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American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 12 (6): 750-759, 2012 ISSN 1818-6769 IDOSI Publications, 2012 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2012.12.06.

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Biodiversity of Mushrooms in and Around Bangalore (Karnataka), India


1

H. Pushpa and 2K.B. Purushothama

Department of Microbiology, M.S.Ramaiah College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Bangalore, India 2 Department of Botany, St. Josephs Post Graduate and Research Centre, Bangalore, India

Abstract: Bangalore (Bengaluru) is also called as a Garden city of India, positioned at 1258' and 1297' N lat and 7734' and 7756 E longitudes with a wide range of ecosystem. The floristic composition of this region has been studied earlier by several workers, but the fungus which forms an important component of the ecosystem has been largely neglected in a biodiversity studies. The present investigation is an attempt to give a broad picture of biodiversity of mushrooms belonging to the class Basidiomycetes in Bangalore. The survey were conducted from June 2007 to November 2010 in 8 different places which included scrub jungles and urban places in a around Bangalore. A total number of 90 species in 48 genera belonging to 19 families in 05 orders were recorded, 28 species were found to be recorded for the first time in India. Among the collected species Coprinus disseminates followed by Coprinus fibrillosis and Schizophyllum communae was found to be abundant in their occurrence. The Simpson and Sannon diversity biodiversity index was found to be 0.8 and 1.24 respectively. The detailed report of the study has been presented here. Key words: Biodiversity Index Mushrooms Species Richness Wood Rots Mycorrhiza Bryophilous Coprophilous

INTRODUCTION Mushrooms are seasonal fungi, which occupy diverse niches in nature in the forest ecosystem. They predominantly occur during the rainy season and also during spring when the snow melts. Mushrooms are in fact the 'fruit' of the underground fungal mycelium. They are macromycetes forming macroscopic fruiting bodies such as agarics, boletes, jelly fungi, coral fungi, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, puffballs and birds nest fungi. They are fleshy, subfleshy, or sometimes leathery and woody and bear their fertile surface either on lamellae or lining the tubes, opening out by means of pores. The lamellate members are called agarics and the tube bearing poroid members, as boletes and polypores. Among fungi, Basidiomycotina in particular have attracted considerable attention as a source of new and novel metabolites with antibiotic, antiviral, phytotoxic and cytistatic activity. Mushrooms alone are represented by about 41,000 species, of which approximately 850 species are recorded from India [1] mostly belonging to Agaricales, also known as gilled mushrooms (for their distinctive gills), or euagarics. The order has 33 extant families, 413 genera and over 13000 described species [2].

The first list on Indian Fungi was published by Butler and Bisby [3] and then revised by Vasudeva [4]. Several additional lists appeared in between culminating with the fungi of India [5]. Status of Indian Agaricales was reviewed first by Sathe and Rahalkar [6] making 1825 as the base and then by Manjula [7], providing a very exhaustive list of Agaricoid and Boletoid fungi from India and Nepal. This list has been recently updated by Natarajan et al.[8]. A review of literature reveals that in Karnataka, Natarajan et al. [8] was the first to report two species of Agaricus (now placed in 2 different genera). Later, Pegler [9] and Singh and Rajarathnam 10] each one of them reported one species of Pleurotus. Natarajan and Chandrashekara [11] Reported a new species of Physalacria. Sathe and Kulkarni [12] reported 25 species of mushrooms of these 10 were new species and one new variety. Later, Purushothama [13] reported 95 species in 38 genera out of which 51 species were additions to the Indian Agaric Flora with two new species. Mushroom species are the indicators of the forest life support system [14]. The presence or absence of fungal species is a useful indicator to assess the damage or the maturity of an ecosystem. Data on their diversity in different vegetation types is important for planning and

Corresponding Author: H. Pushpa, Department of Microbiology, M.S. Ramaiah College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Bangalore, India. Tel: +9886789510.

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managing ecosystem biodiversity [15]. The knowledge of biodiversity at the community and species level is more important for monitoring the effectiveness and effects of natural and artificial disturbances [16]. The purpose of the present survey was to identify the mushrooms up to genus and species level, to record and compare the diversity of mushrooms to other areas and to bring awareness among people to conserve mushrooms. MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection Sites: Bangalore (Bengaluru), capital of Karnataka state lies in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 920 m (3,018 ft). It is positioned at1258' and 1297' N lat and 7734' and 7756 E longitudes and covers an area of 741 km2 (286 mi2). The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. Bangalore experiences a tropical savanna climate (Kppen climate classification Aw) with distinct wet and dry seasons. The average temperature in Bangalore is 23.6C (75F), the highest monthly average 33C (91F) in April and May and the lowest monthly average 15C (59F) in December, January. Bangalore receives an average of 924 mm (36.4 in) of rainfall per year, or 77 mm (3.0 in) per month. The wettest weather is in October when an average of 185 mm (7.3 in) of rainfall (precipitation) occurs across 15 days. The average annual relative humidity is 64.3% and average monthly relative humidity ranges from 43% in March to 78% in July. The study areas include scrub jungles and dry deciduous forests of Savanadurga, Jnanabharathi campus, Indian Institute of Science, Raman research Institute, gardens and open places of urban areas like Vijayanagar, Rajajinagar, Yelahanka and Jayanagar. Collection of Mushrooms: Different species exhibit different fruiting phenologies, which vary from month to month and at different altitudes and regions. Thus a particular species may fruit at different seasons across wide geographic distances or long elevation gradient. Sampling was done using quadrant method each measuring 20 20 m. Total of 80 sampling plots in the above 8 sampling sites were studied. The collections of the mushrooms were made as suggested by Largent [17] from June 2007 to November 2010. Field characters such as habit, habitat, colour and size of the pileus, stipe and lamellae, presence or absence 751

of annulus etc., were noted from the fresh material, sporeprint was obtained and photographs were taken in its natural habitat. The colour terminology used is that of Kornerup and Wanscher [18]. The specimens were dried in hot air over at 40-50C and stored in air tight containers with some naphthalene balls for further microscopic studies. The dried specimens were revived with 10% potassium hydroxide solution; stains such as 1% aqueous Phloxine, Congo red-solution were used. Reagent such as Melzers reagent was used to study amyloidity of spores and various other tissues. Cresyl blue solution was used to study the metachromatic reaction of the spores. Microscopic characters such as size and shape of basidia, basidiospores were noted, presence or absence of pluerocystidia, cheilocystidia, pileocystidia and caulocystidia with their size and shape were noted. The diameter of hyphae and the presence or absence of clampconnection in different region of basidiocarp was also noted. In the present systematic study Singer [19] classification concept was followed. Data Analysis: The frequency of occurrence for each species was calculated by following formula as suggested by [20].
Occurrence frequency of taxon A Occurrence of taxon A 10 Total number of all species

Shannon diversity index for mushroom calculated as suggested by Margalef [21]. H =- (n/N) loge (n/N)

was

H is the diversity index, N is the total number of individuals of all the species and n is the total number of individuals of the individual species. Simpson Index of Diversity was calculated as suggested by Simpson [22]. Simpson Index of Diversity =1-D
D= n (n-1) N (N-1)

n = The total number of organism of a particular species N = The total number of organism of all species D = Simpsons index With the help of the values of diversity index, the evenness of the mushroom was also calculated as suggested by Pielou [23].

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e = H/ loge S Where e is evenness, H is Shannon diversity index and S is the number of species. Index of similarity was calculated using Sorensens formula to determine the similarity in species occurrences [24]. The similarity values range from 0 to 1 (1 meaning very similar, 0 indicating no similarity) S = 2C/(A+B) Where S is the degree of similarity, A and B are the number of species at two different sites and C is number of species common to both collections. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Distribution of Mushrooms in Different Fungal Families: A total number of 90 species in 46 genera belonging to 19 families in 05 orders of Basidiomycotina were considered for the ecological studies. They were identified up to

species level. Agaricales dominated by 90% (11 families and 82 species in 38 genera); 5% in Aphyllophorales (3 families, 2 genera and 3 species in Polyporaceae and 1 species in 1 genus in Steriaceae and Clavariaceae respectively.); 3% in Lycoperidales (2 families; one species in one genus each in the family Geastraceae, 2 species in 2 genera of Lycoperdaceae.);1% in Nudulariales (one family Nudulariaceae of which only one species in one genus ) and 1% in Sclerodermatales (1 family 1 genus and a species) were recorded. Out of 19 families Tricholomataceae dominated by 31% this is followed by Agaricaceae 26%, Coprinaceae 13%. A list of mushroom species family wise has been provided in Table: 01 and Fig. 01. Diversity of Mushrooms on different habitat. Table 02, Fig. 2. The mushroom specimens collected were assigned to 5 different groups recognised basically as outlined by [25] with slight modifications for macrofungi.
Total 03 29

Table 1: Distribution of different species and family wise distribution of mushrooms of the Subdivision Basidiomycotina Sl No. Family Species 01 Polyporaceae Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus sajor caju, Schizophyllum communae 02 Tricholomataceae Lyophyllum decastes, Lyophyllum connatum, Calocybe indica, Termitomyces microcarpus, T. clypeatus, Arrhenia retiruga, Omphalina ranunculina, Lepista nuda, Lepista sordida, Clitocybe subconnexa, Clitocybe inversa,, Hypisizygus ulmarius, Tricholoma saponaceum, Tricholoma giganteum, Nothopanus hygrophanous, Collybia fuscopurpurea, Collybia peronata, Collybia dryophilia, Collybia diminuta, Marasmius bambusiniformis, M..confertus, M.straminiceps, M.headiniformis, Mycena pura, Xeromphalina tenuipes, Leucopaxillus tricolour, Leucopaxillus albissium, Leucopaxillus laterarius, Melanoleuca tropicans, 03 Pluteaceae Pluteus admirabilis, Pluteus albostipitatus, Pluteus striatocystis, Pluteus albolineatus, Volvariella speciosa, V. taylori 04 Agaricaceae Chlorophyllum molybdites, Clarkeinda trachodes, Macrolepiota rachodes, Leucocoprinus birnbaumii, L. fragilissimus, L. cepaestipes, L. brebissonii,L.zeylanicus, Agaricus augustus, A. smithii, A. endoxanthus, A. campestris, A. silvaticus, A. xanthosarcus, A. benzodous, A. trisulpharatus, A. smitthi, A. varigans, Micropsalliota subarginea, Lepiota cristata,, Lepiota epicharis, Lepiota subcristata, Lepiota atrodisca, Lepiota thiersii 05 Coprinaceae Coprinus dissemenatus, C. plicatilis, C. cinereus, C. fibrillosis, C. lagopus, C. flocculosus, Psathyrella candollena var. candollena,, P. candollena var. solitaria, P. Candollena var. nov. P. cordispora, P. erinensis, P. araguana. 06 Bolbitaceae Conocybe tenera, 07 Strophariaceae Psilocybe muscorum 08 Cortinariaceae Gymnopilus lateritius, G.fuscosquamulosus 09 Crepidotaceae Crepidotus uber, Tubaria furfuracea 10 Paxillaceae Paxillus panuoides, Neopaxillus echinosporus 11 Russulaceae Russula delica 12 Polyporaceae Trametes versicolor 13 Ganodermaceae Ganoderma lucidum Ganoderma applanatum, 14 Stereaceae Stereum ostrea 15 Clavariaceae Ramaria stricta 16 Geastraceae Geastrum saccatum 17 Lycoperdaceae Lycoperdon pusillumClavatia cyathiformis 18 Nidulariaceae Nidularia candida 19 Sclerodermataceae Scleroderma citrinum

06 24

12

01 01 02 02 02 01 01 02 01 01 01 02 01 01

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Table 2: Diversity of Mushrooms in different habitats Sl No. Habitat No. of species 01 Wood rots 24 02 Saprophytic 62 03 Symbiotic 04 04 Parasitic 01 05 Coprophilous 01 Table 3: Economic importance of collected mushrooms Sl. No. 01 02 03 Importance Edible Medicinal Poisonous, inedible and unknown importance

Percentage 26.00 67.50 4.50 1.08 1.08

Total No. of species 12 19 66

Fig. 1: Distribution of Mushrooms in different families

Fig. 2: Distribution of Mushrooms in different habitats


Economic importance of collected mushrooms
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Edible Medicinal Poisonous, inedible and unknown importance Total No. of species

Importance

Fig. 03: Economic importance of collected mushrooms Saprophytic (on litter, terrestrial, humus). Wood rotting (Cellulolytic and Lignolytic). Symbiotic (ectomycorrhizal with trees, with termites) Parasitic. Coprophilous. 753

Out of 92 species saprophytic forms dominates (67.5%), wood rots (26%), Symbiotic forms (4.5%) parasites and coprophilous mushrooms were represented by (1%) each. Saprophytes were found to be maximum in the present investigated areas. The sporocarps formation would have enhanced by litter accumulation and decomposition [26] and extracellular microbial enzymes [27]. Present investigation indicates that there are still the presence of degradable organic wastes of plants available for these fungi to colonise and these have a major role in the decomposition of organic matters in the sampled areas. Two ectomycorrhizal mushrooms were collected namely Tricholoma saponaceum and Scleroderma citrinum. Occurrence of mycorrhizal fungal species was found to be very less when compared to Western Ghats (28 species reported by Natarajan et al.[28] ) and Nilgiris Biosphere (26 species reported by Natarajan et al. [29]). The present investigation suggests that this could be due to less tree species diversity and large scale cutting of trees for infrastructure development such as Metro project, road widening process and housing projects. This also could be attributed due to nutrients in soil and in the host plant. Excess mineral fertilizers also decrease the mycorrhizal formation and production of sporocarps [30], absence of sporocarps with the associating trees, an important source of identification [29] and reduced regeneration potential of the fungal organisms [31], might have contributed to the less occurrence of mycorrhizal species. The mushrooms collected in and around Bangalore were also assessed in terms of their economic importance. (Table: 03 and 04; Fig 3) It was found that about 12 mushrooms were found to be edible, 18 were known for their medicinal values which was based on previous available literatures [32-36] and remaining 66 were found to be poisonous, inedible or their importance in unknown. Further investigation could be done on these mushrooms to exploit their useful metabolites.

No. of species.

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Table 4: List of Mushrooms having various economic importance Sl No 01 Importance Edible Mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus sajor caju, Lyophyllum decastes,Calocybe indica, Hypsizygus. ulmarius, Tricholoma giganteum, Volvariella speciosa, Termitomyces microcarpus, T.clypeatus Agaricus augustus , A. campestris, Russula delica Pleurotus ostreatus,, Lyophyllum decastes, Lyophyllum connatum, Lepista nuda,, Tricholoma giganteum, Nothopanus hygrophanous,Volvariella speciosa,Clitocybe inversa Termitomyces microcarpus, T. clypeatus , A. campestris, Psathyrella candollena, Russula delica, Clavatia cyathiformis, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum. Ganoderma applanatum, Lycoperdon pusillum Tricholoma saponaceum, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Clarkeinda trachodes, Leucocoprinus brebissonii, L. birnbaumii, Lepiota cristata, Conocybe tenera, Paxillus involutus, Schizophyllum communae, Arrhenia retiruga, Omphalina ranunculina, Lepista sordida, Clitocybe subconnexa, C. inverse, Collybia fuscopurprea, Collybia cirrhata, C.diminuta, Marsmius headiniformis, M. straminiceps, M.bambusiniformis, M.confertus, Mycena pura, Xeromphalina tenuipes, Leucopaxillus tricolour, L.albissium, Leucopaxillus laterarius, Melanoleuca tropicans,, Pluteus admirbilis, Pluteus albolineatus, Pluteus striatocystis, Pluteus albolineatus, Volvorella tylori,, Leucocoprinus fragilissimus, Macrolepiota rachodes, Leucocoprinus cepistipes, Leucocoprinus zeylanicus, Agaaricus enoxanthus A. silvaticus, A.xanthosarcus, A.benzodonus, A.smithii, A.varigans, A.trisulphartus, Microspalliota subarginea, Lepiota thiersii, Lepiota epicharis, L.subcristata, Lepiota atrodisca, Coprinus dissemenatus, C.plicatilis, Coprinus cinereus, C.lagopus, C.flocculosus,, P.cordispora, Psathyrella erinensis, Crepidotus uber, Tulbaria verruculospora, Gymnopilus fuscosquamulosus, Gymnopilus lateritius, Paxillus panuoides, Trametes versicolor, Stereum ostrea Geastrum saccatum, Scleroderma citrinum. Total No. 12

02

Medicinal

19

03

Poisonous, inedible and unknown importance

66

Table 5: Species diversity, richness and evenness of mushrooms in and around Bangalore JB No of species (s) Total no. of Individuals (N) Simpson diversity index (1-D) Shannon diversity index (H) Evenness (EH) Species richness = (S) 18 181 0.92 1.16 0.92 1.33 IISC 30 834 0.55 0.68 0.46 1.03 RRI 33 200 0.95 1.13 0.89 2.33 Sav 31 235 0.92 1.32 0.89 2.02 VN 19 449 0.67 0.74 0.58 0.84 RN 14 507 0.70 1.25 1.14 0.62 JN 20 322 0.60 0.712 0.54 0.66 Yell 12 551 0.32 0.37 0.32 0.59

JN: JnanaBharathi; IISC: Indian Institute of Science campus; RRI: Raman Research Institute campus; Sav: Savandurga forest; VN: Vijayanagar; RN: Rajajinagar; JN: Jayanagar; Yell: Yellahanka.

Mushroom Richness in Various Collection Sites in and Around Bangalore: Mushrooms collected in eight collection sites in and around Bangalore such as Jnanabharathi campus, Indian Institute of Science campus, Raman Research Institute campus and Savanadurga forest and vegetational areas in Vijayanagar, Rajajinagar, Yellahanka and Jayanagar were analysed for mushroom richness. The number of species collected area wise showed a maximum number of 33 species in Raman Research institute campus, 31species in Savandurga forest, 30 species in IISC campus, 20 species in Jayanagar including Lalbaugh, 18 species in Jnanabharathi campus, 19 species in Vijayanagar, 12 species in Yellahanka and 14 species in Rajajinagar. Species diversity, richness and evenness of mushrooms in and around Bangalore is shown in Table 05. Out of 33 species collected from Raman Research Institute campus, Arrhenia retiruga, Xeromphalina tenuipes, Leucopaxillus tricolour, L.albissium, 754

L.laterarius, Melanoleuca tropicans, Agaricus augustus, A.trisulpharatus, Lepiota subflavescens, Crepidotus uber, Clavatia cyathiformis, Geastrum saccatum, Trametes versicolor were some of the species collected only at this site. The Simpson and Shannons diversity index was found to be 0.9535 and 1.3576 respectively; evenness was found to be 0.8940 and species richness was found to be 2.3334 was found to be maximum when compared to other collection sites. This increased mushroom diversity may be due to less interference of human activities and more availability of degradable materials. It was also observed that plant litter was not dispatched and allowed to accumulate in order to increase the fertility of the soil. This has helped more number of litter decomposing and wood rotting mushrooms to colonise. Among 31 species collected in Savandurga forest Mycena pura, Psilocybe muscorum, Neopaxillus echinospermus, Paxillus panuoides, Ramaria stricta were some of the species collected only at this site.

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The Simpson and Shannons diversity index was found to be 0.93 and 1.32 respectively; evenness was found to be 0.89 and species richness was found to be 2.02. This implies that mushroom diversity is more diverse. This is probably due to less human interference and availability of decomposable organic matter. Out of 30 species collected from Indian Institute of Science campus Gymnopilus fuscosquamulosus, Marasmius headiniformis, Pluteus albolineatus, Lepiota cristata Clarkeinda trachodes, Agaricus smithii, Psathyrella araguana, Tulbaria furfuracea, Volvariella tylori were some of the species collected only at this site. The Simpson and Shannons diversity index was found to be 0.543 and 0.680 respectively. Evenness and Species richness was found to be 0.460 and 1.038 respectively. Even though the species richness is more is this collection area but species evenness is less and hence less mushroom diversity this may be due to increased human activities. Out of 18 species collected from Jnanabharathi campus Lepista nuda, Pluteus admirabilis, were some of the species collected only at this region. The Simpson and Shannons diversity index was found to be 0.9210 and 1.1604 respectively. The evenness and species richness was found to be 0.9244 and 1.3379 respectively. Though the mushroom diversity index was more is this collection area it was observed to decreasing drastically. This is due reduced availability of degradable organic matters. How ever in urban places like in Vijayanagar, the Simpson and Shannons diversity index was found to be 0.679 and 0.746 respectively; the evenness and species richness was found to be 0.5837 and 0.8494 respectively. At Rajajinagar 14 species were collected, of which Gymnopilus lateritius was collected only at this area. The Simpson and Shannons diversity index was found to be 0.708 and 1.258 respectively; evenness and species richness was found to be 1.14 and 0.621 respectively. Out of 20 species collected at Jayanagar, the Simpson and Shannons diversity index was found to be 0.602 and 0.712 respectively; the evenness and species richness was found to be 0.5472 and 0.668 respectively. 12 species were collected at Yellahanka, Simpson and Shannons diversity index was found to be 0.324 and 0.377 respectively; evenness and species richness was found to be 0.3295 and 0.5964 respectively. This implies that the diversity index in urban areas in Bangalore was comparatively very less than that of scrub jungles in and around Bangalore. The mushroom diversity and Species richness was found to be maximum in Raman Research Institute followed by Savanadurga and Jnanabharathi campus. How ever the mushroom diversity at Jnanabharathi 755

campus and other urban areas of Bangalore was found to be decreasing. This may be due to increased human activities, air pollution caused by vehicles and dumping of non biodegradable wastes especially plastics was found in these sites. It becomes clear that mushroom diversity indicates the quality of ecosystem [37]. When compared with the biodiversity of macrofungi in semi evergreen and moist deciduous forests of Shimoga region, Karnataka [38], the diversity index of Bangalore is quite low. Out of 73 species only 8 species were similar with the mushroom flora of Bangalore and the similarity index was found to be 0.09816. [39] observed that on a worldwide scale, temperature, together with its influence on vegetation in different climatic regions, determines fungal distribution patterns. Hence the climatic conditions, vegetation (deciduous and semi deciduous forests), availability of degradable materials in this region has favoured the growth of mushrooms. The species diversity in other regions of Karnataka such as Uppangala forest region, [29] and Coorg and South Canara regions [13] were also compared and about 14 species were found to be similar, the index of similarity was found to be 0.1513. This indicates that the mushroom flora varies from region to region and habitat preservation can only conserve these fungi. CONCLUSION A total of 90 mushrooms including members of the order Agaricales (80 species), Aphyllophorales (05 species), Lycoperdales (3 species), Nidulariales and Sclerodermatales (one species each) were recorded in and around Bangalore. The order Agaricales was found to be dominant followed by Aphyllophorales and Gasteromycetes in this region. Among Agaricales the family Tricholomataceae, followed by Agaricaceae, Coprinaceae were found to be dominant in this region. Coprinus disseminatus followed by Coprinus fibrillosus, Schizophyllum communae were found to be abundant and occur consistently through out rainy season. Litter decomposers and wood rot mushrooms were recorded to be high when compared to Coprophilous and Mycorrhizal forms. 12 species were found to be edible and 18 species were known to be having medicinal values. However, there is large number of mushrooms whose economic importance is not known, further investigation help to exploit the useful metabolites from these mushrooms. Overall mushroom diversity was found to be higher in restricted areas like Raman Research Center campus, IISC campus, scrub jungles of Savandurga, when compared to that of urban places in Bangalore. This was attibuted to high human activities in these areas.

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Plate 1: Mushrooms in Bangalore

Marasmius headiniformis

Marasmius sicci

Leucopaxillus albissium

Tricholoma giganteum
Plate 2: Mushrooms in Bangalore

Leucopaxillus tricolour

Neopaxillus echinosporus

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Plate 3: Mushrooms in Bangalore

Plate 4: Mushrooms in Bangalore 757

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thanks Gokula Education Foundation, Bengaluru and St.Josephs Post Graduate and Research centre, Bangaluru for their support to carry out this work. REFERENCES 1. Deshmukh, S.K., 2004. Biodiversity of tropical basidiomycetes as sources of novel secondary metabolites. In Microbiology and Biotechnology for Sustainable Development (ed. P.C. Jain,), CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, pp: 121-140. Kirk, P.M., P.F. Cannon, D.W. Minter and J.A. Stalpers, 2008. Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI. Butler, E.J. and G.R. Bisby, 1931. The Fungi of India. Imp. Counc. of Agri Res. India, Sci. Mono 1, XVIII. Calcutta, pp: 237. Vasudeva, R.S., 1960. The fungi of India (revised) I.C.A.R. New Delhi. Bilgrami, K., S. Jammaludin and M.A. Rizvi, 1979. Fungi of India. Part-II. Today and Tomorrows Printers and Publishers, New Delhi. Sathe, A.V. and S.R. Rahalkar, 1978. Agaricales from South-West India. Biovigyanam, 3: 119-21. Manjula, B., 1983. A revised list of the Agaricoid and Boletoid basidiomycetes from India and Nepal. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 92: 81-213. Natarajan, K., V. Kumerasan and K. Narayanan, 2005. A checklist of Indian Agarics and Boletes (1984-2002). Kavaka, 33: 61-128. Pegler, D.N., 1976. Pleurotus (Agaricales) in India, Nepal and Pakistan. Kew Bull., 21: 501-510. Singh, N.S. and S. Rajarathnam, 1974. A survey of the gilled mushroom in India. Beih. Nova Hedw., 47: 511-529. Natarajan, K. and K.V. Chandrashekara, 1980. A new species of Physalacria from south India. Mycologia 71: 876-880. Sathe, A.V. and S.M. Kulkarni, 1980. Agaricales (Mushrooms) ofKarnataka State. In: Agaricales (Mushrooms) of South West India. Maharastra Association for the Cultivation of Science, Series-1, Monograph, 1: 114. Purushothama, K.B., 1987. Taxonomic studies on some Agarics of Karnataka State (South india), Ph.D thesis. Madras University. 758

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