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Republic of the Philippines Supreme Court Manila THIRD DIVISION ISIDRO ABLAZA, Petitioner, G.R. No.

158298 Present: CARPIO MORAL S, Chairperson, !RIO", ! RSAMI", A!A#,$ and %ILLARAMA, &R., JJ.

-versus -

Promul'ated: REPUBLIC OF THEPHILIPPINES, Respondent. Au'ust ((, )*(* +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ DECISION BERSAMIN, J.:

,hether a person ma- brin' an action for the declaration of the absolute nullit- of the marria'e of his deceased brother solemni.ed under the re'ime of the old Civil Code is the le'al issue to be determined in this appeal brou'ht b- the petitioner /hose action for that purpose has been dismissed b- the lo/er courts on the 'round that he, not bein' a part- in the assailed marria'e, had no ri'ht to brin' the action. An !"!#!n $ On October (0, )***, the petitioner filed in the Re'ional 1rial Court 2R1C3 in Catain'an, Masbate a petition for the declaration of the absolute nullit- of the marria'e contracted on #ecember )4, (565 bet/een his late brother Cresenciano Abla.a and Leonila 7onato.8(9 1he case /as doc:eted as Special Case "o. ((0 entitled In Re: Petition for Nullification of Marriage Contract between Cresenciano Abla a and !eonila "onato# Isidro Abla a, petitioner. 1he petitioner alle'ed that the marria'e bet/een Cresenciano and Leonila had been celebrated /ithout a marria'e license, due to such license bein' issued onl- on &anuar- 5, (5;*, thereb- renderin' the marria'e <oid ab initio for ha<in' been solemni.ed /ithout a marria'e license. 7e insisted that his bein' the sur<i<in' brother of Cresenciano /ho had died /ithout an- issue entitled him to one-half of the real properties ac=uired b- Cresenciano before his death, thereb- ma:in' him a real part- in interest> and that an- person, himself included, could impu'n the <alidit- of the marria'e bet/een Cresenciano and Leonila at an- time, e<en after the death of Cresenciano, due to the marria'e bein' <oid abinitio.8)9 R%&'n( o) *! RTC On October (?, )***, 8@9 the R1C dismissed the petition, statin': Considerin' the petition for annulment of marria'e filed, the Court hereb- resol<ed to #ISMISS the petition for the follo/in' reasons: (3 petition is filed out of time 2action had lon' prescribed3 and )3 petitioner is not a partto the marria'e 2contracted bet/een Cresenciano Abla.a and Leonila "onato on #ecember )4, (565 and solemni.ed b- Re<. Ar. usebio !. Calolot3. SO OR# R #.

1he petitioner seasonabl- filed a $otion for reconsideration, but the R1C denied the $otion for reconsideration on "o<ember (6, )***.

R%&'n( o) *! Co%+ o) A,,!-&$

1he petitioner appealed to the Court of Appeals 2CA3, assi'nin' the lone error that: 1he trial court erred in dismissin' the petition for bein' filed out of time and that the petitioner is not a part- to the marria'e.

In its decision dated &anuar- @*, )**@,869 ho/e<er, the CA affirmed the dismissal order of the R1C, thus: ,hile an action to declare the nullit- of a marria'e considered <oid from the be'innin' does not prescribe, the la/ nonetheless re=uires that the same action must be filed b- the proper part-, /hich in this case should be filed ban- of the parties to the marria'e. In the instant case, the petition /as filed b- Isidro Abla.a, a brother of the deceased-spouse, /ho is not a part- to the marria'e contracted b- Cresenciano Abla.a and Leonila 7onato. 1he contention of petitioner-appellant that he is considered a real part- in interest under Section ), Rule @ of the (550 Rules of Ci<il Procedure, as he stands to be benefited or inBured b- the Bud'ment in the suit, is simpl- misplaced. Actions for annulment of marria'e /ill not prosper if persons other than those specified in the la/ file the case. Certainl-, a sur<i<in' brother of the deceased spouse is not the proper part- to file the subBect petition. More so that the sur<i<in' /ife, /ho stands to be preBudiced, /as not e<en impleaded as a part- to said case. ,7 R AOR , findin' no re<ersible error therefrom, the Orders no/ on appeal are hereb- AAAIRM #. Costs a'ainst the petitioner-appellant. SO OR# R #.8;9 7ence, this appeal.

I$$%!$ 1he petitioner raises the follo/in' issues: ,7 17 R OR "O1 17 454?6 AAAIRMI"D 17 CA1AI"DA", MAS!A1 LA,S A"# &CRISPRC# I. # CISIO" OA 17IS 7O"ORA!L COCR1 OA APP ALS I" CA-D.R. C%. "O. OR# R OA #ISMISSAL OA 17 R DIO"AL 1RIAL COCR1, !RA"C7 65 A1 I" SP CIAL PROC #I"D "O. ((0 IS I" ACCOR#A"C ,I17 APPLICA!L "C >

II. ,7 17 R OR "O1 17 # CISIO" OA 17 7O"ORA!L COCR1 OA APP ALS I" CA-D.R. C% "O. 454?6 2S7OCL#3 ! R % RS # !AS # O" E CC1I% OR# R "O. )*5 A"# EIS1I"D &CRISPRC# "C .

1he issues, rephrased, boil do/n to /hether the petitioner is a real part- in interest in the action to see: the declaration of nullit- of the marria'e of his deceased brother. R%&'n( 1he petition is meritorious. A valid marria'e is essential in order to create the relation of husband and /ife and to 'i<e rise to the mutual ri'hts, duties, and liabilities arisin' out of such relation. 1he la/ prescribes the re=uisites of a <alid marria'e. 7ence, the <alidit- of a marria'e is tested accordin' to the la/ in force at the time the marria'e is contracted. 849 As a 'eneral rule, the nature of the marria'e alread- celebrated cannot be chan'ed b- a subse=uent amendment of the 'o<ernin' la/.809 1o illustrate, a marria'e bet/een a stepbrother and a stepsister /as <oid under the Civil Code, but is not an-more prohibited under the %a$il& Code> -et, the inter<enin' effecti<it- of the %a$il& Code does not affect the <oid nature of a marria'e bet/een a stepbrother and a stepsister solemni.ed under the re'ime of the Civil Code. 1he Civil Code marria'e remains <oid, considerin' that the <alidit- of a marria'e is 'o<erned b- the la/ in force at the time of the marria'e ceremon-. 8?9

!efore an-thin' more, the Court has to clarif- the impact to the issue posed herein of Administrati<e Matter 2A.M.3 "o. *)-(((*-SC 2Rule on 'eclaration of Absolute Nullit& of (oid Marriages and Annul$ent of (oidable Marriages 3, /hich too: effect on March (;, )**@. Section ), para'raph 2a3, of A.M. "o. *)-((-(*-SC e+plicitl- pro<ides the limitation that a petition for declaration of absolute nullit- of <oid marria'e ma- be filed solel& b- the husband or /ife. Such limitation demarcates a line to distin'uish bet/een marria'es co<ered b- the %a$il& Code and those solemni.ed under the re'ime of the Civil Code.859Specificall-, A.M. "o. *)-((-(*SC e+tends onl- to marria'es co<ered b- the %a$il& Code, /hich too: effect on Au'ust @, (5??, but, bein' a procedural rule that is prospecti<e in application, is confined onl- to proceedin's commenced after March (;, )**@.8(*9 !ased on Carlos v. )andoval,8((9 the follo/in' actions for declaration of absolute nullit- of a marria'e are e+cepted from the limitation, to /it: (. ). 1hose commenced before March (;, )**@, the effecti<it- date of A.M. "o. *)-((-(*-SC> and 1hose filed vis*+*vis marria'es celebrated durin' the effecti<it- of the Civil Code and, those celebrated under the re'ime of the %a$il& Code prior to March (;, )**@.

Considerin' that the marria'e bet/een Cresenciano and Leonila /as contracted on #ecember )4, (565, the applicable la/ /as the old Civil Code, the la/ in effect at the time of the celebration of the marria'e. 7ence, the rule on the e+clusi<it- of the parties to the marria'e as ha<in' the ri'ht to initiate the action for declaration of nullit- of the marria'e under A.M. "o. *)-((-(*-SC had absolutel- no application to the petitioner. 1he old and ne/ Civil Codes contain no pro<ision on /ho can file a petition to declare the nullit- of a marria'e, and /hen. Accordin'l-, in Ni,al v. -a&adog,8()9 the children /ere allo/ed to file after the death of their father a petition for the declaration of the nullit- of their fatherFs marria'e to their stepmother contracted on #ecember ((, (5?4 due to lac: of a marria'e license. 1here, the Court distin'uished bet/een a <oid marria'e and a <oidable one, and e+plained how and when each mi'ht be impu'ned, thus/ise: &urisprudence under the Civil Code states that no Budicial decree is necessar- in order to establish the nullitof a marria'e. GA <oid marria'e does not re=uire a Budicial decree to restore the parties to their ori'inal ri'hts or to ma:e the marria'e <oid but thou'h no sentence of a<oidance be absolutel- necessar-, -et as /ell for the sa:e of 'ood order of societ- as for the peace of mind of all concerned, it is e+pedient that the nullit- of the marria'e should be ascertained and declared b- the decree of a court of competent Burisdiction.H G Un#!+ o+#'n-+. "'+"%/$ -n"!$, *! !))!" o) - 0o'# /-++'-(!, $o )-+ -$ "on"!+n$ *! "on)!++'n( o) &!(-& +'(* $ %,on *! ,-+ '!$, '$ -$ *o%(* no /-++'-(! *-# !0!+ -1!n ,&-"!. An# *!+!)o+!, 2!'n( (oo# )o+ no &!(-& ,%+,o$!, ' $ 'n0-&'#' . "-n 2! /-'n -'n!# 'n -n. ,+o"!!#'n( 'n 3*'"* *! )-" o) /-++'-(! /-. 2! /- !+'-&, !' *!+ #'+!" o+ "o&&- !+-&, 'n -n. "'0'& "o%+ 2! 3!!n -n. ,-+ '!$ - -n. '/!, 3*! *!+ 2!)o+! o+ -) !+ *! #!- * o) !' *!+ o+ 2o * *! *%$2-n# -n# *! 3')!, -n# %,on /!+! ,+oo) o) *! )-" $ +!n#!+'n( $%"* /-++'-(! 0o'#, ' 3'&& 2! #'$+!(-+#!# o+ +!- !# -$ non4!5'$ !n 2. *! "o%+ $ .H I '$ no &'1! - 0o'#-2&! /-++'-(! 3*'"* "-nno 2! "o&&- !+-&&. - -"1!# !5"!, 'n #'+!" ,+o"!!#'n( 'n$ ' % !# #%+'n( *! &')! '/! o) *! ,-+ '!$ $o *- on *! #!- * o) !' *!+, *! /-++'-(! "-nno 2! '/,!-"*!#, -n# '$ /-#! (oo# ab initio. !ut Article 6* of the %a$il& Code e+presslpro<ides that there must be a Budicial declaration of the nullit- of a pre<ious marria'e, thou'h <oid, before a partcan enter into a second marria'e and such absolute nullit- can be based onl- on a final Bud'ment to that effect. Fo+ *! $-/! +!-$on, *! &-3 /-1!$ !' *!+ *! -" 'on o+ #!)!n$! )o+ *! #!"&-+- 'on o) -2$o&% ! n%&&' . o) /-++'-(! '/,+!$"+', '2&!. Co+o&&-+'&., ') *! #!- * o) !' *!+ ,-+ . 3o%&# !5 'n(%'$* *! "-%$! o) -" 'on o+ *! (+o%n# )o+ #!)!n$!, *!n *! $-/! "-nno 2! "on$'#!+!# '/,+!$"+', '2&! .

7o/e<er, other than for purposes of remarria'e, no Budicial action is necessar- to declare a marria'e an absolute nullit-. Aor other purposes, such as but not limited to determination of heirship, le'itimac- or ille'itimacof a child, settlement of estate, dissolution of propert- re'ime, or a criminal case for that matter, the court ma- pass upon the <alidit- of marria'e e<en in a suit not directl- instituted to =uestion the same so lon' as it is essential to the determination of the case. 1his is /ithout preBudice to an- issue that ma- arise in the case. ,hen such need arises, a final Bud'ment of declaration of nullit- is necessar- e<en if the purpose is other than to remarr-. 1he clause Gon the basis of a final Bud'ment declarin' such pre<ious marria'e <oidH in Article 6* of the %a$il& Code connotes that such final Bud'ment need not be obtained onl- for purpose of remarria'e. 8(@9 It is clarified, ho/e<er, that the absence of a pro<ision in the old and ne/ Civil Codes cannot be construed as 'i<in' a license to Bust an- person to brin' an action to declare the absolute nullit- of a marria'e. Accordin' to Carlos v. )andoval,8(69 the plaintiff must still be the part- /ho stands to be benefited b- the suit, or the part- entitled to the a<ails of the suit, for it is basic in procedural la/ that e<er- action must be prosecuted and defended in the name of the real part- in interest. 8(;9 1hus, onl- the part- /ho can

demonstrate a Gproper interestH can file the action. 8(49 Interest /ithin the meanin' of the rule means material interest, or an interest in issue to be affected b- the decree or Bud'ment of the case, as distin'uished from mere curiosit- about the =uestion in<ol<ed or a mere incidental interest. One ha<in' no material interest to protect cannot in<o:e the Burisdiction of the court as plaintiff in an action. ,hen the plaintiff is not the real part- in interest, the case is dismissible on the 'round of lac: of cause of action. 8(09 7ere, the petitioner alle'ed himself to be the late CresencianoFs brother and sur<i<in' heir. Assumin' that the petitioner /as as he claimed himself to be, then he has a material interest in the estate of Cresenciano that /ill be ad<ersel- affected b- an- Bud'ment in the suit. Indeed, a brother li:e the petitioner, albeit not a compulsor- heir under the la/s of succession, has the ri'ht to succeed to the estate of a deceased brother under the conditions stated in Article (**( and Article (**@ of the Civil Code, as follo/s: Article (**(. Should brothers and sisters or their children sur<i<e /ith the /ido/ or /ido/er, the latter shall be entitled to one half of the inheritance and the brothers and sisters or their children to the other half. Article (**@. If there are no descendants, ascendants, ille'itimate children, or a sur<i<in' spouse, the collateral relati<es shall succeed to the entire estate of the deceased in accordance /ith the follo/in' articles.

Pursuant to these pro<isions, the presence of descendants, ascendants, or ille'itimate children of the deceased e.cludes collateral relati<es li:e the petitioner from succeedin' to the deceasedFs estate. 8(?9 "ecessaril-, therefore, the ri'ht of the petitioner to brin' the action hin'es upon a prior deter$ination of /hether Cresenciano had an- descendants, ascendants, or children 2le'itimate or ille'itimate3, and of /hether the petitioner /as the late CresencianoFs sur<i<in' heir. Such prior determination must be made b- the trial court, for the in=uir- thereon in<ol<es =uestions of fact. As can be seen, both the R1C and the CA erroneousl- resol<ed the issue presented in this case. ,e re<erse their error, in order that the substantial ri'ht of the petitioner, if an&, ma- not be preBudiced. "e<ertheless, /e note that the petitioner did not implead Leonila, /ho, as the late CresencianoFs sur<i<in' /ife, 8(59 stood to be benefited or preBudiced b- the nullification of her own marria'e. It is rele<ant to obser<e, moreo<er, that not all marria'es celebrated under the old Civil Code re=uired

a marria'e license for their <alidit-> 8)*9 hence, her participation in this action is made all the more necessar- in order to shed li'ht on /hether the marria'e had been celebrated /ithout a marria'e license and /hether the marria'e mi'ht ha<e been a marria'e e+cepted from the re=uirement of a marria'e license. She /as trul- an indispensable part- /ho must be Boined herein: +++ under an- and all conditions, 8her9 presence bein' a sine /ua non for the e+ercise of Budicial po/er. It is precisel- G/hen an indispensable part- is not before the court 8that9 the action should be dismissed.H 1he absence of an indispensable part- renders all subse=uent actions of the court null and <oid for /ant of authorit- to act, not onlas to the absent parties but e<en as to those present.8)(9

,e ta:e note, too, that the petitioner and Leonila /ere parties in C.A.-D.R. C% "o. 5(*); entitled "eirs of Cresenciano Abla a, na$el&: !eonila 0. Abla a and !eila Abla a Jasul v. )pouses Isidro and Casilda Abla a, an action to determine /ho bet/een the parties /ere the le'al o/ners of the propert- in<ol<ed therein. Apparentl-, C.A.-D.R. C% "o. 5(*); /as decided on "o<ember )4, )**5, and the petitionerFs motion for reconsideration /as denied on &une )@, )*(*. As a defendant in that action, the petitioner is reasonabl- presumed to ha<e :no/led'e that the therein plaintiffs, Leonila and Leila, /ere the /ife and dau'hter, respecti<el-, of the late Cresenciano. As such, Leila /as another indispensable part- /hose substantial ri'ht an- Bud'ment in this action /ill definitelaffect. 1he petitioner should li:e/ise implead Leila. 1he omission to implead Leonila and Leila /as not immediatel- fatal to the present action, ho/e<er, considerin' that Section ((,
8))9

Rule @, Rules of Court, states that neither misBoinder nor non-Boinder of parties is a 'round for the dismissal of an action. 1he

petitioner can still amend his initiator- pleadin' in order to implead her, for under the same rule, such amendment to implead an indispensable part- ma- be made Gon motion of an- part- or on 2the trial courtFs3 o/n initiati<e at an& stage of the action and on such terms as are Bust.H

6HEREFORE, the petition for re<ie/ on certiorari is 'ranted. ,e re<erse and set aside the decision dated &anuar- @*, )**@ rendered b- the Court of Appeals. Special Case "o. ((0 entitled In Re: Petition for Nullification of Marriage Contract between Cresenciano Abla a and !eonila "onato# Isidro Abla a, petitioner , is reinstated, and its records are returned to the Re'ional 1rial Court, !ranch 65, in Catain'an, Masbate, for further proceedin's, /ith instructions to first re=uire the petitioner to amend his initiator- pleadin' in order to implead Leonila 7onato and her dau'hter Leila Abla.a &asul as parties-defendants> then to determine /hether the late Cresenciano Abla.a had an- ascendants, descendants, or children 2le'itimate or ille'itimate3 at the time of his death as /ell as /hether the petitioner /as the brother and sur<i<in' heir of the late Cresenciano Abla.a entitled to succeed to the estate of said deceased> and thereafter to proceed accordin'l-. "o costs of suit. SO ORDERED.

LUCAS P. BERSAMIN Associate &ustice 6E CONCUR:

CONCHITA CARPIO MORALES Associate &ustice Chairperson

ARTURO D. BRION Associate &ustice

ROBERTO A. ABAD Associate &ustice

MARTIN S. VILLARAMA, 7R. Associate &ustice

ATTESTATION I attest that the conclusions in the abo<e #ecision had been reached in consultation before the case /as assi'ned to the /riter of the opinion of the CourtFs #i<ision.

CONCHITA CARPIO MORALES Associate &ustice Chairperson CERTIFICATION Pursuant to Section (@, Article %III of the Constitution, and the #i<ision ChairpersonFs Attestation, I certif- that the conclusions in the abo<e #ecision had been reached in consultation before the case /as assi'ned to the /riter of the opinion of the CourtFs #i<ision.

RENATO C. CORONA Chief &ustice

Additional member per Special Order "o. ?6@ dated Ma- (0, )*(*. Rollo, pp. )6-)4. 8)9 Id., p. (6. 8@9 Id., p. )). 869 Penned b- Associate &ustice Mariano C. #el Castillo 2no/ a Member of this Court3, /ith Associate &ustice !uena<entura &. Duerrerro 2retired3 and Associate &ustice 1eodoro P. Re'ino 2retired3 concurrin'> rollo, pp. (?-)(. 8;9 Rollo, pp. )*-)(. 849 Sta. Maria &r., Persons and %a$il& Relations, )**6 ed., p. (*;> citin' )tewart v. (andervort, @6 ,. %A. ;)6, () S 0@4, () LRA ;*. 809 Id. p. (*4. 8?9 Id, pp. (*4-(*0. 859 Id. 8(*9 1nrico vs. "eirs of )ps. 1ulogio -. Medinaceli and 2rinidad Catli*Medinaceli, D.R. "o. (0@4(6, September )?, )**0, ;@6 SCRA 6(?. 8((9 D.R. "o. (055)), #ecember (4, )**?, ;06 SCRA ((4. 8()9 D.R. "o. (@@00?, March (6, )***, @)? SCRA ()). 8(@9 At pp. (@;-(@4 2hi'hli'htin' pro<ided for emphasis3. 8(69 )upra, note (). 8(;9 3co v. !i$baring, D.R. "o. (4()5?, &anuar- @(, )**4, 6?( SCRA @6?. 8(49 A$or*Catalan v. Court of Appeals, D.R. "o. (40(*5, Aebruar- 4, )**0, ;(6 SCRA 4*0. 8(09 Carlos v. )andoval, supra, note (;> citin' Abella Jr. v. Civil )ervice Co$$ission, D.R. "o. (;);06, "o<ember (0, )**6, 66) SCRA ;*0. 8(?9 See "eirs of Ignacio Conti v. Court of Appeals, D.R. "o. ((?646, #ecember )(, (55?, @** SCRA @6;. 8(59 1his action is entitled In Re: Petition for Nullification of Marriage Contract between Cresenciano Abla a and !eonila "onato# Isidro Abla a, petitioner. 8)*9 Cnder the old Civil Code, not all marria'es solemni.ed /ithout a marria'e license /ere <oid from the be'innin'. +empt from the re=uirement of a marria'e license /ere marria'es of e+ceptional character, as pro<ided for from Article 0) to Article 05, old Civil Code, to /it: Article 0). In case either of the contractin' parties is on the point of death or the female has her habitual residence at a place more than fifteen :ilometers distant from the municipal buildin' and there is no communication b- railroad or b- pro<incial or local hi'h/a-s bet/een the former and the latter, the marria'e ma- be solemni.ed /ithout necessit- of a marria'e license> but in such cases the official, priest, or minister solemni.in' it shall state in an affida<it made before the local ci<il re'istrar or an- person authori.ed bla/ to administer oaths that the marria'e /as performed in articulo $ortis or at a place more than fifteen :ilometers distant from the municipal buildin' concerned, in /hich latter case he shall 'i<e the name of the barrio /here the marria'e /as solemni.ed. 1he person /ho solemni.ed the marria'e shall also state, in either case, that he too: the necessar- steps to ascertain the a'es and relationship of the contractin' parties and that there /as in his opinion no le'al impediment to the marria'e at the time that it /as solemni.ed. Article 0@. 1he ori'inal of the affida<it re=uired in the last precedin' article, to'ether /ith a cop- of the marria'e contract, shall be sent b- the person solemni.in' the marria'e to the local ci<il re'istrar of the municipalit- /here it /as performed /ithin the period of thirt- da-s, after the performance of the marria'e. 1he local ci<il re'istrar shall, ho/e<er, before filin' the papers, re=uire the pa-ment into the municipal treasur- of the le'al fees re=uired in Article 4;. Article 06. A marria'e in articulo $ortis ma- also be solemni.ed b- the captain of a ship or chief of an airplane durin' a <o-a'e, or b- the commandin' officer of a militar- unit, in the absence of a chaplain, durin' /ar. 1he duties mentioned in the t/o precedin' articles shall be complied /ith b- the ship captain, airplane chief or commandin' officer. Article 0;. Marria'es bet/een Ailipino citi.ens abroad ma- be solemni.ed b- consuls and <ice-consuls of the Republic of the Philippines. 1he duties of the local ci<il re'istrar and of a Bud'e or Bustice of the peace or ma-or /ith re'ard to the celebration of marria'e shall be performed b- such consuls and <ice-consuls. Article 04. "o marria'e license shall be necessar- /hen a man and a /oman /ho ha<e attained the a'e of maBorit- and /ho, bein' unmarried, ha<e li<ed to'ether as husband and /ife for at least fi<e -ears, desire to marr- each other. 1he contractin' parties shall state the fore'oin' facts in an affida<it before an- person authori.ed b- la/ to administer oaths. 1he official, priest or minister /ho solemni.ed the marria'e shall also state in an affida<it that he too: steps to ascertain the a'es and other =ualifications of the contractin' parties and that he found no le'al impediment to the marria'e. Article 00. In case t/o persons married in accordance /ith la/ desire to ratif- their union in conformit- /ith the re'ulations, rites, or practices of an- church, sect, or reli'ion it shall no lon'er be necessar- to compl- /ith the re=uirements of Chapter ( of this 1itle and an- ratification made shall merel- be considered as a purel- reli'ious ceremon-. Article 0?. Marria'es bet/een Mohammedans or pa'ans /ho li<e in the non-Christian pro<inces ma- be performed in accordance /ith their customs, rites or practices. "o marria'e license or formal re=uisites shall be necessar-. "or shall the persons solemni.in' these marria'es be obli'ed to compl- /ith Article 5). 7o/e<er, t/ent- -ears after appro<al of this Code, all marria'es performed bet/een Mohammedans or pa'ans shall be solemni.ed in accordance /ith the pro<isions of this Code. !ut the President of the Philippines, upon recommendation of the Secretar- of the Interior, ma- at an- time before the e+piration of said period, b- proclamation, ma:e an- of said pro<isions applicable to the Mohammedan and non-Christian inhabitants of an- of the non-Christian pro<inces. Article 05. Mi+ed marria'es bet/een a Christian male and a Mohammedan or pa'an female shall be 'o<erned b- the 'eneral pro<ision of this 1itle and not b- those of the last precedin' article, but mi+ed marria'es bet/een a Mohammedan or pa'an male and a Christian female ma- be performed under the pro<isions of the last precedin' article if so desired b- the contractin' parties, subBect, ho/e<er, in the latter case to the pro<isions of the second para'raph of said article. 8)(9 Regner v. !ogarta, D.R. "o. (4?060, October (5, )**0, ;@0 SCRA )00, )?5> citin' -orlasa v. Polistico, 60 Phil. @6;, @60 2(5);3 and People v. "on. Rodrigue , (*4 Phil. @);, @)0 2(5;53. 8))9 Section ((. Mis4oinder and non*4oinder of parties . I "either misBoinder nor non-Boinder of parties is 'round for dismissal of an action. Parties ma- be dropped or added b- order of the court on motion of an- part- or on its o/n initiati<e at an- sta'e of the action and on such terms as are Bust. An- claim a'ainst a misBoined part- ma- be se<ered and proceeded /ith separatel-. 2((a3
8(9