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A Role of Chicago Convention In the Development of International Air Law: A significant Approach


Introduction: In De e!"er #$%%& representati'es o( )* states si+ne, in C-i a+o t-e Con'ention on International Ci'il A'iation.# To,a/& o'er )) /ears later& t-e C-i a+o Con'ention is still t-e le+al "a 0"one (or t-e re+1lation o( i'il a'iation worl,wi,e.* 2owe'er& si3 C-i a+o Con'ention !e!"er states ,e i,e, in t-e late (i(ties to initiate a +ran, pro4e t o( loser e ono!i an, politi al ooperation in E1rope w-en si+nin+ t-e EC Treat/ 5 t-en 0nown as t-e EEC Treat/ 5 in Mar - #$)6. T-is ooperation -as to,a/ res1lte, in a o!plete re+ional li"erali7ation o( air transport "etween t-e (i(teen EC !e!"er states. T-e intro,1 tion o( new re+1lator/ realities in a re+ional onte3t e3 l1si'el/ "etween a (ew o( t-e C-i a+o Con'ention !e!"er states represents a le+al -allen+e to t-e ol, !1ltilateral s/ste! an, raises se'eral o!pati"ilit/ iss1es on t-e le'el o( "ot- international an, EC8law. The 1944 Chicago Convention At t-e en, o( #$%%& US Presi,ent Roose'elt in'ite, all t-e allie, powers as well as so!e ne1tral +o'ern!ents to asse!"le in C-i a+o (or a on(eren e on i'il a'iation.#6 E3pe tations were -i+-& "1t ,1e to t-e 'er/ 1ne91al e ono!i "ar+ainin+ power o( t-e )* parties in'ol'e,& t-e ne+otiators presente, (1n,a!entall/ ,i((erent on epts o( w-at t-eir +o'ern!ents ,esire, to a -ie'e at t-e Con(eren e.#: Despite t-e ,i((erent proposals& t-ere was at least one t-in+ t-at 1nite, !ost states: t-e/ re(1se, to +i'e 1p t-e prin iple o( so'erei+nt/ o'er t-e airspa e a"o'e t-eir territor/.#$ T-is prin iple& "orn in t-e earl/ /ears& t-1s re!aine, t-e le+al stan,ar, in international i'il a'iation. A(ter one !ont- o( intensi'e ne+otiations& t-e C-i a+o Con'ention was si+ne,. Two ot-er a+ree!ents were also si+ne, 5 wit- ,i((erent +ra,es o( parti ipation 5 an, were anne3e, to t-e Con'ention: t-e International Air Ser'i es Transit A+ree!ent*; an, t-e International Air Transport A+ree!ent.*# At present& o'er #:) states -a'e rati(ie, or a e,e, t-e C-i a+o Con'ention& an, it is onl/ (air to sa/ t-at it -as !aintaine, t-e stat1s as one o( t-e !ost s1 ess(1l !1ltilateral ,o 1!ents e'er pro,1 e,& still +rowin+ an, onstantl/ a,41ste, to te -nolo+i al an, so ial pro+ress.** T-e C-i a+o Con'ention is "asi all/ a (ra!ewor0 Con'ention.*< Un,er t-is (ra!ewor0& ei+-teen Anne3es pro'i,e te -ni al r1les in or,er to i!ple!ent t-e arti les o( t-e Con'ention.*% Se'eral ne+otiatin+ states wante, one sin+le an, -ar!oni7e, le+al an, e ono!i re+i!e o'erin+ all aspe ts o( international air tra((i .*) 2owe'er& ,1e to t-e (1n,a!ental ,i((eren es "etween states a"o1t t-e ontent o( s1 - a ,o 1!ent& t-e Con(eren e instea, ,e i,e, to ela"orate t-ree parti 1lar a+ree!ents& w-i - t-e ,i((erent states were (ree to 4oin. T-e

Con(eren e -a, to ,istin+1is- "etween instit1tional an, te -ni al 91estions on t-e one -an,& an,

e ono!i


o!!er ial !atters on t-e ot-er -an,. T-e C-i a+o Con'ention an, t-e Transit A+ree!ent o'er t-e (irst two. T-e ot-er two& "ein+ t-e i!portant e ono!i an, o!!er ial ri+-ts& were lai, ,own in t-e Transport A+ree!ent wit- t-e intention t-at it wo1l, a -ie'e worl,wi,e a eptan e. 2owe'er& t-ese a+ree!ents were 91ite 1ne'enl/ a epte, a!on+ states. T-e ,o 1!ents pro'i,in+ (or instit1tional an, te -ni al !atters +aine, al!ost +lo"al a eptan e& w-ereas t-e a+ree!ent "ase, on (ree,o! o( e ono!i o!petition on epts& ai!in+ at !1ltilateral e3 -an+e o( o!!er ial a'iation ri+-ts& (aile, to

attra t t-e interest o( states.*= T-is ina,e91a / o( t-e Con(eren e to ,eal wit- all t-e i!portant iss1es o( international air transportation le(t se'eral pro"le!s 5 espe iall/ in t-e e ono!i (iel, 5 1nsettle,. T-e iss1e o( (i3in+ t-e tari((s (or international i'il a'iation ser'i es was instea, entr1ste, in t-e air arriers o( t-e worl,. T-e/ !et in C1"a in #$%) an, reate, a pri'ate or+ani7ation& t-e IATA to ,eal wit- t-is 91estions.*6 ot-er essential iss1es t-at t-e C-i a+o Con'ention (aile, to re+1late were t-e e3 -an+e o( o!!er ial tra((i ri+-ts an, t-e ontrol o( ro1te a ess& ro1te apa it/ an, ro1te (re91en ies. T-ese iss1es re!aine, ontro'ersial an, were le(t open (or s1"se91ent "ilateral or !1ltilateral re+1lation. States -a, to t1rn to re ipro it/ as a "asis (or re+1latin+ t-ese iss1es& an, onse91entl/ en+a+e, in t-e e3 -an+e o( "ilateral air transport a+ree!ents 5 1s1all/ re(erre, to as >"ilateral?. Fro! a le+al point o( 'iew& t-e C-i a+o Con'ention -as two (1n,a!ental (1n tions.*: T-e (irst is t-e pro+ressi'e o,i(i ation o( p1"li international air law& stip1latin+ ri+-ts an, ,1ties o( states. T-e se on, is its (1n tion as t-e onstit1tional instr1!ent o( t-e International Ci'il A'iation Or+ani7ation @-ereina(ter ICAOA& ,e(inin+ its ai!s an, (1n tions. T-e ICAO is a Unite, Nations Spe iali7e, A+en /& ,esi+ne, a"o'e all to (oster t-e sa(e an, or,erl/ ,e'elop!ent o( international i'il a'iation& an, !e!"ers-ip in t-e or+ani7ation is nowa,a/s al!ost 1ni'ersal.*$ Its (1n tions o'er !ost aspe ts o( international i'il a'iation an, its !ain or+ans are t-e plenar/ Asse!"l/ an, t-e per!anentl/ represente, Co1n il w-i - arr/ o1t !ost (1n tions o( t-e or+ani7ation wit- t-e assistan e o( 'ario1s s1"si,iar/ or+ans.<; T-e onstit1tional str1 t1re o( t-e or+ani7ation (alls o1tsi,e t-e s ope o( t-is wor0 an, will not "e onsi,ere, (1rt-er& "1t as t-e Con'ention sets t-e "asi str1 t1re arr/in+ t-e w-ole s/ste! o( p1"li international air law& a !ore t-oro1+- presentation o( its (1n,a!ental prin iples will "e !a,e.

Overview: Development of International Air Law: T-e 91estion o( National air spa e (irst arose w-en "alloons 1se, ,1rin+ t-e Fran o8Pr1ssian war in #:6;86#. A(ter t-e war& opinion was ,i'i,e, as to w-et-er t-e air s-o1l, "e treate, li0e t-e -i+- seas& (ree (or t-e 1se o( all& or w-et-er a Nation s-o1l, "e a"le to ontrol& w-o 1se, it. T-e iss1e "e a!e rele'ant to powere, (li+-t in #$;$& w-en t-e Fren - pilot Lo1is BlBriot rosse, t-e En+lis- C-annel to En+lan,. T-e ne3t /ear& in #$#;& an International Con(eren e o( Diplo!ats in Paris (aile, to rea - an a+ree!ent on t-e 91estion. A(ter Corl, Car I& t-e Unite, States& t-e DBritis- E!pireD& Bra7il& Fran e& Eree e& Ital/& Japan&Polan,& C7e -oslo'a0ia in total *= o1ntries !et in Paris an, ,rew 1p t-e Con'ention Relatin+ to t-e Re+1lation o( Air Na'i+ation 0nown as Paris Convention, 1919. T-e/ 'ote, to +i'e ea - Nation F o!plete an, e3 l1si'e so'erei+nt/ o'er t-e airspa e a"o'e t-eir territor/G. Neit-er t-e Unite, States nor R1ssia si+ne, t-e a+ree!ent. T-e ,ele+ates also esta"lis-e, t-e International Commission on Air Navigation (ICAN) as a (or1! to ,is 1ss t-e r1les (or allowin+ (orei+n air ra(t to 1se so'erei+n airspa e. Also& in t-e sa!e /ear& si3 E1ropean airlines (or!e, t-e International Air Traffic Association (IATA) to -elp airlines stan,ar,i7e t-eir paperwor0 an, passen+er ti 0ets an, also -elp airlines o!pare te -ni al pro e,1res. T-e IATA also reate, so!e o!!on ri+-ts (or passen+ers& s1 - as t-e ri+-t to "e pai,& i( an airline a1se, a passen+er loss& ,a!a+e& or ,eat-.T-e 2a'ana Con'ention on Ci'il A'iation was ,rawn 1p in #$*:& an, rati(ie, in Fe"r1ar/ #$<#& "/ t-e U.S. Senate. A+ree, to "/ *# Cestern 2e!isp-ere o1ntries& t-e on'ention +1arantee, t-e ri+-t o( inno ent passa+e o( air ra(t an, (or!1late, t-e r1les (or International Air Navigation "etween t-e ontra tin+ states relatin+ to air ra(t i,enti(i ation& lan,in+ (a ilities& an, stan,ar,s (or pilots. It also state, t-e ri+-t o( ea - o1ntr/ to set t-e ro1te to "e (lown o'er its territor/. In #$*$& ,ele+ates to t-e Carsaw Con'ention& w-i - in l1,e, t-e Unite, States& a+ree, to li!it passen+er o!pensation (or loss o( propert/ or -ar! to a passen+er "/ an airline to H:&<;;. T-is a!o1nt was !eas1re, 1sin+ +ol, "ase, on t-e 'al1e o( t-e Fren - (ran . In response to t-e in'itation o( t-e Unite, States Eo'ern!ent& representati'es o( )% nations !et at C-i a+o (ro! No'e!"er # to De e!"er 6& #$%%& to D!a0e arran+e!ents (or t-e i!!e,iate esta"lis-!ent o( pro'isional worl, air ro1tes an, ser'i esD an, Dto set 1p an interi! o1n il to olle t& re or, an, st1,/ ,ata on ernin+ international a'iation an, to !a0e re o!!en,ations (or its i!pro'e!ent.D T-e Con(eren e was also in'ite, to D,is 1ss t-e prin iples an, !et-o,s to "e (ollowe, in t-e a,option o( a new a'iation on'ention.D At t-e Con(eren e& ,ele+ates a+ree, 1pon a new on'ention& w-i - (or!e, t-e "asis o( Air Law e'er sin e& "ot- Do!esti all/ an, Internationall/. T-e Chicago Convention a,opte,

!ost o( t-e #$#$ Con'ention& in parti 1lar t-e all8i!portant state!ent o( Aerospace Sovereignty T-e C-i a+o Con'ention& #$%%& is 0nown t-ro1+-o1t t-e worl, "/ its (or!al title& t-e Convention on International Civil Aviation. It was si+ne, on De e!"er 6& #$%%.

T-e C-i a+o Con'ention o( #$%% also

reate, an in,epen,ent a+en /& t-e s1 essor to t-e International

Co!!ission (or Air Na'i+ation. T-e new a+en / still e3ists an, is a !a4or pla/er in International Law: The International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO!& "ase, in MontrBal. T-e la/in+ o( t-e (o1n,ations o( ICAO was initiate, "/ t-e US& an, ,e'elope, t-ro1+- ons1ltations "etween t-e IMa4or AlliesI& w-i - set 1p t-e per!anent International Civil Aviation !rgani"ation, a spe iali7e, a+en / o( t-e #nite$ Nations -ar+e, wit-

oor,inatin+ an, re+1latin+ international air tra'el. T-e Con'ention esta"lis-es r1les o( airspa e& air ra(t re+istration a n , sa(et/& an, ,etails t-e ri+-ts o( t-e si+natories in relation to air tra'el. T-e Con'ention also e3e!pts air (1els (ro! ta3. T-e Con'ention -as sin e "een re'ise, ei+-t ti!es Jin #$)$& #$=<& #$=$& #$6)& #$:;& #$$6& *;;; an, *;;=K. T-e !ost i!portant wor0 a o!plis-e, "/ t-e C-i a+o Con(eren e was in t-e te -ni al (iel, "e a1se t-e Con(eren e lai, t-e (o1n,ation (or a set o( r1les an, re+1lations re+ar,in+ air na'i+ation as a w-ole& w-i - "ro1+-t sa(et/ in (l/in+ a +reat step (orwar, an, pa'e, t-e wa/ (or t-e appli ation o( a o!!on air na'i+ation s/ste! t-ro1+-o1t t-e worl,. In t-e a++re+ate& t-e Con'ention "e a!e 0nown prin ipall/ (or its (i'e (ree,o!s w-i - t-e si+natories +rante, to ea ot-er. T-e/ were ontaine, in a s1"8a+ree!ent alle, International Air Transport A+ree!ent:

L T-e ri+-t to (l/ a ross anot-erIs territor/ wit-o1t lan,in+M

L T-e ri+-t to lan, (or non8tra((i p1rposes Js1 - as to re8(1elKM

L T-e ri+-t to p1t ,own passen+ers an, nationalit/M

ar+o ta0en on in t-e territor/ o( t-e air ra(tIs

L T-e ri+-t to ta0e passen+ers an, ar+o ,estine, (or t-e territor/ o( t-e air ra(tIs nationalit/M an, L T-e ri+-t to ta0e on passen+ers an, ar+o& an, to ,rop8o(( passen+ers an, ar+o ,estine, (or& or o!in+ (ro! t-e territor/ o( an/ state si+nator/ to t-e C-i a+o Con'ention. Be a1se o( t-e ine'ita"le ,ela/s in t-e rati(i ation o( t-e Con'ention& t-e Con(eren e -a, si+ne, an Interi! A+ree!ent& w-i - (oresaw t-e reation o( a Provisional International !rgani"ation %of a technical an$% a$visory nat1re wit- t-e p1rpose o( olla"oration in t-e (iel, o( International Ci'il A'iationJPICAOK. T-is Or+ani7ation

was in operation (ro! A1+1st #$%) to April #$%6& w-en t-e per!anent ICAO

a!e into "ein+. Its seat was in

Montreal& Cana,a an, in #$%6 t-e -an+e (ro! PICAO to ICAO was little !ore t-an a (or!alit/. 2owe'er& it also "ro1+-t a"o1t t-e en, o( ICAN "e a1se& now t-at ICAO was (ir!l/ esta"lis-e,& t-e ICAN !e!"er States a+ree, to ,issol'e ICAN "/ na!in+ ICAO spe i(i all/ as its s1 essor Or+ani7ation.

%ICA! was create$ as a means to sec&re international co'operation an$ the highest possi(le $egree of &niformity% in reg&lations an$ stan$ar$s, proce$&res an$ organi"ation regar$ing civil aviation matters) There are now 1*9% contracting states "oundation of the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO!: T-e Con'ention on International Ci'il A'iation set (ort- t-e p1rpose o( ICAO: DC2EREAS t-e (1t1re ,e'elop!ent o( international i'il a'iation an +reatl/ -elp to reate an, preser'e (rien,s-ip an, 1n,erstan,in+ a!on+ t-e nations an, peoples o( t-e worl,& /et its a"1se an "e o!e a t-reat to t-e +eneral se 1rit/M an, C2EREAS it is ,esira"le to a'oi, (ri tion an, to pro!ote t-at o8operation "etween nations an, peoples 1pon w-i - t-e pea e o( t-e worl, ,epen,sM T2EREFORE& t-e 1n,ersi+ne, +o'ern!ents -a'in+ a+ree, on ertain prin iples

an, arran+e!ents in or,er t-at international i'il a'iation !a/ "e ,e'elope, in a sa(e an, or,erl/ !anner an, t-at international air transport ser'i es !a/ "e esta"lis-e, on t-e "asis o( e91alit/ o( opport1nit/ an, operate, so1n,l/ an, e ono!i all/M 2a'e a or,in+l/ a,,ition to t-e nor!al wor0in+ on l1,e, t-is Con'ention to t-at en,. T-e Con(eren e i!!e,iatel/ set 1p& in

o!!ittees JE3e 1ti'e& No!inations& Steerin+& Cre,entials& an, R1les an,

Re+1lations Co!!itteesK& (o1r te -ni al o!!ittees wit- appropriate s1" o!!ittees.

O#$ective% of ICAO: ICAOIs ai!s& an, !1 - o( w-at t-ese in l1,e& are: &tandardization: T-e esta"lis-!ent o( International Stan,ar,s& Re o!!en,e, Pra ti es an, Pro e,1res o'erin+ li ensin+ o( personnel& r1les o( t-e air& air ra(t

operations& airwort-iness& aerona1ti al tele o!!1ni ations& air tra((i ser'i es& a i,ent in'esti+ation& air ra(t noise an, e!ission le'els& se 1rit/ an, sa(e transport o( ,an+ero1s +oo,s. A(ter a stan,ar, is (or!all/ a,opte,& ea - o( t-e ICAO I ontra tin+ statesI i!ple!ents it wit-in t-eir territories. C'&(AT): T-e ,e'elop!ent o( a satellite8"ase, s/ste! o!!1ni ations& na'i+ation on ept to !eet (1t1re tra((i !ana+e!ent

s1r'eillan eNair

JCNSNATMK nee,s o( i'il a'iation. *egional planning: For t-e p1rposes o( t-e ICAO& t-e +lo"e is ,i'i,e, into $ +eo+rap-i al re+ions w-i - are treate, in,i'i,1all/ (or Iplannin+ t-e pro'ision o( air na'i+ation (a ilities an, ser'i es re91ire, on t-e +ro1n,I. ICAO re+ional !eetin+s are -el, perio,i all/. "acilitation: T-e re,1 tion o( pro e,1ral (or!alities w-i - !a/ a,, e3tra ti!e to a passen+erIs 4o1rne/ an, t-e pro'ision o( a,e91ate air ter!inal "1il,in+s. +conomic%: Air ser'i es to "e esta"lis-e, on t-e "asis o( e91alit/ an, opport1nit/ an, operate, so1n,l/ an, e ono!i all/. Technical co,operation "or development: T-e pro!otion o( i'il a'iation in ,e'elopin+ o1ntries w-i - in l1,es t-e pro'ision o( assistan e to states in or,er to i!pro'e t-eir a'iation se 1rit/ (a ilities an, pro e,1res. T-is -as in'ol'e, t-e reation or assistan e o( !an/ lar+e i'il a'iation trainin+ enters.

Law: De'elop!ent o( a o,e o( international air law +o'ernin+ ertain iss1es. Organizational &tructure of ICAO

T-e or+ani7ation o!prises o( an Asse!"l/& a Co1n il assiste, "/ 'ario1s s1"or,inate "o,ies an, a Se retariat. T-e Asse!"l/ onsists o( representati'es (ro! t-e ontra tin+ states. It !eets e'er/ t-ree /ears to re'iew an, !an,ate poli /. T-e Co1n il is t-e +o'ernin+ "o,/ w-i - is ele te, "/ t-e Asse!"l/ (or a t-ree /ear ter! an, is o!prise, o( ,ele+ates (ro! <= ontra tin+ states. T-e <= states are sele te, a or,in+ to one o( t-ree -ara teristi s:


Oe/ i!portan e in air transportM Oe/ ontri"1tors to t-e pro'ision o( (a ilities (or air na'i+ationM states w-ose ,esi+nation will ens1re all !a4or areas o( t-e worl, are represente,.

T-e Co1n il a,opts stan,ar,s an, re o!!en,e, pra ti esM it is assiste, "/ t-e Air Na'i+ation Co!!ission on te -ni al iss1es& t-e Air Transport Co!!ittee on e ono!i Na'i+ation Ser'i es an, t-e Finan e Co!!ittee. T-e Se retariat is o!pose, o( sta(( re r1ite, on a "roa, +eo+rap-i al "asis an, is -ea,e, "/ t-e Se retar/8Eeneral. T-ere are ) !ain se tors: L L L L L T-e Air Na'i+ation B1rea1M T-e Air Transport B1rea1M T-e Te -ni al Co8operation B1rea1M T-e Le+al B1rea1M an, T-e B1rea1 o( A,!inistration an, Ser'i es. iss1es& an, t-e Co!!ittee on Joint S1pport o( Air

-e. Article% of Chicago Convention: Article 1: E'er/ state -as territor/. Article /: JNon8s -e,1le, (li+-ts o'er StateIs Territor/K: T-e air ra(t o( states& ot-er t-an s -e,1le, international air ser'i es& -a'e t-e ri+-t to !a0e (li+-ts a ross stateIs territories an, to !a0e stops wit-o1t o"tainin+ prior per!ission. 2owe'er& t-e state !a/ re91ire t-e air ra(t to !a0e a lan,in+. Article 10: JLan,in+ at ,esi+nate, 1sto!s airportsK: T-e state an re91ire t-at lan,in+ to "e at a an "e o!plete an, e3 l1si'e so'erei+nt/ o'er airspa e a"o'e its

1sto!s airport an, si!ilarl/ ,epart1re (ro! t-e territor/

re91ire, to "e (ro! a ,esi+nate, 1sto!s airport. Article 11: Ea - state s-all 0eep its own r1les o( t-e air as 1ni(or! as possi"le wit- t-ose esta"lis-e, 1n,er t-e on'ention& t-e ,1t/ to ens1re o!plian e wit- t-ese r1les rests wit- t-e ontra tin+ state. Article 12: JEntr/ an, Clearan e Re+1lationsK A stateIs laws an, re+1lations re+ar,in+ t-e a,!ission an, ,epart1re o( passen+ers& rew or ar+o (ro! air ra(t s-all "e

o!plie, wit- on arri'al& 1pon ,epart1re an, w-ilst wit-in t-e territor/ o( t-at state. Article 13: T-e a1t-orities o( ea - state s-all -a'e t-e ri+-t to sear - t-e air ra(t o( ot-er states on lan,in+ or ,epart1re& wit-o1t 1nreasona"le ,ela/... Article 14: Air ra(ts (l/in+ to& (ro! or a ross& t-e territor/ o( a state s-all "e a,!itte, te!poraril/ (ree o( ,1t/. F1el& Oil& spare parts& re+1lar e91ip!ent an, air ra(t stores retaine, on "oar, are also e3e!pt 1sto! ,1t/& inspe tion (ees or si!ilar -ar+es. Article 19: Be(ore an international (li+-t& t-e pilot in o!!an, !1st ens1re t-at t-e air ra(t is airwort-/& ,1l/ re+istere, an, t-at t-e rele'ant erti(i ates are on "oar, t-e air ra(t. T-e re91ire, ,o 1!ents are: L L L Certi(i ate o( Re+istrationM Certi(i ate o( Airwort-inessM Passen+er na!es& pla e o( "oar,in+ an, ,estinationM


Crew li ensesM Jo1rne/ Lo+"oo0M L Ra,io Li enseM Car+o !ani(est

Article 20: T-e air ra(t o( a state (l/in+ in or o'er t-e territor/ o( anot-er state s-all onl/ arr/ ra,ios li ense, an, 1se, in a or,an e wit- t-e re+1lations o( t-e state in w-i - t-e air ra(t is re+istere,. T-e ra,ios !a/ onl/ "e 1se, "/ !e!"ers o( t-e (li+-t rew s1ita"l/ li ense, "/ t-e state in w-i - t-e air ra(t is re+istere,. Article 21: t-e pilot an, rew o( e'er/ air ra(t en+a+e, in international a'iation !1st -a'e erti(i ates o(

o!peten / an, li enses iss1e, or 'ali,ate, "/ t-e state in w-i - t-e air ra(t is re+istere,. Article 22: JRe o+nition o( Certi(i ates an, Li ensesK Certi(i ates o( Airwort-iness& erti(i ates o( o!peten / an, li enses iss1e, or 'ali,ate, "/ t-e state in w-i - t-e air ra(t is re+istere,& s-all "e re o+nise, as 'ali, "/ ot-er states. T-e re91ire!ents (or iss1e o( t-ose Certi(i ates or Airwort-iness& erti(i ates o( o!peten / or li enses !1st "e e91al to or a"o'e t-e !ini!1! stan,ar,s esta"lis-e, "/ t-e Con'ention. Article 40: No air ra(t or personnel wit- en,orse, li enses or erti(i ate will en+a+e in

international na'i+ation e3 ept wit- t-e per!ission o( t-e state or states w-ose territor/ is entere,. An/ li ense -ol,er w-o ,oes not satis(/ international stan,ar, relatin+ to t-at li ense or erti(i ate s-all -a'e atta -e, to or en,orse, on t-at li ense in(or!ation re+ar,in+ t-e parti 1lars in w-i - -e ,oes not satis(/ t-ose stan,ar,sD.

T-e positi'e +ains o( t-e C-i a+o Con(eren e were o1tstan,in+. T-e/ in l1,e,: #. A per!anent International Act o( +reat i!portan e& t-e Con'ention on International Civil Aviation& was on l1,e, an, opene, (or si+nat1re. Alt-o1+- la 0in+ t-e ontro'erte, e ono!i arti les& t-is instr1!ent pro'i,e, a o!plete !o,erni7ation o( t-e "asi repla e t-e Paris Con'ention on Aerial Na'i+ation o( O to"er #<& #$#$& an, ,i, so w-en it a!e into e((e t on April %& #$%6. *. It also pro'i,e, t-e onstit1tion (or a new per!anent international or+ani7ation& t-e International Ci'il A'iation Or+ani7ation& w-i - -as now repla e, t-e pre'io1s international or+ani7ation o( !ore li!ite, s ope& t-e International Co!!ission (or Air Na'i+ation. <. T-e International Air Ser'i es Transit A+ree!ent& o!!onl/ 0nown as t-e Two P&(lic International Law of the Air. It was inten,e, to

Free,o!s a+ree!ent was on l1,e, an, opene, (or si+nat1re. T-is a+ree!ent -a, "een a epte, "/ <= states as o( J1ne <;& #$%6. It -as ,one !1 - to stri0e t-e s-a 0les pre'io1sl/ li!itin+ t-e ,e'elop!ent o( worl,8wi,e air o!!er e. %. T-e International Air Transport A+ree!ent& o!!onl/ 0nown as t-e Fi'e Free,o!s a+ree!ent& was also

on l1,e, an, opene, (or si+nat1re. ). A stan,ar, (or! o( "ilateral a+ree!ent (or t-e e3 -an+e o( air ro1tes was prepare, an, re o!!en,e, "/ t-e Con(eren e as part o( its (inal a t. T-is stan,ar, (or! -as s1"se91entl/ "een wi,el/ 1se, an, -as ,one !1 - to "rin+ a !eas1re o( onsisten / in to t-e !an/ new "ilateral a+ree!ents w-i - -a'e "een ne essar/. =. An Interi! A+ree!ent on International Ci'il A'iation was o!plete, an, opene, (or si+nat1re. 6. Finall/& a worl,8wi,e o!!on "asis was esta"lis-e, (or t-e te -ni al an, operational aspe ts o(

international i'il a'iation. T-e te -ni al ontri"1tions o( t-e Con(eren e& as printe, in t-e present 'ol1!e 1n,er t-e title DDra(ts o( Te -ni al Anne3esD& r1n to so!e #:: pa+es o( re o!!en,ations on s1 - !atters as airwort-iness o( air ra(t& air tra((i ontrol& an, t-e li0e. T-is o!pre-ensi'e "o,/ o( te -ni al

!aterial 1n,o1"te,l/ represents t-e !ost stri0in+ a,'an e e'er a -ie'e, at a sin+le on(eren e in t-e (iel,

o( international te -ni al olla"oration. :. T-e te -ni al re o!!en,ations prepare, at C-i a+o an, t-e later re'isions prepare, "/ t-e Pro'isional International Ci'il A'iation Or+ani7ation -a'e ser'e, as a +1i,e to pra ti e t-ro1+-o1t t-e worl, an, -a'e "een o( "asi o 1rre, sin e #$%). In the light of this recor$ of achievement, it can safely (e sai$ that the International Civil Aviation Conference at Chicago was one of the most s&ccessf&l, pro$&ctive, an$ infl&ential international conferences ever hel$ i!portan e in t-e e3traor,inar/ e3pansion o( international i'il a'iation w-i - -as

The International Civil Aviation !rgani"ation, a #N Speciali"e$ Agency, is the glo(al for&m for civil aviation ICAO wor0s to a -ie'e its 'ision o( sa(e& se 1re an, s1staina"le ,e'elop!ent o( i'il a'iation t-ro1+- ooperation a!on+st its !e!"er States. To i!ple!ent t-is 'ision& t-e Or+ani7ation -as esta"lis-e, t-e (ollowin+ Strate+i O"4e ti'es (or t-e perio, *;;)8*;#;: &afet. 4+nhance glo#al civil aviation %afet. En-an e +lo"al i'il a'iation sa(et/ t-ro1+- t-e (ollowin+ !eas1res: #. I,enti(/ an, !onitor e3istin+ t/pes o( sa(et/ ris0s to i'il a'iation an, ,e'elop an, i!ple!ent an e((e ti'e an, rele'ant +lo"al response to e!er+in+ ris0s. *. Ens1re t-e ti!el/ i!ple!entation o( ICAO pro'isions "/ ontin1o1sl/ !onitorin+ t-e pro+ress towar,

o!plian e "/ States. <. Con,1 t a'iation sa(et/ o'ersi+-t a1,its to i,enti(/ ,e(i ien ies an, en o1ra+e t-eir resol1tion "/ States. %. De'elop +lo"al re!e,ial plans t-at tar+et t-e root a1ses o( ,e(i ien ies. ). Assist States to resol'e ,e(i ien ies t-ro1+re+ional re!e,ial plans an, t-e esta"lis-!ent o(

sa(et/ o'ersi+-t or+ani7ations at t-e re+ional or s1"8re+ional le'el.

=. En o1ra+e t-e e3 -an+e o( in(or!ation "etween States to pro!ote !1t1al on(i,en e in t-e le'el o( a'iation sa(et/ "etween States an, a elerate t-e i!pro'e!ent o( sa(et/ o'ersi+-t. 6. Pro!ote t-e ti!el/ resol1tion o( sa(et/8 riti al ite!s i,enti(ie, "/ re+ional Plannin+ an, I!ple!entation Ero1ps JPIREsK. :. S1pport t-e i!ple!entation o( sa(et/ !ana+e!ent s/ste!s a ross all sa(et/8 relate, ,is iplines in all States.

$. Assist States to i!pro'e sa(et/ t-ro1+- te -ni al ooperation pro+ra!s an, "/ !a0in+ riti al nee,s 0nown to ,onors an, (inan ial or+ani7ations.

+nvironmental 5rotection 4)inimize the adver%e effect of glo#al civil aviation on the environment6 Mini!i7e t-e a,'erse en'iron!ental e((e ts o( +lo"al i'il a'iation a ti'it/& nota"l/ air ra(t noise an, air ra(t en+ine e!issions& t-ro1+- t-e (ollowin+ !eas1res: #. De'elop& a,opt an, pro!ote new or a!en,e, !eas1res to li!it or re,1 e t-e n1!"er o( people a((e te, "/ si+ni(i ant air ra(t noiseM li!it or re,1 e t-e i!pa t o( air ra(t en+ine e!issions on lo al air 91alit/M an, li!it or re,1 e t-e i!pa t o( a'iation +reen-o1se +as e!issions on t-e +lo"al li!ate. *. Cooperate witot-er international "o,ies an, in parti 1lar t-e UN Fra!ewor0 Con'ention on

Cli!ate C-an+e JUNFCCCK in a,,ressin+ a'iation?s +fficienc. 4+nhance the efficienc. of aviation operation%

ontri"1tion to +lo"al li!ate -an+e.

En-an e t-e e((i ien / o( a'iation operations "/ a,,ressin+ iss1es t-at li!it t-e e((i ient ,e'elop!ent o( +lo"al i'il a'iation t-ro1+- t-e (ollowin+ !eas1res: #. De'elop& oor,inate an, i!ple!ent air na'i+ation plans t-at re,1 e operational 1nit osts& (a ilitate

in rease, tra((i Jin l1,in+ persons an, +oo,sK& an, opti!i7e t-e 1se o( e3istin+ an, e!er+in+ te -nolo+ies

&755O*TI'8 I)5L+)+'TATIO' &T*AT+8I+& To i!ple!ent its Strate+i O"4e ti'es& t-e Or+ani7ation will ta0e t-e ne essar/ steps to: #. operate in a transparent !anner an, o!!1ni ate e((e ti'el/ "ot- e3ternall/ an, internall/M *. !aintain t-e e((e ti'eness an, rele'an e o( all ,o 1!ents an, !aterialsM <. i,enti(/ ris0 !ana+e!ent an, ris0 !iti+ation strate+ies as re91ire,M

%. ontin1o1sl/ i!pro'e t-e e((e ti'e 1se o( its reso1r esM ). en-an e t-e 1se o( in(or!ation an, o!!1ni ation te -nolo+/ inte+ratin+ it into its wor0 pro esses at t-e earliest possi"le opport1nit/M =. ta0e into a o1nt t-e potential i!pa ts on t-e en'iron!ent o( its pra ti es an, operationsM 6. i!pro'e its 1se o( ,i'erse -1!an reso1r es in line wit- t-e "est pra ti es in t-e UN s/ste!M an, :. operate e((e ti'el/ wit- t-e -i+-est stan,ar, o( le+al propriet/

5hilippine 9ilateral Agreement #etween other countrie%

T-e 5hilippine% and 9ritain si+ne, an air ser'i e a+ree!ent to "oost tra,e& tra'el& an, airline "1siness. Me!"er o( Parlia!ent 21+o Swire tol, a (or1! sta+e, "/ t-e Ma0ati B1siness Cl1" an, t-e Mana+e!ent Asso iation o( t-e P-ilippines -e si+ne, t-e pa t on T1es,a/ wit- Transportation Se retar/ Josep- E!ilio A+1inal,o A"a/a. DI e3pe t t-at o1r new 'isa ser'i es will lea, to !an/ !ore 'isitors tra'elin+ "etween o1r o1ntries&G sai, Swire. FTo -elp "rin+ t-is a"o1t& I will si+n a new air ser'i es a+ree!ent later to,a/ wit- Se retar/ A"a/a& an, !eet Ra!on An+ an, P-ilippine Airlines& w-o -ope to start ,ire t (li+-ts to Lon,on soon&G Swire tol, "1siness!en "e(ore si+nin+ t-e a+ree!ent. Ci'il Aerona1ti s Boar, e3e 1ti'e ,ire tor Car!elo Ar illa sai, t-e P-ilippines an, UO trie, !a0e a new a new air ser'i e a+ree!ent in *;;$ 5 to 1p+ra,e a #$=) a+ree!ent 5 "1t t-e pa t was not si+ne,. T-e ,etails o( t-e new ,eal& in l1,in+ (li+-t (re91en ies& wo1l, soon "e (inali7e,. FIt?s a o!pre-ensi'e a+ree!ent t-at ,e(ines t-e a'iation relations-ip o( two parties&G Ar illa note, &I'8A5O*+ and the 5hilippine% -a'e a+ree, to (1rt-er e3pan, t-e air ser'i es a+ree!ent "etween "ot- o1ntries to ena"le Sin+aporeIs arriers to (l/ an e3tra #% wee0l/ ser'i es to an, (ro! Manila. T-e sa!e entitle!ents are a or,e, to P-ilippine airlines in Sin+apore. F1rt-er!ore& arriers (ro! "ot- o1ntries will -a'e +reater a ess to an, (ro! ot-er P-ilippine ities& in l1,in+ 1p to )) wee0l/ ser'i es to an, (ro! Clar0 an, 1p to *6 wee0l/ ser'i es to an, (ro! all points in t-e P-ilippines e3 ept Manila an, Clar0& a state!ent iss1e, "/ Sin+aporeIs Ministr/ o( Transport sai,. DAir tra((i "etween Sin+apore an, t-e P-ilippines -as seen -ealt-/ +rowt- parti 1larl/ in t-e past /ear& sin e t-e "ilateral air ser'i es a+ree!ent was last re'ise, in *;;$&D sai, Lee Y1en 2ee& Dep1t/ Se retar/ JInternationalK (or Ministr/ o( Transport& w-o le, t-e Sin+apore ,ele+ation. DCit- in rease, air ser'i es& arriers o( "ot- o1ntries are now well8positione, to tap into t-e e3pe te, in rease in tra'el ,e!an, in t-e re+ion. Ce (1ll/ e3pe t to see as an o1t o!e& +reater to1ris! +rowt- as well as a (1rt-er "oost in tra,e an,

in'est!ents (or "ot- Sin+apore an, t-e P-ilippines.D In *;;$ Sin+apore8P-ilippine passen+er tra((i +rew "/ #; per ent. To ,ate& Sin+apore Airlines operates *: wee0l/ ser'i es to Manila w-ile Jetstar Asia operates #; wee0l/ ser'i es to Manila. Ti+er Airwa/s 1rrentl/ operates nine wee0l/ ser'i es to Clar0. Sil0Air also operates a total o( se'en wee0l/ (li+-ts to t-e P-ilippine ities o( Ce"1 an, Da'ao.

On *< De e!"er *;;$ t-e -ingdom of the 'etherland% and the 5hilippine% e3 -an+e, notes onstit1tin+ an A+ree!ent a!en,in+ t-e Air Transport A+ree!ent "etween t-e Eo'ern!ent o( t-e Oin+,o! o( t-e Net-erlan,s an, t-e Eo'ern!ent o( t-e Rep1"li o( t-e P-ilippines o( : Ma/ #$=$. T-e a!en,!ents relate to& a!on+st ot-ers& owners-ip an, ontrol o( ,esi+nate, airlines& tari((s an, ta3ation on a'iation (1el. T-e a!en,!ents are pro'isionall/ applie, as o( *< De e!"er *;;$. T-e A+ree!ent will enter into (or e on t-e ,ate on w-i - "ot- Eo'ern!ents -a'e in(or!e, ea - ot-er in writin+ t-at t-e (or!alities onstit1tionall/ re91ire, t-ere(ore in t-eir respe ti'e o1ntries -a'e "een o!plie, wit-.

T:+ 5hilippine% and 9razil -a'e si+ne, an Air Ser'i es A+ree!ent JASAK t-at will pa'e t-e wa/ (or t-e two o1ntriesI respe ti'e arriers to !o1nt ,ail/ (li+-ts to an, (ro! ea - ot-erIs territor/& t-e Depart!ent o( Forei+n A((airs JDFAK sai, Mon,a/. T-e a+ree!ent was initiate, on Ma/ *; at t-e o((i e o( Bra7ilPs National Ci'il A'iation A+en / JANACK in Rio ,e Janeiro& Bra7il. Forei+n A((airs Un,erse retar/ Ra(ael Se+1is -ea,e, t-e P-ilippine ,ele+ation& o!pose, o( o((i ials (ro! t-e DFA& Ci'il Aerona1ti s Boar, JCABK& Depart!ent o( Transportation an, Co!!1ni ations JDOTCK& Depart!ent o( To1ris! JDOTK an, t-e P-ilippine E!"ass/ in Brasilia& w-i - s1 ess(1ll/ ne+otiate, t-e o1ntr/?s (irst ASA in So1t- A!eri a wit- t-e o"4e ti'e o( openin+ new ,estinations (or P-ilippine arriers an, "oostin+ P-ilippine to1ris!. Q1otin+ Br1no Sil'a Dal ol!o& s1perinten,ent o( International Relations o( ANAC an, -ea, o( t-e Bra7ilian ,ele+ation& t-e DFA sai, t-at Bra7il onsi,ers t-e P-ilippines as t-e Dper(e t +atewa/ to Asia.D Se+1is& (or -is part& e3presse, opti!is! t-at t-e ASA will res1lt to (1rt-er in rease in to1ris! (i+1res an, people8to8people

e3 -an+es "etween t-e two o1ntries. Bra7ilian to1rists o!prise t-e lar+est to1rist arri'al in t-e P-ilippines (ro! So1t- A!eri a an, are onsi,ere, a!on+ t-e "i++est to1ris! spen,ers a o1ntin+ (or USH** "illion spent internationall/ in *;#*. On t-e ot-er -an,& t-e P-ilippines o1l, ser'e as anot-er +atewa/ to t-e Asean !ar0et o( at least =;; !illion people. Pen,in+ rati(i ation o( t-e ASA& t-e aerona1ti al a1t-orities o( "ot- o1ntries si+ne, a !e!oran,1! o( 1n,erstan,in+ JMOUK +rantin+ tra((i ri+-ts an, settin+ o1t ot-er operational ,etails (or t-eir ,esi+nate, arriers. T-e ASA is t-e ##t- "ilateral a+ree!ent "etween t-e P-ilippines an, Bra7il an, a !ilestone in t-e two o1ntriesI )< /ears o( (or!al ,iplo!ati relations& t-e DFA sai,. Ma. So orro Eon7a+a& P-ilippine AirlinesI JPAL?sK 'i e presi,ent (or E3ternal A((airs& on(ir!e, t-at wit- t-e si+nin+ o( t-e MOU& PAL !a/ (l/ to Bra7il t-ree ti!es a wee0 an, 1p to se'en (li+-ts a wee0.

9i#liograph. ICAO ; International Civil Aviation Organization Pro!otes 1n,erstan,in+ an, se 1rit/ t-ro1+- ooperati'e a'iation re+1lation. -ttp:NNwww.i ao.intN International Law Office% La1n -e, in #$$:& t-e International Law O((i e JILOK is a ne31s w-ere +lo"al orporate o1nsel en+a+e wit- t-e worl,Is pre8e!inent law (ir!s& an, ea - ot-er. -ttp:NNwww.internationallawo((i e. o!N IATA6org T-e Air Transport Asso iation JIATAK represents& lea,s an, ser'es t-e airline in,1str/. Its !e!"ers o!prise all !a4or passen+er an, ar+o airlines. -ttp:NNwww.iata.or+N 8overnment of India< )ini%tr. of Civil Aviation Des ri"es t-e role o( t-e !inistr/& its s1"si,iar/ or+anisations an, t-e o!!er ial "o,ies. -ttp:NN i'ila' .in Director 8eneral of Civil Aviation T-e D8CA is responsi"le (or i!ple!entin+& ontrollin+& an, s1per'isin+ airwort-iness stan,ar,s& sa(et/ operations& rew trainin+ in In,ia. -ttp:NN,a .in CA5A: Centre for A%ia 5acific Aviation CAPA is t-e lea,in+ +lo"al a'iation 0nowle,+e pra ti e& ,eli'erin+ !ar0et anal/sis an, ,ata to s1pport strate+i ,e ision !a0in+ at -1n,re,s o( t-e !ost re o+nise, or+anisations in t-e in,1str/. -ttp:NNwww. entre(ora'iation. o!N &6 9hatt < =6 &6 )ani > =6 9al?i%ta *edd. Author%! Air Law > 5olic. in India http:((www6gmanetwor?6com(new%(%tor.(1@/9/1(econom.(#u%ine%%(phl,u?,%ign,air,%ervice, agreement http:((ctngroup6com(%ingapore,and,philippine%,eApand,air,tran%port,agreement http:((www6min#uza6nl(en(?e.,topic%(treatie%(new%(new%fla%he%,1010(new%fla%he%,$anuar., 1010(amendment,air,tran%port,agreement,with,the,philippine%6html http:((www6%un%tar6com6ph(#rea?ing,new%(1012(0/(1B(philippine%,#razil,in?,air,%ervice%,pact, 1@42@1

"ootnote%: # #$%% Con'ention on International Ci'il A'iation& ICAO Do . 6<;;N=& #) UNTS *$) J#$%)K @-ereina(ter C-i a+o Con'entionA. * Tr1l/ worl,wi,e& sin e presentl/ o'er #:) states are parties to it. See -ttp:NNwww.i < #$$6 Consoli,ate, 'ersion o( t-e EC Treat/ in orporatin+ t-e -an+es !a,e "/ t-e Treat/ o( A!ster,a!& OJ No. C<%; J#$$6K& at p. #6<. T-e EEC Treat/ was rena!e, t-ro1+- arti le E.# MF o( t-e Maastri -t Treat/& an, will -ereina(ter "e alle, t-e EC Treat/. % #$)6 Treat/ Esta"lis-in+ t-e E1ropean E ono!i #6 B. C-en+&Rp/SlM note )& at p. 6. #: See R.I.R. A"e/ratne& Tol. = No. < J#$$=K at pp. 6$<8:;:. #$ I.2.P-. Die,eri0s8Ters -oor& p/SlM note 6& at p. $M B. C-en+ SlM note )& at p. #*;. *; #$%% International Air Ser'i es Transit A+ree!ent JT-e Two Free,o!s A+ree!entK& ICAO Do . 6);;& :% UNTS <:$ J#$)#K @-ereina(ter Transit A+ree!entA. *# #$%% International Air Transport A+ree!ent JT-e Fi'e Free,o!s A+ree!entK& ICAO Do . App. IT8 *#:6& #6# UNTS <:6 J#$)<K @-ereina(ter Transport A+ree!entA. ** M. Mil,e& Tol. IU J#$:%K& pp. ##$8#<#& at p. #*#M B. Sto 0(is-& Tol. )6 No. < J#$$*K& pp. )$$8=)*& at p. =;=. *< B. C-en+ SlM note )& at p. =<. *% See I.2.P-. Die,eri0s8Ters -oor& p/SlM note 6& pp. #;8##& (or t-e ontents o( t-e Anne3es. *) R.I.R. A"e/ratne& p/SlM note #:VRat pp. 6$)RQ9RpQAV *= A. Loewenstein& p/SlM note #%& at p. *;. *6 #$%) International Air Transport Asso iation& Arti les o( Asso iation& a,opte, in 2a'ana& C1"a J#$%)K @-ereina(ter IATAA. T-e IATA was (o1n,e, in #$%) as a p1rel/ pri'ate or+ani7ation o( t-e s -e,1le, air arriers "1t -as a prior -istor/ t-at ,ates "a 0 to #$#$. See I.2.P-. Die,eri0s8Ters -oor& p/SlM note 6& at p. 6. *: M. Mil,e& p/SlM note **& at p. #*<. *$ P. Malan 710& 8 J#$$6K& at p. *;;. <; B. C-en+&Rp/SlM note )& at pp. <#8)=.