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China ( i/tan/; Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhnggu), officially the People's Republic of China, is a sovereign state located in East Asia.

It is the world s !ost pop"lo"s co"ntry, with a pop"lation of over #.$% &illion. 'he ()C is a single*party state governed &y the Co!!"nist (arty, with its seat of govern!ent in the capital city of +ei,ing.-#%. It e/ercises ,"risdiction over 00 provinces, five a"tono!o"s regions, fo"r direct*controlled !"nicipalities (+ei,ing, 'ian,in, 1hanghai, and Chong2ing), and two !ostly self*governing special ad!inistrative regions (3ong 4ong and 5aca"). 'he ()C also clai!s 'aiwan6 which is controlled &y the )ep"&lic of China ()7C), a separate political entity 6 as its 0$rd province, a clai! which is controversial d"e to the co!ple/ political stat"s of 'aiwan.-#8. Covering appro/i!ately 9.8 !illion s2"are :ilo!eters, China is the world s second*largest co"ntry &y land area,-#;. and either the third or fo"rth*largest &y total area, depending on the !ethod of !eas"re!ent. -i. China s landscape is vast and diverse, ranging fro! forest steppes and the <o&i and 'a:la!a:an deserts in the arid north to s"&tropical forests in the wetter so"th. 'he 3i!alaya,4ara:ora!, (a!ir and 'ian 1han !o"ntain ranges separate China fro! 1o"th and Central Asia. 'he =angt>e and =ellow )ivers, the third* and si/th*longest in the world, r"n fro! the 'i&etan (latea" to the densely pop"lated eastern sea&oard. China s coastline along the (acific 7cean is #?,%@@ :ilo!etres (9,@@@ !i) long, and is &o"nded &y the +ohai, =ellow, East and 1o"th China 1eas. 'he history of China goes &ac: to the ancient civili>ation 6 one of the world s earliest 6 that flo"rished in the fertile &asin of the =ellow )iver in the Aorth China (lain. Bor !illennia, China s political syste! was &ased on hereditary !onarchies, :nown as dynasties, &eginning with the se!i*!ythological Cia of the =ellow )iver &asin (c. 0@@@ +CE). 1ince 00# +CE, when the Din Eynasty first con2"ered several states to for! a Chinese e!pire, the co"ntry has e/panded, fract"red and &een refor!ed n"!ero"s ti!es. 'he )ep"&lic of China ()7C) overthrew the last dynasty in #9##, and r"led the Chinese !ainland"ntil #9?9. After the defeat of the E!pire of Fapan in Gorld Gar II, the Co!!"nist (arty defeated the nationalist 4"o!intang in !ainland China and esta&lished the (eople s )ep"&lic of China in +ei,ing on # 7cto&er #9?9, while the 4"o!intang relocated the )7C govern!ent to its present capital of 'aipei. 1ince the introd"ction of econo!ic refor!s in #9;H, China has &eco!e one of the world s fastest* growing !a,or econo!ies. As of 0@#$, it is the world s second*largest econo!y &y &oth no!inal total <E(and p"rchasing power parity ((((), and is also the world s largest e/porter and i!porter of goods. -#H. China is a recogni>ed n"clear weapons state and has the world s largest standing ar!y, with thesecond*largest defense &"dget.-#9. 'he ()C has &een a Inited Aations !e!&er since #9;#, when it replaced the )7C as a per!anent !e!&er of the I.A. 1ec"rity Co"ncil. China is also a !e!&er of n"!ero"s for!al and infor!al !"ltilateral organi>ations, incl"ding the G'7, A(EC, +)IC1, the 1hanghai Cooperation 7rganisation, the +CI5 and the <*0@. China is a regional power within Asia and has &een characteri>ed as a potential s"perpower &y a n"!&er of co!!entators.-0@.-0#.