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Instrumentation Lab No.

06
Balanced and Unbalanced DC Bridges
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PART A : Balanced DC Bridges


1. Objective To verify the balanced bridge equation for DC circuits experimentally 2. Equipment Required DMM DC Power Supply Bread Board Galvanometer Wires Battery 5V Resistors: Set of 04 resistors <1K satisfying R1/R2 =R3/R4 Set of 04 resistors <10K satisfying R1/R2 =R3/R4 Set of 04 resistors <1M satisfying R1/R2 =R3/R4 3. Theory 1. DC bridge circuits consist of four resistors connected in diamond fashion and balance condition equation is given by R3 R1 R2 R4

2. Galvanometer is connected as detector between two sides of the bridge 3. Bridge is balanced once the current in galvanometer is zero 4. Value of unknown Rx in balance bridge can be found as

Rx R2

R3 R1

4. Procedure 1. Select the needed three sets of resistors and note down the measured values of the supply voltage and resistors 2. Note down the equations of balance bridge.Calculte the value of R4 in the terms of rest of resistor for each set 3. Connect the circuit according to schematic and power it up for each of three sets one by one. Note down any Ig present.

5. Observations INPUT DATA Sr.No. 1. Sr.No. 1. 2. 3. OUTPUT DATA Sr.No. 1. 2. Sr.No. 1. 2. 3. Parameter Bridge Balance Unknown Resistance Rx Range <1K <10K <1M Equation Range <1K <10K <1M Parameter Vin R1 R2 R3 R4=Rx Value

Ig

R4=Rx(calc)

PART B : Unbalanced DC Bridges


1. Objective To verify the Thevenin analysis of unbalanced DC bridges experimentally 2. Equipment Required
DMM DC Power Supply Bread Board Galvanometer Wires Battery 5V Resistors: Set of 04 resistors <1K satisfying R1/R2 =R3/R4 with R5=5% of R4 Set of 04 resistors <10K satisfying R1/R2 =R3/R4 with R5=5% of R4 Set of 04 resistors <1M satisfying R1/R2 =R3/R4 with R5=5% of R4

3. Theory 1. DC bridge circuits consist of four resistors connected in diamond fashion and balance condition equation is given by
R1 R2

R3 R4

2. Galvanometer is connected as detector between two sides of the bridge 3. Bridge becomes unbalanced if any of resistors is slightly different(smaller or larger) then other value needed for balance and galvanometer deflection is not zero 4. Unbalanced bridge can be analyzed such that its THEVENIN equivalent circuit is obtained as if looking from galvanometer .This analysis gives exact value of Ig

4. Procedure 1. Select needed three sets of resistors to balance bridge. Note down thee measured values of supply and resistors 2. Note down the equations of bridge balance and for thevenin analysis 3. Connect the circuit according to diagram while adding R5 with R4 and power it up for each of three sets one by one .Note down the calculated and measured Ig 5. Observations INPUT DATA Sr.No. 1. Sr.No. 1. 2. 3. OUTPUT DATA Sr.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Sr.No. 1. 2. 3. Parameter Bridge Balance Vth Rth Ig Range <1K <10K <1M Unbalance R5 Ig(Calculated) Ig(Measured) Equation Range <1K <10K <1M Parameter Vin R1 R2 R3 R4=Rx Value