and investigating sea depths requires a lot of sophisticated equipment. E) That the project is very big is true and the investigation of sea depths requires a lot of expensive equipment. 42. Nfuslar azalp yalandka ve Avrupann dnyadaki gc de getike Almanlar refahlarnn tehdit altnda olduunu dnmeye balyorlar.. A) As their population shrinks and ages, and as Europes power in the world declines, so does the threat to Germans prosperity. B) As their population shrinks and ages, and as Europes power in the world begins to decline, Germans notice that their prosperity has been under threat. C) While their population shrinks and ages and Europes power in the world declines, Germans have begun to notice that their prosperity is under threat. D) Germans are starting to think that their prosperity is under threat as their population shrinks and ages, and as Europes power in the world declines. E) Germans now see that their prosperity is under threat with their population shrinking and aging, coupled with the speedy decline of Europes power in the world.

E) Gs kanseri hakknda ok ey hl bilinmediinden ve hibir tedavi tek bana her zaman sonu vermediinden, hekimler, en uygun tedaviye ilikin farkl grlere sahip olabilirler. 40. Oyunlara ve zellikle ocuk oyunlarna ilikin inanlarmz, teknoloji ve kreselleme ile kkl deiimler geirmitir.. A) We seem to have radically changed our beliefs about plays, and childrens plays in particular, because of advances in technology and globalization. B) We believe that plays, and childrens plays in particular, have encountered radical changes due to technology and globalization. C) Our beliefs about plays, and childrens plays in particular, have undergone radical changes with technology and globalization. D) Owing to the radical changes in plays, and childrens plays in particular, we have shifted our attitude towards technology and globalization. E) As to technology and globalization, our beliefs about plays, and childrens plays in particular, have changed radically.

43. - 46. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.

45. One point made in the passage is that before the Chalcolithic Period started, ---.. A) the irrigation-based methods of agriculture were more common in the plain B) excessive rainfall brought about flood frequency, flood extent and soil waterlogging in fertile soils C) the inhabitants of the plain relied more heavily on irrigation in order to sustain land management D) there was a cease in the alluvial system and this affected rain-fed agriculture in the drier areas of the Konya Plain E) the Konya Plain had a climate of dry Mediterranean character much as it does today 46. It is explicitly stated in the passage that ----.. A) some parts of the Konya Plain receive more rain annually than the others B) the climate of the Konya Plain was drier during the Neolithic Period than it is today C) population dynamics and social relations are partly reflected in the history of the region D) it is now almost impractical to grow crops in the Konya Plain E) more irrigation is required to efficiently cultivate the soils of the region

The contemporary climate of the Konya Plain is of adry Mediterranean character, with a dry summer anda moister winter and spring. Annual rainfall is low, anannual average of 250mm, though it increases towards the edge of the plain, reaching 315mm.Unirrigated crops suffer from regular failure in the area. Palaeoclimatic research suggests that the climate was moister through atalhyks Neolithic occupation than it is today. Greater precipitation might have increased flood frequency, the extent off lood and soil waterlogging, as precipitation in the river catchment was the main determinant of alluvial systems dynamics. It might also have increased the reliability of rain-fed agriculture in the drier subenvironments of the plain while making agriculture in the alluvial zone more risky. The sudden end of alluviation, before the onset of Chalcolithic occupation, indicated a period of dryness, which notonly affected the alluvial system, but also reduced the reliability of rain-fed agriculture in the drier zones.

43. We can understand from the passage that duringthe Neolithic Period ----.. A) wetland birds migrated to other parts of the Konya Plain B) the plain had a drier spring and summer than it does today C) regional rainfall was probably determined by alluvial systems dynamics D) rain-fed agricultural crops happened to become extinct E) the people of atalhyk stored a range of crops that were all adapted to the Mediterranean climate 44. The writer of the passage claims that during atalhyks Neolithic Period ---.. A) the soils never had a surplus of water B) the alluvial zone barely supported farming C) there was no rain-fed agriculture D) people relied completely on irrigation for growing crops E) more floods occurred in the region

47. - 50. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.

49. It is clear from the passage that ----.. A) Vitamin D is absorbed only by 7dehydrocholesterol

A deficiency in Vitamin D is known to cause various diseases due to insufficient calcium or phosphate in the bones. Vitamin D is actually an umbrella term that covers a group of steroid molecules. Of these, only Vitamin D3 requires sunlight to synthesize. It is formed in the skin of all mammals when light energyis absorbed by a precursor molecule called 7-dehydrocholesterol. A recent study found that at theheight of summer, two minutes exposure of the faceand arms to the sun, three to four times a week, could supply enough Vitamin D3. This rose to 15 minutes in the winter. Ironically, Vitamin D deficiency, which may also lead to skin cancer, is actually very common in some of the sunniest but most under developed countries in the world. This is notbecause of malnutrition or a lack of dietary supplements, as most people mistakenly think. Infact, it is because very dark skin colour slows the rateof Vitamin D3 production by a factor of six, and people in these countries are usually heavily veiled when outside, as well. In addition, wearing sunscreen with a sun protection factor greater than eight willalso block Vitamin D3 production.

B) not all forms of Vitamin D require sunlight to synthesize C) some mammals cannot synthesize Vitamin D D) steroid molecules need Vitamin D3 to function properly E) Vitamin D3 production is increased by a factor of six in the summer 50. One can understand from the passage that ----.. A) exposure to the sun in summer for even two minutes can cause skin cancer B) one should wear sunscreen in very sunny areas to facilitate Vitamin D synthesis C) the human body can synthesize Vitamin D3 all year round, including winter D) steroid molecules function better when combined with dietary supplements E) lack of dietary supplements is a major cause of skeletal diseases

47. According to the passage, the high rate of Vitamin D3 deficiency in under developed countries with plenty of sunshine ----.. A) may be prevented through the use of high-factor sun protection B) is mainly due to malnutrition C) is due to the fact that people are dark coloured and dress heavily D) can easily be blocked with dietary supplements E) results in the formation of steroid molecules 48. It can be understood from the passage that Vitamin D ----.. A) is found in sunscreens with protection factor greater than eight B) is synthesized at a higher rate in people with darker skin colour C) has to be supplemented in the diet for the health of the bones D) might cause cancer when consumed in excessive amounts E) provides protection from both skeletal diseases and skin cancer

51. - 54. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.

52. According to the passage, the 9/11 terrorist attacks ----.. A) could have been prevented if the al Qaeda operatives had been captured in time B) made the American people united as a nation and feel more patriotic C) were part of a series of terrorist acts planned in advance by the al Qaeda leaders D) demonstrated the fact that the United States was more vulnerable to terrorism than any other country in the world E) convinced the al Qaeda operatives that the United States would be an easy target in the future 53. It is stressed in the passage that, for the al Qaedaleaders, ----.. A) any part of the world could be a target for their attacks B) the war in Afghanistan is causing much damage to their operatives C) their future attacks must focus on the American homeland D) more threats from them will turn the American people against their government E) their attacks on a number of cities, including Istanbul, were not effective at all 54. As can be clearly understood from the passage, in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, almost all the Americans ----.. A) thought that Americas invasion of Afghanistan would be futile B) were disappointed with their governments policies C) believed that their country was still the safest place in the world D) supported the way the war on terror was being carried out E) believed that the government would soon bring the war on terror to an end

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Americans understandably rallied around the flag. Having just suffered the deadliest attack ever on the US soil, a great majority of the people believed another attack was imminent. But Americans alsohad enormous faith the 'Global War on Terror' would help keep them safe. Just one month after 9/11, for instance, 94 per cent of Americans fully approved of how the fight against terrorism was being handled.The United States then quickly went to war in Afghanistan, closing down a terrorist camp and capturing or killing a number of high-level al Qaeda operatives in the process. However, since 2001, terrorists have found their targets on almost every continent, with bombings in Bali, London, Madrid, Istanbul, and else where. Now Americans appear less convinced that their country is winning the war onterror. In the face of persisting threats, including agrowing number of terrorist attacks around the world, numerous reports show that Americans are losing faith in their governments ability to wage the war successfully and to protect them from the terroristsnext major attack.

51. As pointed out in the passage, since terrorist attacks and threats have not ceased in the world, ----.. A) the American government is convinced that some major cities in the country can be the targets of terrorist attacks B) the United States has stepped up its operations in Afghanistan in order to capture the al Qaeda operatives C) Americans are very concerned about the security and success of their forces in Afghanistan D) the American people hardly believe that the government will be able to win the war on terror E) it is admitted by all the governments that the socalled \'Global War on Terror\' will last indefinitely

55. - 58. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.

56. One understands from the passage that the development of tree species that can resist droughts ----.. A) is being carefully studied by government planners and scientists as an alternative solution B) is a precaution that major lumber firms are taking against global warming C) has been so costly that governments of temperate countries have given it up D) is indispensable because, due to global warming, most forests will disappear in a few decades E) is important for countries where agricultural zones have been badly affected by global warming 57. As implied in the passage, the Dutch ---.. A) have a long history of experience in the construction of dikes B) are very concerned about some coastal areas threatened by a rise in sea level C) have been reluctant to cooperate technically with some developing countries D) learned how to build dikes about a hundred years ago to protect their coastal areas E) think that it is extremely expensive for developing countries to build dikes 58. It is stated in the passage that, for our adaptation to global warming, ----.. A) an alternative strategy is that all the coastal areas in the world have to be evacuated so that the inhabitants can be safe from the dangers of storm surges B) many scientists and planners are involved in a series of activities that are primarily suitable for temperate countries C) not only the Dutch but also governments of many countries have devoted a great deal of hard work to the development of urgent strategies D) new agricultural zones suitable for the growth of semitropical crops and also the development of drought-resistant trees are the only suitable strategies E) state planners and social scientists of different nationalities are working to develop various strategies

Government planners and social scientists from many countries are developing a number of strategi to help us adapt to global warming. For example, what should people living in coastal areas do? They can move inland away from the dangers of storm surges, although this solution has high economic costs. An alternative plan, which is also extremely expensive, is to build dikes to protect coastal land. The Dutch, who have been doing this sort of thing for several hundred years, have offered their technical expertise to several developing nations threatened by a rise in sea level. We also have to adapt to shifting agricultural zones. Many temperate countries are in the process of evaluating semitropical crops to determine the best ones to substitute for traditional crops if or when the climate warms. Drought-resistant species of trees are being developed by large lumber companies now, because the trees planted today will be harvested many decades later when global warming may already get much worse.

55. It is pointed out in the passage that a large number of countries with a temperate climate ----.. A) have already applied to the Dutch government to help them protect their coastal areas against a rise in sea level owing to global warming B) have urgently developed some costly strategies in order to protect themselves from the extreme effects of global warming C) are developing new agricultural zones for semitropical crops, since they are economically more profitable than traditional crops D) are experimenting with semitropical crops for the replacement of their traditional crops in case the climate gets warmer E) are exposed to the dangers of storm surges and have therefore taken radical measures to rescue their people in coastal areas

59. - 62. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.

61. According to the passage, scientists are using ageliferin ----.. A) although they wanted to discard conventional medications B) so that the natural compound can be used to save dying sponge species C) in case they altered the structure of the compound D) to develop new methods to fight drugresistant bacteria E) as if it were more potent in combating otherwise drug-resistant bacteria 62. One can understand from the passage that thenewly-developed compound ----.. A) helps ageliferin to proliferate in sponge colonies in coral reefs B) can easily be used to alter biofilms like ageliferin C) is currently used in most commercial antibiotic products D) is ruled out to be an effective way of fighting drug-resistant strains of diseases E) does not help to stop bacteria from increasing in number 63. - 67. sorularda, karlkl konumann bo braklan ksmn tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi bulunuz.

Several years ago, biochemists studying marine ecosystems noticed something unusual: a sponge thriving in the middle of a coral reef that was dying from bacterial infection. The researchers identified asubstance made by the sponge in order to defendit self from harmful microbes. They realized that it wasa natural antibacterial molecule called 'ageliferin'.This molecule can break down the formation of aprotective biofilm coating that bacteria use to shield themselves from threats, including antibiotic drugs.Now the same researchers are using this natural compound to create innovative ways to fight drug resistant bacteria. They have recently modified the structure of ageliferin to make it more potent and formulated to help conventional medications combat otherwise drug-resistant bacteria, such as staph and cholera. The newly-developed chemical does not stop bacteria from proliferating, but it allows the antibiotic to work again. The researchers hope eventually to incorporate the altered ageliferin as ahelper drug within commercial antibiotic products, allowing them to fight off formerly drugresistantstrains of diseases.

59. It can be understood from the passage that bacteria that cause infections ----.. A) protect themselves from threats using a biofilm coating B) preserve their biofilm coating with the help of ageliferin C) break down the formation of protective biofilms of other bacteria D) defend certain sponge types against harmful microbes E) have a naturally occurring molecule called ageliferin 60. It is clear from the passage that ageliferin is asubstance ----.. A) easily broken down by harmful bacteria B) produced by a sponge found in coral reefs C) used in order to study bacterial infection D) helping bacteria to form a protective shield around them E) usually abundant in dying coral reefs

63. Alice :- What did you think of the Pel film? Polly :- What struck me was that when he joined his first team he was 17 but looked like a 14-year old. Alice :- ---Polly :- And that of parasites too.. A) In fact, he always was small. B) That was the result of malnutrition, poor kid. C) It shocked me to learn that until that time he had never had a pair of sports shoes. D) Right. And had various health problems, including malnutrition. E) I hated the way other teams turned against him.

64. Sally : Have you spoken to Bobbys parents yet? Rose : Yes, I have. But it wasnt a very satisfactory meeting. Sally : ---Rose : Unfortunately not. They seemed determined to put me in the wrong!. A) I dont know what else I can suggest. B) I can believe that. They are not very cooperative; are they? C) Thats no surprise. Everyone knows how difficult they are. D) Thats a shame. Bobby needs help. E) How was that? 65. Robert :- Have you seen the French documentary film March of the Penguins? Cherie :- ---Robert :- Yes, and Ive read an article that says that it was also really difficult to film because of the rough terrain and the harsh climate. Cherie :- Shall we go see it this evening?. A) No, I havent. B) Yes, I have. C) Not yet, but Ive heard its really fascinating.

66. Doctor : Good to see you again. Whats the problem this time? Patient : Upon awakening, I feel pain and tightness on the sides of my face. Doctor : ---Patient : I hope its not serious and can be treated easily.. A) Sleeping pills may be used occasionally to help people who have trouble sleeping because of pain. B) How interesting! I have always stated that people can take steps to break the habit of tooth grinding. C) I see. Generally, a case like this results from muscle spasms brought on by repeated muscle or tooth clenching and tooth grinding. D) Of course, treatment is needed when a person has jaw pain or trouble moving his jaw. E) People with this condition need to suppress yawns, cut food into small pieces, and eat food thats easy to chew. 67. Charles : Aircraft manufacturers are doing their best to build ever more efficient, more reliable, less polluting, quieter planes. Colleague : Yes, but there is a long way before absolute reliability can be achieved! Charles : ---Colleague : Theres no doubt about that. Yet every effort must be made for ultimate reliability.. A) Let me stress once again that, as the economy develops and per capita income rises, per capita travel rises even faster. B) Considered in technical terms, there have been few dramatic changes in largeaircraft design since the 1960s. C) It is a fact that, by the early 1940s, airplanes had made it possible to cross the Atlantic in one long day of travel. D) On the other hand, in the 1960s, touring families and students could fly from the US to Europe on overnight charter flights. E) Agreed. However, despite occasional horrific crashes, modern airliners are about the safest means of travel ever devised.

D) How much does it cost these days to see a film? E) I dont think its playing in cinemas any longer.

68. - 71. sorularda, verilen cmleye anlamca en yakn cmleyi bulunuz.

70. People have usually assumed that this mountain village was abandoned because easier living conditions were available elsewhere.. A) The prospect of better living conditions in another place must have tempted the inhabitants to desert this mountain village. B) Apparently, people abandoned this mountain village, tempted by the prospect of a better way of life elsewhere. C) It must have been hard to make a livelihood in this mountain village, so people opted out and went in search of an easier way of life. D) The mountain village was presumably abandoned when people realized that easier conditions were on offer elsewhere E) It has generally been presumed that people deserted this mountain village because there was the prospect of a pleasanter way of life in another place. 71. What is certain is that Azerbaijans oilfired economy has been booming in recent years.. A) Although Azerbaijans economy is largel dependent on oil, in recent years it has entered a period of recession. B) There is no doubt that, over the past few years, Azerbaijans economy, which thrives entirely on oil, has been growing fast. C) Since Azerbaijans economic prosperity is related to oil, there has been some minor improvement lately. D) It is only in recent years that, because of its oil, Azerbaijan has experienced some economic progress. E) Over the past few years, due to an increase in its oil output, Azerbaijans economy has become much stronger.

68. Stopping the international obesity epidemic is as tough a problem as any now facing public-health officials.. A) Public-health officials are trying hard, as they do with any other problem, to prevent the spread of obesity throughout the world. B) Public-health officials are finding it very hard to prevent obesity throughout the world, which is very serious like any other problem that concerns them. C) Obesity is so common throughout the world that its prevention is a very difficult problem for health-officials, who are already dealing with other problems. D) For public-health officials, the prevention of obesity, which is widespread throughout the world, is an extremely difficult problem like any other they are currently concerned with. E) It is not so challenging a task for publichealth officials, who are already dealing with many serious problems, to prevent obesity in the world 69. Take-off was delayed again and again, so we began to wonder if there was something seriously wrong with the aircraft.. A) Unless the problem were serious, they wouldnt have delayed the flight for so long. B) If there had been no problem with the aircraft, they wouldnt have delayed takeoff like that. C) The flight was postponed indefinitely, so we presumed there was engine-trouble. D) We began to feel that there might be a real problem with the aircraft as take-off was continually being delayed. E) We assumed that, since there was a problem with the aircraft, they were obliged to delay take off indefinitely.

72. - 75. sorularda, bo braklan yere, parada anlam btnln salamak iin getirilebilecek cmleyi bulunuz.

72. In the annals of computing, nothing has caused as much disappointment as putting ideas on paper. ----. However, with the coming of the inkjet printer it was soon possible to print really highquality images. . A) For decades, printing computer files was a thankless task for users seeking to reproduce precisely what they saw on their screens B) To start with, thermal inkjets were no match for the costlier laser printers that had just been introduced C) For all its originality the idea behind the inkjet is far from new D) The first inkjet printers were slow, messy machines, but they gradually got better and better E) Designers of printers grew more ambitious and they started to want colour, speed and low costs 73. Health food stores and popular magazine articles advertise a variety of protein supplements, and people take these supplements for many different reasons. ----. Dieters take them to maintain their bodies protein while losing weight. Women take them to strengthen their finger nails.. A) The liquid protein diet, advocated some years ago for weight loss, caused deaths in many users B) Protein and amino acid supplements dont work these miracles C) Athletes do not need protein supplements because muscle work builds muscle D) Protein supplements are expensive and less completely digested than protein-rich foods E) Athletes take them to build muscle

74. Compared to its Balkan neighbours, Greece is a wealthy country, but it remains one of the poorer members of the European Union. ---- . Nevertheless, with a nominally capitalist orientation, it has overcome its resemblance to pre1989 Eastern Europe. Loss-making state enterprises have been sold off, and inflation and interest rates have fallen. However, unemployment remains high.. A) It is still a developing economy, with the agriculture and service sectors accounting for two-thirds of its GNP. B) C) D) E) B) Still, the Greek islands attract thousands of tourists, many of whom come simply to enjoy the sun and sand and the relaxed pace of life. C) Accordingly, it now seems poised to become a significant regional power. D) Furthermore, it has one of the lowest birth rates in Europe. E) Yet family life and social life are usually one and the same, and tend to revolve around eating out. 75. The human body changes in many noticeable ways with age. Perhaps the first sign of aging occurs when the eye cannot focus easily on close objects. Often by age 40 or so, many people find it difficult to read without using glasses. ---- . People tend to lose some ability to hear the highest pitched tones. Therefore, older people may find that violin music no longer sounds as exciting as it did when they were young. . A) Hearing loss may be caused by a mechanical problem in the ear canal or middle ear that blocks the conduction of sound. B) Some hearing tests can detect disorders in the auditory processing areas of the brain. C) Neural hearing loss may be caused by brain tumours that also damage nearby nerves and the brain stem. D) People who cant hear well enough may need hearing aids that keep the volume of sound at a suitable level E) Hearing also changes with age.

76. - 80. sorularda, cmleler srasyla okunduunda parann anlam btnln bozan cmleyi bulunuz.

76. (I) The eruption of Nevada del Ruiz in Columbia in 1985 illustrates how a lack of monitoring and poor evacuation can lead to loss of life. (II) The eruption itself was a small one and didnt kill anyone. (III) Disaster came later when molten rock melted the ice cap. (IV) This caused mudflows which wiped out 230, 000 people. (V) Sometimes there are early signs that an eruption is imminent. . A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V 77. (I) In his article The Future Doesnt Need Us, the scientist Bill Joy describes advances in three fields:genetic engineering, nanotechnology and robotics.(II) The first has created the possibility of gene therapy that could bring diseases like cancer under control. (III) These technological advances carry astrong potential for improving our quality of life in the not-too-distant future. (IV) The second refers to technologies that manipulate matter on the extremely small scale of nanometres, allowing the creation of novel plant species or new viruses. (V) Finally, robotics will eventually raise the possibility of intelligent and selfreplicating machines that are barely distinguishable from humans.. A) I B) II

78. (I) Many different conditions exist along the length of a river or stream. (II) The nature of a flowing-water ecosystem changes greatly from its source, where it begins, to its mouth, where it empties into another body of water. (III) For example, headwater streams are usually shallow, cold, swiftly flowing. (IV) In contrast, rivers downstream from the headwaters are wider and deeper, less cold and slower-flowing.(V) Unless strong conservation measures are initiated soon, human population growth and industrialization in tropical countries will spell the end of tropical rain forests by the middle of the century.. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V 79. (I) Systemic anaphylaxis is a dangerous allergic reaction that can occur when a person develops an allergy to a specific drug such as penicillin. (II) In serious allergic disorders, patients are sometimes given a form of immunotherapy known as desensitization. (III) A widespread allergic reaction takes place within minutes after the drug enters the body. (IV) Mast cells release large amounts of histamine and other compounds into the circulation, and these compounds cause extreme vasodilatation and permeability. (V) So much plasma may be lost from the blood that circulatory shock and death can occur within a few minutes.. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V


E) V

80. (I) It is clear that nuclear power presents many risks.(II) Other large-scale energyconversion methods, such as conventional coal-burning steam plants, also present health and environmental hazards. (III) When we speak of a vibration or an oscillation, we mean the motion of an object that regularly repeats itself, back and forth, over the same path. (IV) These include air pollution, oil spills, and the release of carbon dioxide.(V) In fact, while trying to meet the worlds needs for energy, we must find ways to overcome all these environmental hazards.. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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