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Lecture 4

Flow Patterns and Wind Forces


Tokyo Polytechnic University The 21st Century Center of Excellence Program Yukio Tamura

Flows Around Bluff Bodies

Flow Patterns Around Bluff Bodies

Stream Lines

Flow pattern around a square prism (Particle paths, 2D, Uniform flow, CFD)

Flow pattern around a square prism (Streak Lines, 2D, Uniform Flow, CFD)

Flow pattern between building models (Streak Lines)

K. Shimada

Periodic vortices shed from a square prism (Streak Lines, CFD)

Flow pattern around a square prism


(Stream lines, Wind tunnel, by T. Mizota)

Temporal variation of flow pattern around a square prism (Stream lines, 2D, Uniform flow, CFD)

Temporally averaged flow pattern around a square prism (Stream lines, 2D, Uniform flow, CFD)

A: Front stagnation point B: Rear stagnation point 1, 2: Separation point

Temporally averaged flow pattern around a square prism

SP RP FP SP

Temporally averaged flow pattern around a circular cylinder

Reattachment

Temporally averaged flow pattern around a rectangular cylinder with a large side ratio

Inflow and outflow into an infinitesimal hexahedron

Inflow through the (dy dz) plane: 1 u 1 u (u dx )dydz (u + dx )dydz 2 x 2 x u = dxdydz (1) x Inflow through the (dz dx) plane: v = dxdydz (2) y Inflow through the (dx dy) plane: w = dxdydz (3) z

Law of Conservation of Mass


(Incompressive Fluid) : Eq.(1)+Eq.(2)+Eq.(3)=0 u v w dxdydz dxdydz dxdydz = 0 x y z

Equation of Continuity:

u v w + + = 0 x y z
(div v = 0)

Vorticity Vector :

w v = y z u w = z x v u = x y , , = 2x , 2y ,2z : Vorticity x , y z : Rotational angular velocity about x, y and z axes

= (, , ) = rot v

u t y

Angular Velocity of Rotation v u) 1 ( z = 2 x y 1 = 2 average

: Vorticity

v t x

Non-viscous and Irrotational Fluid

= rot v = 0
Velocity potential can be

assumed:

u = , v = , w = x y z

Equation of Continuity:
u v w + + = 0 x y z
u = , v = , w = x y z
: Velocity potential

Laplace Equation:

2 2 2 + + =0 2 2 2 x y z

Flow Pattern and Pressure

l i ne stream

a stre

in e ml

Stream line and flow velocity

Pressure: PB

UB
Sectional Area: AB Pressure: PA

UA
Sectional Area: AA

zB

Closed Curve:C

zA

Stream tube and flow velocity

Incompressive Flow (Law of conservation of mass)

AAUA = ABUB = m
m (U 2 U 2) B A 2 mg (zB zA)

m : Air mass of inflow and outflow portions Increase of kinetic energy during unit time

(1) (2)

Increase of potential energy during unit time Work done by pressure difference during unit time Ui : Wind speed at point i Pi : Pressure at point i, g : Gravity acceleration zi : Altitude of point i

: Air density,

(PA AA)UA (PB AB)UB

(3)

For the same stream tube: 1 UA2 + PA + gzA 2 1 = UB2 + PB + gzB 2 : Air density Ui : Wind speed at point i Pi : Pressure at point i g : Gravity acceleration zi : Altitude of point i Eq.(1)+Eq.(2)= Eq.(3)

Bernoullis Equation (Steady / Ideal flow)


1 U 2 + P + g z = HT (constant) 2

: Air density
U : Wind speed P : Pressure g : Gravity acceleration z : Altitude HT : Total pressure
(On Stream Li )

Bernoullis equation: 1 U 2 + PS = HT (constant) 2 U : Wind speed PS : Static pressure = P + gz 1 U 2 : Dynamic pressure 2 HT : Total pressure

: Air density

Bernoullis equation: 1 U 2 + PS = HT (constant) 2

U : Large (Small) PS : Small (Large)

Low Pressure

Resultant Force

High Pressure

Pressure distribution and resultant force acting on a fluid cell

U2 P + =0 r n High Pressure Force

Low Pressure

Curved stream line and pressure gradient

Wind Pressure at point i

pi = Pi PR
Pi : Pressure at point i PR : Pressure at reference point R far away from the body, where there is no effect of the body on the flow field

Wind Pressure : pi = Pi PR PR PA >PR (pA >0) PB >PR (pB >0) PD <PR (pD <0) PE <PR (pE <0)

Stream lines around a square prism and spatial variation of pressure

pA = PA PR = PA PG = = (1/2)UR2 : Dynamic pressure (Velocity UR = 2pA / (Reference wind speed) Anemometer

pressure) of the reference point

Flow around Pitot static tube and pressure

Navier-Stokes Equation

Substantial DifferentiationQ(x+x,y+y,z+z,t+t)
Vt Velocity components u = u(x,y,z,t) v = v (x,y,z,t) P(x,y,z,t) w = w(x,y,z,t) Displacement of a small element of fluid at point P during an infinitesimal interval t x = u(x,y,z,t) t y = v(x,y,z,t) t Eq.(a) } z = w(x,y,z,t) t

Changing rate ( f / t ) of a property f f + f = f(x + x , y + y , z + z, t + t ) f f f f = f(x, y, z, t) + x + y + z + t x y z t + O( t2) t 0, substituting Eq.(a) Df f f f f = + u + v + w Dt t x y z Substantial Acceleration Du u u u u = + u + v + w x y z Dt t

35

Changing rate ( f / t ) of a property f f + f = f(x + x , y + y , z + z, t + t ) f f f f = f(x, y, z, t) + x + y + z + t x y z t + O( t2) t 0, substituting Eq.(a) Df f f f f = + u + v + w Dt t x y z Substantial Acceleration Du u u u u = + u + v + w x y z Dt t

dU =
dn
Newton Newtons Law of Viscosity

= 1.78105 kg/m/s (Air) (Air) = 114 105 kg/m/s (Water) (Water)

Coefficient of Viscosity 15C

Velocity gradient and viscous stress (Newtonian fluid)

Shear deformation velocity in xy - plane

xy= yx = ( + )
u xx= 2 x x y

v u

Shear stresses acting on an infinitesimal hexahedron of fluid

Total shear forces acting x-direction:


xx yx zx ( + + ) dxdydz x y z

Navier Stokes Equations:

Convective acceleration

u u u u [ + u + v + w ] t x y z
Substantial acceleration

Inertial force per unit volume

p u + = + [ 2 x x
Pressure gradient

Local (Instantaneous) acceleration 2u 2u p

Viscous stress

u + 2 y

2u ] 2 z

Navier Stokes Equations:

u u u u [ + u + v + w ] t x y z p 2u 2u 2u = + [ + + ] x x2 y2 z2 v v v v [ + u + v + w ] t x y z 2 2 p v v 2v = + [ + + ] y x2 y2 z2 w w w w [ + u + v + w ] t x y z 2 2 p w w 2w = + [ + + ] z x2 y2 z2

Non-dimensional expression of Navier Stokes Equations: u* u* u* u* * * * + u + v + w t* x* y* z* p* 1 2u* 2u* 2u* = + [ + + ] x* Re x* 2 y* 2 z* 2


x y z tU p x*= , y* = , z* = , t* = , p* = L L L L U2 u v w UL u*= , v* = , w* = , Re = U U U

Reynolds Number

UL = UL Re = Dynamic Viscosity 3 2 L U / L = / = 1.4510 = = / = 1.1410 L 2 U / L Inertial Force = Viscous Force (Air) 7 104 L U
(m/s) Reference Speed (m) Reference Length

= 1.22 kg/m3 = 1.78105 kg/m/s (Air) = 114 105 kg/m/s (Water)


5

T = 15C, P = 1013hPa

m2/s (A) 6 m2/s (W)

9 105 L U

(Water)

- Laminar flow - A parabola profile - Quantity of flowing r 4p Q

- r : Radius of tube - Viscosity meter

Hagen-Poiseuille flow in a straight circular tube

Accelerate

Decelerate

L.P. (RP) H.P. (FP) H.P.

Flow around a circular cylinder in an ideal flow (Non-viscous)

Surface Boundary Layer


ity e lo c v w F lo

d un Bo

ar

er ay l y

Wall

Surfa

ce

Flow near surface of body

Accelerate

Decelerate

L.P. (RP) H.P. (FP) H.P.

Flow around a circular cylinder in an ideal flow (Non-viscous)

- Separated shear layer - Vortex sheet - Shear layer instability

Separation Point

Flow near the separation point

- Separated shear layer - Vortex sheet - Shear layer instability

Separation Point

Flow near the separation point

SP FP

Flow separation from body surface (Viscous Flow)

- C = 20 A - Vorticity = 20 = C /A
Area: A Closed Curve:C Angular Velocity Closed r0 Curve: C C = r0 2 r = 20 r2 = 20A

Circulation C = C Ucos ds
(a) Definition of circulation

(b) Rigid vortex and Circulation

Circulation and vorticity

- Circulation C = (UA UB )
Line of Velocity Discontinuity Closed Curve:C

Unit Length : 1

Circulation along a line of velocity discontinuity

Causes of Wind Forces

Accelerate

Decelerate

L.P. (RP) H.P. (FP) H.P.

Flow around a circular cylinder in an ideal flow (Non-viscous)

- DAlamberts Paradox

Pressure distribution on a circular cylinder in the ideal non-viscous flow

SP FP

Flow separation from body surface (Viscous Flow)

Pressure distribution on a circular cylinder in actual viscous flow

Uniform Flow

Circulation

Superimposition of a rotational flow around a circular cylinder with a uniform flow

KuttaKutta-Joukowski Joukowskis Theorem

L.P. Flow Velocity H.P. Lift Force: U

Stream lines around a circular cylinder in a uniform ideal flow superimposed on a clockwise circulation

- Starting vortex
=0 =
Lift Just after starting

=0
+

= +

=0

Starting vortex ( Kutta Kuttas Condition, Joukowski Joukowskis Hypothesis )

A starting vortex and a remaining circulation around an airfoil ( Kelvin Kelvins TimeTime-Invariant Circulation Theorem )

A vortex generated when an airfoil starts to move in a stationary flow

Sudden stop of motion

Release of a vortex stuck to an airfoil by sudden stop of motion

2 .5 m /s e c

2 .5 m /s e c

Turbulence after airplane

Reynolds Number and Flow Patterns

Re < 5 5 < Re < 30 30 30 < Re < 5103

5103 < Re 3105 < Re

< <

3105 6105

CD=1.2, s = 85

Sub-critical

CD=0.3, s = 120

Supercritical Postsupercritical

6105 < Re

CD=0.6, s = 100

Variation of flow pattern around a circular cylinder due to Reynolds number

Important Regimes for Structures


Sub-critical 5103 < Re < 3105 Surface boundary layer : Laminar Separation points: S = 85 Separated shear layer: Turbulent in wake (Widest wake) Drag Coefficient : CD = 1.2 Vortices : Very periodic Supercritical 3105 < Re < 6105 Surface boundary layer : Laminar Turbulent > 85 Separation points: S = 120 Separated shear layer: Narrow Wake-width Drag Coefficient : CD = 0.3 Vortices : Lose periodicity Post-supercritical 6105 < Re Surface boundary layer : Fully turbulent Separation points: S = 100 Separated shear layer: Wider wake-width Drag Coefficient : CD = 0.6 (Re 4 106) Vortices : Periodic

Rcr : Critical Reynolds Number

- d : Diameter of particles attached to the surface - D : Diameter of a circular cylinder

Drag Coefficient CD

Okajima

10

102

105 Rcr 106 Reynolds Number : Re members 103 104

107 buildings

Variation of drag coefficient of a circular cylinder due to Reynolds number

Turbulence Intensity Drag Coefficient CD Smooth Flow

Reynolds Number Re

Variation of mean drag coefficient of a circular cylinder with turbulence intensity and Reynolds number (2D)

Turbulence Index Iu(D/Ly)1/5

Sphere (Dryden et al.) Circular Cylinder

3.2.15

Critical Reynolds Number Rcr

Variation of the critical Reynolds numbers of a sphere and a circular cylinder with turbulence index Iu(D/Ly)1/5(Bearman, 1968)

Drag Coefficient CD 106

107 Reynolds Number Re

108

Field data of mean drag coefficients of actual circular structures (chimneys etc.)

Vortices Shed From Bluff Bodies

Karman vortices shed from a square prism

wv / pv = 0.281

Karman vortex streets

FL FL = U

FL

KuttaKutta-Joukowski Joukowskis Theorem

Periodic lateral force due to alternate vortex shedding

- fv -S -U -B

fv = S , B

: Shedding frequency of Karman vortices : Strouhal number : Wind Speed : Reference Length

S = U

fv B

B
CFD by K. Shimada

Vortex shedding and Strouhal Number

Strouhal Number S

105

106

107

Reynolds Number Re

(Circular cylinder, 2D, Uniform flow, Shewe 1983)

Variation of Strouhal number with Reynolds number

(a) front side

(b) rear side

Flow around a building

(T.Tamura)

B B H H

(a) Small H/B (Aspect Ratio) (b) Large H/B

Vortex formation behind building models

Static Wind Forces

Velocity Pressure and Wind Pressure Coefficient

UR PR

SP U0 = 0, P0

Wind speed at reference point far away body stagnation point Wind form Pressure atand Stagnation Point

p0 = P0 PR = (1/2) UR2

Velocity Pressure (Dynamic

Wind Pressure Coefficient

pk Cpk = 1 U 2 R 2 pk = Pk PR
pk : Pk : PR : : UR :

Velocity Pressure : qR

Wind pressure at point k Static pressure at point k Reference static pressure Air density Reference wind speed

Stagnation point of a 3D building

Internal Pressure Coefficient and External Pressure Coefficient

0.5

Cpe = + 0.8

Cpi = 0.34 Internal Space

0.4

0.5

External pressure coefficient Cpe and internal pressure coefficient Cpi

Equilibrium Equation of Flows Through Gaps:


- The flow is proportional to the velocity at each gap. - The velocity is assumed to be proportional to the square root of the pressure difference between the gap.

0.8 Cpi = 2Cpi + 0.5 + Cpi + 0.4


Cpi = 0.34

Mean Internal Pressure ( (hPa hPa) )

Ground 7th story 13th 18th 24th

7th 13th 18th 24th

Ground

Temporal variations of mean internal pressures (Full-scale, Kato et al., 1996)

(mmAq mmAq) ) Difference From Reference Pressure (

Internal Pressure Coefficient

Cpi = pi / qR
24th story 18th 13th (Office) 13th 7th

pi

(after altitude compensation)

Mean Velocity Pressure at Top :

qR

Variation of mean internal pressures with reference velocity pressure (Full-scale, Kato et al., 1996)

Wind Force Coefficient

FY FX
Projected Width: B

MZ U y

p x
(Body Length: h)

3.2.3

Wind pressure and wind forces defined for axes fixed to body

Wind Forces FX = S p cos h ds FY = S p sin h ds


h : Body length

Wind Force Coefficients FX FY CFX = , CFY = 1 U 2A 1 U 2A R R 2 2


A : Projected area = Bh

Aerodynamic Moment Coefficients MZ CMZ = 1 U 2AL R 2 MZ : Aerodynamic Moment


A : Projected area L : Reference Length

(Lift)

Across-wind Force: FL Along-wind Force: FD


(Drag)

Along-wind force and across-wind force defined for the axes fixed to wind

Cpe,S Cpe,L AlongAlong-wind Force Coefficient CF = Cpe,W Cpe,L

Cpi Cpe,W

Cpe,S

Wind pressure coefficient and wind force coefficient for a building with an internal space

Static Wind Forces Acting On Bluff Bodies

Drag Coefficient CD

Smooth Flow

Turbulent Flow

Lift Coefficient CL

Turbulent Flow

Smooth Flow

Variations of mean drag and lift coefficients with attacking angle (2D)

Drag Coefficient CD

Turbulence Intensity Iu (%)

Effects of turbulence on mean drag coefficients of 2D prisms

Entrainment effects of turbulence Smooth Flow Turbulent Flow Large Drag Small Drag

Small Drag Large Drag

(a)Flat plate (D/B = 0.1) (b) Prism (D/B = 0.5)

Effects of turbulence on separated shear layers (Laneville et al., 1975)

Drag Coefficient CD Back-pressure coefficient Cpb Back Wake stagnation point Xws

Back pressure Cpb

0.62 D/B

Variation of mean drag coefficient, backpressure coefficient, and wake stagnation point with side ratio (2D, Uniform flow)

Turbulent Uniform

D/B : Side Ratio H/B : Aspect Ratio

Drag Coefficient CD

B H H/B

Variation of mean drag coefficients of 3D rectangular prisms with aspect ratio

Shimizu Corp.

Mean pressure distribution on a low-rise building model

Instantaneous pressure distribution on a low-rise building model (45 Wind)

Shimizu Corp.

Instantaneous pressure distribution on a low-rise building model (45 Wind)

Shimizu Corp.

Conical Vortices

Mean pressure distributions Shimizu Corp on a low-rise building model (45 Wind)

- 0.3 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.3 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.8

- 0.4

- 0.5

- 0.6 - 0.6

- 0.3 - 0.4 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.5 - 0.8 - 0.8 - 1.3 1.1 - 1.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2

- 0.3

- 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.7 - 0.1 - 0.8 - 0.9 0.1 - 1.0 0.2

- 0.4 - 1.4 0.5 - 0.6 0.4 - 0.6 - 0.6 - 0.7 - 0.8 - 0.9 - 1.0 - 1.4 - 0.3 - 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4

(a) 0 Wind

(b) 45 Wind

Mean pressure distributions on a low-rise building model

Conical vortices generated from corner eaves

Instantaneous pressure distribution on a high-rise building model

Shimizu Corp.

- 0.8- 0.9 - 0.7 - 0.8 - 0.3 - 0.7 - 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.8 - 0.5 0.6 - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.6 - 0.8 - 0.6 0.5 0.5 - 0.6 0.4 0.4 - 0.5 - 1.0 0.8 0.7 - 1.2

- 0.9- 0.7 - 0.8 - 0.8

- 0.7

- 0.6

- 0.6 - 0.5

- 0.5

0
- 0.4

- 0.90.5 15 0.3 0.4

- 0.5

15

(a) 0 Wind

(b) Glancing Wind

Mean pressure distributions on a high-rise building model

SP

180 180

Surface flow pattern near the tip of 3D circular cylinder (Oil film technique, view
obliquely from behind, Lawson, 1980)

D z H

Distance from tip z/D


Drag Coefficient CD

Drag Coefficient CD

(a) PostPost-supercritical Regime (b) SubSub-critical Regime

Re = 2.7 5.4 106

Re =1.33 104

Vertical distributions of local mean drag coefficients of 3D circular cylinders

Mean Pressure Coefficient Cp

Supercritical

SubSub-critical

3.2.18

Potential Flow

Mean pressure distribution on a circular cylinder (Sach, 1972)

Mean Pressure Coefficient Cp

Surface Wind Roughness Speed Smooth 10 m/s 1mm 5 m/s 1mm 10 m/s 10 m/s 2mm FullFull-scale 12 1240 m/s

1mm bar

Pressure tap

2mm bar

Pressure tap

Mean pressure distributions on a fullscale chimney and wind tunnel models with different surface roughnesses