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Paris Monographs in American Archaeology 30

The Olmeca-Xicallanca of
Teotihuacan, Cacaxtla, and
Cholula
An archaeological, ethnohistorical,
and linguistic synthesis

Robert E. L. Chadwick
con una contribucin de

Angel Garca Cook

El Epiclsico en la regin
poblano-tlaxcalteca

BAR International Series 2488


2013

Published by
Archaeopress
Publishers of British Archaeological Reports
Gordon House
276 Banbury Road
Oxford OX2 7ED
England
bar@archaeopress.com
www.archaeopress.com

BAR S2488
Paris Monographs in American Archaeology 30
Editor: Eric Taladoire
The Olmeca-Xicallanca of Teotihuacan, Cacaxtla, and Cholula: An archaeological, ethnohistorical, and
linguistic synthesis
El Epiclsico en la regin poblano-tlaxcalteca
Archaeopress, E L Chadwick and A Garca Cook 2013

ISBN 978 1 4073 1102 9

Printed in England by Information Press, Oxford


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Table of contents
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................. i
Table of contents ....................................................................................................................ii
List of Illustrations ................................................................................................................ iv
Foreword, by Michael D. Coe ..............................................................................................vii
El Epiclsico en la regin poblano-tlaxcalteca,
by Angel Garca Cook .......................................................................................................... 1
Antecedentes. ......................................................................................................................... 1
Cultura Cholula. ..................................................................................................................... 2
La Cultura Tenanyecac .......................................................................................................... 5
La Cultura Teotihuacana en la regin poblano-tlaxcalteca. ................................................... 8
Cultura Cacaxtla (o de los Olmecas-Xicalancas) ................................................................. 10
Descripcin del sitio de Cacaxtla ......................................................................................... 12
Los murales de Cacaxtla ...................................................................................................... 20
La cultura Texcalac Temprano ............................................................................................. 42
El complejo Acopinalco ....................................................................................................... 46
Eplogo ................................................................................................................................. 51
Bibliografa citada ................................................................................................................ 51
The Olmeca-Xicallanca of Teotihuacan, Cacaxtla, and Cholula:
An Archaeological, Ethnohistorical, and Linguistic Synthesis,
by Robert Chadwick .......................................................................................................... 55
Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 55
El enigma de los olmecas ................................................................................................. 57
The Epigraphers Mistake .................................................................................................... 58
McCaffertys Ideas ............................................................................................................... 59
Scenarios about the Olmeca-Xicallanca ............................................................................... 62
Ellen Bairds Study of Cacaxtla Art ..................................................................................... 64
The Late Dean of Pan-Mixtequsmo .................................................................................... 64
Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 64
The Olmeca-Xicallanca of Teotihuacan: A Preliminary Study ............................... 66
Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 66

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The Languages of Teotihuacan ............................................................................................ 66


The Jimnez Moreno Hypothesis ......................................................................................... 67
Mixe-Zoquean ...................................................................................................................... 67
Kaufmans Hypothesis ......................................................................................................... 67
Nahuas at Teotihuacan ......................................................................................................... 68
The Dakin-Wichmann Hypothesis ....................................................................................... 68
Flower-World Complex .................................................................................................... 69
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 70
The Relict Languages of the Sixteenth Century: Popoluca/Popoloca .................................. 70
The Timespan A.D. 500 600 ............................................................................................. 72
Michael Coe Refutes Dakin-Wichmann............................................................................... 72
Mixe-Zoquean ...................................................................................................................... 73
Kaufmans Hypothesis Redux .............................................................................................. 73
Totonacs ............................................................................................................................... 73
Terrence Kaufmans Reconstruction: about Mixe, Zoqueans, Totonacs,
Nahuas (2001) ................................................................................................................ 74
Linguistic Diffusion of Mixe-Zoquean ................................................................................ 75
Mixtec .................................................................................................................................. 75
Maya .................................................................................................................................... 78
Phonetic Writing at Tetitla ................................................................................................... 79
The Arrival of Teotihuacan Strangers at Tikal ..................................................................... 79
Zapotec ................................................................................................................................. 80
Mazatec and the Nonoalcas .................................................................................................. 82
Chocho-Popoloca ................................................................................................................. 82
The Merchant Barrio......................................................................................................... 83
La Ventilla B ........................................................................................................................ 83
Tarascan ............................................................................................................................... 84
The Marta Foncerrada de Molina Reconstruction:
Teotihuacan-Cacaxtla-Chontal Maya .............................................................................. 85
The Maya Merchant God at Cacaxtla................................................................................... 85
Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 87
Bibliography......................................................................................................................... 87

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