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# Lecture 4

## Flow Patterns and Wind Forces

Tokyo Polytechnic University The 21st Century Center of Excellence Program Yukio Tamura

## Flow Patterns Around Bluff Bodies

Stream Lines

Flow pattern around a square prism (Particle paths, 2D, Uniform flow, CFD)

Flow pattern around a square prism (Streak Lines, 2D, Uniform Flow, CFD)

## Flow pattern around a square prism

(Stream lines, Wind tunnel, by T. Mizota)

Temporal variation of flow pattern around a square prism (Stream lines, 2D, Uniform flow, CFD)

Temporally averaged flow pattern around a square prism (Stream lines, 2D, Uniform flow, CFD)

SP RP FP SP

## Temporally averaged flow pattern around a circular cylinder

Reattachment

Temporally averaged flow pattern around a rectangular cylinder with a large side ratio

## Inflow and outflow into an infinitesimal hexahedron

Inflow through the (dy dz) plane: 1 u 1 u (u dx )dydz (u + dx )dydz 2 x 2 x u = dxdydz (1) x Inflow through the (dz dx) plane: v = dxdydz (2) y Inflow through the (dx dy) plane: w = dxdydz (3) z

## Law of Conservation of Mass

(Incompressive Fluid) : Eq.(1)+Eq.(2)+Eq.(3)=0 u v w dxdydz dxdydz dxdydz = 0 x y z

Equation of Continuity:

u v w + + = 0 x y z
(div v = 0)

Vorticity Vector :

= (, , ) = rot v

u t y

: Vorticity

v t x

## Non-viscous and Irrotational Fluid

= rot v = 0
Velocity potential can be

assumed:

u = , v = , w = x y z

Equation of Continuity:
u v w + + = 0 x y z
u = , v = , w = x y z
: Velocity potential

Laplace Equation:

2 2 2 + + =0 2 2 2 x y z

l i ne stream

a stre

in e ml

## Stream line and flow velocity

Pressure: PB

UB
Sectional Area: AB Pressure: PA

UA
Sectional Area: AA

zB

Closed Curve:C

zA

## Incompressive Flow (Law of conservation of mass)

AAUA = ABUB = m
m (U 2 U 2) B A 2 mg (zB zA)

m : Air mass of inflow and outflow portions Increase of kinetic energy during unit time

(1) (2)

Increase of potential energy during unit time Work done by pressure difference during unit time Ui : Wind speed at point i Pi : Pressure at point i, g : Gravity acceleration zi : Altitude of point i

: Air density,

## (PA AA)UA (PB AB)UB

(3)

For the same stream tube: 1 UA2 + PA + gzA 2 1 = UB2 + PB + gzB 2 : Air density Ui : Wind speed at point i Pi : Pressure at point i g : Gravity acceleration zi : Altitude of point i Eq.(1)+Eq.(2)= Eq.(3)

## Bernoullis Equation (Steady / Ideal flow)

1 U 2 + P + g z = HT (constant) 2

: Air density
U : Wind speed P : Pressure g : Gravity acceleration z : Altitude HT : Total pressure
(On Stream Li )

Bernoullis equation: 1 U 2 + PS = HT (constant) 2 U : Wind speed PS : Static pressure = P + gz 1 U 2 : Dynamic pressure 2 HT : Total pressure

: Air density

Low Pressure

Resultant Force

High Pressure

Low Pressure

## Wind Pressure at point i

pi = Pi PR
Pi : Pressure at point i PR : Pressure at reference point R far away from the body, where there is no effect of the body on the flow field

Wind Pressure : pi = Pi PR PR PA >PR (pA >0) PB >PR (pB >0) PD <PR (pD <0) PE <PR (pE <0)

## Flow around Pitot static tube and pressure

Navier-Stokes Equation

Substantial DifferentiationQ(x+x,y+y,z+z,t+t)
Vt Velocity components u = u(x,y,z,t) v = v (x,y,z,t) P(x,y,z,t) w = w(x,y,z,t) Displacement of a small element of fluid at point P during an infinitesimal interval t x = u(x,y,z,t) t y = v(x,y,z,t) t Eq.(a) } z = w(x,y,z,t) t

Changing rate ( f / t ) of a property f f + f = f(x + x , y + y , z + z, t + t ) f f f f = f(x, y, z, t) + x + y + z + t x y z t + O( t2) t 0, substituting Eq.(a) Df f f f f = + u + v + w Dt t x y z Substantial Acceleration Du u u u u = + u + v + w x y z Dt t

35

Changing rate ( f / t ) of a property f f + f = f(x + x , y + y , z + z, t + t ) f f f f = f(x, y, z, t) + x + y + z + t x y z t + O( t2) t 0, substituting Eq.(a) Df f f f f = + u + v + w Dt t x y z Substantial Acceleration Du u u u u = + u + v + w x y z Dt t

dU =
dn
Newton Newtons Law of Viscosity

xy= yx = ( + )
u xx= 2 x x y

v u

## Total shear forces acting x-direction:

xx yx zx ( + + ) dxdydz x y z

## Navier Stokes Equations:

Convective acceleration

u u u u [ + u + v + w ] t x y z
Substantial acceleration

## Inertial force per unit volume

p u + = + [ 2 x x

Viscous stress

u + 2 y

2u ] 2 z

## Navier Stokes Equations:

u u u u [ + u + v + w ] t x y z p 2u 2u 2u = + [ + + ] x x2 y2 z2 v v v v [ + u + v + w ] t x y z 2 2 p v v 2v = + [ + + ] y x2 y2 z2 w w w w [ + u + v + w ] t x y z 2 2 p w w 2w = + [ + + ] z x2 y2 z2

## Non-dimensional expression of Navier Stokes Equations: u* u* u* u* * * * + u + v + w t* x* y* z* p* 1 2u* 2u* 2u* = + [ + + ] x* Re x* 2 y* 2 z* 2

x y z tU p x*= , y* = , z* = , t* = , p* = L L L L U2 u v w UL u*= , v* = , w* = , Re = U U U

Reynolds Number

UL = UL Re = Dynamic Viscosity 3 2 L U / L = / = 1.4510 = = / = 1.1410 L 2 U / L Inertial Force = Viscous Force (Air) 7 104 L U
(m/s) Reference Speed (m) Reference Length

## = 1.22 kg/m3 = 1.78105 kg/m/s (Air) = 114 105 kg/m/s (Water)

5

T = 15C, P = 1013hPa

9 105 L U

(Water)

Accelerate

Decelerate

## Surface Boundary Layer

ity e lo c v w F lo

d un Bo

ar

er ay l y

Wall

Surfa

ce

Accelerate

Decelerate

Separation Point

Separation Point

SP FP

## Flow separation from body surface (Viscous Flow)

- C = 20 A - Vorticity = 20 = C /A
Area: A Closed Curve:C Angular Velocity Closed r0 Curve: C C = r0 2 r = 20 r2 = 20A

Circulation C = C Ucos ds
(a) Definition of circulation

## Circulation and vorticity

- Circulation C = (UA UB )
Line of Velocity Discontinuity Closed Curve:C

Unit Length : 1

Accelerate

Decelerate

SP FP

Uniform Flow

Circulation

## L.P. Flow Velocity H.P. Lift Force: U

Stream lines around a circular cylinder in a uniform ideal flow superimposed on a clockwise circulation

- Starting vortex
=0 =
Lift Just after starting

=0
+

= +

=0

## Starting vortex ( Kutta Kuttas Condition, Joukowski Joukowskis Hypothesis )

A starting vortex and a remaining circulation around an airfoil ( Kelvin Kelvins TimeTime-Invariant Circulation Theorem )

2 .5 m /s e c

2 .5 m /s e c

## 5103 < Re 3105 < Re

< <

3105 6105

CD=1.2, s = 85

Sub-critical

CD=0.3, s = 120

Supercritical Postsupercritical

6105 < Re

CD=0.6, s = 100

## Important Regimes for Structures

Sub-critical 5103 < Re < 3105 Surface boundary layer : Laminar Separation points: S = 85 Separated shear layer: Turbulent in wake (Widest wake) Drag Coefficient : CD = 1.2 Vortices : Very periodic Supercritical 3105 < Re < 6105 Surface boundary layer : Laminar Turbulent > 85 Separation points: S = 120 Separated shear layer: Narrow Wake-width Drag Coefficient : CD = 0.3 Vortices : Lose periodicity Post-supercritical 6105 < Re Surface boundary layer : Fully turbulent Separation points: S = 100 Separated shear layer: Wider wake-width Drag Coefficient : CD = 0.6 (Re 4 106) Vortices : Periodic

## - d : Diameter of particles attached to the surface - D : Diameter of a circular cylinder

Drag Coefficient CD

Okajima

10

102

107 buildings

## Turbulence Intensity Drag Coefficient CD Smooth Flow

Reynolds Number Re

Variation of mean drag coefficient of a circular cylinder with turbulence intensity and Reynolds number (2D)

3.2.15

## Critical Reynolds Number Rcr

Variation of the critical Reynolds numbers of a sphere and a circular cylinder with turbulence index Iu(D/Ly)1/5(Bearman, 1968)

## 107 Reynolds Number Re

108

Field data of mean drag coefficients of actual circular structures (chimneys etc.)

wv / pv = 0.281

FL FL = U

FL

## Periodic lateral force due to alternate vortex shedding

- fv -S -U -B

fv = S , B

: Shedding frequency of Karman vortices : Strouhal number : Wind Speed : Reference Length

S = U

fv B

B

## Vortex shedding and Strouhal Number

Strouhal Number S

105

106

107

Reynolds Number Re

(T.Tamura)

B B H H

## Velocity Pressure and Wind Pressure Coefficient

UR PR

SP U0 = 0, P0

Wind speed at reference point far away body stagnation point Wind form Pressure atand Stagnation Point

p0 = P0 PR = (1/2) UR2

## Wind Pressure Coefficient

pk Cpk = 1 U 2 R 2 pk = Pk PR
pk : Pk : PR : : UR :

Velocity Pressure : qR

Wind pressure at point k Static pressure at point k Reference static pressure Air density Reference wind speed

0.5

Cpe = + 0.8

0.4

0.5

## Equilibrium Equation of Flows Through Gaps:

- The flow is proportional to the velocity at each gap. - The velocity is assumed to be proportional to the square root of the pressure difference between the gap.

Cpi = 0.34

Ground

## Internal Pressure Coefficient

Cpi = pi / qR
24th story 18th 13th (Office) 13th 7th

pi

## Mean Velocity Pressure at Top :

qR

Variation of mean internal pressures with reference velocity pressure (Full-scale, Kato et al., 1996)

## Wind Force Coefficient

FY FX
Projected Width: B

MZ U y

p x
(Body Length: h)

3.2.3

Wind pressure and wind forces defined for axes fixed to body

h : Body length

## Wind Force Coefficients FX FY CFX = , CFY = 1 U 2A 1 U 2A R R 2 2

A : Projected area = Bh

## Aerodynamic Moment Coefficients MZ CMZ = 1 U 2AL R 2 MZ : Aerodynamic Moment

A : Projected area L : Reference Length

(Lift)

## Across-wind Force: FL Along-wind Force: FD

(Drag)

Along-wind force and across-wind force defined for the axes fixed to wind

## Cpe,S Cpe,L AlongAlong-wind Force Coefficient CF = Cpe,W Cpe,L

Cpi Cpe,W

Cpe,S

Wind pressure coefficient and wind force coefficient for a building with an internal space

## Static Wind Forces Acting On Bluff Bodies

Drag Coefficient CD

Smooth Flow

Turbulent Flow

Lift Coefficient CL

Turbulent Flow

Smooth Flow

Variations of mean drag and lift coefficients with attacking angle (2D)

Drag Coefficient CD

## Effects of turbulence on mean drag coefficients of 2D prisms

Entrainment effects of turbulence Smooth Flow Turbulent Flow Large Drag Small Drag

## Effects of turbulence on separated shear layers (Laneville et al., 1975)

Drag Coefficient CD Back-pressure coefficient Cpb Back Wake stagnation point Xws

## Back pressure Cpb

0.62 D/B

Variation of mean drag coefficient, backpressure coefficient, and wake stagnation point with side ratio (2D, Uniform flow)

Turbulent Uniform

## D/B : Side Ratio H/B : Aspect Ratio

Drag Coefficient CD

B H H/B

Shimizu Corp.

Shimizu Corp.

## Instantaneous pressure distribution on a low-rise building model (45 Wind)

Shimizu Corp.

Conical Vortices

Mean pressure distributions Shimizu Corp on a low-rise building model (45 Wind)

## - 0.3 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.3 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.8

- 0.4

- 0.5

- 0.6 - 0.6

- 0.3 - 0.4 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.5 - 0.8 - 0.8 - 1.3 1.1 - 1.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2

- 0.3

- 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.7 - 0.1 - 0.8 - 0.9 0.1 - 1.0 0.2

- 0.4 - 1.4 0.5 - 0.6 0.4 - 0.6 - 0.6 - 0.7 - 0.8 - 0.9 - 1.0 - 1.4 - 0.3 - 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4

(a) 0 Wind

(b) 45 Wind

## Instantaneous pressure distribution on a high-rise building model

Shimizu Corp.

- 0.8- 0.9 - 0.7 - 0.8 - 0.3 - 0.7 - 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.8 - 0.5 0.6 - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.6 - 0.8 - 0.6 0.5 0.5 - 0.6 0.4 0.4 - 0.5 - 1.0 0.8 0.7 - 1.2

- 0.7

- 0.6

- 0.6 - 0.5

- 0.5

0
- 0.4

- 0.5

15

(a) 0 Wind

## Mean pressure distributions on a high-rise building model

SP

180 180

Surface flow pattern near the tip of 3D circular cylinder (Oil film technique, view
obliquely from behind, Lawson, 1980)

D z H

## Distance from tip z/D

Drag Coefficient CD

Drag Coefficient CD

Re =1.33 104

Supercritical

SubSub-critical

3.2.18

Potential Flow

## Mean Pressure Coefficient Cp

Surface Wind Roughness Speed Smooth 10 m/s 1mm 5 m/s 1mm 10 m/s 10 m/s 2mm FullFull-scale 12 1240 m/s

1mm bar

Pressure tap

2mm bar

Pressure tap

Mean pressure distributions on a fullscale chimney and wind tunnel models with different surface roughnesses