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# S.

JUGEE

## Form 6 Upper Mechanics 1 JUNE 2013- (PAPER 42-50 MARKS)

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1. A string is attached to a block of weight 30 N, which is in contact with a rough horizontal plane. When the string is horizontal and the tension in it is 24 N, the block is in limiting equilibrium. (i) Find the coefficient of friction between the block and the plane. Solution: Let be the tension in the rope, = 24 N be the coefficient of friction. be the frictional force, = Using a sketch: 

The block is now in motion and the string is at an angle of 30 upwards from the plane. The tension in the string is 25N. (ii) Find the acceleration of the block. Solution: Let be the acceleration of the block, be the new tension, = 25 , be the mass of the block, be the weight of the block, = 30 N.
Direction of motion



+ = 30 rough surface

Since the block is in limiting equilibrium (about to move), the acceleration is still 0 ms 2 . Using Newtons Second law: = where is the resultant force on the plane. = (0) = 0 = Replacing by = From the diagram above, = 30 and = 24 30 = 24 = 24 30 25 cos 30 =

rough surface

Resolving the tension horizontally and vertically as shown on the diagram above. Using Newtons Second law: = 25 cos 30 = The weight of the block is given as 30 N. Since = , 30 = 10 = 3 kg

From the diagram above, + 25 sin 30 = 30 = 30 25 sin 30 Replacing = 3, = 0.8 and = 30 25 sin 30 in 25 cos 30 =

= 0.8

S.JUGEE

## Form 6 Upper Mechanics 1 JUNE 2013- (PAPER 42-50 MARKS)

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## 25 cos 30 0.8 30 25 sin 30 = 3 =

25 cos 30 0.8 30 25 sin 30 3

Direction of motion

50 m

= 0

Evaluating: = 2.55 ms 2 (correct to 3 s. f) 2. and are two points 50 metres apart on a straight path inclined at an angle to the horizontal, where sin = 0.05, with above the level of . A block of mass 16 kg is pulled down the path from to . The block starts from rest at and reaches with a speed of 10 ms 1 . The work done by the pulling force acting on the block is 1150 J. (i) Find the work done against the resistance to motion. Solution: Let be the distance between point and , = 50 m be the mass of the block, = 16 kg, be the speed of the block at , = 0 ms 1 be the speed of the block at , = 10 ms1 be the work done of the pulling force, = 1150 J be the work done against the resistance. be the height of above be the reaction force exerted by the plane be the pulling force. be the frictional(resistive) force 

+ cos = 10 cos

Using Principle of Conservation of Energy Energy at A = Energy at B Let the kinetic and potential energies be denoted by and respectively. Energy at A = + + Since the block starts from rest at A,
= 0

= 0 Energy at A = + = = 16 10 50sin Since sin = 0.05, = 16 10 50 0.05 = 400 J Energy at A = 400 + 1150 = 1550 Energy at B = + + Since the block has reached the ground level at , = 0 = 1 1 2 = 16 102 = 800 J 2 2

S.JUGEE

## Form 6 Upper Mechanics 1 JUNE 2013- (PAPER 42-50 MARKS)

3.

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The block is now pulled up the path from to . The work done by the pulling force and the work done against the resistance to motion are the same as in the case of the downward motion. (ii) Show that the speed of the block when it reaches is the same as its speed when it started at . Solution: To show that the speed of the block when it reaches is the same as its speed when it started at , it is sufficient to show that the change in kinetic energy is 0 J (no change in ) Using Principle of Conservation of Energy Energy at B = Energy at A Energy at B = + + Since the block is starting the ground level at , = 0 = 1150 (remains same) Energy at B = at B + 1150 Energy at A = + + = 400 J = 750 J (found in ) Energy at A = Ek at A + 400 + 750 Equating both: at B + 1150 = Ek at A + 400 + 750 at B + 1150 = Ek at A + 1150 at B Ek at A = 0 

A particle of mass 2.1 kg is attached to one end of each of two light inextensible strings. The other ends of the strings are attached to points and which are at the same horizontal level. hangs in equilibrium at a point 40 cm below the level of and , and the strings and have lengths 50 cm and 104 cm respectively (see diagram). Show that the tension in the string is 20 N, and find the tension in the string . Solution: Let 1 be the tension in string , 2 be the tension in string , be the foot of the perpendicular from to the line , angle = , angle =



Using Pythagorass theorem to find the lengths of and respectively. = = 502 402 = 30 cm 1042 402 = 96 cm

S.JUGEE 30 3 = 50 5 40 4 cos = = 50 5 96 12 sin = = 104 13 40 5 cos = = 104 13 sin = Resolving Horizontally: 1 sin = 2 sin 3 12 1 = 2 5 13 Simplifying 13 2 = 20 1 Resolving Vertically:

## Form 6 Upper Mechanics 1 JUNE 2013- (PAPER 42-50 MARKS)

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4. A particle is released from rest at the top of a smooth plane which is inclined at an angle to the horizontal, where sin =
16 65

The

distance

travelled by from the top to the bottom is metres, and the speed of at the bottom is 8 ms 1 . (i) Find the value of and hence find the speed of when it has travelled 2 metres. Solution: Let be the speed of the particle at top, = 0 ms1 be the speed of the particle at bottom, = 8 ms 1 be the speed when the particle has travelled
1 2 1



1 cos + 2 cos = 21 1 4 5 +2 = 21 5 13
13

Replacing 2 = 20 1 4 13 5 + 1 = 21 5 20 13 4 1 1 +1 = 21 5 4 4 1 1 + 1 = 21 5 4 21 = 21 20 1 1 1 = 20 N Replacing 1 = 20 N in 2 = 2 = 13 20 20 13 20 1

## be the acceleration of the particle down the plane,

Top = 0

Bottom = 8

The acceleration, , of the particle downwards the plane is given by = sin Using Equation of Motion: 2 = 2 + 2

2 = 13

S.JUGEE 82 = 02 + 2 sin 2 10 16 = 64 65

## Form 6 Upper Mechanics 1 JUNE 2013- (PAPER 42-50 MARKS)

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5. A car of mass 1000 kg is travelling on a straight horizontal road. The power of its engine is constant and equal to kW. The resistance to motion of the car is 600 N. At an instant when the cars speed is 25 ms1 , its acceleration is 0.2 ms 2 .
1

Simplifying: = 13 m

When the particle has travelled 2 = 6.5 m: Using Equation of Motion: 2 = 2 + 2 = 0 + 2 sin 6.5 16 2 = 2 10 6.5 65 2 = 32 = 5.66 ms1 (correct to 3 s. f) The time taken by to travel from the top to the bottom of the plane is seconds. (ii) Find the distance travelled by at the instant when it has been moving for 2 seconds. Solution: Using Equation of Motion: = + Replacing = , 8 = 0 + sin = = 8 10 65 13 4
1 13 8 16 1 2 2

Find (i) the value of , Solution: Let be the mass of the car, = 1000 kg, be the resistance to motion of the car, = 600 be the speed of the car, = 25 ms 1 , be the acceleration of the car, = 0.2 ms 2 , be the driving force of the car, be the reaction force exerted by the road on the car.





Using Newtons Second law: = where is the resultant force on the road. = 600 = 1000 0.2 600 = 200 = 800 N

When has been moving for 2 = Using Equation of Motion: 1 = + 2 2 1 13 sin 2 8 1 16 169 = 10 = 3.25 m 2 65 64 =
2

S.JUGEE

## Form 6 Upper Mechanics 1 JUNE 2013- (PAPER 42-50 MARKS)

Solution: =

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Using formula for Power, , where where is the driving force on the road. = 800 25 = 20 000 Since is in kW (given in the question) = 20 kW (ii) the steady speed at which the car can travel.  Solution: Let be the steady speed At steady speed (constant speed), = 0 ms 2 . Using Newtons Second law: = where is the resultant force on the road. = 600 = 0 = 600 N Using formula for Power, , where = where is the driving force on the road. 20 000 = 600 20 000 = 600 = 33.3 ms 1 (correct to 3 s. f) 6. A particle moves in a straight line. It starts from rest at a point and moves towards a point A on the line. During the first 8 seconds s speed increases to 8 ms 1 with constant acceleration. During the next 12 seconds s speed decreases to 2 ms1 with constant deceleration. then moves with constant acceleration for 6 seconds, reaching with speed 6.5 ms 1 . (i) Sketch the velocity-time graph for s motion. 

## Since the particle starts from rest, = 0 ms 1 when = 0.

/ms1

8 6.5

2 0 8 20 26 /s

The displacement of from , at time seconds after leaves , is metres. (ii) Shade the region of the velocity-time graph representing for a value of where 20 26.  Solution: This is a tricky question. Note that represents the displacement from . Shading must be from = 0 to a general value of , where 20 26 .
/ms1

8 6.5

2 0 8 20 26 /s

S.JUGEE

## Form 6 Upper Mechanics 1 JUNE 2013- (PAPER 42-50 MARKS)

 Replacing = 20 and = 92 in = 0.375 2 13 + 202

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(iii) Show that, for 20 26, Solution: Let be the acceleration for 20 26. = 6.5 2 6
2

## = 0.375 2 13 + 92 = 0.375 20 Simplifying = 202 = 0.375 2 13 + 202 7.

2

13 20 +

= 0.75 ms

For 20 26, use equation of line = + In this case, = 0.75 + When = 20, = 2 2 = 0.75 20 + = 13 = 0.75 13 Particles of mass 0.26 kg and of mass 0.52 kg are attached to the ends of a light inextensible string. The string passes over a small smooth pulley which is fixed at the top of a smooth plane. The plane is inclined at an angle to the = = d 0.75 13 d horizontal, where sin =
16 65 63 65

and cos =

. A is

held at rest at a point 2.5 metres from , with the part of the string parallel to a line of greatest slope of the plane. hangs freely below at a point 0.6 m above the floor (see diagram). is released and the particles start to move. Find

0.75 2 = 13 + 2 = 0.375 13 + For 20 26 The displacement from = 0 to = 20 is given by the area of the graph. Area = Area of triangle from = 0 to = 8 + Area of trapezium (from = 8 to = 20) 1 1 = 8 8 + 2 + 8 12 2 2 = 32 + 60 = 92
2

(i) the magnitude of the acceleration of the particles and the tension in the string, Solution: Let be the tension in the string be the acceleration of the particles Note: Particle A will move up the plane and particle B will move down. 

## Form 6 Upper Mechanics 1 JUNE 2013- (PAPER 42-50 MARKS)

Equating both equations: 0.26 + 0.64 = 5.2 0.52 0.26 + 0.52 = 5.2 0.64 0.78 = 4.56

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Direction of motion

. .

= 5.85 ms 2 (correct to 3 s. f) Replacing = 5.85 ms 2 in = 0.26 + 0.64 . = 0.26 5.85 + 0.64 = 2.16 N(correct to 3 s. f) (ii) the speed with which reaches the floor and the distance of from when comes to instantaneous rest. Solution: Let be the initial speed of , = 0 ms 1 be the final speed of (reaching floor) Using Equation of Motion: 2 = 2 + 2 2 = 0
Direction of motion
2

Using Newtons Second law: = where is the resultant force on the road. 2.6 sin = 16 2.6 = 0.26 65 0.64 = 0.26 = 0.26 + 0.64 For Particle B:



+ 2 5.85 0.6

2 = 7.02 = 2.65 ms 1

Case 1: When reaches the floor, has moved up by 0.6 m and velocity of is the same as the velocity of

## hitting the floor at this instant.

0.6 m

Using Newtons Second law: = where is the resultant force on the road. 5.2 = 0.52 = 5.2 0.52

0.6 m

## Form 6 Upper Mechanics 1 JUNE 2013- (PAPER 42-50 MARKS)

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## For this part, particle is moving against the gravity : = sin = 10 16 65

= 2.46 ms2 as At instantaneous rest, the final velocity is 0 ms1 . Using Equation of Motion: 2 = 2 + 2 0
2

= 2.65

+ 2 2.46

= 1.425 Hence, the distance of from when comes to instantaneous rest is given by 1.9 1.425 = 0.475 m Note: All the values must be taken accurately for acceleration found in part (i) and velocity found in part (ii) to get the value of 0.475.