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Introduction: McDonalds is a company which has a colorful history and developed the culture associated with the Fast

Food Chain today. In 1937 the McDonalds !rother "ichard and Maurice opened the first McDonalds restaurants in #merica$ it was a freestandin% !usiness that offered until then an unthou%ht&of concept. 'he main items they then sold were !eef or por( !ur%ers fries and drin(s. 'heir restaurant were set up differently to the restaurants of those times with open (itchens the customers could see ri%ht throu%h and counters with many operational cash re%isters. )nder a hi%h de%ree of customer satisfactory contri!uted for !usiness e*pansion McDonald today has over than 3+ +++ restaurants over than 1++ countries in the world and it has maintained the top position in the Fast Food Industry for the past ,+ years. McDonalds has !een pursuin% a %rowth strate%y for the last decade. McDonalds forei%n operations amount for more than half of the companys revenue today and all have !een mar(ed !y !asic vision of sellin% the ma*imum. -owever in the late 199+s and early .+++s the %iant e*perienced pro!lems owin% to e*ternal environment chan%es. In .++. the company e*perienced hu%e em!arrassment with law suits ne%ative media covera%e and 1, percent drop in its stoc(s ma(in% it the third !i%%est loser in the Dow /ones Industrial avera%e. #mon% the !lows that McDonalds too( was the o!ese&causin% and loser&employer issues. McDonalds has !een hammered for providin% people with unhealthy. 0ased on fi%ures risin% in )1 and )2 the cultural chan%es are also ta(in% place the anti #merican sentiments in the rest of the world has had ne%ative impact on McDonalds sales. 'he !i%%est challen%e that mana%erial level faced was chan%in% the mind set of the people from !ein% a loser to employees of a %rowin% Company. 3ven the company strate%y announced not many people were influenced !y the McDonalds confidence. 'o !attle it out a %rowth of 4&7 percent annual %rowth which was not much considerin% the hu%e si5e of the food chain was pursued. 'he challen%e was to increase the sales and revenues of the Company and retain its status !ac(. -owever the %rowth had to !e reen%ineered as well i.e. not from new restaurants !ut from the improvements in the e*istin% restaurants. Moreover another factor which drives attention is the destruction of the food mar(et. Due to the %rowin% num!er of immi%rants the variety of tastes was also increasin% and the e*otic cuisines from #sia and 6atin #merica were attractin% consumer preferences rather than McDonald.

#s stated !y 7atricia Commins in her article 89hat McDonald:s need to do is consistently drive same&store sales; a <atwest 1ecurities analyst counters it with= >'he only way in which they can do that is ta(e a lon% hard loo( at their product line.8 'he or%ani5ational development focused upon %eneratin% revenues from the e*istin% operations. 'he !i%%est chan%e is the e*pansion in the menus !ased upon the product development strate%y and mar(et e*pansion strate%y that wants to follow. 'he menus now responded to the consumer !ehavior and included more healthy food items li(e -appy Meals for adults li(e salads and fruits. McDonalds also went on to ac?uire a few sandwich and coffee chains in )2 and #ustralia. 'hou%h these chan%es were a positive step towards incorporation of consumer demands !ut it also put the !ur%er %iant in competition with a different set of restaurants li(e 1u!way offerin% fresh salads and sandwiches. In order to increase the mar(et share in mature mar(ets McDonalds has innovated ideas li(e the introduction of %ourmet coffee in #ustralia with coffee loun%es and net caf@s&the messa%e a place for hi%h&teens spend their money. # stron% or%ani5ational mana%ement can !uild up a %ood well !etween strate%y and culture as lead successful corporate strate%y implementation$ and !uild up a common %oal !etween employees and or%ani5ation reachin% hi%h level of motivation. 7earce and "o!inson states that >the mission must determine the !asic %oals and philosophies that will shape its strate%ic posture;. 'his fundamental purpose that sets a firm apart from other firms of its type and identifies the scope of its operations in product and mar(et terms is defined as the Acompany mission Mission is essential for or%ani5ation to create cohesion which ma(es employees have clear direction to meet re?uirement and loyalty. # stron% or%ani5ation is an intan%i!le force to ma*imi5e the contri!ution from each mem!er and ma(es or%ani5ation %oin% to success. In this article we will discuss a well&(nown or%ani5ation >McDonald Corporate; how its mana%erial role plays in their or%ani5ation and how their mana%ement strate%ies lead them into !usinesses. http=BBsth&a!out&human&resources&mana%ement.!lo%spot.comB.+1+B+1Bi&tried&to&%ive&you& theoretical&!asis.html

HRM: #fter short introduction a!out McDonalds its time to write a little !it a!out -uman "esources Mana%ement in this company.

Different types of or%anisations adopt different approaches to the control of their wor(force dependin% on how they compete. 'here are three main !ases for competitive advanta%e& innovation ?uality and cost&whereas strate%ies revolvin% around ?uality and innovation are usually associated with a committed wor(force. For or%anisations where costs are the most important part of the ?uestion Acontrol is li(ely to !e a more important factor than commitment. #lthou%h some level of consent is always necessary control is hi%h on the a%enda at McDonald:s. Control at McDonald:s is not merely achieved !y direct supervision machines the physical layout of the restaurant and the detailed prescription of rules and procedures !ut also throu%h recruitment.

3ven uns(illed wor(ers have some power to disrupt the efficiency of the operation !y withdrawin% co&operation from the production process disruptin% the process or !y simply leavin% the or%anisation. 3mployees may su!mit to the authority of the employer !ut are always li(ely to retain a stron% interest in the use of their la!our. 3mployees and mana%ement are therefore to some e*tent interdependent$ mana%ement cannot rely solely on coercion or even compliance to secure hi%h performance mana%ement also needs to secure active employee consent and co&operation.

9hen wor(ers: efforts are e*tracted throu%h an ela!orate systems of rules includin% rules a!out %rounds for promotion and for punishment employers ar%ua!ly esta!lish more control over wor(ers: personalities and values than when their efforts are e*tracted throu%h direct e*hortation or force or throu%h the desi%n of e?uipment.

Cuestions of su!Dectivity are not separa!le from the analysis of actual wor( practices in interactive service wor( !ecause employers actively mana%e wor(ers: identities. 9or(ers and customers vie with mana%ement in a three&way contest for control and satisfaction. Distress

felt !y wor(ers su!Dected to or%anisational e*ploitation of their feelin%s and personalities$ however not all wor(ers resist the e*tension of standardisation to their inner&selves. "ather many attempt to construct interpretations of their roles that do not dama%e their conceptions of themselves. In some situations service routines provide wor(ers and customers with !enefits which help account for their fre?uent ac?uiescence in mana%erial desi%ns. -owever the routinisation of service wor( and the standardisation of personality are !eni%n nor do wor(ers customers and employers necessarily !enefit from these processes in a happy con%ruence of interests. 'hese manipulations are often invasive demeanin% and frustratin% for the wor(ers and sometimes for the customers who e*perience them.

'he importance of emotional la!our in interactive service wor( even of the limited (ind found at McDonald:s should not !e underestimated. 3mployers who standardise the service interaction e*ert a cultural influence that e*tends !eyond the wor(place. For e*ample when wor(ers are estran%ed from their own smiles the company is layin% claim not Dust to physical motions !ut also to their emotions. 'heir or%anisational control strate%ies reach deeply into the lives of wor(ers encoura%in% them to ta(e an instrumental stance towards their own personalities and towards other people. McDonald:s employees wor(in% on a till for e*ample althou%h only involved in limited service interactions are e*pected to control themselves internally !y !ein% pleasant cheerful smilin% and courteous to customers even when customers are rude and offensive. 'his applies to all McDonald:s wor(ers and their relations with fellow wor(ers and supervisors with whom they are e*pected to show o!vious pride in their wor( and employment.

9hen as(ed how they motivated employees !oth )2 and Eerman mana%ers at restaurant and senior mana%ement level stressed the importance of %ood communication. Mana%ers are encoura%ed to apply and concentrate on :motivators:= :achievement: :responsi!ility: :%rowth: and :reco%nition:. 'his may ta(e the form of :employee of the month: awards day trips and cash !onuses or of encoura%in% wor(ers to strive for promotion and ta(e on responsi!ility. Fn the one hand the strivin% for promotion loc(s mana%ers: and employees: loyalty into the system$ on the other it may offer real opportunities for advancement which may !e hard to come !y for those with poor academic !ac(%rounds. Mana%ers are encoura%ed to discount the importance of :hy%iene: factors such as pay and conditions of wor(. Mana%ers have no control over these issues !ecause they are dictated !y the system. 'rainin% reinforces the

view that pay and conditions do not really matter$ what really does matter is their :positive: mana%ement style and leadership. /o! satisfaction is thus defined as a phenomenon determined throu%h the area of psycholo%ical concepts not throu%h %ood pay and conditions. # %ood mana%er will therefore :solve: the pro!lem of resistance or discontent throu%h %ood communication. Mana%ers in the )2 refer to the three Cs Gin Eermany the three 2sH co& ordination co&operation and communication as the !asis of the solutions to all pro!lems. Identification with the restaurant and other crew mem!ers is fostered throu%h the creation of a new form of collective. If :us and them: is still reco%nised it is reinterpreted to mean :us: as the mana%ement and crew and :them: as the customer. 9or(ers are encoura%ed to thin( of themselves as part of a team and mana%ers are encoura%ed to e?uate restaurant mana%ement with coachin% a team. 'he result of this form of :teamwor(: seems to !e that individuals are often loath to !e seen !y their peers as ma(in% e*tra wor( for other people !y not doin% their share. 3ven the more resentful employees who had what mana%ement saw as :ne%ative: attitudes would still wor( hard to (eep the respect of their peers. # typical feature of mana%ement style was the repeated use of certain (inds of lan%ua%e with paternalistic e*pressions such as the :McDonald:s family:. Mana%ement and employees in !oth countries used the term to descri!e their wor( environment. Many responses reflected the stron%ly paternalistic nature of the employment relationship which mana%ement wor(ed to foster. 'here were e*amined the or%anisation and the nature of the wor( in the McDonalds restaurants the employment relationship and the characteristics of the wor(force in various countries. 'he detailed study of the Eerman and )2 operations and additional evidence from other 3uropean countries su%%ests that virtually the same (ind of restaurant hierarchy and or%anisation is in use in every country. #lthou%h there appeared to !e some differences in the num!ers of wor(ers employed in restaurants in different countries and differences also in la!our turnover this could !e e*plained !y a !roadly similar employment :strate%y:. Iarious authors su%%est that all of these wor(ers have somethin% in common$ they are unli(ely to resist or effectively oppose mana%erial control. In effect McDonald:s is a!le to ta(e advanta%e of the wea( and mar%inalised sectors of the la!our mar(et in other words youn% wor(ers who lac( the previous e*perience maturity and confidence to challen%e mana%erial authority and forei%n wor(ers who are very concerned a!out (eepin% their Do!s. Furthermore employees in all :cate%ories: may have no lon%&term interest in the company in which case contestin% mana%ement prero%ative may simply :not !e worth the trou!le:. Many of the forei%n wor(ers in Eermany and #ustria have a lot of previous wor( e*perience and come from a wide variety of !ac(%rounds and many have ?ualifications from their country

of ori%in. -owever these wor(ers are effectively mar%inalised in the la!our mar(et and find it difficult to find other wor( elsewhere for several reasons= first !ecause of pro!lems with lan%ua%e$ second !ecause of pro!lems with the reco%nition of their ?ualifications$ third !ecause these la!our mar(ets are e*tremely competitive in terms of ?ualifications$ and fourth !ecause the num!er of forei%n and other mi%rant wor(ers in Eermany and to some e*tent #ustria is increasin% and unemployment remains relatively hi%h.

'he wor( offered !y McDonald:s may have some positive elements !ut wor(ers are often choosin% employment at McDonald:s in the conte*t of havin% few other attractive options. #lmost re%ardless of what people thin( of the wor( itself wor(in% at McDonald:s could !e said to offer advanta%es for some employees who want fle*i!le hours and are en%a%ed in other activities and responsi!ilities. For those mar%inalised in the la!our mar(et who have few chances of a Do! elsewhere McDonald:s offers much needed wor(. -owever the employees: dependence on McDonald:s andBor their tendency to see their employment as a short&term strate%y ma(es them vulnera!le to mana%ement manipulation. 'hose with minimum interest simply leave if they do not li(e it and this is clearly reflected in hi%h la!our turnover. 7erhaps they are attracted !y the com!ination of fairly secure employment familiar :family: surroundin%s created !y a hi%hly paternalistic approach to mana%ement and lots of employees of similar a%e or temperament. 'his may help to e*plain how the corporation sometimes retains individuals who could pro!a!ly o!tain !etter paid and more s(illed wor( elsewhere.

'he employment relationship at McDonald:s is mana%ed !y a complete spectrum of controls from simple direct and !ureaucratic controls to the mana%ement of su!Dectivity. #t one end of the spectrum restaurant mana%ers are disciplined to accept tou%h wor( schedules and must prove themselves :up to the challen%e: of punishin% schedules. 6on% hours and loyalty are loc(ed in with youn% mana%ers !ein% persuaded not only to accept as the norm many hours of unpaid wor( !ut also to %ain a perverse satisfaction from survivin% these tou%h and uncompromisin% wor( routines. In addition youn% mana%ers who may or may not %et similar :opportunities: elsewhere in the la!our mar(et are romanced !y offers of promotion and career development. #t the other end of the spectrum more direct methods are used to maintain control. -owever this still leaves unanswered the ?uestion of how the corporation has

mana%ed to sustain the uniformity of its employee relations practices despite maDor differences across societal cultures.

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