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Underground Power Transmission Lines

Underground Power Transmission Lines

Costs of installation and materials


The installation of underground transmission lines costs more per foot than most overhead lines. Costs of underground construction can range from four to ten times as much as an equivalent length of overhead line. However, generalized cost ratios of underground to overhead options should not be used because costs are site-specific. A typical new 69 kV overhead single-circuit transmission line costs approximately $285,000 per mile as opposed to $1.5 million per mile (without the terminals) for a new 69 kV underground line. A new 138 kV overhead line costs approximately $390,000 per mile as opposed to $2 million per mile (without the terminals). A 2006 Virginia Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission report estimated that constructing underground transmission lines ranges 4 to 10 times more expensive when compared to overhead lines of the same voltage.

The cost of constructing underground transmission lines is determined by the local environment and the distances between splices and termination points . Other issues that make underground transmission lines more costly than overhead lines are right-of-way access and maintenance, construction limitations in urban areas, conflicts with other utilities, trenching construction issues, crossing natural or manmade barriers, and the potential need for forced cooling facilities.

Typical Work Progression for Underground Pipe-Type Installation in a City Street

Repair costs
Repair costs for an underground line are usually greater than costs for an equivalent overhead line. Leaks can cost $50,000 to $100,000 to locate and repair. A leak detection system for a HPFF (High-pressure, fluid-filled pipe) cable system can cost from $1,000 to $400,000 to purchase and install depending on the system technology. Molded joints for splices in XLPE (Cross-linked polyethylene) line could cost about $20,000 to repair. Field-made splices could cost up to $60,000 to repair. A fault in a directionally drilled section of the line could require replacement of the entire section. For example, the cost for directional drilling an HPGF cables is $25 per foot per cable. The cables in the directional drilled section twist around each other in the pipe so they all would have to be pulled out for examination. Easement agreements may require the utility to compensate property owners for disruption in their property use and for property damage that is caused by repairing underground transmission lines on private property. However, the cost to compensate the landowner is small compared to the total repair costs. Underground transmission lines have higher life cycle costs than overhead transmission lines when combining construction, repair and maintenance costs over the life of the line.

Siting Impacts
The impacts of underground transmission lines differ from those of overhead transmission lines during construction and afterwards. Underground lines generally cause greater soil disturbance due to trenching requirements, while overhead lines disturb the soil primarily at the location of the transmission poles. Trenching an underground line through farmlands, forests, wetlands, and other natural areas causes significant land disturbances. The ROW for underground transmission lines must be kept clear of trees and bushes, while small trees and bushes are allowed within the ROW under overhead lines. Post-construction issues such as aesthetics, concerns regarding electric and magnetic fields (EMF), and property values are usually less of an issue for underground lines. Underground lines are not visible after construction and have less impact on property values and aesthetics.

Power Plant Practices to Ensure Cable Operability


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Power Plant Practices to Ensure Cable Operability

Background
The basic function of electrical cable in a power plant is to transmit instrument signals, control signals, and electrical power. In most non-nuclear power applications, cables are not required to function under adverse environmental conditions. For these cables, operability means that the cable will continue to conduct the signal or power, while maintaining satisfactory insulation characteristics such that unacceptable levels of signal attenuation or shorting do not occur. However, certain cables in safety-related applications in nuclear power plants may be required to function while exposed to harsh environmental conditions if an accident occurs. For these cables, operability includes the ability to remain functional during normal conditions while maintaining the capability to operate satisfactorily for a specific period in an accident environment (e.g., loss-of-coolant accident). Recently, cable installation and operability concerns were raised about low-voltage cabling in nuclear safety-related service that could potentially be exposed to accident

environments. The concerns were first raised as a result of installation practices that were alleged to have deviated from industry standard, accepted, or good practices. The deviations consisted of excessive lengths of unsupported vertical cable drops, reduced bending radii of cable during and after installation, installation of new cable in raceways in a manner that could damage existing cable, impact damage to cable during installation, and other related handling and installation concerns.

Scope of research
The scope of the research covered the following specific areas and their relevance to cable operability:

General cable construction features Cable applications Physical installation practices Environmental qualification practices Record of past cable performance Differences in medium-voltage power, low-voltage power, control, and instrumentation cable stresses during service and testing Efficacy of standard insitu testing for: 1. Suspect installations 2. General cable condition monitoring Significance of available ground plane at the surface of cable insulation in relationship to cable condition monitoring via electrical tests Cable performance in support of connected devices during accident conditions Operating voltage versus rated voltage Relationship between required safety function and intrinsic cable capability Efficacy of existing industry standards, codes, and guidelines

National Electrical Code design considerations as applied to Utility Substations


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National Electrical Code design considerations as applied to Utility Substations (on photo: Mina Manama in Bahrein by Cebarco Bahrain)

NEC and NESC Design Considerations


A discussion of the National Electrical Code (NEC) and National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) design considerations as applied to utility substations, including working clearances, cable tray, cables, conduit, conduit fill, and station services in electrical equipment enclosures. Through the guidance of the National Electrical Code (NEC), we can meet the need for safe low-voltage designs by applying the NEC in substations whenever possible and practical. This paper will primarily focus on low-voltage, single phase designs (600V or less) . In order to apply the NEC to substation design, we must first and foremost educate ourselves and understand the intent of the NEC and then decide how it can be utilized in what we are doing. The NEC and NESC contain many applications for safeguarding personnel and equipment . The topics in these publications are so broad that it would be difficult or even next to impossible to discuss in their entirety. There are many topics such as grounding and bonding, warning signs, illumination, PT and CT secondary grounding requirements, etc. that this paper will not address.

Figure 1: Scope of NEC and NESC

This paper will discuss a few specific applications of the NEC while referencing the use of the more prevalent NESC and IEEE documents in utility applications.

Electrical Equipment Enclosure


Working Space
Working space (600V or less) around electrical equipment is covered in Article 110, Section II of the NEC and Rule 125 of the NESC . Both codes require that sufficient access and working space is to be provided and maintained around all electrical equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. This paper highlights some of the similarities between the two codes but there are additional restrictive rules and requirements of the NEC. Both codes require the same width and depth to a working space as identified in Tables 110.26(A)(1) and 125-1 of the NEC and NESC, respectively. The height of a working space is where the codes begin to be different. The NEC requires a working space height of 6-6 from the floor/finished grade or to the height of the equipment, whichever is higher. The NESC simply states that the height is to be no less than 70. As an example, the design engineer should avoid placing equipment that is not part of the electrical system in the dedicated equipment space, as it causes safety and maintenance issues. If the foreign equipment were to require maintenance, a situation arises in which personnel are working directly over electrical components which could possibly present a safety hazard.

easuring Eart! "esistance


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Measuring Earth Resistance (photo by Fluke)

What affects grounding resistance?


First, the NEC code (987, 50-83-3) requires a minimum ground electrode length of 2.5 meters (8.0 feet) to be in contact with soil. Soil composition, moisture content, and temperature all influence the soil resistivity, so it is recommended that the ground rods be placed as deep as possible into the earth to be most effective. Nevertheless, four variables affect the ground resistance of a ground system:

1 !ength"depth of the ground electrode

Single ground electrode

One very effective way of lowering ground resistance is to drive ground electrodes deeper. Soil is not consistent in its resistivity and can be highly unpredictable. It is critical when installing the ground electrode that it is below the frost line . This is done so that the resistance to ground will not be greatly influenced by the freezing of the surrounding soil. Generally, by doubling the length of the ground electrode you can reduce the resistance level by an additional 40%. There are occasions where it is physically impossible to drive ground rods deeper-areas that are composed of rock, granite, etc. In these instances, alternative methods including grounding cement are viable.

# Diameter of the ground electrode

Reduced diameter of earthing electrode (photo taken from edi-cp.com)

Increasing the diameter of the ground electrode has very little effect in lowering the resistance . For example, you could double the diameter of a ground electrode and your resistance would only decrease by 0%.

$ Num%er of ground electrodes


Another way to lower ground resistance is to use multiple ground electrodes . In this design, more than one electrode is driven into the ground and connected in parallel to lower the resistance. For additional electrodes to be effective, the spacing of additional rods needs to be at least equal to the depth of the driven rod. Without proper spacing of the ground electrodes, their spheres of influence will intersect and the resistance will not be lowered.

& 'round s(stem design


Simple grounding systems consist of a single ground electrode driven into the ground. The use of a single ground electrode is the most common form of grounding and can be found outside your home or place of business. Complex grounding systems consist of multiple ground rods, connected, mesh or grid networks, ground plates, and ground loops. These systems are typically installed at power generating substations, central offices, and cell tower sites. Complex networks dramatically increase the amount of contact with the surrounding earth and lower ground resistances.
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#eneral Tec!nical Speci$ication %or &&'() S%* #as +nsulated etal Enclosed Switc!gear ,#+S&.

General Tender Technical Specification For SF6 Gas Insulated Metal Enclosed Switchgear (GIS) - photo by directindustry.com: ABB Gas insulated primary distribution switchgear

'eneral
The SF6 gas insulated metal enclosed switchgear shall be totally safe against inadvertent touch of any of its live constituent parts. It should be designed for indoor application with meteorological conditions at site ( winter 3C to 14 C and Summer 31 C to 46 C, seismic zone: IV ) . All parts of the switchgear should be three phase enclosed for 220kV GIS.

The arrangement of gas sections or compartments shall be such as to facilitate future expansion of incomer bay with any make on either end without any drilling, cutting or welding on the existing equipment. To add equipment, it shall not be necessary to move or dislocate the existing switchgear bays. The design should be such that all parts subjected to wear and tear are easily accessible for maintenance purposes . The equipment offered shall be protected against all types of voltage surges and any equipment necessary to satisfy this requirement shall be deemed to be included. The required overall parameters of GIS are as follows:

No. Technical Particulars 1. Rated Voltage 2. Rated frequency 3. Grounding

4. Rated Power frequency withstand Voltage (1 min) line to earth 5. Impulse withstands BIL 1.2/50/mic. 1050 kVp Sec) Line to earth 6. Switching impulse voltage (250/2500 mic-sec) 7. Rated short time withstand current (1 40 kA (rms) sec) 8. Rated peak withstand current 100 kA (peak) 9. Guaranteed maximum gas losses or As per IECcomplete installation as well as for all 62271-203 individual sections in %. 10. Seismic level Zone-IV, as per IS-1893,Year2002
The metal-enclosed gas insulated switchgear , including the operating devices, accessories and auxiliary equipment forming integral part thereof, shall be designed, manufactured, assembled and tested in accordance with the IEC- 62271-203/IEC-62271-200 publicationsincluding their parts and supplements as amended or revised to date.

220kV System 245 kV (rms) 50 HZ Effectively earthed 460 kV (rms)

Reference Standards
The metal-enclosed gas-insulated switchgear, including the operating devices, accessories and auxiliary equipment forming integral part thereof, shall be designed, manufactured, assembled and tested in accordance with the following International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) standards including their parts and supplements as amended or revised till date:

IEC 62271-203 - Gas Insulated metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages above 52KV. IEC 60376 - New sulphur hexafluoride IEC 62271- 100 High voltage alternating current Circuit breakers IEC 60694 - Common clauses for high voltage Switchgear and control-gear standards IEC 62271-102 - Alternating current disconnectors (isolators) and earthing switches. IEC 61128 Alternating current disconnectors. Bus-transfer current switching by disconnectors. IEC 61129 Alternating current earthing switches. Induced current switching IEC 66044-1 Current transformers IEC 66044-2 Voltage transformers IEC 60137 Bushings for alternating voltages above 1000 V IEC 60859 Cable connections for gas-insulated switchgear

IEC 60480 Guide to checking of sulphur hexafluoride taken from electrical equipment IEC 60099-1/4 Non-linear resistor type arresters for AC systems IEC 60439 Factory-built assemblies of low-voltage switchgear and control gear. IEC 60427 Report on synthetic testing of high-voltage alternating current circuit breaker. IEEE 80 (2000) IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation grounding. CIGRE-44 Earthing of GIS application guide. (Electra no.151, Dec93)

The components and devices which are not covered by the above standards shall conform to, and comply with, the latest applicable standards, rules, codes and regulations of the internationally recognized standardizing bodies and professional societies as may be approved by the Purchaser. The manufacturer shall list all applicable standards; codes etc. and provide copies thereof for necessary approval. In case the requirements laid down herein differ from those given in above standard in any aspect the switchgear shall comply with the requirements indicated herein in regard thereto.
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itigate T!e agnetic %ield E/posure Near Trans$ormer Substation


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Mitigate The Magnetic Field Exposure Near Transformer Substation

1aterials and methods


Situation
Typical TS with nominal power 630 kVA, nominal voltage 10/0.4 kV is located in the basement of the residential apartment building. In the first room there is transformer ( Fig ure 1) whereas in the second one both 20 kV and low voltage switchgear is located.

We were contacted by the owner of the apartment above the TS to estimate the field levels inside the apartment . First measurements shoved magnetic flux density up to values of 15 Tinside the apartment above the TS.

1easurements
Magnetic field is linearly correlated to the actual current load , but this can vary during the day depending on the present use. To obtain the detailed snapshot of the magnetic field in the apartment above the TS it is therefore not enough to make only spot measurements, but also 24-hour measurements to evaluate the time variability of the magnetic field and determine worst case condition.

Figure 1 - Transformer located in the right room of the transformer substation

For spot measurements we have used Wandel & Goltermann EM field analyzer EFA-3 with the B field probe. For 24-hour measurements we have used automatic measurement station PMM 8055 which measures the magnetic flux density continuously 24 hours per day. It consists of measurement probe for ELF magnetic flux density HP-051, control unit with the GSM modem to send the measurements from the measurement station to the server connected to the internet, housing with solar cells and accumulator. After the data are automatically transferred to the server, they could be viewed by everyone through an internet application. According to the Slovenian legislation and the international standards (IEC 61786) the magnetic flux density is measured at the height of 1 or 1.5 m above the ground . But in the apartment, it is not uncommon that the children have their beds on the floor or do they play on the floor and with measurements 1 m above the ground the exposure would be greatly underestimated. Therefore all the measurements spot and continuous 24-hour were taken at the height of 0.2 m above the ground.

Numerical calculations
We used program package Narda EFC-400EP for numerical modeling of the magnetic flux density in the vicinity of the TS. It is based on segmentation method where each conductor is presented with finite segments. Corresponding material and electromagnetic characteristics are assigned to all the segments and the resulting magnetic field is the sum of the contributions of all the segments .

Sa$ety operations on medium 0oltage switc!gear


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Safety operations on medium voltage switchgear

5a6ards of operating on electrical equipment


There are five types of hazards associated with the operation of electrical equipment. 1. Electrical shock 2. Electrical burns 3. Fire and explosion 4. Heat build up 5. Mechanical hazards

Electrical shock
There is no way to tell if an electrical conductor or terminal is alive just by looking at it, it should be tested using an appropriate approved tester. Thereafter it should be made safe in such a manner that it cannot be energised by someone else whilst it is being worked on.

Electrical %urns
With medium voltage it is not necessary to touch a conductor or terminal in order to get burned. Air does not normally conduct electricity however, when a person gets too close to an electrical wire that is not properly insulated, the air can break down and form a conducting path between them to earth. Coils and capacitors store electrical energy and release it after power has been turned off and should, therefore, be discharged before work commences.

-ire and e4plosion


There is great danger of fire and explosion when working with medium voltage equipment, due to the large fault currents that can flow in the system. Oil circuit breakers (OCBs) and oil mini sub stations (MSS) and ring main panels (RMPs) pose a particular threat. Operator errors can also cause faults, livening up a cable, whist the other end is earthed for instance.

5eat %uild up
Heat can build up in wires. A lightweight extension lead gets hot when used for heavy duty service. Avoid using extension leads at all, if possible. If they must be used, ensure they can carry the current without overheating. Do not string them overhead, across aisles and under mats, where heat can build up and fully extend them.

1echanical ha6ards
Electricity is often used to run machinery, rotating machinery and moving parts are always a source of danger, always ensure that guards are in place. Make sure the machine you are working on cannot be turned on without your knowledge.

Electrical design o$ t!e on1site generation system


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Electrical design of the on-site generation system (photo by Cummins Power Generation via Flickr)

78er8ie)
The electrical design and planning of the onsite generation system is critical for proper system operation and reliability. This chapter covers installation design of the generator and related electrical systems, their interface with the facility, and topics regarding load and generator protection. One key element for understanding and communication of the electrical system design is a oneline diagram such as the one depicted in Figure 1 below. The electrical installation of the generator set and its accessories must follow the Electrical Code in use by local inspection authorities. Electrical installation should be done by skilled, qualified, and experienced electricians and contractors.

Figure 1 - Typical One-Line Diagram of an Electrical Distribution System

,(pical Electrical S(stem Designs


This section provides examples of typical electrical system designs used in low and medium/high voltage onsite power generation applications. It includes descriptions of different methods of generating at medium voltage such as the use of transformers in single and multiple generator configurations. While it is impossible to show every combination; the designs presented in this section are often used. Several of the designs presented include paralleling capabilities and a brief discussion of the merits and risks associated with paralleling is provided. Because the use of transformers is widespread for medium voltage power generation , we have included a topic on these devices and the factors that are involved in choosing the right transformer. Electrical System Designs tend to vary considerably based on the needs, or primary functions of the power generation equipment in the application. A system design that is optimized for emergency service situations will generally not be the best that it can be for interruptible service and is definitely not the same type of system design as might be seen in a prime power application.

The oneline configuration differences are easy to see. For example, in prime applications the gensets are at the top of the distribution system while in standby and especially in emergency applications the gensets are connected to loads toward the bottom of the distribution system. Power transfer points in prime applications tend to be at the top of the distribution, switching large blocks of load, often with circuit breaker pairs while emergency and standby systems often utilize transfer switches located further down in the system. Other differences are more subtle. Protection in a standby system is minimized in favor of greater reliability while in prime power we tend to move toward greater emphasis on protection of equipment. Coordination is often more of a concern in emergency applications. In standby applications grouping of loads might be commonly done based on location of loads within the facility, while in emergency applications, the grouping is based on priority of service. In any system design, local codes and standards will have a significant impact on the overall system design, hardware, and other application details. Local codes and standards should always be consulted prior to undertaking any design or modification work. This section is intended to cover these major points and other details, to provide general guidance on power system design.

Commissioning o$ 2T Electrical System


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Commissioning of HT electrical system - STERLING & WILSON LTD

5, S)itchgear and +anel


1 Insulation Resistance ,est
The Insulation-resistance shall be taken with all the winding earthed, expect, the one being tested. While checking the value, external line, cable and lighting arresters shall be isolated from the H.T Switchgear. The entire terminal shall be cleared thoroughly, with clean cotton cloth. A 5000/2500V Meggershould be used in the measurement. Care should be taken that the lead wires of the megger do not have joints or come in contact with each other or with H.T Switchgear. It is known that the value of Insulation Resistance is continuous to increases initially, with the duration of measurement and hence for the purpose of comparison, the reading is normally taken at the end of 1 minute Minimum Insulation Resistance after 1 minute is Rated Voltage + 1 Mega Ohms.

# Circuit %reaker time9tra8el anal(sis


This test, used on medium and high-voltage circuit breakers provides information as to whether the operating mechanism of the circuit breaker is operating properly . This test can be used to determine the opening and closing speeds of the breaker, the interval time for closing and tripping, and the contact bounce. The test provides information that can be used to detect problems such as weak accelerating springs, defective shock absorbers, dashpots, buffers, and closing mechanisms. For performing this test we use Time Interval Meter SCOT M3K , The following show the connection drawing of testing equipment wit H. T Switchgear. Using the connecting probe the R terminal of Breaker is connected to the R terminal of Timer kit the same is done for all the other terminals(Y & B). The trip coil & closing coil connection are also brought to the Timer Kit. Before conducting the test the spring has to be charged by manual or using spring charging motor. And the rated control supply (A.C/ D.C) will be given to the panel. Using the timer kit close the charged circuit breaker. Now record the time (mill second) displayed in the timer kit. The same is performed for opening of circuit Breaker. The recorded millisecond value will be compared with the manufacture datasheet.

+ntroduction to +EC *.439


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Introduction to IEC 61439 - A new standard on Switchgear and Controlgear Assemblies (photo by ba-online.info)

Introduction
IEC 60439, the standard for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies , was under restructuring from the last decade. The new series of IEC 61439 standards were published in January 2009. This standard has brought considerable clarity in technical interpretation. The new standard follows the philosophy of IEC 60947 series i.e. IEC 61439-1 is General Rules standard to be referred to by subsidiary product parts of IEC 61439 series. The IEC 60439 standards were ambiguous about how to assess compliance of partially type tested assemblies. As a result manufacturers and testing bodies often treated partially type-tested assemblies differently. One of the main features of IEC 61439-1 is that the discrimination between Type Tested Assemblies (TTA) and Partially Type Tested Assemblies (PTTA) has been eliminated by the verification approach. The three different but equivalent types of verification methods are introduced and these are: 1. Verification by Testing 2. Verification by Calculation/Measurement 3. Verification by Design rules The requirements regarding short circuit performance, temperature rise , dielectric properties and rated diversity factor have been covered in more detail.

#round %ault Protection Tec!nical #uide

Ground Fault Protection Technical Guide (On photo: Schneider Electric ACTI9 wiring devices)

What is 'rounding?
The term grounding is commonly used in the electrical industry to mean both equipment grounding and system grounding. Equipment grounding means the connection of a non-current carrying conductive materials such as conduit, cable trays, junction boxes, enclosures and motor frames to earth ground. System grounding means the connection of the neutral points of current carrying conductors such as the neutral point of a circuit, a transformer, rotating machinery, or a system, either solidly or with a current limiting device to earth ground. Figure 1 illustrates the two types of grounding.

Figure 1 - Two types of grounding

What is a 'rounded S(stem?


Grounded System is a system with at least one conductor or point ( usually the middle wire or neutral point of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded, either solidly or through an impedance. IEEE Standard 142-1991 1.2

What are the Different ,(pes of S(stem 'rounding?


The types of system grounding normally used in industrial and commercial power systems are: 1. Solid grounding 2. Low resistance grounding 3. High resistance grounding

4.

Ungrounded (IEEE Std 242-2001 8.2.1 )

What is the +urpose of S(stem 'rounding?


System grounding, or the intentional connection of a phase or neutral conductor to earth, is for the purpose of controlling the voltage to earth, or ground, within predictable limits. It also provides for a flow of current that will allow detection of an unwanted connection between system conductors and ground (a ground fault).

What is a 'round -ault?


A Ground Fault is an unwanted connection between the system conductors and ground.

Power System Eart!ing #uide

Earthing system risk profile

5a6ard scenarios
Consideration of appropriate safety criteria (usually an allowable shock voltage ) is required for all electrical assets that form part of the network. Consideration should be made for substations ( both inside and outside ) and for the accessible portions of the powerlines and cables. As fault current can be coupled to non-power system plant, so it is required to also consider the safety requirements at those locations outside the substations and easements. The specific locations will represent a different risk profile by virtue of the fact that there will be different coincident probabilities of system events and human contacts and different series impedance ( for example, footwear and surface coverings ). Consideration should be given to factors such as:

1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6.

Probability of multiple simultaneous human contacts ( particularly in public places ), (i.e. touch, step, hand-to-hand or transfer voltage impacts) Susceptible locations (wet areas) Controlled access areas (fenced easements or remote areas ) Series impedance (surface coverings and footwear )

Future possible encroachments upon the electrical network and the effect of system events on those encroachments Conductive and inductive coupling into non-power system plant such as communications infrastructure, telecoms, pipelines and conveyors. Not all risk is imposed by the earthing system. There are external factors that may also impact upon the earthing system resulting in a change in the risk profile of the installation. Figure above summarises the main risk elements in each category. Some external factors that need to be addressed ( during design and installation ) are theft and/or vandalism of earth system components. Consideration should be given to protecting exposed components and/or monitoring key components to ensure an acceptable risk profile. The interaction between the substation or powerline earthing systems and secondary systems ( for example, SCADA) needs also to be considered as those systems can adversely affect each other.

Risk management

All life activities involve some form of inherent risk. The tolerability of injury or death to a member of the public is therefore dependent upon several factors including the types of hazards, the control measures implemented, frequency of occurrence, the likelihood of actions of the individual(s) exposed and the associated consequences. Risk in this context is defined as the chance of something happening that will have an impact on objectives (i.e. a combination of the consequences of an event and their likelihood, frequency or probability). The risk associated with a hazard is determined using a risk assessment process in which hazards are identified, analysed using quantitative methods and qualitatively assessed against specific criteria. Once the risks are evaluated, the appropriate risk treatment process shall be implemented where appropriate to effectively and efficiently manage the risks.

#rounding Systems

Grounding Tests: Earth Potential and Grounding Mesh Effectiveness.

Design Considerations
The general purpose of earthing system is to protect life and property in the event of 50/60 Hz faults (short-circuit) and transient phenomena (lightning, switching operations). The question of how a system shall be earthed is governed by the regulation.

The choice of earthing to one point on each system is designed to prevent the passage of current through the earth under normal conditions, and thus to avoid the accompanying risks of electrolysis and interference with communication circuits. Earthing may not give protection against faults which are not essentially earth faults (i.e.: when a phase conductor on an overhead-line breaks ). The earthing of an electrical system depends on several criteria: 1. Location within power generation center 2. Networks 3. Regulations. Several methods exist for system earthing which can be divided into: 1. Insulated 2. Solid earthing 3. Impedance earthing The protection scheme depends on earthing methods.

Criteria ,o Choose ,he Earthing 1ethod


/oltage !e8el
The insulation level of material ( transformer, generator, etc. ) must be in accordance with the induced over voltage at the time of short circuit.

Insulation Coordination
The earth fault current will induce locally an over voltage which must be compatible with the insulation of low and medium voltage components, to ensure the continuity of supply.

!imitation 7f -ault Current


To reduce the electrodynamics stresses on material, to limit the induced voltage on telecommunications lines and over-voltage on LV components.