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Gusti Raka Divananda 1206292093

Application Of Protein Abstrack Enzymes are proteins that speed up biochemical reaction without being consumed or changed by the reaction. They are found throughout nature; in our bodies, in the environment, and in all living things. With the help of biotechnology, enzymes provide an alternative to the harsh chemicals traditonally used in industry for accelerating chemical reactions. Enzyme can also detect and attach itself into various substance like dirt and can also function as detergent. While another use in medical field take the advantage of the capability of enzyme that can detect disease and also can help to give a therapy Key Words Xlanase, lipase, esterase, cellulase, protease, amilase, collagen, albumin, GFP Use of protein in pulp and paper industry Xylanase In the chemical process the wood chips are pressure cooked in a strong alkali or acid which disintegrates the chips into individual fibers. The resulting pulp contains residual lignin and a dark colored reaction product of lignin, which is produced while cooking the chips. After cooking, the lignin is washed from the fibers. The mill can optionally bleach the washed pulp to produce a pulp that can be used in production of white paper and board products. The bleaching plant normally bleaches chemical pulp with oxidative chemicals (e.g chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide) to achieve a brighter color. Lignin removal is a time and energy consuming process. Xylanase enzyme prepares the fiber for bleacing by opening up the fiber structure to allow for the lignin to be washed away more easily. Removing lignin prior to furhter pulp bleaching saves time and energy, and decrease the quantities of chemical used Lipase In mechanical pulp processes the sticky tree sap called pitch is still present in the pulp. The pitch, causes a lot of problems by forming machine deposits and product defects during the production of paper from mechanical pulp. Costly paper machine downtime, rejected paper, and quality problems resulting from pitch can be avoided by using lipase enzyme. This lipase not only reduces downtime associated with web-breaks, pittch-coated rolls and obstructed felts, but also improve performance an appearence. Lipase allows the mill to use less seasoned chips thereby easing inventory management whitin the wood yard. Moreover, the mill may be able to reduce the amount of expensive chemical fiber within its feedstock without loss of physical performance Esterase The glue(known as stickies) from old envelopes and magazine bindings can form problematic substances within the recycle mill when we want to recycle paper. Like picth, stickies can lead to web-breaks, less efficient drying and low quality end products. Mills normally use polymers and/or talc to control stickies, in combination with a mechanical cleaning process where solvents and surfactants are added. The esterase reduce the amount of solvent and talc needed in this process. By degrading the stickies more effectively with enymes, mills can avoid many machine stops for cleaning which translates into improved productivity and energy savings.

Cellulase While refining, both chemical and recycled pulp papermarks can add a cellulase enzyme to improve the overall efficiency of the refining stage and give additional value to the beaten fiber. Another cellulase can be added after the refiner to improve deatering rates and thereby improve mill productivity. Use of protein in detergent and textile

Gusti Raka Divananda 1206292093

Certain enzymes (protease, amylase, lipase, cellulase, mannanase, and pectinase) are very effective, in small amounts, for removing certain target substances (i.e., substrates). When enzymes find their designated stains, they lock on and remove them, then continue to the next stain. The enzymes used in laundry detergents act on materials that make up a variety of stains and soils so that these materials can be washed away more easily. These enzymes are named after the materials they can act upon, for example: proteases break down protein based stains, lipases break down lipid (fat) based stains, amylases break down starches and other carbohydrate based stains (amyl comes from the Greek for starch) and pectinase remove fruit and pectin-based stains that traditional detergent ingredients have trouble removing, doing it efficiently at low wash temperatures. cellulases help to preserve the smooth surface and bright colors of new cotton garments - a process termed color maintenance

Since one enzyme molecule can act on many substrate (i.e., soil) molecules, a small amount of enzyme added to a laundry detergent can provide a big cleaning benefit to the consumer. Medical Use Collagen Collagen has been widely used in cosmetic surgery, as a healing aid for burn patients for reconstruction of bone and a wide variety of dental, orthopedic and surgical purposes. Both human and bovine collagen is widely used as dermal fillers for treatment of wrinkles and skin aging Albumin Albumin belongs to the group of medications known as plasma substitutes. Albumin is made by the liver and is a naturally occurring protein found in plasma (the fluid that carries blood cells). It helps to transport a number of the body's substances (e.g., bilirubin) via the blood by attaching itself to them. When the albumin concentration in the blood is increased, it helps to increase the volume of the blood in the blood vessels. It does this by helping to draw fluid from the body into the blood vessels. This property is especially useful in the treatment of shock (caused by low volume of blood resulting in less oxygen getting to tissues in the body) due to various causes, including serious injury, bleeding, surgery, or severe burns. Albumin can also replace low blood protein. Albumin solutions are also used to treat acute liver failure because of its ability to bind excess bilirubin (a substance produced by the liver) and increase the volume of blood. Green fluorescent protein The use of GFP is to express the protein in small sets of specific cells. This allows researchers to optically detect specific types of cells in vitro (in a dish), or even in vivo (in the living organism). Genetically combining several spectral variants of GFP is a useful trick for the analysis of brain circuitry. Other interesting uses of fluorescent proteins in the literature include using FPs as sensors of the infection of individual influenza viruses and lentiviral viruses Food Rennet Cheese production use the enzyme that is called rennet and it is produced (the enzyme) in mamalian stomach. It coagulates the milk that makes cheese Reference www.mapsenzymes