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Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding Name: ______________________(

CHAPTER MAP & OVERVIEW CHAPTER 2.1 IONIC BONDING CHAPTER 2.2 COVALENT BONDING

) Class: ______ Date: ____________

Formation of Ionic Bond

Dot-and-Cross Diagram

Covalent Bonds in Elements

Covalent Bonds in Compounds

M. Heyworth Rex, & J G R Briggs. (2013). All About Chemistry 'O' Level. Malaysia: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd., pages 84 to 93
Learning Outcomes: 2.1 Ionic bonding Pupils are expected to:

(a) describe the formation of ions by electron loss/gain in order to obtain the electronic configuration of an inert
gas

(b) describe, using 'dot and cross' diagrams, the formation of ionic bonds between metals and non-metals, e.g.
in NaCl, MgCl2. 2.2 Covalent bonding Pupils are expected to:

(a) describe the formation of a covalent bond by the sharing of a pair of electrons in order to gain the electronic
configuration of an inert gas.

(b) describe, using 'dot and cross' diagrams, the formation of covalent bonds between non-metallic elements, (c) deduce the arrangement of electrons in other covalent molecules
e.g. H2 , O2, H2O, CH4, CO2.

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CHAPTER 2.3 STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

Metals

Ionic Compounds

Covalent Substances

Giant Metallic Structures

Giant Ionic Structures

Giant Covalent Structures

Simple Molecular Substances

Strong forces of attraction between sea of electrons and positive ions

Strong forces of attraction between positive and negative ions

Strong covalent bonds between atoms

Strong bonds between atoms; weak forces of attraction between molecules

High boiling and melting point Conduct electricity High density Malleable and ductile

High boiling and melting point Conduct electricity (in molten and aqueous state)

High boiling and melting point Does not conduct electricity Hard

High boiling and melting point Does not conduct electricity Soft

M. Heyworth Rex, & J G R Briggs. (2013). All About Chemistry 'O' Level. Malaysia: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd., pages 94 to 97
Learning Outcomes:
Pupils are expected to: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of ionic compounds to their lattice structure relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of covalent substances to their structure and bonding relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of metals to their structure and bonding compare the structure of simple molecular substances, e.g. methane; iodine, with those of giant molecular substances, e.g. sand (silicon dioxide); diamond; graphite in order to deduce their properties compare the bonding and structures of diamond and graphite in order to deduce their properties such as electrical conductivity, lubricating or cutting action (students will not be required to draw the structures) deduce the physical and chemical properties of substances from their structures and bonding describe metals as a lattice of positive ions in a sea of electrons

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Electron structure and chemical bonding We have previously looked at the first twenty elements in the periodic table. When elements react we now know that they try to gain, lose or share electrons in order to get a more stable electron structure. In many cases, this more stable electron structure is the same as that of a noble gas. When elements react we now know that they try to gain, lose or share electrons in order to get a more stable electron structure. In many cases, this more stable electron structure is the same as that of a noble gas. The simple ideas expressed in this statement form the basis of the electronic theory of chemical bonding. Look carefully at the table below. This shows the electron structures of the atoms and ions of elements in period 3.

Notice three important points from the above table 1. The first three elements in period 3 (sodium, magnesium and aluminium) lose the electrons in their outer shell to form positive ions (Na+, Mg2+, Al3+) with an electron structure like the previous noble gas, neon. 2. Elements in groups VI and VII (sulphur and chlorine), which are near the end of period 3, gain electrons to form negative ions (S2-, Cl-) with an electron structure like the next noble gas, argon. 3. Elements in the middle of the period (silicon and phosphorus) do not usually form ions. They get stable electron structures when they react by sharing electrons with other atoms instead of gaining them or losing them. This sharing of electrons results in covalent bonds between atoms which is the usual type of bonding in compounds of non-metals.

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Why do atoms bond? Noble gases, such as helium, neon and argon, are monoatomic because their valence shells are fully occupied by electrons. Thus, noble gases are stable and do not undergo bonding with other atoms. Since atoms with electronic configurations of noble gases are stable, atoms bond to achieve electronic configuration of a noble gas. Atoms do so by transfer or sharing of electrons with other atoms. By having an electronic configuration of a noble gas, an atom will achieve stability. - When you have 2 electrons in the 1st shell, you have a duplet structure. - When you have 8 electrons in the rest of the shells, you have an octet structure. Chemical bonds There are three ways of forming chemical bonds between atoms: (i) (ii) (iii) Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Metallic bonding (details to be covered in Sec. 3)

2.1 Ionic Bonding Ionic bonding is usually formed between metals and non-metals. Ionic bonds result from the transfer of electrons from metal atoms to non-metal atoms forming positive and negative ions. The electrical forces between these oppositely charged ions produce strong ionic bonds. Naming of ionic compounds: [name of cation] [space] [name of anion] E.g: sodium chloride, calcium carbonate Formation of ionic bonds Using the formation of sodium chloride (Figure 1) as an example:

Figure 1: Formation of Sodium Chloride

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The sodium atom loses one electron to form a positive ion (cation) in order to obtain an octet structure. In a sodium atom, there are 11 protons and 11 electrons. In a sodium ion, there are 11 protons and 10 electrons. Therefore, the sodium ion carries an overall positive charge of 1+ and is written as Na+. The chlorine atom gains the electron from sodium atom to form a negative ion (anion) in order to obtain an octet structure. In a chlorine atom, there are 17 protons and 17 electrons. In a chloride ion, there are 17 protons and 18 electrons. Therefore, the chloride ion carries an overall positive charge of 1- and is written as Cl-. The ions have opposite charges and therefore attract each other to form an ionic compound known as sodium chloride. This attraction force is called ionic bond. In figure 2, the magnesium atom gives up two electrons to form a magnesium ion, Mg2+. These two electrons are transferred to two chlorine atoms to form two chloride ions, Cl-. The magnesium chloride has the formula MgCl2.

Figure 2: Formation of Magnesium Chloride

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Dot-and-cross diagrams of ionic compounds Steps: 1. Draw the valence electrons of the elements using Dot and Cross only. 2. Electron(s) is/are transferred from the valence shell of the metal to the valence shell of the non-metal. The anion that has gained electron(s) from the cation will now have two type of electrons one originally from its valence shell, another one from the cation differentiated by dots and crosses. Remember to indicate the charges of the ions.

3.

4.

Examples of Dot-and-cross diagram can be found in figure 3 and 4.

Figure 3: Dot-and-cross diagram showing the bonding in sodium chloride

Figure 4: Dot-and-cross diagram showing the bonding in magnesium chloride

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Common ions and formulae of ionic compounds Symbols of common ions You are not expected to know all the names and symbols of common ions, but you should be able to work out the formulae of ionic compounds. The names and symbols of some ions are shown below.

Formulae of ionic compounds Ionic compounds contain positive and negative ions. The number of positive charges must equal the number of negative charges so that the compound has no charge overall. When the positive ion has the same number of charges as the negative ion, it is easy to work out the formula of the compound formed. Sodium chloride contains sodium ions, Na+, and chloride ions, Cl-. As both ions have single charges, the formula is simply written as NaCl, i.e. the positive ion followed by the negative ion with no charges written. Similarly, ammonium chloride is NH4Cl; magnesium oxide is MgO, and so on. The fun starts when the number of charges is different, as in magnesium chloride.

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2.2 Covalent Bonding A covalent bond is formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms. Each atom contributes one electron to the bond. Some atoms form bonds by sharing electrons to gain electronic configuration of a noble gas. The bonds formed are known as covalent bonds. Generally, covalent bonds are formed between atoms of non-metal. Covalent bonds can be formed between atoms of same elements or between atoms of different elements. Compounds which contain covalent bonds are known as covalent compounds. Single covalent bond - One pair of shared electrons between two atoms Double covalent bond - Two pair of shared electrons between two atoms Triple covalent bond - Three pair of shared electrons between two atoms Covalent bonds in elements Hydrogen molecules, H2 It requires one more electron to obtain the electronic

A hydrogen atom has 1 valence electron. configuration of a noble gas.

In order to obtain the electronic configuration of helium, two hydrogen atoms can share a pair of electrons between themselves to form hydrogen molecules, H2 (figure 5). In order to differentiate the two electrons, the electron of one atom is represented by a cross while the other electron of another atom is represented by a dot.

Formation of hydrogen molecule Oxygen molecules, O2

In order to obtain the electronic configuration of a noble gas, each oxygen atom requires two more electrons. Instead of sharing a pair of electrons, two oxygen atoms can share two pairs of electrons to form a double bond and obtain an octet structure.

Formation of oxygen molecule (showing of electrons in the outer shells only) ! )! !

Covalent bonds in compounds Methane molecule, CH4

The carbon atom has four valence electrons and it needs four more electrons to gain an octet structure. The carbon atom can share its four electrons with four other hydrogen atoms, forming a single covalent bond with each of the hydrogen atom.

Formation of methane molecule (showing of electrons in the outer shells only)

Valency The number of electrons an atom uses to form bonds is called its valency. Element Hydrogen Oxygen Aluminium Carbon Valency 1 2 3 4

Making and breaking chemical bonds When a chemical reaction occurs, one substance changes to another. This means that bonds in the reactants must first be broken and then new bonds must be made in the products. Now breaking bonds involves pulling atoms apart and this requires energy. On the other hand, making bonds helps to make atoms more stable and this gives out energy. So, bond breaking is endothermic, bond making is exothermic. ! *! !

2.3 Structure and Properties ! Look at the crystals of sodium chloride in this photograph. What do you notice about all the salt crystals?
All the salt crystals are roughly the same cubic shape. Further studies show that all the crystals of one substance have similar shapes. This suggests that the particles in the crystals are always packed in a regular fashion to give the same overall shape. Sometimes, crystals grow unevenly and their shapes become distorted. Even so, it is usually easy to see their general shape. Solid substances which have a regular packing of particles are described as crystalline. The particles may be atoms, ions or molecules.

The figure below shows how cubic crystals and hexagonal crystals can form. If the particles are always placed in parallel lines or at 90o to each other, the crystal will be cubic. If the particles are placed at 120 in the shape of a hexagon, the final crystal will be hexagonal.

We can compare the way in which a crystal grows to the way in which a bricklayer lays bricks. If the bricklayer always places the bricks in parallel lines or at 90 to each other, then the final buildings will be like cubes or boxes. However, if the bricks are laid at 120 to make hexagons, then the final buildings will be hexagonal. The overall shape of a crystal can only give a clue to the way in which the particles are arranged. Xrays give much better evidence.

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Using X-rays to study crystals (Optional) Look through a piece of thin stretched cloth at a small bright light. The pattern you see is due to the deflection of the light as it passes through the regularly spaced threads of the fabric. This deflection of the light is called diffraction and the patterns produced are diffraction patterns. If the cloth is stretched so that the threads in the fabric get closer, then the pattern spreads further out. From the diffraction pattern which we can see, we can work out the pattern of the threads in the fabric which we cannot see. The same idea is used to work out how the particles are arranged in a crystal. A narrow beam of X-rays is directed at a well-formed crystal. Some of the X-rays are diffracted by particles in the crystal onto X-ray sensitive film. When the film is developed, a regular pattern of spots appears. This is the diffraction pattern for the crystal. From the diffraction pattern which we can see, it is possible to work out the pattern of particles in the crystal which we cannot see. A regular arrangement of spots on the film indicates a regular arrangement of particles in the crystal. This regular arrangement of particles in the crystal is called a lattice. X-rays have been used in this way to study the structure of thousands of different solids. Beams of electrons can also be used, like X-rays, to study the way in which particles are arranged in crystals.

The Structure of Substances All substances are made up of particles. If we know how particles are arranged (the structure) and how the particles are held together (the bonding), then we can explain the properties of a substance. For example, copper is a good conductor because its metallic bonding allows electrons to move through the structure when it is connected to a battery. It can be drawn into wires because copper atoms can slide over each other in the close-packed structure. In turn, the properties of a substance lead to its uses. Copper, for example is used for electrical wires and cables because it is a good conductor and it can be drawn into wires. Notice that the structure and bonding of a substance determine its properties and, in turn, the properties determine its uses.

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So the links from structure and bonding to properties help us to explain the uses of materials - why metals are used as conductors, why graphite is used in pencils and why clay is used to make bricks. Earlier, you have learnt that all substances are made up from only three different types of particle - atoms, ions, and molecules. These three particles give rise to four different solid structures. giant metallic structures, giant covalent structures, ionic compounds, and simple molecular structures. The table below shows the particles in these four structures, the types of substances formed and examples of these substances. The four types of solid structure and the particles they contain Types of structure Simple molecular Giant covalent Ionic Compounds Giant metallic Particles in the structure Small molecules containing a few atoms Very large molecule containing thousands of atoms Ions atoms Types of substance Non-metals of nonmetal compounds Non-metals or nonmetal compounds Compounds of metals with nonmetals Metals and alloys (mixture of metals) Examples I2 (iodine), O2 (oxygen), H2O (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide) Diamond (carbon, C), polythene, sand (silicon dioxide, SiO2) Na+Cl- (salt), Ca2+O2- (lime dioxide) Na, Fe, Cu, steel, brass

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1. Simple Molecular Substances

Oxygen and water are good examples of simple molecular substances. They are made of simple molecules each containing a few atoms. Their formulas and structures are shown near the top of the table below. Most other non-metals and non-metal compounds are also made of simple molecules.

For example, hydrogen is H2, chlorine is Cl2, iodine is I2, carbon dioxide is CO2 and tetrachloromethane is CCl4. Sugar (C12H22O11) has much larger molecules than these substances, but it still counts as a simple molecule. In these simple molecular substances, the atoms are held together in each molecule by strong covalent bonds. But there are only weak forces between the separate molecules. These weak forces between the separate molecules are called intermolecular bonds or Van der Waals forces.

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The properties of simple molecular substances can be explained in terms of their structure. The molecules in these substances have no electrical charge (unlike ions in ionic compounds or electrons in metals). So there are no electrical forces holding them together. But some simple molecular substances, like iodine and water do exist as liquids and solids so there must be some intermolecular forces holding their molecules together. Properties of Simple Molecular Substances Simple molecular substances usually exist as liquids or gases. Most substances with simple molecular structures are liquids or gases at room temperature. As the intermolecular forces between the molecules are weak and the molecules are easy to separate. Because of this, crystals of these substances, like iodine and sugar, are usually soft. Simple molecular substances have low melting points and boiling points. It takes less energy to separate the molecules in simple molecular substances than to separate ions in ionic compounds, or atoms in metals. So, simple molecular compounds have lower melting points and lower boiling points than ionic compounds and metals. They are also volatile and evaporate easily. Simple molecular substances do not conduct electricity. They have no mobile electrons like metals. They do not have any ions either. This means that they cannot conduct electricity as solids, as liquids or in aqueous solution.

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2. Giant Covalent Structures In giant covalent structures, like diamond, polythene and sand (silicon dioxide), strong covalent bonds join one atom to another in very large molecules containing thousands or even millions of atoms. In diamond, each carbon atom is joined to four other. Each carbon atom is at the centre of a tetrahedron with four other carbon atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron. Every carbon atom shares its four outer electrons, one with each of its four neighbours forming strong covalent bonds. The covalent bonds extend through the whole diamond forming a three-dimensional giant covalent structure. Thus, a diamond is a single giant molecule or a macromolecule. Only a small number of atoms are shown in the model. In a real diamond, there are billions of atoms. Properties of Giant Covalent Structures Giant Covalent Structures is very hard The atoms are linked by very strong covalent bonds. Another reason for its hardness is that the atoms are not arranged in layers so they cannot slide over one another like the atoms in metals. In fact, diamond is the hardest known natural substance. Most of its industrial uses depend on this hardness. Giant Covalent Structures have a very high melting and boiling point This is due to the strong covalent bonds linking atoms in a giant structure. This means that the atoms cannot vibrate fast enough to break away from their neighbours until very high temperatures are reached. Giant Covalent Structures not conduct electricity. Unlike metals, they do not have free moving electrons because all valence electrons are held firmly in covalent bonds.

Exception: Graphite is a form of carbon and has a giant molecular structure. However, it has a different structure. 1. It is soft. The forces between the layers of carbon atoms are weak and so they can slide past one another easily. Graphite is used in pencil lead as the layers of carbon atoms slide off the pencil onto the paper. 2. It conducts electricity. It is the only non-metal that conducts electricity. In a layer of graphite, each carbon atom is bonded to 3 carbon atoms. For every 3 covalent ! "&! !

carbon-carbon atom, there is a delocalised electron that is free to move between the layers of carbon.

3. Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds form when metals react with non-metals. For example, when sodium burns in chlorine, sodium chloride is formed. 2Na two sodium atoms + + Cl2 one chlorine molecule ! ! 2Na+Cltwo sodium ions two chloride ions

In solid ionic compounds, the ions are held together by the attraction between positive ions and negative ions. The figures below show how the ions are arranged in one layer of sodium chloride and a three-dimensional model of the structure of sodium chloride. Notice that Na+ ions are surrounded by Cl- ions and vice versa.

Properties of Ionic Compounds 1. Ionic Compounds exists as solids. They are hard, crystalline solids. The crystals have flat sides and regular shapes. The ions are arranged in straight rows. The rows form a large structure with flat sides- a crystal. The ions are held in place by strong ionic bonds. This is why they exist as solids. 2. Ionic Compounds have high melting and boiling points. To melt or boil an ionic compound, a large amount of energy is needed to overcome the strong ionic bonds holding the ions together.

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3. Ionic Compounds are not volatile. Due to the strong ionic bonds holding the ions together, they do not evaporate easily. 4. Ionic Compounds conduct electricity. Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity. However, they can conduct electricity when they are molten or dissolved in water. This is because the ions are free to move in a molten state or when dissolved in water. The free moving ions carry the electrical current. 4. Giant Metallic Structure The typical properties of metals can be explained in terms of their structure.
1. High density

The close packing of atoms explains why most metals have a high density.

2. High melting points and boiling points There are strong forces holding the atoms together in metals. The outermost electrons in each metal atom can move about freely in the whole structure. So, metals consist of positive ions surrounded by a 'sea of moving electrons'. The negative 'sea of electrons' attracts all the positive ions and cements everything together. The strong forces of attraction between the negative electrons and the positive ions result in high melting points and high boiling points. The structures of metals are often described as giant structures. In a giant structure, there are strong bonds from one atom or ion to another in a vast network throughout the whole substance.
3. Good conductivity

When a metal is connected in a circuit, freely moving electrons in the metal move towards the positive terminal. At the same time, electrons move into the other end of the wire from the negative terminal. This flow of electrons through the wire forms the electric current.

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4. Malleability The bonds between atoms in a metal are strong but they are not rigid. When a force is applied to a metal crystal, the layers of atoms can `slide' over each other. This is known as slip. After slipping, the atoms settle into position again and the closepacked structure is restored.
This diagram on the right shows the positions of atoms before and after slip. This is what happens when a metal is bent or hammered into different shapes.

SUMMARY:
Simple molecular Giant Covalent Ionic Metallic

Particles in the structure Bonds between particles

Covalent molecules very weak intermolecular forces. (Covalent bonds between atoms are strong)

Atoms strong covalent bonds

Positive and negative ions strong ionic bonds

Positive ions in a sea of free moving electrons strong metallic bonds

Melting & Boiling points Electrical conductivity

low

high

high

high

does not conduct electricity

does not conduct electricity (except graphite)

conducts electricity only in molten state or dissolved in water

conducts electricity

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