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Clrcle 1heorems lorm 4

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Chapter 3 Circles Theorem

Section 3.1Circle Properties

! 1he !"#!$%&'#'(!' ls Lhe dlsLance
around Lhe edge of a clrcle.

! A !)*#+ ls a sLralghL llne segmenL
[olnlng Lwo polnLs on a clrcle.

! A +",%'-'# ls a chord LhaL passes Lhrough Lhe cenLre of a
clrcle.
! A #,+"$. ls Lhe dlsLance from Lhe cenLre of a clrcle Lo a
polnL on Lhe clrcle.
! A -,(/'(- ls a llne LhaL Louches Lhe clrcle aL only one polnL.
! An ,#! of a clrcle ls any parL of Lhe clrcle's clrcumference.
! A .'!-*# ls a reglon bounded by Lwo radll and an arc lylng beLween Lhe radll.
! A .'/%'(- ls a reglon bounded by a chord and an arc lylng beLween Lhe chord's
endpolnLs
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Section 3.2 Theorem 1 The angle subtended by the arc at the centre of the
circle is twice the angle subtended at the circumference
Subtended Angles

lf A, 8 and are Lhree polnLs on Lhe clrcumference of a clrcle wlLh cenLre
C, Lhen we say LhaL
,1234 ,56 78 89:;41<4< 47;=4> :? ;=4 @>A ,6 B> :? A=B>< ,6
AlLernaLlvely we can say LhaL
:B;= ;=4 @>A ,6 @1< ;=4 A=B>< ,6 89:;41< ;=4 @1234 ,56 @; ;=4
A7>A9CD4>41A4



1he arc and chord also subLend Lhe angle AC8 aL Lhe !"#$%".



noLe LhaL a chord can subLend an obLuse angle aL
Lhe clrcumference.
ln such a case Lhe angle ls ln Lhe mlnor segmenL.

The angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle
is twice the angle subtended at the circumference





Angle AOB = 2 ! ACB
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-=4 @1234 89:;41<4< @; ;=4 A41;>4 BD @ A7>A34 :? @1 @>A 78 ;E7A4 @1? @1234 89:;41<4< @; ;=4
A7>A9CD4>41A4 :? ;=4 8@C4 @>A
&'()*+" -


p = 2 x 48
p = 96 ( aL cenLre = 2 x aL clrc)




&'()*+" .


p = 2 x 113
p = 230 ( aL cenLre = 2 x aL clrc)



&'()*+" /

p = 2 x 31
p = 102 ( aL cenLre = 2 x aL clrc)



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&'()*+" 0 &71< ;=4 F@394 BD @1234 G1








&'()*+" 2
&71< ;=4 F@394 BD @1234 HI








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Section 3.3Theorem 2: Angles in the same segment are equal
,12348 89:;41<4< :? ;=4 8@C4 @>A @>4 4J9@3I





&'()*+" -

&71< ;=4 C788712 @12348 27F712 >4@8B18 DB> ?B9> @18E4>I










Angle AC8 = 74 (Ls subLended by Lhe same chord)

&'()*+" .
&71< ;=4 C788712 @12348 @1< 27F4 >4@8B18 DB> ?B9> @18E4>I

a = 41 x 2 = 82 ( aL cenLre = 2 x aL clrc)
b = 41 (Ls subLended by Lhe same chord)






Angle A8 = Angle AC8
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&'()*+" /
&71< ;=4 C788712 @12348 @1< 27F4 >4@8B18 DB> ?B9> @18E4>I

a = 120 / 2 = 60 ( aL cenLre = 2 x aL clrc)
b = 60 (Ls sub by Lhe same chord)
c = 32 (Ls sub by Lhe same chord)



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PandouL

Section 3.4 Theorem 3: The angle subtended by the diameter is a right angle












1hls can be derlved from Lhe prevlous Lheorem. Slnce Lhe angle aL Lhe cenLre (180) ls Lwlce Lhe angle aL
Lhe clrcumference (90) we can say LhaL Lhe angle aL Lhe clrcumference ls a rlghL angle.

-=4 @1234 89:;41<4< :? ;=4 <7@C4;4> 78
KLMI
,1234 ,!6 N KLM
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&'()*+" -











&'()*+" .







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&'()*+" /
&71< ;=4 91O1BE1 @12348








&'()*+" 0
"1 ;=4 <7@2>@C PQ 78 @ <7@C4;4> BD ;=4 A7>A34 @1< ,RP 78 (I
641 8@?8 ;=@; ;=4 F@394 BD ( 78 SLI
/7F4 >4@8B18 ;B 4HG3@71 E=? =4 78 E>B12I

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Section 3.5 Theorem 4: The sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic
quadrilateral is 180
A quadrllaLeral whose verLlces (corners) all lle on Lhe clrcumference of a clrcle ls called a A?A37A
J9@<>73@;4>@3I

















&'()*+" -
&71< ;=4 C788712 @1234 27F712 @ >4@8B1 DB> ?B9> @18E4>I











Angle SC + Angle S8C = TUL
And
Angle S8 + Angle C8 = TUL
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&'()*+" .
&71< ;=4 C788712 @1234 27F712 @ >4@8B1 DB> ?B9> @18E4>I













&'()*+" /
&71< ;=4 C788712 @1234 27F712 @ >4@8B1 DB> ?B9> @18E4>I









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&'()*+" 0
&71< ;=4 @12348 C@>O4< 71 34;;4>8I


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Section 3.6 Theorem 5: The angle between a radius and tangent form a right
angle

A tangent to a circle is a line which just touches the circle.








Remember:
A tangent is always at right angles to the
radius where it touches the circle.
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&'()*+" -









&'()*+" .







&'()*+" /






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&'()*+" 0



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PandouL

Section 3.7 Theorem 6: Tangents from the same external points to a circle
are equal in length
lf Lwo LangenLs are drawn on a clrcle and Lhey cross, Lhe lengLhs of Lhe Lwo LangenLs
(from Lhe polnL where Lhey Louch Lhe clrcle Lo Lhe polnL where Lhey cross) wlll be Lhe
same.


1he lengLhs of Lwo LangenLs
drawn from Lhe same
exLernal polnL are equal.


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&'()*+" -














&'()*+" .









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&'()*+" /











&'()*+" 0










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&'()*+" 2











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Section 3.8 Theorem 7: Alternate Segment Theorem
The angle between the tangent and chord at the point of contact is equal to the angle in the
alternate segment.
This is the circle property that is the most difficult to
spot. Look out for a triangle with one of its vertices
(corners) resting on the point of contact of the tangent.

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The angle between a tangent and
chord is equal to the angle made
by that chord in the alternate
segment.

In this diagram we can use the rule
to see that the yellow angles are
equal, and the blue angles are
equal.


Example 1
Find the angles marked with letters.


x = 60 [AlLernaLe SegmenL 1heorem]
y = 180 - 60 - 40 = 80 [Angles ln a Lrlangle]




&'()*+" .

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&'()*+" /




&'()*+" 0




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&'()*+" 2











.9GGB>; 'H4>A784 PandouL