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Tutorial

2D Wind and Snow according to EN1991

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Table of contents

Introduction................................................................................................................................... 1 Theory ............................................................................................................................................ 2 Snow loads calculation according to EN1991-1-3 ......................................................................... 2 Snow load on roofs ........................................................................................................................ 2 Roof shape coefficients .................................................................................................................. 4 Design situations and load arrangements ...................................................................................... 7 Wind load calculation according to EN1991-1-4 ............................................................................ 8 Wind forces .................................................................................................................................... 8 Wind pressure on surfaces ............................................................................................................ 8 Peak velocity pressure ................................................................................................................... 9 Basic values ................................................................................................................................. 10 Mean wind .................................................................................................................................... 11 Pressure coefficients .................................................................................................................... 14 Wind and Snow in Scia Engineer : Practical example ............................................................ 18 Wind and snow loads setup ......................................................................................................... 19 Loads generation ......................................................................................................................... 22

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Introduction

2D Wind and Snow generator enables you to generate loads on 1D members automatically. Using this module, Wind and Snow can be applied to 2D structures or frames that can be taken as a section from a 3D project. Wind and Snow generation according to EN1991-1-3 and 1-4 takes into account different parameters that have to be specified by the user such us terrain characteristics, wind velocity, snow zone In the first part of this document, we will give insight on the theoretical background about wind and snow loads calculation according to chapters 1-3 and 1-4 of EC-EN. The second chapter provides a practical example on wind and snow load generation.

Theory

Snow loads calculation according to EN1991-1-3


Snow load on roofs
Snow load on a roof is calculated according to formula 5.1 for persistent/transient project situations and according to 5.2 for accidental project situations:

Where:

Annex C shows the European ground snow load map:

Advanced Concept Training In table C.1, the value of sk is given as a function of the altitude of the site above sea level:

As an example, when the British national annex is chosen in the project data, the user can access the Setup manager to select the snow zone from the possibilities of the annex and introduce the altitude A expressed in meters. The value of sk is then calculated according to this data:

The exposure coefficient values are given in table 5.1:

These values of Ce and Ct may be modified in the data manager:

Roof shape coefficients

Monopitch roofs: The roof shape coefficient for monopitch roofs is given by table 5.2 and the arrangement is represented in figure 5.2

Pitched roofs: The roof shape coefficient for pitched roofs is given by table 5.2 and the arrangements are represented in figure 5.3

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(i) (ii) (iii)

Undrifted load arrangement

Drifted load arrangement

Multi-span roofs: The roof shape coefficient for multi-span roofs is given by table 5.2 and the arrangements are represented in figure 5.4

(i)

Udrifted load arrangement

(ii)

Drifted load arrangement

Other cases are described in EN1991-1-3 such as cylindrical roofs or roof abutting and close to taller construction works. These cases are not supported in Scia Engineer. Snow arrangement can be chosen in the dialogue for snow load generation. The three arrangements presented in the above figures (i), (ii), (iii) are possible and can be selected by the user. Lets consider the example of a pitched frame. We get the following three arrangements:

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Design situations and load arrangements


The Eurocodes describes 4 cases: A, B1, B2 and B3 regarding the design situations and the load arrangements that have to be taken into account. These are summarized in table A.1 of annex A:

In Scia Engineer, the design situation that is considered by default is a situation of type persistent/transient. By ticking the option Accidental design situation, the user can chose one of the cases B1, B2 or B3:

Wind load calculation according to EN1991-1-4


Wind forces

The surfaces of a building are subject to internal and external pressure. Forces that correspond to those wind pressures over the whole structure or on a component are calculated according to the following expressions:

External forces:

Internal forces:

Where:

In case of elements such as walls and roofs, the wind force is calculated as the difference between the external and internal forces. For cscd values, please refer to chapter 6.2 and 6.3 of lEN 1991-1-4. For buildings, the value of cscd is generally taken as 1.

Wind pressure on surfaces


The internal and external pressure is calculated from the peak velocity pressure according to the formulas below. External pressure:

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Internal pressure:

Peak velocity pressure


Wind peak velocity pressure (kN/m) is function of the height of the structure relatively to the ground level. It also depends on the wind velocity (defined from the local climate data as the basic wind velocity) and terrain orography and roughness. The peak velocity pressure is written as follow:

Where:

lv(z)

is the turbulence intensity at height z, defined as the standard deviation of the turbulence divided by the mean wind velocity is the air density which depends on the altitude, temperature and barometric pressure to be expected in the region during wind storms is the mean wind velocity (see chapter Mean wind)

Vm(z)

lv(z) is calculated according to formula (4.7):

By default, the value for air density is taken as 1.3 Kg/m in Scia Engineer. This value can be adapted using the Setup manager:

Basic values
The fundamental value of the basic wind velocity, vb,0 is the characteristic 10 minutes mean wind velocity, irrespective of wind direction and time of year, at 10 m above ground level in open country terrain with low vegetation such as grass and isolated obstacles with separations of at least 20 obstacle heights. The fundamental value of the basic wind velocity may be given in the National Annex. In Scia Engineer, the value of the basic wind velocity can be adapted in the Setup manager:

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The basic wind velocity is calculated from the fundamental value of the basic wind velocity and from the directional and season factors:

Where:

The recommended values of cdir and cseason are defined in the national annex. The standard EN recommends the value of 1 for both factors. By default, Scia engineer takes cdir and cseason equal to 1. This can be adapted from the Setup manager:

Mean wind
The mean wind velocity is calculated from the basic velocity. It depends on the roughness and orography of the terrain. This velocity is a function of the height above the ground level according to the following expression:

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Where: cr(z) c0(z) is the roughness factor given in 4.3.2 is the orography factor, taken as 1 unless otherwise in 4.3.3

Terrain roughness

cr(z) factor from formula 4.3 represents the wind variation in terms of the height due to the roughness of the terrain. This factor can be calculated according to chapter 4.3.2 of EN 1991-1-4.

Where:

The values of z0 and zmin depend on the roughness of the terrain. These values are given in table 4.1 and terrain categories are represented in Annex A.1:

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In the Setup manager of Scia Engineer, the category that is taken into account in the wind pressure calculation can be defined:

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Terrain orography

co(z) factor of formula 4.3 takes into account orographic elements such as hills or cliffs. When the effect of those elements increases the wind velocity with more than 5%, the orography factor has to be taken into account. In case of a gently sloping terrain (less than 3 ), c o(z) can be taken equal to 1. In other cases, the procedure from chapter A.3 of EN 1991-1-4 has to be followed. The orography factor is taken by default as 1 but can be adapted from the Setup manager:

Pressure coefficients
In order to calculate the pressure that is resulting on a surface, the most unfavorable combination between internal and external pressure has to be considered. Internal pressure coefficient

The internal pressure depends on the dimensions and the distribution of openings in the building. For the internal pressure calculation, three situations are available in Scia Engineer: No internal pressure, dominant face and no dominant face. You can choose one of the situations from the Setup manager:

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1. No internal pressure The internal pressure in the building can be considered as equal to zero; cpi = 0, when the structure is completely impervious. 2. Dominant face One face of the building is considered as dominant when the total surface of openings on that face is greater than or equal to twice the openings on the other faces. When we consider a dominant face for a building, the internal pressure can be calculated from the values of the external pressure coefficients according to the following formulas:

3. No dominant face For a building without dominant face, EN 1991-1-4 gives a graphical method based on figure 7.13.

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cpe coefficient depends on the ratio height to depth h/d of the building and also depends on the opening ratio calculated as follow:

The most unfavorable values of coefficients cpe are +0.2 and -0.3. These values are used by default by Scia Engineer during wind load case generation. The user can change the values of cpe in the load case generation window if more precise values are known using the above method.

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Advanced Concept Training External pressure coefficient

The external pressure coefficients depend on the area that is loaded. Tables from EN 1991-1-4 give cpe values for areas from 1m to 10m. For areas that are outside this interval, an interpolation is done according to figure 7.2:

The building can be decomposed into different zones according to the wind direction. For each zone, the external pressure coefficients cpe,1 and cpe,10 are given in a table.

For a building, the vertical walls which are perpendicular to the wind direction (0 or 180 ) correspon d to zones D and E for which cpe coefficients are given in table 7.1: In the example below, a 2D frame is modeled in Scia Engineer taking a height to depth ratio of h/d=1:

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Wind and Snow in Scia Engineer : Practical example


We will consider the example below to illustrate 2D Wind and Snow generator. The members are modeled in steel S235 and the structure is of type Frame XZ. The code that is used is EC-EN along with the Belgian national annex.

In order to generate wind and snow loads, the first step is to check the option Climatic load in the Functionality tab of the project data:

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Before closing the menu Project data, you have to go to the Loads tab in order to define Wind and Snow data. If you click on OK before you have defined this data, the following error message is displayed:

Wind and snow loads setup

Under this tab, the user can choose the method that will be used to define the wind pressure and the snow weight. The options below are available from this menu:

According to code

Wind and snow definition by choosing According to code option is done according to the Eurocodes method that has been presented in the theoretical background. If this option is selected you can click on the button to open the Setup manager. This menu allows you to adapt the wind pressure and snow weight calculation parameters as it has been explained in the previous chapter:

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User defined

By choosing User defined option, you can manually input the wind pressure profiles in terms of the height:

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The snow can defined by the value of snow weight expressed in kN/m

For this example, we are going to define the wind pressure and the snow weight according to code. The option According to code has to be chosen and some parameters have to be modified as follow: - WIND: cpi is not zero and no dominant opening in the building (see the chapter Pressure coefficients)

Total width of the building in the direction that is perpendicular to the wind

Characteristic value of snow calculated from the input altitude value (see the chapter Snow loads on roofs)

Terrain category as defined by annex A1 (see the chapter Mean wind)

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- SNOW:

The fundamental value of the basic wind velocity (see the chapter Basic values)

Loads generation
Five load cases will be generated as follow: - Wind from the left - overpressure: Wind direction 0 and combination c pe-cpi - Wind from the left - underpressure: Wind direction 0 and combination c pe+cpi - Wind from the right - overpressure: Wind direction 0 and combination c pe-cpi - Wind from the right - underpressure: Wind direction 0 and combination c pe+cpi - Snow: Persistent/transient project situation considering undrifted load arrangement Open the menu Load and double click on Wind and snow generator:

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The distance between frames has to be input in the dialog that is displayed:

By clicking on the OK button, the first window that defines the load case Wind from the leftoverpressure is displayed:

The outline of the frame is recognized by the program and represented with a thick line. The elements that are inside the building are drawn with a thin line. The outline is broken down into different zones and the corresponding pressure coefficients are given in the top right corner of the window. cpe and cpi coefficients can be replaced by user values and validated using Set coeff button. To navigate between the different zones, you can click on the buttons Next or Previous. The selected zone is highlighted using the red color and you may adapt it using Divide and Connect buttons. 23

After zones and coefficients have been checked, you can click on Next button situated on the bottom right corner of the window. A new window appears and it enables you to define the load case wind from the right. To finish, you can click on Next button to generate the snow load case.

We chose an undrifted load arrangement for this example. Click on the OK button to close this dialogue. You can check on the Load cases menu that the five load cases have been generated:

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Wind from the left Overpressure/Underpressure

Wind from the right Overpressure/Underpressure

Snow

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