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Vertical Structures

Height motivations: express power


Vertical structures

religion
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symbol

visibility

wind power
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Cheops Pyramid Giza

Canary Warf London

Empire State New York

Petronas Towers Kuala Lumpur

Sears Taipei Tower 101 Chicago Taipei

Burj Dubai Dubai

Burj Dubai Dubai

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1776 US Declaration of Independence

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Vertical structure links


CTBUH: Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat http://www.ctbuh.org/ http://www.archdaily.com/tag/ctbuh/ CTBUH awards http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CTBUH_Skyscraper_Award CTBUH conferences http://www.ctbuh2012.com/ http://www.ctbuh.org/Events/Conferences/tabid/74/language/en-GB/Default.aspx Most Skyscrapers http://www.emporis.com/statistics/most-skyscrapers http://twistedsifter.com/2011/11/top-25-cities-with-most-high-rise-buildings/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_with_the_most_high-rise_buildings http://www.terragalleria.com/pictures-subjects/high-rise-buildings/ High-rise fire: http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/compare/fires.html Japan quake 2011: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JQBGOliAcQ Wind Engineering: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_engineering http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/41016(314)285 Risk Assessment: http://www.academia.edu/1391325/Performance-Based_Aeolian_Risk_assessment_and_reduction_for_tall_buildings High-rise publications: http://www.amazon.com/s/?ie=UTF8&keywords=highrise+architecture&tag=googhydr20&index=stripbooks&hvadid=18556336517&hvpos=2t4&hvexid=&hvnetw=s&hvrand=820989502673924540&hvpone=&hvptwo=&hvqmt=b&ref=pd_sl_68lit4kpn1_b
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ASCE 7, page 10
ASCE 7 Table 4.1 excerpts of common live loads Residential and schools Office Assembly Manufacturing Library 40 psf 50 psf fixed seating = 60 psf movable seating = 100 light = 125 psf psf heavy = 250 psf reading room = 60 psf stack room = 150 psf

Live load reduction Since large members are unlikely fully loaded, ASCE 7 allows live load reductions (except for public spaces and LL 100 psf): For members supporting 600 sq. ft. Reduction shall not exceed 50% for members supporting 1 floor, 60 % for members supporting 2 or more floors
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Bracedframeoptimization

Alternate 1: Standard framing

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Momentframeoptimization

Alternate 1: Standard framing

Alternate 2: Tapered steel beams Rectangular ducts Reduced curtain wall Savings:
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$12,000 more $3,000 more $120,000 less S105,000


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Structure systems vs. building height, by Faslur Kahn

Structure weight (steel structures) Structure weight per floor area defines efficiency. Structure weight for gravity load increases only slightly with height. Structure weight for lateral load, however, increases substantially. 1 2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W
Vertical structures Prof Schierle

Structure weight vs. building height by Fazlur Kahn Structure weight per floor area of actual buildings Number of stories Structure weight in psf Structure weight in N/m2 Structure weight for floor framing only Structure weight for gravity load only Structure weight for gravity and lateral optimized Structure weight for gravity and lateral not optimized Structure weight for various buildings Empire State building New York Chrysler building New York World Trade center New York Sears tower Chicago Pan Am building New York United Nations building New York US Steel building Pittsburgh John Hancock tower Chicago First Interstate building Los Angeles Seagram building New York Alcoa building Pittsburgh Alcoa building San Francisco Bechtel building San Francisco Burlington House New York IDS Center Minneapolis Koenig residence Los Angeles
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Vertical / lateral systems


1 Shear walls are least flexible but good for apartments and hotels with party walls Cantilevers provide the least intrusion at ground floor

Moment frames are most flexible, good for office buildings Concrete moment resistant joint: rebars extend through beam and column Steel moment resistant joint: beam flanges welded to column flanges; stiffener plates between column flanges resist bending stress of beam flanges Braced frames are more flexible than walls but less flexible than moment frames bracing is usual around central cores
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A B

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Note: shear walls resist lateral load only parallel to wall

Shear walls

1 2 3 4 Note:
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Shear walls resist only lateral load parallel to wall One-way shear walls collapse @ perpendicular load Eccentric shear walls cause torsion Concentric shear walls resist torsion Walls in 4 are offset but provide concentric support
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Note: eccentric shear walls cause torsion and should be avoided

Concentric & eccentric shear walls

1 2 3 4 5 6

X-direction concentric, Y-direction eccentric X-direction eccentric, Y-direction eccentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric
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Platform framing
Platform framing is used for low-rise residential structures, due to economy & flexibility. 2x4 studs @ 16 reach from platform to platform. Double top plates overlap at corners and splices. Plywood sheathing, nailed to studs, resists lateral wind and seismic loads. Joists, usually 2x12 @ 16 support plywood floor and roof (platforms). Blocking resists joist buckling and supports plywood panel edges to transfer shear. Standard plywood and gypsum board panels 48 (4) wide match 2, 3, or 4 joist/stud spaces of 24, 16 or 12, respectively. A B C D E F G H I Joists, 2x12 or 2x10 @ 16", 24, or 12 o.c.. Blocking Double top plates overlap at corners and splices Studs, 2x4, 2x6, or 3x4 @ 16 or 24 o. c. Bottom plates Double plates supporting joists Anchor bolt, 1/2 @ 6 o. c. Sole plate, min. 6" above soil Concrete foundation

Maximum height: 3 stories (4 with fire sprinklers)


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Wall erection plywood sheathing resists lateral load

Woodframe house

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Clifton Condos, Beverly Hills


Architect: Schierle

Woodframing over concrete parking 3-story limit is in addition to parking level assuming 3-hour fire separation (concrete slab)

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Terrace Homes, Hermosa Beach


Architect: Schierle

3-story limit is assumed above grade

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Reinforced brick masonry


(required in seismic areas)

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CMU walls (Concrete Masonry Units)

Salk Institute, La Jolla Architect: Louis Kahn Engineer: Komendant and Dubin

Concrete shear walls

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Shear wall cores 1. Unilever building, Hamburg Architect: Hentrich / Petchnigg 2. Victoria tower, Montreal Architect: Moretti, Greenspoon, Freelander and Dunne Engineer: Nervi

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Marina City towers, Chicago Architect: Bertrand Goldberg Cylindrical core wall Sixty-story towers Each has 450 apartments Over continuous parking ramp

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Curved shear walls


City Hall Toronto Architect: Viljo Revel

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Cantilevers

1, 2 3, 4 5, 6

Single tower Twin tower Suspended

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Engineer: Fritz Leonhard

T V tower Stuttgart

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Cantilever
Pirelli Tower, Milan Architect: Ponti Engineer: Nervi

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Hypo Bank Munich


Architect: Bea and Walter Betz Four circular towers support a mid-level mechanical floor that supports the floors above while floors below are suspended from it.

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Moment frames

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Moment frames Provide ductility Require rigid beam-column joints to transfer moments Steel: Reduced beam flanges reduce joint stress I = inflection points of zero bending stress Concrete: Extend rebars through beam & column

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Moment frames
Casa Terragni, Como, Italy Architect: Terragni Concrete moment frame combined with shear wall for fail-save seismic performance shear wall provides stifness moment frame ductility

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Articulated moment frames Beam / column moment joints provide lateral resistance to provide full width windows

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Crown Zellerbach building San Francisco Architect: SOM & Hertzka and Knowles Engineer: H J Brunnier The 19-story building has an external core and column-free office wing with moment frames, spaced 20 feet Size: 201x69 Height: 285 Height/width ratio 4.1

8 mat footing
Vertical structures Prof Schierle

A Column B Spandrel beam C Girder

D Joist @ 7 E Gusset plate F Fire proofing


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Commerzbank, Frankfurt
Architect: Norman Foster Engineer: Ove Arup

Vierendeel frames above sky gardens

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Framed Tube

Framed tubes have narrowly spaced exterior columns that, combined with spandrel beams, form rigid frames to resist lateral load. 1 Framed tube 2 Framed tube with core 3 Shear lag visualized (shear lag = reduced shear transfer from tension to compression side) 4 Framed tube with outriggers 5 Prefab framed tube 6 Prefab framed tube element A Shear lag at mid facade B Shear peak at cross walls C Joint at inflection point of zero bending stress

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CBS Tower New York


Architect: Eero Saarinen Framed tube The 38-story CBS tower has a framed tube of concrete columns that are triangular on the upper floors and diamond shaped on the ground floor. The columns have niches for mechanical ducts that decrease with decreasing duct sizes from mechanical floor on top but not from the second floor mechanical room. A B C Top floor columns 2nd floor columns Ground floor columns One-way rib slabs face the core Two-way waffle slabs at corners 155x125x494 high (47x38x151m) 12 (3.66m) 3.9

Concrete floors span between core and framed tube:

Size: Typical story height: Height/width ratio

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World Trade Center New York


Architect: Minoru Yamasaki Engineer: Skilling / Robertson The World Trade center had a Framed Tube structure, composed of closely spaced columns (~ 1 meter). Moment resisting beam / column joints formed a lattice wall to resist gravity and lateral loads. 1 2 3 4 Axonometric view of one tower Floor framing Prefab steel element Typical columns

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World Trade Center - Framed Tube


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Sears tower Chicago Architect/Engineer: SOM Bundled tube structure Tubular walls to transfer shear from tension to compression to reduce 1 Reduced shear lag 2 Shear lag

Bundled tubes
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Citicorp Tower New York Architect: Hugh Stubbins Engineer: Le Messurier

Center posts provide space for St. Peters Lutheran Church under the left front corner
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Braced Frames

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Architectural bracing options


regarding locations of openings

First interstate Bank Los Angeles Architect: I M Pei Engineer: CBM Combines framed tube exterior with braced core

Bracing configurations

Moment frame drift

Braced frame drift

Combined drift
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Vertical structures

Expressed bracing

1 IBM building Pittsburgh Architect: Curtis and Davis Engineer: Worthington & Skilling 2 Alcoa building San Francisco Architect/Engineer: SOM 3 Federal Reserve Banc Boston Architect: Hugh Stubbins Engineer: Le Messurier 1 Onterie Center Chicago Architect/Engineer: SOM 2 Proposed 142 story tower Chicago Architect: Kay Vierk Janis

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John Hancock tower Chicago Architect/Engineer: SOM Braced tube Reduced top reduces wind load

AT&T tower, Seattle Architect: Basetti et all Engineer: Skilling et all Braced superstructure with 4 columns of 12 ksi high strength concrete in 10 steel tubes

Bank of China Hong Kong Architect: I M Pei Engineer: Ove Arup Braced superstructure defines architectural form

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Centre Pompidou, Paris Architect: Piano and Rodgers Engineer: Ove Arup Bracing provides lateral stability in both width and length directions

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Alcoa Building San Francisco Architect/Engineer: SOM

John Hancock Tower Chicago Architect/Engineer: SOM

Expressed bracing
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Twisted Tower Mal (1996) - Architect/Engineer Santiago Calatrava: 54 stories, 9 cubes, 147 apartments

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Belt truss/outrigger

joins exterior columns to transfer shear to reduce drift

1 Georgia-Pacific tower, Atlanta Architect: SOM Engineer: Weidlinger Associates 2 Barcelona hotel Architect: SOM

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Gue-lam beam anlogy Small drift Large (unglued (glued boards boards resist resist in synergy independently) shear joins tension & compression)

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Hotel Artes Barcelona


Architect/Engineer: SOM Features: Exposed steel 5 from skin for fire protection Belt trusses reduce lateral drift

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Hong Kong-Shanghai Bank Features belt trusses to reduce lateral drift

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Eccentric braced frames


(Adjusts

Vertical structures

stiffness between flexible moment frame and stiff braced frame e = link beam (short link beam stiff; long link beam flexible frame

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Eccentric braced details


A Column; B beam; C brace; D gusset plate; E stiffener plates

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Chase Manhattan Banc New York Architect/Engineer: SOM

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Century Tower Tokyo Architect: Norman Foster; Engineer: Ove Arup

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Link Beam Short Link Beam for stiffness Long Link Beam for ductility Typical link beam ~ 20% of beam Visco elastic bracing Stiff at normal load Ductile at large earthquakes

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Suspended high-rise
1 2 3 4 Gravity load path Differential deflection Prestress to reduce deflection Ground anchors for stability 1 2 3 4 5 6 Single tower Multiple towers Multiple stacks Multiple stacks / towers Triple stacks Triple stacks / twin towers Challenges Load path detour: load travels up to top, then down to foundation Combined hanger / column deflection yields large differential deflection Architectural rational Column-free flexible ground floor Facilitates top down future expansion with minimal operation interference Small hangers replace large columns Structural rational Eliminates buckling in hangers Hangers replace large columns Concentration of compression to a few large columns minimizes buckling Options Multiple towers to reduce lateral drift Multiple stacks control deflection Adjust hangers for DL and partial LL to reduce deflection Prestress hangers to reduce deflection
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West coast Transmission Tower, Vancouver Architect: Rhone & Iredale Engineer: Bogue Babicki
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12 suspenders supported by concrete core

108 36 36 36

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BMW headquarters Munich


Architect: Karl Schwanzer

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Standard Bank Center, Johannesburg


Architect: Hentrich and Petschnigg

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Vertical structures

Hong Kong Shanghai Bank Architect: Norman Foster Engineer: Ove Arup

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UN Center Vienna Competition entry Architect: G G Schierle Competition objectives: Independent expansion of conference center and offices Triangular grid allows expansion in 3 directions Suspended design allows independent top-down expansion

UN Center Vienna built project Architect: J Staber

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Federal Reserve Bank, Minneapolis Architect: Gunnar Birkerts Parabolic suspenders are supported by 2 towers Top trusses resist lateral suspender thrust Floors below parabola are suspended Floors above parabola are supported by columns Support type is expressed on the facade

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Read chapters 10 &15-19 and bring book to class for quiz next Tuesday

Design stable structures


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Exercise Name and draw appropriate vertical structure systems and material Building type 3-story apartment building Structure system

Name:__________________________

Material

8-story apartment building

20-story office building in LA (Seismic load)

20-story office building in Miami (wind load)

300-foot high TV tower in Chicago (wind load)


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