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1.

Factorial Notation: Let n be a positive integer. Then, factorial n, denoted n! is defined as: n! = n(n - 1)(n - 2) ... 3.2.1. Example 5! = (5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 120.

2.

Permutations: The different arrangements of a given number of things by taking some or all at a time, are called permutations. Example All permutations (or arrangements) made with the letters a, b, c by taking two at a time are (ab, ba, ac, ca, bc, cb).

3.

Number of Permutations: Number of all permutations of n things, taken r at a time, is given by: Pr = n(n - 1)(n - 2) ... (n - r + 1) = n!/(n-r)! Example

6 n

P2 = (6x5)=30

4.

Combinations: Each of the different groups or selections which can be formed by taking some or all of a number of objects is called a combination. Example 1. Suppose we want to select two out of three boys A, B, C. Then, possible selections are AB, BC and CA 2. All the combinations formed by a, b, c taking ab, bc, ca. 3. The only combination that can be formed of three lettersa, b, c taken all at a time is abc.

1. In how many different ways can the letters of the word JUDGE be arranged in such a way that the vowels always come together? A. 48 C. 124 Solution B. 120 D. 160

The word JUDGE has 5 different letters. When, the vowels UE are always together, they can be supposed to form one letter. Then, we have to arrange the letters JDG(UE). Now, 4 letters can be arranged in 4! = 24 ways. The vowels (UE) can be arranged in 2!= 2 ways. Required number of ways = (24 x 2) = 48.

2. How many 4-letter words with or without meaning, can be formed out of the letters of the word, 'LOGARITHMS', if repetition of letters is not allowed? A. 40 C. 5040 Solution B. 400 D. 2520

'LOGARITHMS' contains 10 different letters. Required number of words = Number of arrangements of 10 letters, taking 4 at a time. = 10p4 =(10 x 9 x 8 x 7) = 5040.

3. In how many ways a committee, consisting of 5 men and 6 women can be formed from 8 men and 10 women? A. 266 C. 11760 B. 5040 D. 86400

Solution 4. In how many ways can the letters of the word 'LEADER' be arranged? A. 72 C. 360 B. 144 D. 720

Solution

The word 'LEADER' contains 6 letters namely 1L , 2 E, 1A,1D, and 1R. Required number of = 6! / (1!) (2!) (1!) (2!) ways = 360.

5. How many words can be formed by using all letters of the word 'BIHAR'? A. 60 C. 150 Solution B. 120 D. 180

The word 'BIHAR' contains 5 different letters. Required number of = 5P5 words = 5! = (5 x 4x 3 x 2 x 1) = 120.

6. In how many ways can a group of 5 men and 2 women be made out of a total of 7 men and 3 women? A. 63 C. 126 Solution B. 90 D. 45

7. How many 3-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 9 which are divisible by 5 and none of the digits is repeated? A. 5 C. 15 B. 10 D. 20

Solution

Since each desired number is divisible by 5, so we must have 5 at the unit place. So, there is 1 way of doing it. Tens place can be filled by any of the remaining 5 numbers. So, there are 5 ways of filling the tens place. The hundreds place can now be filled by any one of the remaining 4 digits. So there are 4 ways of filling it. Required number of numbers(1x5x4) = 20.

8. How many words with or without meaning, can be formed by using all the letters of the word, 'DELHI' using all the letters of the word 'DELHI' using each letter exactly once? A. 10 C. 60 Solution B. 25 D. 120

The word 'DELHI' contains 5 different letters. Required numbers of words = Number of arrangements of 5 letters, taken all at a time = 5P5 = 5! = (5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 120.

9. In how many different ways can the letters of the word 'RUMOUR' be arranged?

A. 180 C. 30 Solution

B. 90 D. 720

The word 'RUMOUR' contains 6 letters, namely 2R, 2U, 1M and 1U. Required number of ways = 6 ! / (2!) (2!) (1!) (1 !) =180..

10. The value of A. 2775 C. 5550 Solution

75

75

P2

11. In how many ways can the letters of the word 'APPLE' be arranged? A. 720 C. 60 Solution B. 120 D. 180

The word 'APPLE' contains 5 letters, 1A, 2P, 1L and 1E. Required number of ways = 5! / (1!) (2!) (1!) (1!) = 60.

12. How many word can be formed by using all the letters of the word, 'ALLAHABAD' ? A. 3780 C. 7560 Solution B. 1890 D. 2520

The word 'ALLAHABAD' contains 9 letters, namely 4A, 2L, 1H, 1B, and 1D. Required number = 9! / (4!) (2!) (1!) (1!) (1!) = 7560.

13. A box contains 2 white balls, 3 black balls and 4 red balls. In how many ways can 3 balls be drawn from the box, if at least one black ball is to be included in the draw? A. 48 C. 69 Solution B. 64 D. 71

we may have(1 black and 2 non-black) or ( 2 black and 1 non black) or ( 3 black). Required number of ways =(3C1 6C2) + (3C2 6C1) + (3C3) =(3 x 6 x 5 / 2 x 1) + (3 x 2 / 2 x 1 x 6) +1 = (45 + 18 + 1) = 64.

14. In how many different ways can the letters of the word 'AUCTION' be arranged in such a way that the vowels always come together?

A. 30 C. 144 Solution

B. 48 D. 576

The word Auction has 7 different letters. When, the vowels AUIO are always together, they can be supposed to form one letter. Then, we have to arrange the letters CTN (AUIO). Now, 4 letters can be arranged in 4! = 24 ways. The vowels (AUIO) can be arranged in 4!= 24 ways. Required number of ways = (24 x 24) = 576.

15. How many words can be formed from the letters of the word 'SIGNATURE' so that the vowels always come together? A. 720 C. 2880 Solution B. 1440 D. 17280

The word SIGNATURE has 9 different letters. When, the vowels IAUE are always together, they can be supposed to form one letter. Then, we have to arrange the letters SGNTR (IAUE). These 6 letters can be arranged in 6P6= 6 ! = 720 ways. The vowels (IAUE) can be arranged in 4P4 = 4! = 24 ways. Required number of ways = (720 x 24)

= 17280..

16. How many arrangements can be mado out of the letters of the word 'ENGINEERING' ? A. 277200 C. 69300 Solution B. 92400 D. 23100

The word 'ENGINEERING' contains 11 letters, namely 3E, 3N, 2G, 2I and 1R. Required number of arrangements = 11 ! / (3!)(3!)(2!)(2!)(1!) = 277200.

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