You are on page 1of 38

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges'

Organized by Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India and Dept of Geology, University of Kerala

21 Mar 2014

Proceedings volume

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 1

WATER SECURITY PLAN FOR KERALA 2025


A. S K. NAIR
Centre for Environment and Development Thozhuvancode, Thiruvananthapuram 695 013, India E-mail:asknair@cedindia.org

Abstract
Water resource is of utmost important need to life system and a critical world asset. It is the key to socioeconomic-political development and quality of life in this universe. As the pressures of population and economic activities converge on the many fold increased water requirement, the water sector will largely face the challenge of bridging the demand-supply gap world over. India is no exception and is facing a serious water resource problem. Futuristic studies reveal that India is expected to become 'water stressed' by 2025 and 'water scarce' by 2050. In spite of receiving an average rainfall of around 3000 mm, the State of Kerala is also in the process of water stressed to water scarce in coming years at least in few block panchayaths in the state. The incredible drought which has been affecting the state repeatedly during summer months in the last few years may even aggravate the above situation. Hence it is important at this stage to have an effective Water Resource Management Plan for Water Security (WS) the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks" for Kerala. A water secure world integrates a concern for the intrinsic value of water with a concern for its use for human survival and well-being; harnesses water's productive power and minimises its destructive force; addressing environmental protection and the negative effects of poor management; concerned with ending fragmented responsibility for water and integrating water resources management across all sectors finance, planning, agriculture, energy, tourism, industry, education and health. It is also true that a water secure world reduces poverty, advances education and increases living standards; where there is an improved quality of life for all, especially for the most vulnerableusually women and children who benefit most from good water governance. Kerala is experiencing unprecedented economic and population growth, giving rise to increased water demand for industrial, municipal and irrigation uses, and for the production of energy. Sustainability, health and quality of life require that water quality and important aquatic ecosystem habitats be protected. Managing a resource of this importance needs a long-term vision supported by well-formulated, executable planned series of actions. Sustainable Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation for all 2012; a program proposed by the Department of Drinking Water Supply of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, urged to the different States in India to examine the format designed by the Ministry for the preparation of a Village Water Security Plan (VWSP) and respond back. The same document was also put in the public domain for expressing suggestions for the concerned. However, it has been found that, little efforts have been put by the different States in India for examining even the format designed by the Government of India for its subsequent revision and its implementation. Considering the need of the hour, this paper propose an outline to evolve a Water Security Plan for Kerala- 2025 to be executed in different phases, that will continue to support our sustainable growth, quality of life and
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 2

environment now and in future. It is also true that Sustainable Development (SD) will not be achieved in the absence of a practical Water Security Plan for Kerala.

Introduction Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious national asset (National Water Policy, 2012). It is basic to man and his environment. It is neither infinite as is the popular belief in tropical and humid regions nor should be treated as a free gift of nature. Since water is essential for mans survival and socio-economic betterment as well as for maintaining sustainability in the process of development, it is important that it is harnessed and managed in an integrated and equitable manner so as to meet the demands of competing water users and water use sectors. There is a close relationship between water, people and livelihood. Degradation and depletion of water resources will affect life and livelihood of all human being. Apart from drinking requirement, water is needed for bathing, washing, laundering, heating and air-conditioning, irrigation , industrial processes, water power, steam power, fire protection, disposal of wastes, fishing, swimming, boating and other recreational purposes, fish and wildlife propagation, navigation and for engineering construction. Water can thus be considered as the most important raw material of civilization since without it man cannot live and industry cannot operate. The Egyptians were the first people to record methods for treating water. These records date back more than 1,500 years to 400 A.D. They indicate that the most common ways of cleaning water were by boiling it over a fire heating it in the sun, or by dipping a heated piece of iron into it. Filtering boiling water through sand and gravel and then allowing it to cool was another common treatment method (Nair et al., 2009). Water Resource Management (WRM) plays a pivotal role in the planning process. Inspite of receiving an average rainfall of around 3000 mm, the State faces shortage in water supply during the summer months. Water is one of the few natural resources which is abundantly found in the State of Kerala in the form of a large chain of backwater bodies, wetlands, rivers and river basins, large number of temple tanks, ponds, dug wells, tube wells, bore wells, springs and large number of small and big reservoirs. However, the water level in the rivers lowers substantially for about six months in year and large number of wells dry up during summer months which ultimately results in a fall in the ground water table. The supply and demand of water for different end uses such as, drinking water supply, sanitation, irrigation, industries, power generation, fisheries, navigation and recreation us ever increasing due to the increase in human and animal population. The water which was once considered as a free gift of nature has now become more and more scarce commodity. Hence it is important and essential to have a more scientific planning for a proper area wise utilisation of all the available water resources and their sensible management at State/District level. The annual yield of the river basins in the state is found to be 78,401 million cubic meters (MCM) of which 70,323 MCM is available for the state. Most of the Keralas rivers are perennial but with accompanying deficit during lean seasons. The annual utilisable yield from 44 rivers is 49, 286 MCM forms about 70% of the total yield with the state share being 87% is about 42,772 MCM. The groundwater potential of Kerala is very low as compared to that of many other states in the country. Kerala has a replenishable groundwater resource of 6,841 MCM. The net ground water availability of the entire state is 6,029 BCM in 2008-09 (CGWB 2012). In order to have a viable Water Resource Management, Water Security is the most important and first step to be taken. Water Security. Water Security may be defined as "the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks" (Anon wiki 2012). Sustainable development will not be achieved without a water secure world. A water secure world integrates a concern for the intrinsic value of water with a concern for its use for human survival and well-being. A water secure world harnesses water's productive power and minimises its destructive force. Water security also
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 3

means addressing environmental protection and the negative effects of poor management. It is also concerned with ending fragmented responsibility for water and integrating water resources management across all sectors finance, planning, agriculture, energy, tourism, industry, education and health. A water secure world reduces poverty, advances education, and increases living standards. It is a world where there is an improved quality of life for all, especially for the most vulnerableusually women and childrenwho benefit most from good water governance. Kerala is experiencing unprecedented economic and population growth, giving rise to increased water demand for industrial, municipal and irrigation uses, and for the production of energy. Sustainability, health and quality of life require that water quality and important aquatic habitats be protected. Managing a resource of this importance requires a long-term vision and a well-planned series of actions is described in the Water Security Plan (WSP). Water Security Plan (WSP). Water being one of our most important resources, its effective management cannot compromise on any reason as Water Management rests under the State responsibility. Considering the need of the hour, an outline of WSP is proposed so as to evolve a 10 year Water Security Plan for Kerala to be executed in different phases, that will continue to support our sustainable growth, quality of life and environment now and in future. In managing the different water systems in the state, a long-term view that projects future water needs and evaluates them against present needs and ecological requirements helps a plan to be developed that ensures these multiple demands are met. This requires site-specific and comprehensive technical evaluations that might include determining the status of present water withdrawals and inputs, anticipated future water demands, water quality, cumulative impacts, and ecosystem health. This information could form a basis upon which objectives and strategies for future water use and current management decisions can be made. This may be particularly important in areas where water resources are vulnerable or subject to significant water use pressures due to growth. Many water management initiatives, such as implementing source water protection plans or developing new infrastructure, take years to plan and complete. Planning for 10 years ensures the needs of future generations are considered and allows for the time frame required for long-term water management initiatives. Citizens and Society will benefit from better protection of wetlands, lakes, rivers, different types of tanks and ponds, different types of wells (dug wells, tube wells and bore wells), irrigation canals and drinking water supplies. The state must have it vision for success in major areas like; Sustainable Water Supplies, Safe Drinking Water, Protection of Water, Safe and Sustainable Water Management Infrastructure, Flood and Drought Mitigation, Reliable Data and Information, and Effective Governance and Engagement. The WSP must have a Vision and Principles to be followed along with goals and actions. Some actions may be short-term and able to be implemented quickly, others will require consultation, research and analysis and will be implemented over a longer period.. The plan will support innovation in approaching water management challenges. By setting direction to ensure long term water security, the plan will help build a positive business environment to support Keralas continuing growth. Vision - Water for continued sustainable growth, quality of life and environmental well-being. Principles: Based on Long term perspective, Water for future generations, Integrated approach to water management, Public Private Partnership, Value of Water and Informed Risk-based Management (Anon Canada 2012): Long Term Perspective Todays water management decisions will be undertaken within the context of a 10 year strategic plan.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 4

Water for Future Generations A sustainable approach to water use will protect the quality and quantity of water for the present and for the future, benefiting human health and communities and promoting a thriving economy. Integrated Approach to Water Management Water decisions will integrate the multiple objectives and information pertaining to the economic development, ecological, hydrological, and social aspects of water to achieve a balanced outcome. Public, Private Partnerships and Participation The Government of Kerala need to facilitate collaboration in the development and implementation of water management decisions. Value of Water Water will be treated as a finite resource and used efficiently and effectively to best reflect its economic, social and environmental importance. Informed, Risk-based Management Water management will incorporate consideration of risk and be supported by research and data. Goals and Action Areas Goal 1: Ensure the sustainability of Keralas surface and ground water supplies to support opportunities for growth - Growth will bring with it an increasing demand for water and water services to satisfy our domestic, agriculture, business, industry, environmental, recreation, and power generation needs. Water conservation can moderate this growing demand, but additional infrastructure such as dams, weirs, check-dams and irrigation channels may also be required. The key to ensuring sustainability will be the development of a new approach to water allocation that is supported by legislation if needed. Action Area 1.1 - Efficient Use of Water : Managing water demand and use through conservation practices is a critical strategy to relieve increased pressures on supplies. Efficiencies can be achieved in a number of ways, including the implementation of appropriate pricing strategies, establishment of sector-based conservation targets (industrial, agriculture and municipal) and the promotion of new practices and technologies. Action Area 1.2 - New Water Supply Infrastructure : Managing water demand and use may not fully address the needs related to economic and population growth in the state. Additional water infrastructure, including new reservoirs, pipelines and canals may be necessary to secure the water needed for growth. New infrastructure is costly to build and maintain, and requires significant ongoing funding. Long-term planning is needed to anticipate water supply needs, identify options to meet needs and design and construct new infrastructure. Action Area 1.3 - Framework for Water Allocation: Industrial, oil and gas, fertilisers and irrigation expansion are important growth sectors and all rely on adequate and sustainable water supplies. Status of virtual water should be carefully considered by the supply regime. These development opportunities place demands on water resources and can potentially affect other uses, such as: municipal; recreational; power generation and ecological. This raises challenging questions around setting water use priorities and understanding the trade-offs inherent in those decisions. Appropriate allocation rules are needed to achieve the desired balance of water management objectives. A water allocation framework includes consideration of water use and associated works, and can address such issues as: achieving and sustaining optimal use of water that best serves the public interest; modern, results-based approvals and licensing; protecting ecosystems and environmental flows; and identifying the uses that best serve the public interest (issues regarding supply of water to the population in and around at the original source of water). Action Area 1.4 - Climate Change Adaptation: Climate change models suggest that extreme events, including drought and flooding, could become more frequent and more severe. In addition, timing of runoff, changes in stream flow, increased evaporation, and impacts in water
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 5

quality might occur. This is further complicated because steady hydrologic regime is no longer considered to be a valid assumption in managing water. In any case, there is uncertainty as to the specific hydrological impacts and it is prudent to anticipate changes in our future and consider those in decision-making. Goal 2: Ensure drinking water safety by protecting supplies from the source to the tap Drinking water safety involves a series of safeguards along the water supply route to prevent or reduce potential contamination. The key actions in improving the safety of drinking water in Kerala are ground and surface source water protection and monitoring, waterworks operator training, appropriate treatment processes and equipment, infrastructure maintenance and inspection, drinking water quality monitoring, information management systems, and public education initiatives. Action Area 2.1 - Public Systems: The municipal and other public water systems have benefited from improved regulatory and enforcement activities. However, meeting standards can be difficult for some small communities and municipal water infrastructure requires ongoing maintenance and periodic renewal. To continue to improve on the safety of drinking water, the key elements for consideration could include: sound water quality and operational standards and advice; ongoing training and certification opportunities; a continued comprehensive inspection and audit policy; enhanced compliance tools and enhanced source water protection. Action Area 2.2 - Private Systems: Large number of people obtain their water from private systems, including those living in metros as well as on farms and acreages and users of semipublic systems such as those found at work camps. Operators and users of these systems might benefit from additional support and information as to how to best maintain safe drinking water systems. At present, there is limited regulatory oversight of these systems. In higher density developments that rely on private water systems, one threat is potential contamination from land uses and private sewage systems. Actions such as increased testing of water, proper maintenance, operation and design and appropriate source water protection can reduce the risk of drinking water-related illness. Goal 3: Ensure water quality and ecosystem function are sustained - Water supplies are of much greater value - for all uses - if water quality and ecosystem function are maintained. Furthermore, source water protection is an essential component of drinking water safety. Contamination of surface or ground water, degradation of ecological health and function, and loss of biodiversity comes with real economic, social, and environmental costs. These include health risks, loss of recreational opportunity, loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity, ecological damage, reduced water supply, and increased water treatment costs. Local source water protection planning can be an effective approach to identify ways to achieve water protection. Action Area 3.1 - Water Quality : Threats to water come from point sources, such as industrial and municipal effluent and contaminated sites, and non-point sources, such as land use practices that lead to the transportation of soil, pesticides, fertilizers, nutrients and manure into water bodies (mostly rivers and lakes) and thereby groundwater. Water quality protection usually brings lakes and streams to mind. However, aquifers are a valuable part of our supply and once contaminated, can be very difficult to restore. Risks to aquifers occur in recharge areas, where contaminants can move down with the water, and when human activities, such as well drilling, breach the protective layers of clay that protect many aquifers. Applications of fertilizer, chemicals and effluent discharge through septic fields on areas with limited barriers to the aquifer create risk of contaminating a water supply. Failure to maintain the quality of water supplies will place additional stresses on Keralas ability to meet the demands for water created by a growing population and economy. Ensuring the protection of water quality can include
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 6

regulatory and non-regulatory approaches to address site-specific and cumulative impacts of water and land development and management practices. Action Area 3.2 - Wetlands: Wetlands are bodies of water that cover the soil for a period of time during the growing season. Their benefits vary as a function of their location within the watershed, their physical characteristics, area and depth and the average length of time they contain water during the year. It is well established that they can be important habitat for many different plants and animals, and support maintenance of biodiversity. Wetlands can provide a means of water storage which can provide benefits during dry periods and help reduce runoff during moderate flood events. They can also provide water quality benefits and some are effective at removal of nutrients, sediment, metals and pathogens. Action Area 3.3 - Ecosystem Health and Biodiversity Protection : Water and land development and management practices can have long-term consequences on aquatic ecosystems both directly, by altering beds and shores, and indirectly, by modifying natural flow regimes and water levels. Maintaining biodiversity, fisheries habitat and species at risk must be considered when making decisions relating to water and land uses. Action Area 3.4 - Local Source Water Protection Planning: The source water protection planning process brings together communities, stakeholder groups and local governments to develop objectives and potential strategies for the protection of water in their local watershed or aquifer. Planning conducted by watershed residents can inform their grama panchayats about local perspectives on water-related land management issues. Planning also provides committee members with technical information related to water management, source water protection and engages the public. Planning outcomes include locally led and collaborative initiatives to improve water quality and the protection of water ecosystems. Water maps derived out of Resource mapping program are available with the grama panchayats, the plan committees can effectively utilise the same for the purpose. Goal 4: Ensure infrastructure safety meets water supply and management needs - Dams and water supply network owned by the government play a central role in ensuring a sustainable water supply and generation of power. Much of this infrastructure in the state is aging and requires rehabilitation; failure of these works could put property and human safety at risk. Furthermore, competing water uses and managing flood and drought events makes planning and managing infrastructure operations a complex task. Action Area 4.1 - Infrastructure Safety and Maintenance: To ensure adequate water supply and public safety, infrastructure must be of an adequate standard, in good operating condition. The Kerala Water Authority, Command Area Development Authorities, Dam Safety Authority of Kerala, PWD and other organisations need to adopt required steps in this regard. Action Area 4.2 - Infrastructure Benefits and Sustainable Operation: Many reservoirs, particularly larger ones, are designed to provide an array of benefits including municipal, industrial, irrigation water supply, hydropower generation, and recreational use and flood control. However, some uses are in conflict with each other and inappropriate land use around reservoirs can detrimentally restrict operating options. A reservoir operating plan defines how the reservoir is best operated to meet the needs of various users, and addresses issues like shoreline protection, fisheries and species-at-risk, habitat protection and how to manage flood and drought events. Goal 5: Ensure measures are in place to effectively respond to floods and drought - Floods and drought are natural events that will continue to occur. They can cause significant hardship
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 7

and must be appropriately addressed to reduce their effect on the provincial economy and prevent potential social and environmental damage. Research indicates that climate change may intensify the degree and frequency of these extremes in the coming decades and the flexibility to adapt to these situations will become increasingly important. Possibility for containing the flood waters and effectively utilising the same during drought period will be a challenging exercise for engineers and scientists of our state. Action Area 5.1 Flood Damage Prevention and Emergency Response in Developed Areas: Floods can cause significant damage to residential, commercial, and municipal property and infrastructure. District level disaster Management authorities and flood mitigation units are presently linked with the respective district headquarters, however their effective involvement in mitigation of flood are yet to be proved. The best approach to flood damage prevention is to map flood prone areas and keep vulnerable developments out of the flood plains. The Kerala Government now has regulations that prevent building in flood plains. However, many developments already exist in flood prone areas, emphasizing the need for forecasting, emergency response and flood protection measures. The Paddy Bill (2008) specifically address the very same problems. Action Area 5.2 Agricultural Drainage and Flooding - Draining agricultural land can improve the efficiency of farming operations by eliminating obstacles and allowing landowners to gain earlier access to their fields activities with significant and immediate economic benefits to farmers through the Padasekhara Samithy. During years with above average rainfall, large areas of farmland can be flooded which have a significant economic impact on producers. However, inappropriate and unorganized drainage can affect neighbouring landowners and receiving water bodies. There are calls for government to respond to unauthorized drainage with increased enforcement. There is a lack of understanding and appreciation of the impacts of drainage and the benefits that accrue to the farmer who drains. Potential solutions include: education; effective management options (including watershed and organized drainage approaches and encouraging wetland retention and restoration); tools for conflict resolution; an appropriate regulatory and compliance framework; and increased enforcement. The Secretary and the Agriculture Officer available in each grama panchayath of the state may be entrusted in keeping a watch on the above said issues. Action Area 5.3 Drought Response: Drought is a recurring phenomenon and historic data suggests that over the past several centuries there have been a number of droughts more severe than any experienced during the last century. The Meteorological Department through their field stations in state have a moisture monitoring plan. From the perspective of a water strategy, approaches to reduce the consequences of hydrologic drought include: provision of emergency water supplies; better private and regional water supply systems; water storage infrastructure; efficient use and reuse of water; and effective water rationing and sharing strategies. These activities could form part of a comprehensive provincial approach to drought. Goal 6: Ensure adequate water information is available to support decision-making - The collection and assessment of data creates fundamental knowledge about our water critical to understanding and addressing potential threats to water and supporting wise use of water. Public access to information about available water supplies, flood and drought risks, and other priority information about water is critical to public safety and to promoting understanding and effective decision-making. Water research will be critical to innovation and increasing our ability to successfully manage water. Action Area 6.1 Data Collection and Management - Effective water management in the province requires us to identify important information requirements and then strategically and
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 8

effectively gather, manage and analyze the needed data. This includes information related to ground and surface water quality, stream flow, water use and availability, drainage activity, and infrastructure. Increased use of internet-based submission of water use information may also improve the efficiency of data collection and assessment. Action Area 6.2 Communication and Information - Providing clients and the public with easily accessible information related to surface and ground water supplies and quality can help in development planning and decision-making. Information about effective land and water management practices, water conservation and efficiency, and regulatory requirements can optimize management of water and provide clients with the tools they need to optimize economic opportunities. Effective emergency communication is important for public safety and damage prevention. Action Area 6.3 Research Partnerships - Strategically aiming research at key gaps in our water resource knowledge will improve our ability to protect and reliably use water resources. Examples may include determination of environmental flow needs, understanding of nutrient loading, identification of critical wetlands, or understanding impacts of climate change. Research can also lead to innovative approaches to address water management issues. A research partnership consortium of agencies and institutions, such as the Central Ground Water Board, State Ground Water Department, CWRDM, CESS, Universities in Kerala, KWA, Jalanidhi, CCDU and others may be formulated so that, easy transfer of data among these members so as to enhance research. The ongoing nation-wide project on Aquifer mapping by the Ministry of Water Resources of the Government of India can make significant contributions towards the Water Security Plan for Kerala State. Goal 7: Ensure water management and decision-making processes are co-ordinated, comprehensive and collaborative - Governance includes the rules, processes and structures by which decisions are made and has a significant impact on the outcomes of those decisions. Because water is essential to so many human activities, water management is an issue that crosses most sectors of society and levels of government. Integrated governance aims to account for this complexity by considering the many aspects of water management within legislation, planning processes, organizations, and coordinating bodies. Effective public engagement can promote cooperation and strong working relationships that strengthen the Keralas water management capacity. Action Area 7.1 - Modern Legislation: Successful water management requires that the resource be regulated simply and effectively to ensure sustainability while meeting the needs of users. Water is largely a States responsibility and State Water Policy must evolve in conjunction with that of the National Water Policy (2012). If required new legislation may be formulated for addressing the present and possible future water management issues. An effective compliance and enforcement approach is needed to complement new legislation. Issues on sharing water resources between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka needs to be settled amicably as and when they crop up. Joint committee may be designed well in advance, so that the issues could be settled in the administrative level rather than sorting in the political levels. Action Area 7.2 State Government and Central Government Coordination : Large number of State Governments have specific need based interest and regulatory role related to water sector. For example, in addition to core water management responsibilities like drinking water, allocation, and water quality protection, water is considered in the areas of resource extraction, agricultural activities, rural and urban development, and transportation infrastructure. Kerala State is largely responsible for protecting water resources and its management in the state. Effective means of co-ordination and collaboration are critical to addressing these issues.
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 9

Action Area 7.3 - Interjurisdictional Water Management : Water crosses state boundaries, and interjurisdictional management with the Tamil Nadu and Karnataka governments. In most cases, Kerala has transboundary agreements with regard to how surface water is shared and quality is maintained. Similar agreements regarding groundwater is also required. Co-ordinated planning and decision-making bodies and improved collaborative approaches can help to prevent and address interjurisdictional issues. Action Area 7.4 Engagement with the Public and First Nations : Engaging citizens and communities can improve water management decisions. An engaged citizenry makes better water stewards. Water development projects and decisions have the potential to have a negative impact on treaty and aboriginal rights. Conclusion A draft on Water Security Plan for Kerala-2025 has been proposed for debate, discussion, modification and for an effective implementation, so the State of Kerala may not strave for Water in coming years. Integrated Watershed Management Program is currently in operation on all the 14 districts of Kerala. Sustainable Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation for all 2012; a program by the Department of Drinking Water Supply of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, proposed a Village Water Security Plan (VWSP). It is very important to note that a large number of governmental agencies are working in the water sector in Kerala. If the Government of Kerala consider Water Security for the State as a serious one, it can take necessary steps for a possible effective co-ordination with all the above referred agencies, for an emergence of Water Security Plan for Kerala and its effective implementation. It has been proved elsewhere that Sustainable Development (SD) will not be achieved in the absence of a practical Water Security Plan. Acknowledgements: The material for this paper has been largely drawn from different websites of UNESCO, DFID, GEF and Water Security status papers from different countries. The author sincerely thank all of them. References Annon, (2012) National Water Policy, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India, 21p. Annon. (2012) Dynamic Ground Water resources of Kerala (2008-09), CGWB and GWD, Thiruvananthapuram, 269p. Annon. (2012)Water security, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Annon. (2010)Water Security for India:Institute for Defence Studies & Analyses, New Delhi,121p. Annon. (2012) 25 year water security plan document, Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Canada, 30p. Annon. (2012) Water Atlas, CGWB, Thiruvananthapuram Nair, A.S.K. (2009) Perspective for decentralised water resources planning in Kerala,, Proc. of Kerala Environment Congress, CED, Thiruvananthapuram, pp.127-142. Nair, A.S.K. (2009) A new scientific and management approach to water related natural disasters, Proc. of Kerala Environment Congress, CED, Thiruvananthapuram, pp.143-154. Sandhya, S.N., Nanda Mohan, V. and Nair,A.S.K. (2009) Drinking water for Thiruvananthapuram District, Proc. of Kerala Environment Congress, CED, Thiruvananthapuram, pp.229-241. Many websites on Water Security and related topics.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 10

WETLAND CONSERVATION AND COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK
P. Harinarayanan
Coordinator Wetland Technical Unit, KSCSTE Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695004, India E-mail: pharinarayanan@gmail.com

Abstract
Wetlands, whether man-made or natural, fresh water or brackish, play a vital role in maintaining the environmental sustainability of the urban areas. These water bodies perform significant environmental, social and economic functions, ranging from being a source of drinking water, recharging groundwater, and acting as sponges to control flooding, supporting bio-diversity and providing livelihoods. Despite knowing their environmental, social and economic significance, these water bodies are being continuously ignored and the net result is its degradation.

Introduction Wetlands are defined differently by countries in their domestic legislations. Most of the countries are given narrow interpretation to the definition in order to limit the ambit and scope of protection to wetlands. According to most widespread definition wetlands are defined as: "lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water". There are 163 contracting parties to the Ramsar Convention. But there is no sufficient legislative protection available in many countries to protect wetlands. The non protection of wetlands is mainly attributed to its categorisation in legislations differently from one country to another country. Under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, "wetlands" are defined in Articles 1.1 and 2.1 as shown below: Article 1.1: For the purpose of this Convention wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres. Article 2.1 provides that wetlands: may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands . The Indian definition is as follows:
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 11

wetland means an area or of marsh, fen, peatland or water; natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters and includes all inland waters such as lakes, reservoir, tanks, backwaters, lagoon, creeks, estuaries and manmade wetland and zone of direct influence on wetlands that is to say the drainage area or catchment region of the wetlands as determined by the authority but does not include main river channels, paddy fields and the coastal wetland covered under the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of environment and Forest, S.O. number 114 (E) dated the 19 th February, 1991(CRZ notification). The Kerala Conservation of Paddy land and Wetland Act, 2008 defines wetland in Section 2(XVII) as: wetland means land lying between terrestrial and aquatic systems, where the water table is usually at or near the surface or which is covered by shallow water or characterized by the presence of sluggishly moving or standing water, saturating the soil with water and includes backwaters, estuary, fens, lagoon, mangroves, marshes, salt marsh and swamp forests but does not include paddy lands and rivers Legal framework in India The Indian Forest Act, 1927 was the most comprehensive, effective and oldest piece of legislation enacted to protect environment at the time when environmental problems had not assumed threatening dimensions as they have today. Later the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976 marked the beginning of a new milestone in the history of environmental protection in India. Article 48A requires that The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. Art. 51-A (g) provides that, it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. These two Articles direct the State and the citizens the duty not only to adopt protective measures, but also take steps to improve the already polluted environment and to preserve and safeguard the forests, flora and fauna. The three lists - Union, State and Concurrent Lists do not clearly mention as to who will legislate for matters relating to the wetlands. Although the State List consists of a number of items like public health and sanitation, agriculture, water-supply, irrigation and drainage and fisheries, the Union List is apparently without a mention of the environment. Yet, the Article 253 empowers the Parliament to legislate for any residual matter and to implement international obligations and decisions taken at the international conference, association etc. Forestry as a subject finds mention specifically in the Concurrent List. In the Constitution, water is a matter included in Entry 17 of List-II i.e. State List. The wetlands are mostly considered as water bodies and come under the State List and States have the exclusive jurisdiction pass legislations upon wetlands in the federal system of India. Article 51C of the Constitution provides that foster respect for International Law and Treaty obligations in the dealings of organized people with one another. Article 253 of the Constitution further provides that Not withstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, Parliament has power to make any law for the whole or any part of the Territory of India for implementing any treaty, agreement or convention with any other country or countries or any decision made at any International Conference, Association or Other body. Reading these two provisions of the Constitution together makes it clear that Indian Parliament has the power to legislate upon to implement any treaty obligation of the country. These positions were widely discussed by the Indian judiciary in many cases and come to the conclusion that The positive commitment of the State parties ignites legislative action at home but does not automatically make the covenant an enforceable part of the Corpus Juris of India.16 It can be concluded that so far the Union is not enacted a full-fledged law to implement the Ramsar Convention at municipal level mainly due to the constraint under the Constitution. But the
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 12

Constitutional provisions, Article 51C read with 253 empowers the Central Government to legislate upon issues related to the implementation of any treaty provisions committed by the Union. Once the Union is obliged under international law, its constituent parts, the states are also bound by the international law. Hence, it is the duty of every state to pass appropriate legislations to protect wetlands in their state. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 is an umbrella Act which was enacted with the objective of protecting and improving the environment and for matters connected therewith. 'Environment' as defined in Section 2 of the Environment (Protection) Act included water, air and land and the interrelationship which exists between water, air and land and human beings and other living creatures, plants and micro-organisms and property. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 has been instrumental in protecting wetlands and groups of wetlands. Several significant regulations and Notifications have been passed under this broad Act for monitoring pollution and safeguarding the environment. The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification which in fact imposes restrictions on industries, operations and processes in the coastal zone areas (500 metres from the High Tide Line and the area between the High Tide Line and the Low Tide Line) has been issued under this Act. The Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 1994 and 2006 was also issued under this Act. Section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act deals with the power of the Central Government to take measures to protect and improve the environment. The section reads as follows: Section 3 (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government shall have the power to take all such measures as it deems necessary or expedient for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing, controlling and abating environmental pollution. Such measures may include: Section 3 (v) restrictions of areas in which industries, operations and processes or class of industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or carried out subject to certain safeguards. The Government of India notified the Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules 2010 under Section 25 read with Section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Other legislations can also be used for the protection of wetlands in the country. Some of them are as follows: Wildlife (Protection) Act - 1972 Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 and Rules 1975 Territorial Water, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone and other Marine Zones Act - 1976 Forest (Conservation Act) 1980 Maritime Zone of India (Regulation and fishing by foreign vessels) Act - 1980 Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act - 1981 Environmental (Protection) Act 1986 Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess (Amendment) Act, 1991 EIA notification 1994/2006 Coastal Zone Regulations Notification1991 and 2011 Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and the Biodiversity Rules, 2004 Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess (Amendment) Act, 2003 . Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006. Policies for the conservation of water bodies

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 13

The first National Water Policy was formed in 1987. However, the conservation of water bodies was only addressed in 2002 at the national level at the time of the revision of the first National Water Policy (National Water Policy, 1987). Furthermore, the revised policy mentioned about the revival of traditional systems only. Before this, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) had developed the National Wetland Conservation Programme in 1983 for conservation of lakes and other water bodies. Since most of the lakes that are in urban areas face more threats of pollution and encroachment, the Ministry developed a separate programme in 2001 called National Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP) for the conservation of lakes in urban areas. The NLCP focuses on the development of the national level policies and actions for the urban lakes. However, it must be noted here that water being a State subject, Centre has a limited authority when it comes to the implementation of the policies for the management and protection of urban water bodies. Under the NLCP, the Central and State governments shared the costs in the ratio of 70:30. Recently 2013, the two programmes Nation Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP) and National Wetland Conservation Plan (NWCP) has been merged into a single programme called National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-systems . The guidelines of the programme are still being prepared. In 1992, The National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development by Ministry of Environment and Forests also stressed on the priority action towards the conservation of water bodies by controlling pollution of water bodies from municipal and industrial wastes generated from urban habitats by intercepting and diverting such wastes away from the water bodies and protection of land near water bodies and prevention of construction there upon. Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2010 In December 2010, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) notified the Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, under the Environment Protection Act of 1986. This was an attempt to fill a longstanding gap, as there was no specific legal mechanism to protect freshwater or inland wetlands (unlike coasts, which have had a Coastal Regulation Zone Notification since 1991). The notification is intended to protect following wetlands Ramsar and World Heritage Convention sites. Wetlands in ecologically sensitive areas, including protected areas, reserved forests, wildlife habitats, mangroves, corals and coral reefs, areas of outstanding natural beauty, or historical/heritage areas, and areas rich in genetic diversity. Wetlands in UNESCO world heritage sites. High altitude wetlands above 2,500 metres, of 5 hectares and more. Wetlands below this elevation, of 500 hectares and more. Any other wetland notified for the purpose. A number of activities are completely prohibited in these wetlands, including: reclamation, setting up of new industries (or expansion of existing ones), any activity related to hazardous substances (including chemicals and GMOs), solid waste dumping, discharge of untreated wastes, and permanent construction (other than boat jetties) within 50 metres. Exceptions to these can be made only with the permission of a central authority, to be set up under the Rules. There are few activities that can be carried out only with permission from the state government. They include water withdrawal, interrupting water sources in the catchment (including dams and diversion), harvesting of aquatic resources (living and non-living), aquaculture, agriculture, horticulture, dredging (except to remove silt), repair of existing buildings and infrastructure, and several activities at levels that could be harmful to the wetland such as grazing, discharge of treated effluents, motorised boats, and temporary facilities like pontoon bridges. Under the provisions of these rules a Central Wetlands Regulatory Authority,
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 14

comprising officials from the Ministries of Environment and Forests, Tourism, Water Resources, Agriculture, Social Justice, and the Central Pollution Control Board, and four independent scientists. Its powers and functions include processing proposals for notification of wetlands, enforcing the Rules, granting clearances for regulated activities, determining the zone of direct influence, all in consultation with local authorities. It will also specify threshold levels for regulated activities, and issue directions to the states for conservation and wise use. Implementing Agency. The Ministry of Environment Forests in Government of India is the nodal agency at National level and Department of Environment is the nodal department in the State. The Forest Dept will be nodal department for protecting wetlands in the protected and forest areas. Overlapping provisions. The wetlands within the protected areas of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries shall be regulated by the provisions of Wildlife (protection) Act 1972. Those in the protected or notified forest areas shall be regulated by the provisions of Indian Forest Act 1927, the forests (Conservation) Act 1980 and other areas by invoking Environment (Protection) Act 1986. The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification which in fact imposes restrictions on industries, operations and processes, wetland reclamation in the coastal zone areas. The provisions of notification regulates other developmental activities and also prohibits destruction of mangrove and other fragile areas. 500 metres from the High Tide Line of sea landward, 100m landward of inland water bodies, the area between the High Tide Line and the Low Tide Line and upto 12 nautical miles from LTL towards sea and the entire water area of a tidal water body such as creek, river, estuary, etc. The CRZ has been issued without imposing any restrictions of fishing activities. Notification has declared many important wetalnds as Critically Vulnerable Coastal Area (CVCA). Vembanad, Sunderbans etc. The CRZ areas are categorised as CRZ I, CRZ II, CRZ III and CRZ IV. The CRZ I are Ecologically important areas and the areas between LTL and HTL. The CRZ II are those areas other than CRZ I in legally designated urban local bodies and which are developed. The areas that are not much developed and those areas in panchayaths other than CRZ I are CRZ III. The water body and its bed are categorised as CRZ IV. The CRZ notification 2011 has provided special dispensation for the backwater islands in the state. The CRZ landward of these islands are having the CRZ landward only upto 50m from HTL. The clear procedures for obtaining CRZ approval with time-lines have been stipulated along with post-clearance monitoring and enforcement mechanisms. The activities are prohibited or regulated in the CRZ area. The no development zone is being reduced from 200 metres from the high-tide line to 100 metres only to meet increased demands of housing of fishing and other traditional coastal communities. Provisions of other rules The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. This act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants. This Act imposes prohibition on hunting of wild animals, their young ones as well as their eggs except with prior permission of the Chief Wildlife Warden. This acts prohibits the picking, uprooting, destroying, damaging, possessing of any plant in a protected area, except with prior permission of the Chief Wildlife Warden. The State government may declare any area; which it considers to have adequate ecological, faunal, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment; to be included in a sanctuary or a National Park. No person shall, destroy, exploit or remove any wildlife from a National Park and Sanctuary or destroy or damage the habitat or deprive any wild animal or plant its habitat within such National Park and Sanctuary. Thus offers protection
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 15

to wetlands which are or fall within the boundaries of protected areas. However national wildlife law places a strict ban on grazing within a National park and hence prohibits the human impact and influences on the wetland ecosystem once this is declared as a National Park. This restriction in national parks (which are zones of highest protection in protected area categories) makes wise use of the wetland virtually impossible. Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. Without the permission of the Central government, no State government or any other authority can declare that any reserved forest shall cease to be reserved, Issue permit for use of forest land for non-forest purpose, Assign any forest land or portion thereof by way of lease or otherwise to any private person, authority, corporation, agency or any other organization, not owned, managed or controlled by government. Clear off natural trees from a forest land for the purpose of reafforestation. The wetland in the forests thus get protected. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002. India is a signatory to the United Nations Convention on Biological Resources, 1992 and in accordance with that convention, brought into force The Biological Diversity Act, 2002. This act prohibits biodiversity related activities as well as transfer of the results of research pertaining to biodiversity to certain persons. It also necessitates the approval of National Biodiversity Authority before applying for Intellectual Property Rights on products pertaining to biological diversity. This act emphasizes the establishment of National/State Biodiversity Authority to carry out various functions pertaining to the Act, viz guidelines for approving collection, research and patents pertaining to biological diversity. It also notifies the central government on threatened species. The central government to develop plans, programmes and strategies for the conservation, management and sustainable use of the biodiversity. Where the Central Government has reason to believe that any area rich in biological diversity, biological resources and their habitats is being threatened by overuse, abuse or neglect, it shall issue directives to the concerned State Government to take immediate ameliorative measures. Environment Impact Assessment Notification. The Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 1994 and 2006 issued under Section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act deals with the power of the Central Government to take measures to protect and improve the environment. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. It is an Act to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water. To carry out the purposes of this act, the Central and the State government constitutes the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) respectively. The main functions of the pollution control boards include: Advice the government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of water pollution. Encourage, conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention, control or abatement of water pollution. Lay down or modify standards on various parameters for the release of effluents into streams. Collect and examine effluent samples as well as examine the various treatment procedures undertaken by the industries releasing the effluent. Examine the quality of streams. Notify certain industries to either stop, restrict or modify their procedures if it feels that the present procedure is deteriorating the water quality of streams. Establish or recognize laboratories to perform its functions including the analysis of stream water quality and trade effluents.
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 16

International Treaties Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as waterfowl habitats, (Ramsar) 1971. To stem the progressive destruction of the wetlands, Ramsar convention was signed. Waterfowls are birds ecologically dependent on the wetlands. The various points agreed under Ramsar convention includes: Each contracting party should nominate at least one wetland having significant value in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology to be included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar sites) and precisely describe its boundaries. The contracting parties will have right to add further wetland sites to the list, expand the boundaries of the existing sites and also to delete or minimize the boundaries of the existing sites. Each contracting party shall strive for the conservation, management and restoration of the wetlands in the list. Establishment of nature reserves in the area of wetlands thereby protecting it as well as the biological diversity it supports. Restriction of boundaries or deletion of a wetland listed as Ramsar sites, should be immediately compensated by the creation of additional nature reserves for the protection of waterfowls and other species habiting that wetland. International convention for the protection of Birds, 1950. To abate the ever dwindling number of certain bird species (particularly the migratory ones) as well as the other birds, this convention was made. This is an amendment to the International Convention for the Protection of Birds useful to Agriculture, 1902. The objectives of this convention include: Protection to all birds, their young ones and their eggs especially in their breeding season. Prohibit hunting, killing, mass capture or captivating birds, except those causing intense damage to crops or other components of the ecosystem, such so that the above said components is in the danger of extinction. Adopt measures to prohibit industries and other processes causing contamination of air and water that has adverse effects on the survival of birds. Adopt measures to prohibit the destruction of suitable breeding grounds and the bird habitat and also encourage the creation of suitable land and water habitat for the birds. Bonn Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species, 1979. According to the Bonn Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species, the participating parties : Should promote, co-operate in and support research relating to migratory species. Shall endeavour to provide immediate protection for migratory species which are endangered. Shall strive to conserve and restore those habitats of the endangered species in an effort to eliminate the chances of extinction of that species. Shall prohibit or minimize those activities or obstacles that seriously impede or prevent the migration of the species. Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992. The main objectives of this convention are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. In accordance with this convention, each contracting party shall Identify places supporting immense biological diversity. Monitor through sampling or other means the components of biological diversity identified and strive for the conservation of those components requiring urgent attention.
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 17

Develop new or adapt existing strategies, plans and programmes for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. Identify activities which have or may have significant adverse impact on the sustainability of the biodiversity in an area. It prescribes conservation of biological diversity by either In situ conservation mechanisms or Ex situ conservation mechanisms or both.

In situ conservation. Each contracting parties shall declare a region harbouring immense biological diversity as a protected area and develop various plans and strategies for the establishment, conservation and management of these protected areas and also strive to conserve biodiversity beyond these protected areas. Promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in the areas adjacent to the protected areas so as to further enhance the development and protection of these protected areas. Promote the protection of ecosystems, prevent the introduction of alien species likely to have an adverse effect on the existing ecosystem and also rehabilitate & restore degraded ecosystems. Enforce legislative measures for the protection of threatened species and population. Ex situ conservation. Each contracting party shall establish facilities for ex situ conservation and for research on plants, animals and micro-organisms, especially the threatened species, augment their number and take steps for their reintroduction in their own natural habitat. State Level Legal Framework The Kerala Conservation of Paddy Land and Wetland Act, 2008. The Kerala government has introduced the Kerala Conservation of Paddy Land and Wetland Act, 2008 and rules theron. This act is Prohibits conversion or reclamation of paddy land (o n and from the date of commencement of this Act, the owner, occupier or the person in custody of any paddy land shall not undertake any activity for the conversion or reclamation of such paddy land except in accordance with the provisions of this Act). The Kerala Protection of River banks and regulation of removal of Sand Act 2001. The Government has enacted this law to protect river banks and river beds from large scale dredging of river sand and to protect their biophysical environment system and regulate the removal of river sand. This law has can be applied in protecting the wetlands of the state. The Kerala Irrigation and water Conservation Act 2003. This act provides the provisions for conservation of water in water courses and regulates water withdrawal. The Kerala Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Act. 2010 This law relates to the inland fishery sector in the State and to provide the sustainable development, management, conservation, propagation, protection, exploitation and utilisation of the inland fishery sector and to promote the social fisheries and to regulate and control responsible aquaculture activities and to ensure the safety of livelihood and to protect the traditional rights of the fishermen and to ensure the availability of nutritious fish and food security to the people and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The table 1 lists the sections applicable to wetlands in the various laws Table 1. Sections applicable to Wetlands in the various laws
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 18

Sl. No. 1

Act

Relevant Sections

The Wildlife Prohibits hunting of wild animals, their young ones as well as their eggs (Conservation) Act, 1972 Prohibits the picking, uprooting, destroying, damaging, possessing of any plant in a protected area Can declare any area with high ecological significance as a national park, sanctuary or a closed area. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 Prior approval needed from National Biodiversity Authority for collection of biological materials occurring in India as well as for its commercial utilization. Prior approval from NBA needed before applying for intellectual property rights on products pertaining to Biological diversity. The NBA advices the concerned state government in selection of areas with immense biological diversity as National Heritage Site. Without the permission of the Central government, no State government or any other authority can : Declare that any reserved forest shall cease to be reserved. Issue permit for use of forest land for non-forest purpose. Assign any forest land by way of lease or otherwise to any private person, authority, corporation, agency or any other organization, not owned, managed or controlled by government. Clear off natural trees from a forest land for the purpose of reafforestation. It is based on the Polluter pays principle. The Pollution Control Boards performs the following functions : Inspects sewage and effluents as well as the efficiency of the sewage treatment plants. Lay down or modifies existing effluent standards for the sewage. Lay down standards of treatment of effluent and sewage to be discharged into any particular stream. Notify certain industries to either stop, restrict or modify their procedures if the present procedure is deteriorating the water quality of streams. Prohibited Activities Conversion of wetland to non-wetland use Reclamation of wetlands Setting up of new industries or expansion of existing industries Solid waste dumping and discharge of untreated effluents. Constructions of permanent nature within 50 m from floodline Any other activity having impact on wetlands Regulated activities Withdrawal of water, diversion or interruption of sources Treated effluent discharges industrial/domestic/agro-chemical. Plying of motorized boats Dredging Construction of Boat jetties Aquaculture/horticulture within the wetland etc.

Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980

Water (Control and Prevention of Pollution) Act, 1974

Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2010

Declaration of Coastal stretches as CRZ, 1991/2011

Prohibited activities : Setting up of new industries and expansion of existing industries in the CRZ. Discharge of untreated wastes and effluents from industries, cities or towns and other human settlements. Dumping of city or town waste for the purposes of landfilling. Land reclamation and disturbing the natural course of sea water. Mining of sands, rocks and other substrata materials, except those rare minerals not available outside the CRZ areas and exploration and extraction of Oil and Natural Gas. Harvesting or drawal of ground water and construction of mechanisms thereof within 200 m of HTL; in the 200m to 500m zone it shall be permitted only when done manually through ordinary wells. Any construction activity between the Low Tide Line and High Tide Line.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 19

Many activities are regulated. 7 National Environment Policy, 2006 The principal objectives of NEP includes : Protection and conservation of critical ecological systems and resources, and invaluable natural and man made heritage. Ensuring judicious use of environmental resources to meet the needs and aspirations of the present and future generations. It emphasizes the Polluter Pays principle, which states the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution, with due regard to the public interest. Industries shall be located only within the Industrial estates and strictly as per the guidelines issued by the concerned state government. As far as possible, no fresh mining lease shall be granted in the eco sensitive zone. However, quarrying and mining are totally banned in the core area of the eco sensitive zone. Tourism activities shall be as per a tourism development plan prepared by the Department of Tourism. The sites of natural heritage in the zone would be identified and plans for conserving in the natural setting would be made. All the gene pools in the zone would be preserved. Lays down standards for the quality of environment in its various aspects. Laying down standards for discharge of environmental pollutants from various sources and no persons shall discharge any pollutant in excess of such standards. Restrictions of areas in which industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or carried out subject to certain safeguards. Water is a scarce and precious national resource and requires to be conserved and management. Watershed management through extensive soil conservation, catchment-area treatment, preservation of forests and increasing the forest cover and the construction of check-dams should be promoted. The water resources should be conserved by retention practices such as rain water harvesting and prevention of pollution. Prohibits conversion or reclamation of paddy land

Eco sensitive zones

The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

10

National Water Policy, 2002

11

The Kerala Conservation of Paddy Land and Wetland Act, 2008 The Kerala Protection of River banks and regulation of removal of Sand Act 2001.

12

Regulates sand mining from rivers to protect the biophysical environment.

13

The Kerala Irrigation and This act provides the provisions for conservation of water in water courses and water Conservation Act regulates water withdrawal. 2003. The Kerala Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Act. 2010 provide the sustainable development, management, conservation, propagation, protection, exploitation and utilisation of the inland fishery sector and to promote the social fisheries and to regulate and control responsible aquaculture activities

14

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 20

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 21

WATER CONSERVATION IN KERALA- POLICIES AND PRACTICE WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON GROUND WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES OF CGWB
V. Kunhambu, N.Vinayachandran, T. S. Anitha Shyam, Mini Chandran & P. Nandakumaran *
Central Ground Water Board, Kerala Region, Thiruvananthapuram 695 004, India E-mail:pnkm62@gmail.com

Abstract
Water is not only an essential element for our survival but is also an important vehicle for economic development of the Nation. Although water is a renewable resource, its reserve in nature is limited and therefore, we have to plan for its sustainable development and efficient management so that the growing demands of rising population, expanding industries and rapid urbanization are adequately met.

NATIONAL WATER POLICY Water is a state subject as per the constitution of India. The objective of the National Water Policy is to take cognizance of the existing situation, to propose a framework for creation of a system of laws and institutions and for a plan of action with a unified national perspective on which various states can formulate their own State Water Policy realizing the ground truths which varies from state to state. National Water Policy of India was adopted in September, 1987. It is emphasized that water is a scarce and precious national resource to be planned, developed, conserved and managed as such, and on an integrated and environmentally sound basis, keeping in view the socio-economic aspects and needs of the States. It is one of the most crucial elements in developmental planning. As the country has entered the 21st century, efforts to develop, conserve, utilise and manage this important resource in a sustainable manner, have to be guided by the national perspective. It is significant to note that the number of issues and challenges have emerged in the development and management of the water resources. Therefore, the National Water Policy (1987) has been reviewed and updated as National Water Policy (2002) with additional emphasise on: (1) Non-conventional methods for utilisation of water such as through inter-basin transfers, artificial recharge of ground water and desalination of brackish or sea water as well as traditional water conservation practices like rainwater harvesting, including roof-top rainwater harvesting, need to be practiced to further increase the utilisable water resources. Promotion of frontier research and development, in a focused manner, and (2) Water resources development and management will have to be planned for a hydrological unit such as drainage basin as a whole or for a sub-basin, multi-sectorally, taking into account surface and ground water for sustainable use incorporating quantity and quality aspects as well as environmental considerations. All individual developmental projects and proposals should be formulated and considered within the framework of such an overall plan keeping in view the existing agreements / awards for a basin or a sub basin so that the best possible combination of options can be selected and sustained. Draft National Water Policy 2012 The present scenario of water resources and their management in India has given rise to several concerns and government of India felt the necessity for suitable revision of its National
*
Regional Director, CGWB, Kerala region

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 22

Water Policy and the draft National Water Policy-2012 has been framed after much deliberations and on June 7, 2012, the Ministry of Water Resources (GOI) published its Draft National Water Policy 2012 (NWP). Comparison of provisions of national water policies 1987, 2002 and draft national water policy (2012) are furnished below (Table.1) Tabe.1: comparison of provisions of National water policies 1987, 2002 and draft national water policy (2012).
Sl. No. 1. 2. Sector Description National Water Policy National Water Policy (1987) (2002) Perspective for Water National perspectives. National perspectives. Resources Planning Information System Standardized national Standardized national information system information system Draft National Water Policy (2012)

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Integrated perspective considering local, regional, State and national context All water related data, should be integrated with well-defined procedures and formats to ensure online updating and transfer of data to facilitate development of database for informed decision making in the management of water Water Resources Hydrological unit such Hydrological unit such Integrated Water Resources Management Planning as a drainage basin as a as a drainage basin as a taking river basin / sub-basin as a unit, whole, or a sub-basin whole, or a sub-basin should be the main principle for planning, development and management of water resources Institutional Appropriate Appropriate river basin There is a need for comprehensive Mechanism organizations should be organisations should be legislation for optimum development of established for the established for the inter-State rivers and river valleys and to planned development planned development enable establishment of basin authorities and management of a and management of a with appropriate powers to plan, manage river basin as a whole. river basin as a whole or and regulate utilization of water resource sub-basins, wherever in the basins. necessary. Water Allocation Drinking water accorded Drinking water accorded Safe drinking water and sanitation defined Priorities highest priority followed highest priority followed as pre-emptive needs followed by high by irrigation, hydroby irrigation, hydropriority allocation for other domestic power, navigation, power, ecology, needs (including needs of animals), industries, etc. navigation, industries, achieving food security, supporting etc. sustenance agriculture and minimum ecosystem needs. Project Planning Water resource Water resource All water resources projects, including development projects development projects hydro power projects, should be planned should as far as possible should as far as possible to the extent feasible as multi-purpose be planned and be planned and projects with provision of storage to derive developed as developed as maximum benefit from available topology multipurpose projects. multipurpose projects. and water resources Environmental Flow No specific mention Minimum flow should beA portion of river flows should be kept in Rivers except providing for the ensured in the perennial aside to meet ecological needs ensuring preservation of the streams for maintaining that the proportional low and high flow quality of environment ecology and social releases correspond in time closely to the and the ecological considerations. natural flow regime. balance. Groundwater Exploitation of ground Exploitation of ground Declining ground water levels in overdevelopment water resources should water resources should exploited areas need to be arrested by be so regulated as not to be so regulated as not to introducing improved technologies of exceed the recharging exceed the recharging water use, incentivizing efficient water use possibilities, as also to possibilities, as also to and encouraging community based ensure social equity. ensure social equity. management of aquifers. Access to safe Adequate drinking water Adequate safe drinking Minimum quantity of potable water for drinking Water facilities should be water facilities should be essential health and hygiene to all its provided to the entire provided to the entire citizens, available within easy reach of the population both in urbanpopulation both in urbanhousehold, must be ensured. and in rural areas by and in rural areas. 1991.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 23

Sl. No. 10.

Sector Description

11.

National Water Policy (1987) Inter-basin transfer Water should be made available to water short areas by transfer from other areas including transfers from one river basin to another, based on a national perspective, after taking into account the requirements of the areas/basins. Water Use Efficiency The efficiency of utilisation in all the diverse uses of water should be improved and an awareness of water as a scarce resource should be fostered. Water Pricing

12.

13.

Participatory Water Management

14.

Flood management

15.

Gap between Irrigation Potential created and utilized

The project and the basin water use efficiencies need to be improved through continuous water balance and water accounting studies. An institutional arrangement for promotion, regulation and evolving mechanisms for efficient use of water at basin/sub-basin level will be established for this purpose at the national level. Water rates should be Water charges should Water Regulatory Authority should be set adequate to cover the cover at least the up to fix water tariffs with provision of annual maintenance and operation and differential pricing for the pre-emptive operation charges and a maintenance charges of and high priority uses of water. part of the fixed costs. providing the service initially and a part of the capital costs subsequently. Efforts should be made Water Users Community based water management to involve farmers Associations and the should be institutionalized and progressively in various local bodies should be strengthened. aspects of management involved in the Water Users Associations should be given of irrigation systems, operation, maintenance statutory powers to collect and retain a particularly in water and management of portion of water charges, manage the distribution and water infrastructures / volumetric quantum of water allotted to collection of water rates. facilities at appropriate them and maintain the distribution system levels progressively, with in their jurisdiction a view to eventually transfer the management of such facilities to the user groups / local bodies. Emphasis on nonEmphasis on nonWhile every effort should be made to avert structural measures, structural measures, water related disasters like floods and such as flood forecasting such as flood forecasting droughts, through structural and nonand warning and flood and warning, flood plain structural measures, emphasis should be plain zoning, so as to zoning and flood on preparedness for flood / drought with reduce the recurring proofing, so as to reduce coping mechanisms as an option. Greater expenditure on flood the recurring emphasis should be placed on relief. expenditure on flood rehabilitation of natural drainage system. relief. Concerted efforts, such Concerted efforts should All components of water resources as command area be made to ensure that projects should be planned and executed development, should be the irrigation potential in a pari-passu manner so that intended made to ensure that the created is fully utilised. benefits start accruing immediately and irrigation potential For this purpose, the there is no gap between potential created created is fully utilised command area and potential utilized. and the gap between the development approach potential created and its should be adopted in all utilisation is removed. irrigation projects.

National Water Policy (2002) Water should be made available to water short areas by transfer from other areas including transfers from one river basin to another, based on a national perspective, after taking into account the requirements of the areas / basins. Efficiency of utilisation in all the diverse uses of water should be optimised and an awareness of water as a scarce resource should be fostered.

Draft National Water Policy (2012) Inter-basin transfers are not merely for increasing production but also for meeting basic human need and achieving equity and social justice. Inter-basin transfers of water should be considered on the basis of merits of each case after evaluating the environmental, economic and social impacts of such transfers.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 24

Thus, National Water Policy clearly envisages the road map for water conservation and water security measures. Kerala State also adopted Kerala Water Policy 2008 and provided broad guidelines on water resource management priorities and action plan to be followed. Ground Water Development The rapid development of ground water resources for varied usage has contributed in expansion of irrigated agriculture, overall economic development and in improving the quality of life in India. Ground water, which is the source for more than 85 percent of rural domestic water requirements, 50 percent of urban water requirements and more than 50 percent of irrigation requirements of the country, is depleting fast in many areas due to its large-scale withdrawal for various sectors. The ground water development with time has changed the hydrogeological regime and as a result natural recharge components have altered to a great extent. As per latest ground water resource estimation as on 31 st March, 2009, the stage of groundwater development of the country is worked out to be around 61%. Out of the 5842 assessment units, 802 units have been categorized as Over-exploited, 169 as Critical and 523 units as SemiCritical. There are 71 saline units and 4277 Safe units. The annual replenishable ground water resource is 431 BCM and net ground water availability is 396 BCM. The total annual ground water draft is 243 BCM and balance ground water resources available for further development is 153 BCM. GROUNDWATER RESOURCE ESTIMATION OF KERALA, AS ON MARCH 2009 The occurrence and availability of ground water in Kerala vary considerably from place to place within the state depending on the prevailing climatic, geomorphological and hydrogeological conditions. About 88 percent of the total geographical area of the State is underlain by crystalline rocks devoid of any primary porosity, with limited ground water prospects. In the alluvial formations having multiple aquifer systems, quality is sometimes a constraint in the optimal development of available resources. Increasing population, rapid urbanization and industrialization has resulted in increasing use of ground water resources over the last few decades in the State. Judicious and planned development of ground water and its scientific management have become necessary to ensure long-term sustainability of this precious natural resource in Kerala. The dynamic ground water resources of the State are being periodically assessed by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), jointly with the State Ground Water Department and other Central Government as well as State Government agencies, according to the methodology recommended by the Groundwater Estimation Committee constituted by Govt. from time to time. Categorization of Assessment Units The units of assessment are categorized for groundwater development based on two criteria viz. (a) stage of groundwater development and (b) long term trend of pre and post monsoon water levels. There are four categories based on the above norms (1) Safe areas which have groundwater potential for development; (2) Semi-Critical areas where cautious groundwater development is recommended. (3) Critical areas and (4) Over-Exploited areas where there should be intensive monitoring and evaluation and future groundwater development be linked with water conservation measures and micro level studies. The details of criteria for categorization of assessment units are given in Table 2. Table 2: Criteria for Categorization of Assessment Units
Sl.No. Stage of Groundwater Development Significant Long term Decline Categorization

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 25

Pre-monsoon 1 < = 70% No Yes/No Yes 2 >70% and <=90% No Yes/No Yes 3 >90% and <=100% No Yes/No Yes 4 >100% No Yes/No Yes

Post-monsoon No No/Yes Yes No No/Yes Yes No No/Yes Yes No No/Yes Yes Safe To be re-assessed To be re-assessed Safe Semi-Critical To be re-assessed To be re-assessed Semi-Critical Critical To be re-assessed Over-Exploited Over-Exploited

The Total Annual Ground Water Availability in Kerala State has been computed as 6.620 Billion Cubic Metre (BCM). Rainfall recharge accounts for about 82 percent of the annual recharge, with the remainder contributed by other sources. The details of the computations are provided in Table 3.
Table 3: Summary of Major Components of Dynamic Ground Water Resources of Kerala (As in March 2009) Sl. Assessment Unit/ District Net Annual Existing Gross Stage of No. Ground Water Ground Water Draft Ground Water Availability for All uses (Ha.m) Development (%) (Ha.m) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ALAPPUZHA ERNAKULAM IDUKKI KANNUR KASARGOD KOLLAM KOTTAYAM KOZHIKODE MALAPPURAM PALAKKAD PATHANAMTHITTA THIRUVANANTHAPURAM THRISSUR WAYANAD KERALA (BCM) 45365.10 55734.91 19654.62 47911.09 32724.30 40926.67 47315.55 34738.24 48431.05 79524.78 28411.26 30473.99 64059.63 27627.84 602899.03 6.029 12934.84 23975.68 8297.93 21738.59 23333.49 15711.15 12597.33 18971.66 27951.12 48417.31 9424.34 17100.97 35673.29 4768.00 280895.70 2.809 29 43 42 45 71 38 27 55 58 61 33 56 56 17 47 47

Ground water draft in Kerala is mainly for domestic and irrigation uses. In view of the nonavailability of data on the number of wells being used for domestic purposes, the ground water draft for domestic uses has been computed block-wise on the basis of 2001 population, projected
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 26

to the year of assessment (2008). Domestic requirement of water in the state has been computed as the product of the population and the per-capita water requirement (assumed as 150 L / day/person). The share of ground water in the requirement has been computed as a percentage varying from 25 to 100%, arrived at on the basis of availability of surface water sources for domestic water supply. The ground water draft has been computed from the data on the block-wise number of irrigation wells collected during the 4 th Minor Irrigation Census (with 2007 as base year) conducted by the Dept. of Minor Irrigation, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. The ground water draft figures are arrived at by multiplying the number of wells with the corresponding unit draft. The Annual Ground Water Draft for all uses in the State is of the order of 2.809 BCM and ranges from 4768 Ha.m in Wayanad district to 48417 Ha.m in Palakkad district. District-wise status of Net Ground Water Availability and Annual Ground Water Draft for all uses is shown in Fig.1.

Fig.1: Status of Net Ground Water Availability & Ground Water Draft

Stage of Ground Water Development The stage of ground water development of assessment units, computed as the ratio of Existing Gross Ground Water Draft for all uses and the Net Annual Ground Water Availability is of the order of 47 percent for the State of Kerala as a whole. The average stage of ground water development is the highest in Kasargod district (71%) and the lowest in Wayanad district (17%). Categorization of Assessment Units The Assessment units have been categorized as Over-exploited, Critical, Semi-critical or Safe on the basis of Stage of Ground Water Development and the long-term decline of average ground water levels in the observations wells in the assessment unit, as per the criteria suggested in GEC-1997 methodology. In cases where the Water Level Fluctuation (WLF) method has been used for computation of ground water recharge during monsoon season, the assessment units have been categorized strictly as per the norms. Decline of ground water levels of 15 cm per year or more has been considered significant in the State while categorizing the blocks. However, in such units where the monsoon recharge has been computed by ad-hoc method on account of the water level data not being representative, categorization has been done primarily on the basis of stage of development and the existing ground situation. Out of 152 assessed units in the State, Chittur block of Palakkad district has been categorized as OverRegional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 27

exploited and 3 blocks (Kasargod block of Kasargod district, Malampuzha block of Palakkad district and Kodungallur block of Thrissur district) have been categorized as Critical. Out of the remaining blocks, 22 blocks are Semi-critical and 126 blocks are Safe. The spatial distribution of different categories of assessment units is given in Fig.2.

Fig. 2: Categorization of Blocks in Kerala (As in March 2009)

CGWB INITIATIVES ON ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER RESOURCES A Manual on Artificial Recharge of Ground Water providing detailed guidelines on investigative techniques for selection of sites, planning and design of artificial recharge structures, monitoring and economic evaluation of artificial recharge schemes was brought out by Central Ground Water Board in 1994. It also included 2 elaborate case studies and field examples of artificial recharge schemes from different parts of the world. The manual has been used extensively for
Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 28

planning and implementation of schemes for augmentation of ground water resources by various agencies. Subsequent to the publication of the manual, Central Ground Water Board has brought out publications on the topic in an attempt to disseminate the experiences gained during various ground water augmentation projects implemented by the Board in the country. These include Manual on Artificial Recharge of Ground Water (1994), National Perspective Plan for Recharge to Ground Water by Utilizing Surplus Monsoon Runoff (1996), Guide on Artificial Recharge to Ground Water (1998), Guide on Artificial Recharge to Ground Water (2000), Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water (2002), Manual on Artificial Recharge of Ground Water (2009) and Select Case Studies on Rain Water Harvesting and Artificial Recharge (2011). Apart from these, Central Ground Water Board has also published technical brochures on various aspects of artificial recharge through its Regional Directorates, in its local vernacular languages, which served as guidelines to various governmental and non-governmental agencies and the general public. Some of the State Departments have also brought out manuals and guidelines on artificial recharge to ground water, which dealt with specific areas in most cases. There were also many projects implemented at state and national level with peoples participatory approach in executing recharge projects. It is felt that there is a need for convergence of data and information on ongoing recharge and rain water harvesting projects as well as the optimization of the number of structures NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE PLAN FOR RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) prepared a National Perspective Plan for Recharge to Ground Water by utilizing Surplus Monsoon Run-off in 1996. The availability of non-committed surplus monsoon run-off in 20 River Basins of the country was analysed vis-a-vis the sub-surface available space under different hydrogeological situations for saturating the vadose zone to 3m below ground level. It was estimated that it is possible to store 21.4 M.ha.m of surplus monsoon runoff in ground water reservoir, out of which 16.05 M.ha.m can be utilized. The plan presented a conceptual framework for utilization of surplus monsoon run-off for artificial recharge of ground water. CGWB had prepared a Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water earlier in the year 2002. The Master Plan envisaged the number of artificial recharge and water conservation structures in the country as 39 lakh at an estimated cost of Rs. 24,500 crores. Based on the above, various State Agencies and CGWB have taken up the construction of artificial recharge structures on a large scale under State/Central sector scheme. The details of demonstrative artificial recharge studies taken up by CGWB during different five year plans are furnished in table below (Table.4). Table 4: Artificial Recharge Studies taken by CGWB during different Five Year Plans
PLAN VIII (1992-97) IX (1997-2002) STATUS Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal & Chandigarh (Total States/UT 9) Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Andaman & Nicobar, Bihar, Chandigarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Delhi, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal (Total States/UT 27) Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh & Tamil Nadu (Total States 4) Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Chandigarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu &Kashmir, Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Total States/UT 21) COST (Rs.Cr.) 3.23 33.10

X (2002-2007) XI (2007-2012)

5.60 99.87

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 29

The details of artificial recharge schemes implemented in Kerala & U.T. of Lakshadweep under Central Sector Scheme are furnished below (Table.5).
Table 5: Artificial Recharge Schemes implemented by CGWB in Kerala & U.T of Lakshadweep
S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Location Odakkali Ananganadi Bangalakulam Kadapallam Mayyil Harijan Colony Ezhimala Structure and Year Sub-surface Dam (1988) Sub-surface Dam (1979) Deepening of Pond (2001) Deepening cum desiltation of tank (2001) Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting (2001) Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting, Check Dam, Recharge Pit (2001) Sub-surface Dam (2000) Sub-surface Dam (1998) Sub-surface Dam (1998) Sub-surface Dam (1997) Tidal Regulator (2001) Sub-surface Dam (2000) Percolation Tank (2001) Recharge Well (2001) Sub-surface Dam (1998) Sub-surface Dam (2003) Check dam (2003) Check Dam (2003) Sub-surface Dam (2003) Rainwater Harvesting, Artificial Recharge (2003) Rainwater Harvesting, Artificial recharge (2003) AR scheme in district (200910) AR Scheme in district (200910) Renovation of existing Pond (2009-10) Rain Water Harvesting ( 2009-10) AR scheme (2011-12) AR scheme (2011-12 RWH, 2005 District Ernakulam Palghat Kasargod Kasargod Kannur Kannur Implementing agency CGWB(SIDA Project) CGWB(SIDA Project) Kerala Land Development Corporation Kerala Land Development Corporation District Collectorate Water conservation Society Kannur Kerala Land Development Corporation Kerala Land Development Corporation Kerala Land Development Corporation Kerala Land Development Corporation Kerala Land Development Corporation Kerala Land Development Corporation Kerala Agri. Engg. Dept Kerala Agri. Engg. Dept Kerala Land Development Corporation PWD, Kerala Groundwater Department Kerala Land Development Corporation Groundwater Department PWD, Kerala Cost(Rs) N.A N.A 1,22,068 5,37,760 1,53,150 8,46,090

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Ayilam Bhavaji Nagar Allanallur Mambazhakara Ayandikadavu Neezhur Chirakulam Perinthanam Sadanandapuram Komuttichella Aninja Chunnambukal-thodu Thalayilmottakavu Civil Station Campus

Trivandrum Palghat Palghat Trivandrum Trivandrum Kottayam Kottayam Kottayam Kollam Palghat Kasargod Palghat Trivandrum Kasargod

6,25,000 6,92,368 6,23,143 6,27,513 15,00,000 4,75,000 7,38,308 1,69,858 7,36,405 2,21,224 5,28,011 14,30,330 4,68,249 8,28,659

21 22

Secretariat Building Govinda Pai Memorial College, Manjeswar Govt.UPS, BedadkaKulathur, Pallipara Pallam, Kayyur-Cheemeni, Nileswaram Bk Chittoor college Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya KendriyaVidyalaya No.2 Kavaratti

Trivandrum Kasargod

PWD, Kerala Soil Conservation Dept

2,82,637 2,10288

23 24

Kasargod Kasargod

Bedadka Gram Pt Soil Conservation Dept

8,75,000 1,44,198

25 26 27 28

Palakkad Kasaragod Kasaragod Kavaratti

Groundwater Department Soil Conservation Dept Soil Conservation Dept LPWD

4,32,153 7,63,000 5,85,000 11,01,789

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 30

REVISED MASTER PLAN FOR ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE Incorporating the actual progress made in the targets up to 2010-11 and also reassessing the new areas of recharge to make use of the experience already gained and the input received from the impact assessment of select schemes executed by Central Ground Water Board through state agencies under central sector and centrally sponsored schemes Problems that may arise in coastal and hard rock aquifers and over-development in isolated pockets in Safe blocks are also to be addressed in coming years. The ground water quality issues also need to be focused on new areas of integrated approach in rain water harvesting and recharge to ground water. Considering this, some changes in the methodology in artificial recharge are proposed. Based on the experience gained under demonstrative artificial recharge program and artificial recharge to ground water through dug well scheme, the need for identification of specific new areas in different States for additional artificial recharge to ground water was felt. To implement schemes in an effective manner, state-wise presentation of the base data on existing recharge structures and proposals in the pipeline is required. Also, the feasibility of diverting flood water or surplus run off from rainfall from one region to another region is examined. The new guidelines for taking up recharge schemes without affecting the existing surface water storage structures are also envisaged It is decided to revise and update the Master Plan of Artificial Recharge (2002) as on March 2011 The Chairman, CGWB, constituted a Committee to prepare new guidelines for revision of Master Plan for artificial recharge to ground water for the country and the Committee submitted the report in September 2008. The committee recommended broad guidelines for selection of priority areas, schemes for different agro climatic areas and use of transported water for recharge, creation of data base on existing recharge structures for planning any new schemes in a given time and other recommendations. The demand side management of ground water resources was given stress by the Committee. Based on the recommendations of the Committee, the present revised Master Plan is prepared on the basis of hydrogeological parameters and hydrological data base available for each State. The identification of feasible areas for artificial recharge to ground water was made on the basis of depth and declining trend of ground water levels. The decadal average depth to water level for post monsoon period was taken to estimate the sub-surface storage space for recharge and volume of water needed to saturate the vadose zone to 3m below ground level. The quantification of surplus monsoon run-off was made for the identified areas/sub-basins. The computations for surface water available to harness in each identified areas were made to plan the feasibility of different artificial recharge structures. Based on the hydrogeological situation of each of the states the feasible number of different artificial recharge structures and their cost estimates were made. A total area of about 9,41,541 sq.km. has been identified in various parts of country where artificial recharge to ground water is feasible. This also includes hilly terrain of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, North Eastern States & Islands where the structures are proposed to improve the sustainability of springs and freshwater. It is estimated that annually about 85,565 MCM of surplus run-off is to be harnessed to augment the ground water. Most of the basins of the country, particularly in Peninsular India are having marginal/negligible surplus runoff, where considerable space in underground reservoirs is available. Hence, surplus runoff is not available for recharge to ground water in various areas, which otherwise need artificial recharge. The surplus runoff available in North Eastern States, Himachal Pradesh and Islands is very high and due to limited space available underground for recharge, the surplus run off calculation is not separately given. However, for the stabilization of springs and improving the ground water scenario in existing localized ground water extraction areas, few recharge structures are identified and will be executed by considering the local ground slope and vulnerability of landslides, etc. in these areas. In rural areas, suitable structures like percolation tanks, check dams, nala bunds, gully plugs, gabion structures etc. and sub-surface techniques of recharge shaft, well recharge etc.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 31

have been recommended. Provision to arrest ground water flow through ground water dams has also been made in some states. The revised Master Plan envisages construction of about 1.11 crore artificial recharge structures in urban and rural areas at an estimated cost of about Rs. 79,178 crores. This comprises of around 88 lakh recharge structures/ facilities utilizing rain water directly from roof top(at an estimated cost of Rs. 16266 crores.) and around 23 lakh artificial recharge and rain water harvesting structures for conserving surplus runoff and recharging ground water in aquifers. The break-up includes around 2.90 lakh check dams, 1.55 lakh gabion structures, 6.26 lakh gully plugs, 4.09 lakh nala bunds/cement plugs 84925 percolation tanks, 8281 sub-surface dykes, 5.91 lakh recharge shafts,1.08 lakh contour bunds,16235 injection wells and 23172 other structures which includes point recharge structures recharge tube wells, stop dams, recharge trenches, anicuts, flooding structures, induced recharge structures, weir structures etc. In North Eastern States, Andaman & Nicobar and Sikkim emphasis has been given to spring development and 2,950 springs are proposed for augmentation and development. The areas having existing recharge structures are recommended to revisit for evaluating their performance and supplementing advanced techniques such as recharge shafts, recharge bores and tube wells for improving the overall efficiency of recharge structures. The ongoing MGNREGA work will be also used to improve the existing rain water harvesting and recharge structures, creating specific supply channels and desilting of trenches, ponds etc. The community participation at Panchayat level for such work through concerned Central Ministries is estimated at Rs 20,000 crores for a period of 10 years. The stakeholder industries (existing/new) would be involved in implementing rain water harvesting and recharge to ground water as part of Ministry of Environment & Forest directions with technical guidance of CGWB and state agencies. The expected contribution from industrial sector is estimated at Rs. 20,000 crores. The balance of about Rs. 24,178 crores would be spent by State/Central Government Departments under various programmes by involving the line Departments in the State, particularly Integrated Watershed Development Department, Forest Department, Public Works Department, Horticulture Department, Roads and Buildings Department, Agriculture Department and Water Supply Departments DUG WELL RECHARGE SCHEME A separate scheme on Dug well recharge was prepared for Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh states at an estimated cost of Rs. 1871 crores covering 4.455 Million irrigation dug wells covering 1155 blocks in seven participating states. The Scheme is being implemented through NABARD, CGWB and identified nodal agencies in the state. Under this scheme, farmers were given fund directly for the construction of recharge pits near the dug well at an average cost of Rs 4000/- which varies from Rs.3600/- (Maharashtra) to Rs.5700/- (Andhra Pradesh). As on March 2012, 1,14,205 dug well recharge structures were completed under this scheme. The earlier Master Plan prepared by the Government of India also needs updating of physical and financial targets to account the executed work and to arrive at a base for further implementation with the involvement of state and other stake holders at grass root level. The revised Master plan for artificial recharge (2011) envisages schemes for recharging about 1520 MCM of water in Kerala (Table.6). The cost of implementation of the artificial recharge schemes including roof top rain water harvesting systems in the state of Kerala works out as Rs. 5914.Cr.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 32

Table.6: Details of Master Plan for artificial recharge in Kerala (2011)


Sl No. Districts Volume of Unsaturated Zone (MCM) 0 2261 1623 5515 5924 1859 1395 2112 4291 4379 1623 4217 4251 3158 42607 Volume of Water available (MCM) 0 621 1066 2118 1710 974 449 597 756 1424 1318 1027 2788 2829 17678 Volume of water required for Recharge (MCM) 0 90 43 221 237 74 47 70 143 146 54 169 142 84 1520

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

ALAPPUZHA ERNAKULAM IDUKKI KANNUR KASARGOD KOLLAM KOTTAYAM KOZHIKODE MALAPPURAM PALAKKAD PATHANAMTHITTA THIRUVANANTHAPURAM THRISSUR WAYANAD TOTAL

AWARENESS &CAPACITY BUILDING Awareness creation and capacity building of stakeholders are also an integral parts of water conservation endeavours. The Central Ground Water Board, Kerala Region, organized various activities under the aegis of the Information Education and Communication program of Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. The various activities include Water Management Training Programmes, Mass awareness programmes etc on conservation and protection of ground water resources, Workshops, World Water Week Celebrations, Display Boards/ Hoardings on water conservation at various Railway stations, Distribution of calanders with theme of water conservation as well as distribution of Booklets on water conservation and artificial recharge . The Painting Competition is being organized for creating awareness among school children on the importance of conservation & efficient use of water. As part of this programme , CGWB, Kerala Region has been conducting School and State Level Painting Competition for the students of 4 th 5th & 6th Standard of Kerala and U.T of Lakshadweep for spreading awareness on Water conservation among the school students 2010 as per the guidelines of Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India. More than 1.5 lakh students of 4 th, 5th and 6th Class students from Kerala have participated in event so far. Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India has also instituted annual award namely Ground Water Augmentation Award and National Water Award to encourage adoption of innovative practices of ground water augmentation by rain water harvesting and artificial recharge, promoting water use efficiency, recycling and reuse of water and creating awareness through people participation, dissemination of technical information related ground water in the form of report, maps and also through the website.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 33

HYDROFRACTURING A NEW TECHNIQUE TO RECHARGE HARD ROCK AQUIFERS OF KERALA


E.Shaji
Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Trivandrum 695 581, India E-mail: shajigeology@gmail.com

Abstract
Geologically 85% of the Kerala state is underlain by crystalline rocks of Archaean age comprising the charnockite-khondalite suite, hornblende gneisses and older migmatites forming the basement gneisses, followed by high-grade schists and gneisses of the Wayanad Sargur Group and low-grade Dharwar schists. Intrusives like dolerite, gabbro, granites and pegmatite veins are also noticed in all formations. The Upper Tertiary formations include the Warkali, Quilon, Vaikom, Alleppey formations. The Sub-Recent to Recent formations include the coastal sands, teris, lagoonal deposits, alluvium and laterite of different generations. The crystalline rocks are made up of the highly decomposed weathered zone or partly weathered and fractured rock form shallow aquifers. Thick weathered zone is seen along the midland area beneath the laterites. In the hill ranges thin weathered zone is seen along topographic lows and areas with gentle slope. Exploratory drilling in the crystalline formations carried out by Central Ground Water Board has indicated occurrence of potential fractures at depths ranging between 60 and 175 m. bgl with well yields varying from dry (nil) to as much as 35 lps. In Charnockites and hornblende biotite gneisses, the yield seems to be more than the khondalite group of rocks. In Trivandrum district the rocks are highly fractured but the fractures are filled with secondary clay minerals. Hence the recharge to the deeper aquifers is limited. This is one of the main reasons for the base flow of groundwater in the region. This is has to be minimized and the fractures can be cleaned and opened with a technique called hydrofracturing.

Hydrofracturing Hydro-fracturing is a recent technique that is used to improve secondary porosity in hard rock strata. Hydro-fracturing is a process whereby hydraulic pressure is applied to an isolated zone of bore wells to initiate and propagate fractures and extend existing fractures. The water under high-pressure break up the fissures cleans away clogging and leads to a better contact with adjacent water bearing strata. The yield of the bore well is improved. In hydro fracturing, vertical fractures are initiated which inter-connects aquifers at different levels in addition to extension of existing fractures. This leads to better conditions for artificial recharge. The technique may be applied at bore well sites located in hard crystalline rock or other massive consolidated strata including metamorphic and sedimentary formations. Generally, a bore well giving low or poor yield is treated, but the technique can also benefit other wells. A procedure designed to increase the amount of water in existing dry and low yield water wells. Hydrofracturing is a well development process that involves injecting water under high pressure into a bedrock formation via the well. This is intended to increase the size and extent of existing bedrock fractures, pumping water into those fractures at pressures as high as 45000 psi and flow rates as high as 300 liters per minute, this cleans out the fractures and allows them to interconnect with nearby water bearing fractures. A hydrofracturing machine, which works at Bangalore, is shown in figure 1.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 34

Fig 1. Hydro fracturing machine

Process The procedure involves the installation of an inflatable packer (Figure 2) which is placed in the well bore at least 50 feet below the well casing and drive shoe seal and at least 60 feet below ground surface to insure that the process does not break the seal or allow surface water contaminants to enter the well. The packer is inflated or locked into position and water is pumped through the packer under pressure. Most applications require between 500 and 2000 pounds per square inch(psi) pressure and in some cases 4500 psi pressure may be needed in tight rock formations.

Fig 2 Inflatable packer

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 35

If successful, pressure will steadily rise to a maximum level as the rock formation resists flow then will suddenly drop off and stabilize at a lower pressure. The drop in pressure indicates that the formation is accepting water and the resistance to flow is diminished. Water is pumped into the formation for 5 to 30 minutes. Injection pump delivery rates of 200 to 350 litres per minute. It is extremely important that only clean, disinfected water is used for injection water because of the extreme pressures involved and the potential for forcing contaminant deep into the bed rock aquifer. When successful, hydrofracturing can produce modest well yield increases. However, depending on the original yield of the well, a modestly increased yield may represent a significant increase if the original yield was very low. Due to geologic conditions, in some instances hydrofracturing will not increase well yield. Because of the large volumes of water used in the process, Clearwater Drilling recommends waiting a minimum of 48 hours to do a yield test. This allows the bedrock aquifer to reach equilibrium. This will insure a more true test. Rain water can be directed to the bore well and after the fracturing the bore well will absorb more water. When impervious layers overlie deeper aquifers, the infiltration from surface cannot recharge the sub-surface aquifer under natural conditions. The hydro fracturing technique is helpful to recharge the confined aquifers directly from surface-water source are grouped under sub-surface recharge techniques. These techniques modify the aquifer characteristics to increase its capacity to store and transmit water. With such modifications, the aquifer, at least locally, becomes capable of receiving more natural as well as artificial recharge. Hence, in a sense this technique is artificial yield augmentation measure rather than artificial recharge measures. Summary This technique is suited to hard crystalline rocks of Kerala. Through hydro-geological investigation, suitable sites are fixed where the aquifer displays limited yield that dwindles or dries in summer months.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 36

CAN WE CONSERVE PART OF POTABLE GROUNDWATER THAT REGULARLY DISCHARGES TO SEA ACROSS THE KERALA COAST?
D. S. Suresh Babu
National Centre for Earth Science Studies Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram 695 031, India E-mail:dssbabu@gmail.com

Abstract While surface water flow is significantly regulated by the construction of weirs, check dams and multipurpose dams of different dimensions all along the state, no effort has been taken seriously to estimate the annual loss of subsurface flow and also to control its discharge to sea. In fact, multifarious river flow recorders are fitted in the drainage network to measure the discharges on a seasonal basis. On the other hand, the extensive open-well and tube well water table measurements do not allow us to calculate the total volume of groundwater that is flowing through a particular area, as aquifer mapping work has not been completed. This is particularly true in the case of coastal aquifers. Hence the matter needs urgent attention of hydrogeologists since Keralas unique topographical constraints do affect the groundwater reserves also, as in the case of surface runoff. The soil moisture reflectance map of Kerala coastal zone prepared using summer signal values has shown that there are potential zones favourable for groundwater discharge to sea during dry seasons. Three such zones could be identified within the shallow aquifer horizon using IRS-LISSIII data. Based on the wetness factor of soil interpreted from MIR spectral values, the permanently-wet coastal segments could be demarcated. Since cloud free data are not normally available for most of the months in the case of SW Indian coast, successive analyses on changes in soil moisture content could not be carried out. However, it is assumed that the analyzed data of pre-monsoon summer period indicates the stabilized and lowest position of water table in that area and below which saturated state of soil moisture exists throughout the year. The release of groundwater to sea (submarine groundwater discharge) normally takes place along fractures, unconformities, limestone crevasses and sandstone porosities. Geologically, such favourable zones do occur along the Kerala coastal zone at many places. Subsequent to the delineation of potential zones of probable groundwater discharge through satellite data, hydrogeological surveys, topographic surveys and water table measurements were resorted to ascertain the geometry of discharge zone along the beach. Combination of apparent resistivity and self-potential provides inferred lithological layers as well as thickness of water bearing formations at the landward side of investigated sites. In-situ Radon measurements in the sea bottom water samples offers signatures of groundwater discharge sites at the marine side. The net annual seaward discharge of groundwater was computed using modelling techniques applied to shallow aquifer units. It is advocated that a systematic approach is necessary along the coastal zone of Kerala to identify and demarcate favourable zones of groundwater discharges to sea. Further, an effective flow control mechanism should be enforced by installing adequate number of subsurface dykes on all the feasible sites in the upstream side. This can be taken up with the help of concerned LSG bodies as in the case of watershed management options, which are in vogue, at many parts of the state.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 37

Freshwater sources in Kerala Environmental threats and conservation strategies


D. Padmalal
National Centre for Earth Science Studies Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram 695 031, India E-mail: drdpadmalal@gmail.com

Water is a vital resource for the sustenance of life. It is an indispensible resource for agriculture, industries and almost all the other human activities. Ensuring uninterrupted fresh water supply is one of the greatest challenges of the modern world. Being limited in quantity, fresh water resource both surface and subsurface - needs to be wisely conserved and cautiously managed for the benefit of the present and future generations. With varying degrees of success mankind have corrected the imbalance in availability of water by storing in reservoirs and also channelling to water scarce areas. At the same time, water pollution from industry, agriculture and urban centres makes the situation complex as the quality and quantity of fresh water resources are often critically affected by human interference. Reports reveal that inferior quality water is often used to meet the fresh water demand in many parts of the world. India is not an exception. The quality of surface and subsurface water is a function of both natural influences and human activities. In the absence of human influences, water quality would solely be determined by the natural processes - weathering of crustal rocks, atmospheric fall outs, leaching of organic matter and nutrients from soil, hydrological factors that lead to runoff, and biological processes in the living world. It is now widely accepted that water management practices must be integrated on river basin scale for achieving desirable results. And, each water source in the basin should be monitored with utmost care and precision for laying down strategies for its effective conservation and management. The water related issues are very critical in densely populated areas of developing economies like Kerala. Although the state receives heavy rainfall (~3000mm), its distribution is erratic both spatially and seasonally. Storing water in surface as well as subsurface reservoirs of natural and/or manmade forms is, perhaps, the only solution to overcome this crisis. Unfortunately, the increased human interferences in the past 3-4 decades resulted from rapid economic growth has significantly deteriorated the capability of most of our surface and subsurface storages. As a result many of the traditional water sources like wells, springs etc., started showing low yields, especially in summer months. The rising incidences of water-borne diseases are indicative of the ever worsening water quality problems in the state. The problems will be complicated further as the state is undergoing rapid urbanization and economic developments. The present trend of climate change will also have a decisive role in determining the quality and quantity of the fresh water resources in the state. It is true that the fresh water availability of a country or a region remains almost constant. But as population increases, the percapita availability of water decreases. Analysis of the available data reveals that during the last 100 years, the percapita water availability in India has decreased by 4 times while that of Kerala by 5 times. At the same time, the demand of water has increased exponentially over the years. It is estimated that the demand of fresh water in the state was 1026 million litres in1901, which increased about 5 times (5342 million litres) in 2011. A unit land of Kerala receives 2.5 times more rainfall than the national average. At the same time, the same land unit has to support 3.6 times more population, in addition to satisfying the requirements of a rich biological stock of the region. All these reiterate the need for careful monitoring, planning, wise use/management and conservation of our freshwater sources.

Regional Workshop on 'Water Conservation in Kerala Prospects and Challenges' Central Ground Water Board, Trivandrum, India 21 Mar 2014 38