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SubjectCode:12159

Q.No.1(A)
a)ImportanceofAerodynamicshapeofcarbody
*Anaerodynamicshapeofcarbodyistheexternalshapeofcarbodywhichwillofferleastresistanceto
airmotion.
*Whenevercarismovingthereisanairresistancetomotionofcar.Thisairresistancedependson(i)
sizeofcar(ii)frontalshapeandarea(iii)speedand(iv)windvelocity.Thisairresistanceisgivenby
Ra=Ca.A.V2
WhereRa=AirResistance,Ca=coefficientofairresistanceV=Velocityofvehicle(speed)
NowasperpendicularfrontalprojectedareaAofvehicleincreasesthenvehicleairresistanceincreases
&viceversa.02marks

*Sofrontalareaofcar&bodyofcarisdesignedinsuchawaythatfrontportionismadeinclined&
bodyisgivensmoothcurves.Thisoffersaleastresistancetoair&calledasanaerodynamicshape

*sincethereisleastairmotionresistanceduetotheaerodynamicshape.Engineloadisdecreased
andthereisbetterfuelefficiency&average.
*stabilityofvehiclealsogetsimprove.01mark

(b)ClassificationofAutomobiles
Automobilesareclassifiedonvariousbasisasunder
(1) Purpose:passengervehicleCar,Jeep,Bus
GoodsvehicleTrucks,vans
SpecialpurposeAmbulance,Tractors,Armyvehicles
(2) Loadcarryingcapacity:
LightdutyvehiclesCar,Jeep,Motorcycle,Scooter
HeavydutyvehiclesTruck,Bus,Articulatedvehicles
(3)NumberofWheelsandaxles

TwoWheelsMotorcycles,scooters,Mopeds

ThreeWheelersAutoRickshaws,Tempo

FourWheelerCar,Jeep,Bus,Trucks

SixWheelerBuses&Trucks

(4)FuelUsed

PetrolvehicleCar,Motorcycle,Scooter,AutoRickshaw

DieselVehiclesBuses,Trucks,Jeeps,AutoRickshaw,Tractor

ElectricVehicle

HybridVehicles

CNG&LPGvehicles

(5)TypeofBody

Hatchback

Sedan

Twodoorsedan

Fourdoorsedan

Convertible

Van

Twobox

Threebox

Trailers(Articulatedvehicles)

(6)TypeofDrive

Righthanddrive

Lefthanddrive

Rearwheeldrive

Singlewheeldrive

Twowheeldrive

Fourwheeldrive

Sixwheeldrive

(7)Totalpistondisplacementvolume

50ccmopeds

100ccmotorcycles

800ccmaruti

(8)Positionofengine

Horizontal

Vertical

Transverse

Anyfourbasis04marks

(c)Layoutoffrontenginerearwheeldrivevehicle

Correctlayoutwithlabels04marks

(d)FunctionofBendixdriveinstartersystem


(Anyonefig.)Explanatoryfig.02marks

Functionofbendixdrive

Bendixorinertiadriveconsistsofpinionmountedonasleevewithexternalsquarethreads.

Thepinionhasinternalthreadsanditisloosefitonthesleeve.

Ascurrentstartsarmaturerotates,thesleeverotatesduetospring.

The pinion due to its inertia effect does not pick up speed instantly but rotates along with
sleeveandalsotravelsinforwarddirectionandengageswithringgearofflywheel.

Enginegetstartedasspeedofengineincreasesitsforcesbackthepiniontoitsoriginalposition
.ThisDisengagementisduetoinertiaeffect.

Gearratiobetweenpinion&ringgearisgenerally15:1withthisrationstartermotorcanturn
veryfastanddevelopsagreattorquetocrankengine.

02marks

Q.No1(B)
(a)Recirculatingballtypesteeringgearbox

Fig.03marks

Working:
Insuchsteeringgear,thewormatendofsteeringsha hasanuthavingrecircula ngballsinbetween
groovesofwormandnut.Theseballgreatlyreducethefriction.
Eciencyofmechanismincreasesto90%
Teethformedonoutsideofnutareinmeshwithtoothedwheelsector.
Asdriverturnssteeringwheel,steelballsracesrollIthegroovesandnuttravelsalonglengthofthe
worm.
Thewheelsectorgetsitsmotionfromnutwhichinturnmovesdroparmtodisplacefromwheels.
Thistypeofsteeringgearisusedinheavycommercialvehiclesliketrucks03marks

(b)Useofmicroprocessorcontrollerinautomobilesystem
Microprocessorcontrollerisusedinautomobilesinfollowingapplications
(i)EngineManagement:inadvancedsystemlikemultipointfuelinjection(MPFI)inpetrolenginesand
Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) in diesel engines all parameters of engine are controlled by
microprocessorviasensor.
(ii)Anticollisionsystemisalsocontrolledbymicroprocessors.
(iii)Automaticwiper&rainsensingsystem.
(iv)Automaticclimaticcontrolinairconditioningsystemofautomobile.
(v)Onboardcomputersystem.
(vi)Voiceinteractivecommandsystem.

(vii)Globalpositioningsystem(GPS)
(viii)Keylessentrysystem.
(ix)Rearparkingsensorsystem.
(x)Smartaccesscardsystem
(xi)ElectronicPowersteeringsystem.
(xii)Followmeheadlightsystem
(xiii)ABSsystem
Any6points06marks
Q.No(2)
(a)Needofuniversaljoint&slidingjointsinpropeller
(i)Universaljoints:Twouniversaljointsareprovidedatendsofpropellershaftbecauseduringrunning
of vehicle on road , as vehicle passes over a bump or depression, level of differential centerline
changeswithrespecttolevelofcenterlineofagearboxshaftinverticalplane.
Inordertoaccommodatethisuniversaljointsareprovided.
02marks
(ii)Slidingjoint:oneslidingjointisprovidedinpropellershaftbecausewhilerunningonroadduetoups
anddownsontheroad,thereischangeinlevelsofdifferentialcentrallinesandgearboxshaftcenter

line. Due to which length of propeller shaft tends to increase or decrease. To accommodate this, a
slidingjointisprovided.02marks

b)Singleplateclutch.

Fig.02marks

Working:

Usedincars,trucksandtractors.
Theclutchcontainsnumberofpartsasshowninfig.
Fly wheel is attached to crank shaft and rotates with it. A pilot bearing at its centre supports
clutchshaftatoneend.
Theclutchplatehaspairoffrictionliningrivettedoneithersidewithhighcoefficientoffriction.
Splinedbossatcentreofclutchplateenablesittoslideandrotatealongwithclutchorgearbox
inputshaft.Thepressureplateisfittedatflywheelbydrivingstuds.Thenecessaryaxialpressure
isgivenbyanumberofthrustsprings.

Whenpressureisappliedbydriveronclutchpedal,releasebearingmoves&pullspressureplate
back there by creating clearance between pressure plate friction plate & flywheel & clutch is
disengaged by releasing pressure on foot pedal, pressure plate is pressed on friction plate by
springs&clutchisengaged.02Marks

c)i)Differencebetweenliverearaxle&dearrearaxle.
LiveRearAxleDeadRearAxle
1)Supportsweightofvehicleandalso1)Supportsweightofvehiclebutdonotdrive
driveroadwheels.rearwheels.
2)Torqueisgiventotheseaxlesbyengine.2)Torqueisnotgivenbyenginetotheseaxles.
3)Theseaxlerotatessotheyarecalled3)theseaxlesdonotrotate&calledas
asLiveAxle.DeadAxle.
4)Axleisintheformofroundshaft.4)AxleisintheformofIsectionbeam.
4points02marks
ii)Stressesresistedbyrearaxle.
a)Bendingstressesduetoweightofvehicle.
b)Torsionalstressesduetodriving&brakingtorque.
c)Tensileandcompressivestressesduetosidethrustsorcorneringforces.
d)Shearstressesduetovehiclesweight.
02marks.
d)Requirementsofsteeringsystem
a)Thefrontwheelsshouldrollwithoutlateralskidwhilenegotiatingacurve.
b)Thereshouldbeproperproportionbetweentheanglesturnedbythefrontwheels.
c)Thetyresmusthavegoodelasticitysothatonturnsthesemayfollowanarcofgreaterradiusthanstiff
tyres.
d)Thewheelsmustautomaticallycometothestraightaheadpositionafternegotiatingthebend.When
goingstraight,thewheelsmustmaintaintheneutralposition.

e)Theangularoscillationofthewheelsmustbeminimum.
f) The system must be irreversible to a certain degree so that minimum front wheels shocks are
transmittedtodrivershand.
Anyfourpoints04marks.
e)Workingoftelescopicshockabsorber.

Fig.02marks
Working:Whenwheelscomeacrossabump,boththeeyesmovetowardseachother.Thepistonmoves
downwordstowardsthefootvalve.Hydraulicpressureopensthenonreturnbumpvalvelocatedinthe
piston. Fluid passes from the lower piston of cylinder to upper piston. Since the volume of the upper
portionofcylinderislesserthanlower(owingtoareaofpistonrod),somevolumeoffluidwillpassto
the reservoir through foot valve. The passage of fluid through the valves provides the necessary
dampingforce.Duringreboundstroke,thepistonispusheduptowardsthecylinder.Thefluidabovethe
pistonpassestothelowerpartofcylinderasthereboundvalveisopened.Duetothevolumeoccupied
bypistonrod,thereisnotenoughfluidabovepistontocompletelyfillthevolumeofthecylinderbelow
thepiston.Hencelowerportionofcylinderdevelopsslightvacuumandextrafluidflowsfromreservoir
tothelowerportionofthecylinder.Thiscanonlyhappenwhenthefootvalveopens.Thispassageof
fluid through valves once again provides damping force. Following main functions are performed as
under,

1) To control the quick bouncing of the wheels on the road surface. This is required for stability of
vehicle.
2) To control quick bouncing of the body of the vehicle on suspension springs. This is required for
comfortofthepassenger.
3)Dampingeffect.
4)Goodroadhuggingduringsuddenacceleration.
5)Makevehiclesstablewhileturning.

02marks

f)Listofvarioustypesofrimsusedforautomobiles.
1)Wellorwidebaserim.
2)Flatbaserim.
3)Flatbasedividedrim.
4)Semidropcentrerim.04marks

Q.3a)

Attemptanythree
i)

Toein:

Toeinistheamountbywhichthefrontwheelsaresetcloser
togetheratthefrontthanattherearwhenthevehicleis

stationary.(orsuitablefigure)

Amount:

Toeininitiallyprovidedgenerallydoesnotexceed3mm

.(1)

ii)

Camber:

Camberisthetiltofthecarwheelsseenfromfrontw.r.tvertical
lineitisalsocalledwheelrake(orsuitablefigure)

Amount:

cambershouldnotexceed2o

iii)

Castor:

Anglebetweenthekingpincenterlineandthevertical
intheplaneofwheeliscalledthecasterangle.(orsuitablefigure)

Amount:

Itisabout3o

.(1)

...(1)

iv)
KingpinInclination: Inclinationofthekingpincenterlinefromverticaliscalledthekingpin
inclination
(orsuitablefigure)

Amount:

Itisabout7oto8o

...(1)

b)
Parameters
iWorkingFluid
iiPoweroutput

Pneumaticbrake
Usesair
Pneumaticbrakehasless
power
Pneumaticbrake
componentsaresmaller
thanHydraulic
InPneumaticairisleakinto
atmosphere

iiiSize

IvLeakage

VPower
ViApplication

Pneumaticobtainpower
fromanaircompressor.
Usedinheavyvehicle

Hydraulicbrake
Usesoil
Hydraulichasmorepower
viceversa

inHydraulicleakscauses
fluidtobestickingaround
thecomponents

WhileHydraulicsrequirea
mastercylinder
usedinlightvehicle
(1Markeach)AnyFour

c)
In modern motor vehicle electric system large numbers of electric cables are connected in a single
harness assembly. In order to identify the different cables emerging from assembly, the outer protective
surfaceofcablesshouldbecoloredbyoneormorecolor.Thedistinctionbetweenwiresinthegroupisdoneby
theuseofcoloredtracerintheinsulatingcoveringofeachwire.

Foreasyidentification,thecableshavingdifferentcolorshouldbeusedfordifferentcircuitbox

Brown

N Batterycircuitthroughstarterswitch

Green

Fuseunitandpetrolguage

Blue

DipperswitchandIgnitionlightswitch

Yellow

Y Generator&regulatorcircuit

Whiteblack

WBDistributor&coil

BrownBlack

NBFuse&hornpush

.(2)

.2M(1/2Markeach)Anyfour

d)

BalancedcoiltypefuelGuage

2Marks

i)

Figureshowswritingcircuitofamagneticfuelguage.

ii)
The tank unit contains a variable resistor, its resistance varies as float moves up and
down,movingtheslidingcontact
iii)

Theinstrumentpanelunithastwocoils

iv)

Whenignitionison,currentfrombatteryflowsthroughcoils

v)

Thisproducemagneticfieldthatactonarmature.

vi)

Whenfuellevelishigh,theresistanceinsendingunitishigh

vii)

Theguagepointerisattachedtothearmature.

viii)

Thefullcoilmagnetismpullsarmatureandpointertotheright.

ix)

Astankempties,theresistanceoftankunitdrops.

x)

Moreofcurrentpassingthroughemptycoilflowstotankunitinsteadoffullcoil.

xi)

Thearmatureandneedlemovetoleftthisshowsalowerfuellevelinthetank

2marks.

e)WiringdiagramofAutomobile

orsuitableequivalentblockdiagram(4M)

Q.4(A)

a)

Alternator

orsuitableequivalentblockdiagram(2M)

WorkingofAlternator: Asshowninfigure,anelectromagnet(rotor)ismountedonashaftandis
suppliedcurrentforitsenergisationfromabatterythroughtheslipringandbrushes.
ii)

Therotoristurnedbybelt&pulleybyanengine

iii)

Inserieswiththestatorwindingaretwodiodeswhichareconnectedtooutsideelectriccircuit.

iv)
Whenelectromagnetrotatedthemagneticlinesofforcecutthestationarystatortoproducean
inducedcurrent.
v)
After every half revolution, magnet reverses its polarity, the current produced in the stator
alternatesinsigninarevolution.
vi)
Toconvertthisalternatingcurrentintodirectcurrentdiodesareused,whichallowthecurrent
topassthroughtheminonedirectiononly.

b)AutomobileMarketinIndiaforfourwheeler

.(2M)

i)

TheautomotiveindustryinIndiaisoneofthelargestintheworld.

ii)

Indiaspassengercarindustriesaresixthlargestintheworld.

iii)

IndiabecomeAsiasfourthlargestexporterofpassengercar

iv)
ThemajorityofIndiascarmanufacturingindustryisbasedaroundthreesidesinsouth,west&
north.
v)

ThesouthernsideChennaiisthebiggesthubof40%ofshare

vi)

ThewesternhubisMaharashtrais33%ofthemarket.

vii)

ThenorthhubisHaryanawith32%

viii)

AtChennaioperationsofford,Hyundai,Renault,Nissan.

ix)
InChakanMaharashtraCompanylikeGeneralMotors,Volkswagen,Skoda,Tata,Fiat,Mercedes
Benzareestablished.

.SuitableRelevantdescriptionshouldbeconsider(4M)

c)
ConventionalIgnitionsystem
i)AsitusesMechanicalcomponentssomorewear
andtear
ii)Ignitionisuncontrolledbecausewear&tear
changestheignitiontiming
iii)Inconventionalsystemproblemslikemisfiring
andincreasedexhaustemissionoccur

ElectronicIgnitionsystem
i)Itusestransistorandsemiconductorsono
problemofwearandtear
ii)Ignitioniscontrolled

iv)Maintenanceismore
v)Produceslesssecondaryvoltage
vi)ItcannotigniteleanerAirfuelmixture

iv)lessMaintenance
v)Produceshighsecondaryvoltage
vi)Itcanigniteleanerairfuelmixturesleads
tobetterfuelmixtureleadstobetterfuel
economy&loweremission
vii)SparktimingisadjustedElectronically.
4Marks.1/2MarkEachAnyFour

vii)Itusesmechanicaladvancedmechanisms

iii)Inelectronicignitionsystemthisproblems
occursless

d)

LabeledFig2mark

Componentsandtheirfunctions:
i)Plates:platesareoftwotypesi.e.positiveandnegative.Negativeplatesgroupcontainsoneplate
morethanpositivegroupsothatbothsideofpositiveplatescanbeutilizedonwhichgreaterelectron
chemicalactivitytakesplace.
Ii)Separator:Porusseparatorareplacedbetweentheplatesthispreventstouchingofbothplatesthis
avoidsshortcircuit.
iii)Terminalposts:thepositiveterminalpostislargerthannegativeterminalpost
iv)Ventcap:ventcapsareusedtoaddthewaterventcapsareplacedoncover
v)Sedimentchamber:insedimentchamberthebyproductofchemicalafterchemicalreactionsettle
down(Anyfourhalf(1/2M)each)2M

Q.No.4][B]
(a)ConstantMeshgearbox

3Marks(Fig)

Working:
I)inthistypeofgearboxallthegearsareinconstantmeshwithcorrespondinggearsonthelayshaft.
ii)Thegearsonthemainshaftwhichissplinedarefree.
iii)Thedogclutchesareprovidedwhicharefreetoslideonthemainshaft.
iv)Whentheleftdogclutchesisslidetoleftbymeansoftheselectormechanismitsteethareengaged
withthoseontheclutchgearandgetthedirectdrive.
v)Thesamedogclutchhoweverwhenslidetorightmakescontactwithsecondgearisobtained.
Similarlymovementofrightdogclutchtotheleftresultsinlowgearandtowardsrightinreversegear
(03M)
b)TyreSpecification:
Fore.gthecode145SR13signifiesthatthetyreshasspeedratingupto170kmphisofradialtypehas
W145mmandD13inches(or330mm).
Acrossplytyre,howeverisnotdesignatedbyalphabeticalletterstoshowthatitiscrossply.Thusa
tyredesignatedas3.508indicatesthatitiscrossplytyrewithW=3.50inchesandW=8inches.
Sometimesaplyratingalsoindicatede.gthedesignation9.002012plyratingmeansatyreof9
incheswidth20inchesrimdiameterand12plyrating.
(2M)
AdvantagesofTubelessTyre:
I)Thesetyrearelighterthantubedtyres
ii)Thesetyreruncoolerthantubedtyres
iii)Theyareconstructedinsuchwaythattheairwillberetainedinthemevenafterbeingpenetratedif
theobjectisleftinpositionofpenetration.
iv)Theywouldprovidegoodairsealingqualities
(1/2Meach02M)
Followingfactorsaffectthetyrelife.
i)underinflation:
Aswheelrotatesthecordsbreakandtyreblowsoutduetosharpbendingofsidesoftyre.
Thusproperinflationshouldbemaintained.

ii)MisalignmentoffrontwheelThefrontwheelofvehiclemustbealignedproperlytoavoidwear.
iii)OverloadingThisreducetyrelifeduetooveflexingofcordstructureofsidewallsresultinmore
stressandtemperaturerise.
iv)Tyrerotation
Toavoidquickwearingawayoftyresouteredgestherotationoftyreshouldbedoneperiodically.

v)Presenceofoilreartyresurface
Therubberoftyregreatlyaffectedbyoil.
2M(1/2Meach)Writeanyfour
Q5
a) Transfercase:Thetransfercaseisanauxiliarytransmissionmountedinbackofthemain
transmission.Thisisusedinfourwheeldrivevehicles.Thetransferboxenablesthedriverto
driveintwowheeldrivesonhighwayorshifttofourwheeldrivesforcrosscountryoperation,
todriveinhighgearorlowgearasrequired.
Theinputshaftisconnectedtothegearboxandcarriesonitaneuterhaving
axialteeth.

Twoinputshaftgearsarefreetorotateontheshaft.Eachofthesegearshavebossesonthesidewhich
haveaxialteethofthesamepitchasthecentralmemberontheinputshaft.Dependinguponthe

movementofthetransferboxgearlevelthecentralmemberandtherebytheinputshaftmaybe
connectedeithertothesmallgearortothebiggear.Therearetwooutputshafts,onegoingtothefront
axleandthesecondgoingtotherearaxle.Thefrontoutputshaftissmallerindiameter&issupported
insidetherearoutputshaft,whichisdirectlyconnectedtotheoutputgear.Thefrontoutputshafthas
fittedonitashiftermechanismandalsohassplinesoverasmalllengthofit,whichwhenengagewith
thecorrespondinginternalsplinesontherearoutputshaft,connectthetwoshaftsrotationallywith
eachother.

WhentheshiftermechanismAisatthecentersothatnogearisconnectedtotheinputshaft
thedriveisinneutral.WhentheshiftermechanismAconnectstheinputshaftwiththebiginputgear,
buttheshiftermechanismBdisconnectsthefrontoutputshaftfromtherearoutputshaft.Inthis
position,twowheeldrivewiththehighgearisobtained,Inthesamewayfourwheeldriveinlowgearis
obtained.Application:4wheeldrivesjeeps&cars&Trucks.(04M)

b) HydraulicbrakingSystem:

Themaincomponentinthisisthemastercylinder,whichcontainsreservoirforthebrakefluid.
Mastercylinderisoperatedbythebrakepedal&isconnectedtowheelcylindersthroughsteel
pipelines.Evenwhenthebrakesareinthereleasedsteelpipelines.Evenwhenthebrakesare
releasedposition,asmallpressureof50Kpaismaintainedinthepipelinestoensurethatthe2
cupsofthewheelcylinderarekeptexpanded.

Mastercylinderconsistsoffluidreservoir&compressionchamberinwhichthepiston
operates.Twoholesconnectthefluidreservoirtothecompressorchamber.Smallerholeis
calledbypassportandsecondholeiscalledtheintakeport.

Apushrodisoperatedwiththefootbrakepedalthroughlinkage.Asthepedalis
pressed,pushrodmovesthepistontoleftagainsttheforceofthespring,tillitcoverstheby

Passport.Movementofthepushrodcausesbuildingupofpressureinthecompression
chamberwhensufficientpressuredevelopinnerrubbercupofthefluidcheckvalueisdeflected
andfluidentersthewheelcylinderorthecaliperandtherebyapplyingthebrakes.
Whenthebrakepedalisreleasedpistonagainmovestotherightposition.This
springforcekeepthefluidcheckvaluepressedonitsseatforsometimeandtherebydelaysthe
returnoffluidfromthelinestothecompressionchamber.Thisproducesavacuuminthe
compressionchamber.whichistobedestroyedotherwisethereareallchancesofairleakingin
tothesystemassoonasvacuumisformed,fluidfromreservoirsenterthecompression
chamberthroughintakepartanddestroysthevacuum.Butbythetimethisvacuumis
destroyedfluidfromthelinescomesbackintoreservoirsbyliftingthefluidcheckvalue.This
extrafluidisthenpassestothefluidreservoirbymeansofbypassport.(03M)

Advantages:
Lessfrictionlosses
Selflubrication,lesswearandtear
Applicationofbrakeisverysmooth
MinimummovingpartsAnytwoAdvantages(01M)

Disadvantages:
Anyleakageorfaultinthesystemcausespressureloss
Slightleakofairinthebrakingsystem,makeituseless(01M)
C)BatteryIgnitionSystem:Abatteryof12voltsisgenerallyemployed.Figure:3M

Therearetwobasiccircuitsinthesystem,theprimaryandsecondarycircuits.Thebattery,primary
windingofignitioncoil,condenserandthecontactbreakerformtheprimarycircuit,whereasthe
secondarywindingoftheignitioncoil,thedistributorandthesparkplugsconstitutethesecondary
circuit.

Whentheignitionswitchisintheonposition,thecurrentflowingintheprimarycircuit
willgrowexponentiallyduringthemakeperiodofthecontactbreaker.Theelectromagneticenergyon
accountofthisbuildofcurrentintheprimarycircuitisstoredinlaminatedironcoreoftheignitioncoil
asthecontactbreakerpointsopen,themagneticfieldbuildupbythegrowthofthecurrentcollapses
andtheenergystoredduringmakeperiodisprojectedintothesecondarycircuit.

Asthebreakismadeverysharp,theinducedemfisverylargebeingproportionaltothe
rateofchangeoffluxinthewinding.Asaresultasuddenvoltagesurgeofveryhighamplitudeis
produceinthesecondary,causingasparktooccuratthesparkplugelectrodes.
Fromthesecondarywinding,thehighvoltagesurgeisled
toeachsparkpluginturnwiththehelpofh.tcablesandthedistributor.03M

BatteryCapacity:Thecapacityofabatteryisdefinedastheamountofcurrentitcandeliver.It
dependsuponthenumberandareaofplatesinthecellandthequantityoftheelectrolytepresent
batterycapacitydecreaseswithdecreaseoftemperature.02M

Q.6)
a)NomenclatureofaCarbody


Figure:2M
Why?
Itisusedinautomobiletransmissionsystem:Whenthecaristakingaturn,theouterwheelswillhave
totravelgreaterdistanceascomparedtotheinnerwheelsinthesametime.Iftherefore,thecarhasa
solidrearaxleonlyandnootherdevice,therewillbetendencyforthewheelstoskid.Henceifthe
wheelskiddingistobeavoided,somemechanismmustbeincorporatedintherearaxle,whichshould
bereducethespeedofinnerwheelsandincreasethespeedoftheouterwheelwhentakingturns,it
shouldatthesametimekeepthespeedsofallthewheelssamewhengoingstraightaheadsucha
devicecalledasdifferentialthatswhyitisusedinautomobiletransmissionsystem.02M

c)Function&Necessityofoverdrive:Function:Overdriveisadevicetostepupthegearratiointhe
carItisfittedinbetweentransmissionandthepropellershaft.Itenableahighcruisingspeedtobe
attainedwithacomparativelylowenginespeed.Theseresultsinlessrearoftheengineparts&
decreasesVibrationandnoise,asthefrictionlossesatlowspeedsareless,thereisasavingoffuelalso
withtheoverdrive.02M

Necessity:Intheconventionaltransmissionthehighergearpositionproducesa1:1ratiobetween
theclutchgearandthetransmissionoutputshaft.Atintermediateandhighcarspeeds,itissometimes
desirabletohavethetransmissionoutputshaftturnfasterthanclutchgearandenginecrankshaft,
thereforesometransmissionaredesignedwithgearsthatprovideanoverdriveratio.02M

d)MacphersontypeSuspensionsystem:

Advantages:
Simplethandoublewishbonetype
Lighter,keepingtheunsprungweightlower
Camberangledoesnotchangewhenthewheelmovesupanddown
Givesthemaximumroomintheenginecompartment02M

e)WheelBalancing:Wheelbalancinginvolvebalancingtheweightoftheentirewheelassembly
thatis,thediscwheelwiththetyreattached.Wheelbalancingcanbedividedintostaticbalanceand
dynamicbalancestaticbalancereferstothebalanceofweightintheradialdirectionunderstatic
conditions,dynamicbalancereferstothebalanceofweightintheradialdirectionasthewheelturns
01M
WheelAlignment:Wheelalignmentmeansthestabilityandcontrolofvehiclewhileinmotion.
Whilemovingstraightaheadthewheelsshouldbeparallel.Itincludessettingoffrontwheelsandthe
steeringmechanism.01M

NecessityofWheelbalancing&Wheelalignment:
WheelBalancing:Duetoimprovementinengine,handlingaswellasbodyaerodynamic,itis
becomingpossibleforautomobilestooperateathigherandhigherspeed.Athighspeeds,an
unbalancedwheelassemblycancreatevibrationswhicharetransmittedtothebodythrough
suspensioncomponentscausinginconveniencetothedriverandpassenger.Inordertoeliminatesuch
vibrationswheelbalancingiscarriedout.01M
Wheelalignment:
Easierdirectioncontroltothevehicle
Minimumtyrewear
Stabilitytothevehiclewhileturning
LightSteeringandlessfuelconsumption01M