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Chapter-3 Knowledge

Domestic Violence

Domestic Violence can be described as when one adult in a relationship misuses

power to control another. It is the establishment of control and fear in a relationship
through violence and other forms of abuse. The violence may involve physical abuse,
sexual assault and threats. Sometimes it’s more subtle, like making someone feel
worthless, not letting them have any money, or not allowing them to leave the home.
Social isolation and emotional abuse can have long-lasting effects as well as physical
Domestic Violence isn't just hitting, or fighting, or an occasional argument. It's an
abuse of power. The abuser tortures and controls the victim by calculated threats,
intimidation, and physical violence. Although both men and women can be abused, in
most cases, the victims are women. Children in homes where there is domestic violence
are also abused or neglected. Although the woman is usually the primary target,
violence is sometimes directed toward children, and sometimes toward family members
and friends.
Domestic violence can take many forms and variations and can happen once in a
while or all at the same time. Domestic violence can be Psychological Abuse, Social
Abuse, Financial Abuse, Physical Assault or Sexual Assault. Violence can be criminal
and includes physical assault or injury (hitting, beating, shoving, etc.), sexual abuse
(forced sexual activity), or stalking.

The United Nation framework for model legislation on domestic violence states:

“All acts of gender-based physical and Psychological

abuse by a family member against women in the
family, ranging from simple assault to aggravated
physical battery, kidnapping, threats, intimidation,
coercion, stalking, humiliating verbal use, forcible on
unlawful entry, arson, destruction of property, sexual
violence, marital rape, dowry or related violence,
female genital mutilation, violence, related to
exploitation through prostitution, violence against

household workers and attempts to commit such acts
shall be termed ”Domestic Violence.”

According to this study, at the aggregate level, 90 percent of the sample knows
what domestic violence is. While male respondents are found to have heard about it
more than the females in Karnataka and Maharashtra, opposite can be seen in case of
UP. In regards to awareness about DV, male-female gap is highest in Maharashtra.

Knowledge about DV

Respondents (%)

Karnataka Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Total

When asked about the meaning of DV to the respondents only about 45% could
answer spontaneously. About one-fourth expresses their concept after probing partially
and 31% were very little aware. Male respondents in Maharashtra were least in
proportion to have the understanding of DV while more than 63% of female respondents
from the same state was spontaneously confirmed the perception of DV.

Understanding of DV Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Spontaneous 42.8 52.7 15.9 63.3 37.6 59 44.7
Probed totally 38.3 22.3 52.2 34 27 12.2 30.9
Proved partially 18.9 25 31.9 2.7 35.4 28.7 24.4

People perceive DV differently over the space due to different factors. While
more than 80% respondents believe that verbal or physical abuse by the family
members is the core concept of DV; emotional abuse, economic deprivation, threat and
sexual abuse by family members are also important. Huge respondents of both sexes

from UP agreed that verbal abuse is what we can call DV. Emotional abuse is believed
to be DV by nearly 40% female sample of Maharashtra and above 32% of male &
female respondents from Karnataka.
Almost 55% of respondents from UP is the highest who thinks economic
deprivation is one of the major forms of DV while around 30% respondents from
Karnataka prefers this to address as DV. Dowry is seen as a form of DV by only 3.7%
female and 6.7% male in Uttar Pradesh. Around 10% male respondents from UP thinks
that quarrel among children or among husband-wife in family is included in DV.

What is DV Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Verbal abuse by family members 64.7 69.7 83.5 89.1 92.7 91.0 81.2
Physical abuse by family members 74.1 88.8 87.4 83.7 83.7 83.5 83.4
Sexual abuse by family members 19.9 54.3 6.6 6.8 11.2 20.2 20.5
Emotional abuse by family members 32.3 33.5 5.5 38.8 29.2 4.8 23.6
Economic deprivation by family
30.8 28.2 2.2 6.1 54.5 56.9 30.6
Threat by family members 21.4 7.4 2.2 36.1 28.1 12.2 17.3
Dowry .5 6.7 3.7 1.8
Quarrel among children, among 1.6
9.6 .5 1.9
husband wife in family
After drinking alcohol fighting in house .6 1.1 0.3
Fight due to financial crisis .5 .6 .5 0.3
Dispute on land & assets 1.1 0.2
Child Sex Abuse .5 0.1

3.1 a Law and the Act

Very few people have knowledge about any existing law regarding DV. All
together it is only nearly 26% people who know about any law that deals with DV
whereas as high as 53.7% female respondents and 50.6% male respondents
respectively from Karnataka and UP already knew of such law. The overall awareness
about this is comparatively low in Maharashtra.

Knowledge about any law for DV


Respondents (%)





Karnataka Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Total

As DV has different meaning for different people, the law that deals with
protecting against domestic violence also have different connotation among people.
More than 30% respondents think that this act leads to take legal action under Dowry
prevention act. A little less than this addressed filing a case against husband and getting
him punished. Around one-sixth of the sample understood that they could take any legal
action under act.

As high as 71% male respondents in Maharashtra believe that this law ignites the
idea of filing case against her husband and get him punished while the percentage of
respondents from other locations and across the gender is quite low, the lowest being
found in Karnataka among the female respondents.
Legal action under dowry prevention act has drawn attention of more male
respondents than female counterpart in UP while in other locations it is one of the major
implication of the act for the women than men.
To few respondents it meant asking alimony from husband, which is highest
among the male respondents of Maharashtra. The respondents being enlightened to
take any legal action under this act are the highest among the female in Maharashtra.
Male respondents from Karnataka were the highest to think of troubling a woman
is punishable under the law and it is an offence. Comparatively, the highest percentages
of respondents to understand that women can get protection and can divorce her
husband in case of DV under this act belong to the female respondents from Karnataka.

Understanding of DV laws Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

File a case against her husband and
19.2 5.0 70.8 43.8 37.8 47.6 28.1
get him punished
Take legal action under Dowry
26.9 29.7 8.3 12.5 43.3 23.8 30.6
prevention Act
Ask for alimony from husband 1.0 12.5 2.2 2.2
Take any legal action under act 7.7 9.9 8.3 37.5 21.1 28.6 16.2
Troubling a women is punishable under
38.5 2.0 6.3 3.3 5.8
the act, & it is an off
A female can divorce her husband in
10.9 4.0
case of DV
She can complaint in the Panchayat 2.0 0.7
Female feoticide not to be done 7.7 0.7
Men and women have equal rights 3.8 0.4
A woman has right to stay in her house
1.0 0.4
even after filing a c
Husband cannot throw out his wife 1.0 0.4
Women can get protection under the 3.8 38.6

PWDVA: The passing of the Domestic Violence Act (DVA) is an important marker in the
history of the women’s movement in India, which has confronted the problem of
domestic violence for well over two decades. This enactment sets free the movement
from the depression that has long inundated it, of attributing all categories of violence
suffered by women within their families to ‘dowry’ and widening the scope of the term
‘domestic violence’. 1
It acknowledges that domestic violence is a widely prevalent and universal
problem of power relationships, more than the culture specific phenomenon called
‘dowry death’. More importantly, it marks a departure from the penal provisions, which
hinged on strict punishments, to positive civil rights of protection and injunction.
(Combat Law, Vol. 4 Issue 6, November - December 2005)
Only 3.3% of our sample over various locations knows about PWDVA 2005.
While as high as 9% female from Karnataka are aware of this act none from UP and only
2.5% female from Maharashtra know about it. In Karnataka & UP, male respondents are
less aware than Maharashtra.
Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Heard about Protection of Women 3 9 4 2.5 1.5 0 3.3
against Domestic Violence Act 2005

When asked about the benefits of this act, interestingly, most responses came as
Protection order. According to the respondents, other important components include
Monetary Relief order, Custody order, benefit of securing legal justice and Residence
100% male respondents mentioned about the Protection order while there was
no response from the female respondents of UP about this law. Residence order had
been mentioned by a large portion of men and few women in the states of Maharashtra
and Karnataka respectively. Male respondents are more aware about Monetary relief
order than their counterpart. Huge response for Custody order came from Karnataka,
especially from the male category whereas respondents from UP did not mention it but
male respondents from UP are the ones to mention about the benefit of securing legal
justice more than any other area.

Benefits of PWDVA 2005 Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Protection order 83.3 55.6 62.5 80.0 100.0 67.5
Residence Order 16.7 62.5 66.7 25.0
Monetary Relief Order 50.0 22.2 50.0 20.0 66.7 35.0
Custody Order 66.7 38.9 12.5 20.0 32.5
Interim/Ex-parte Order 5.6 12.5 33.3 7.5
Gives the benefit of securing legal
33.3 27.8 12.5 20.0 66.7 27.5
Ensures equal property right to both 5.6 12.5 2.5
Protection under dowry case 2.5

A very high percentage of people know that throwing a woman out of her house
is a legal offence. While there is almost no male-female gap in the level of awareness in
UP, male respondents and female respondents respectively in Maharashtra and
Karnataka are more aware than their counterparts.

Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Throwing a woman out of her house is 97 92.6
91.5 97 98.5 74.3 97.5
a legal offence

Respondents believing that Woman can access legal service to ensure

maintenance or custody count for about four-fifth of the total sample. More than 97%
male respondents in Maharashtra and female respondents in UP have the knowledge
that maintenance or custody of women can be ensured under legally. Karnataka
respondents are less aware about the provision of this legal service.

Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Woman can access legal service to 97 81.2
61.2 88 97.5 69.3 74.8
ensure maintenance or custody

3.1 HIV/AIDS Prevention

Sexual contact is the most common route of HIV transmission. Given the
importance of sexual transmission in the HIV epidemic, many HIV prevention strategies
have focused on identifying and promoting safer-sex practices. As the name implies,
these practices are thought to be "safer" than other sexual practices in that they help
reduce (but do not necessarily eliminate) the chance of acquiring sexually transmitted
diseases and risk of transmitting HIV from one sexual partner to another. 2
More than 63% respondents know that using condom is a way to safer sex
practice. This knowledge is more prevalent in men while interestingly, women from Up
are more aware of usage of condom as a method to safer sex. The male-female gap in
the level of knowledge is more in Karnataka & Maharashtra than UP. Both type of
respondents from Karnataka and male respondents from UP in large numbers believe
that having one partner is an important method to have safer sex while the same groups
can rely on consistent condom use in lesser numbers.

Methods for safer sex Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Condom Use 88.1 44.5 81.6 38.1 60.9 67.2 63.4
Consistent Condom Use 13.9 21.0 4.0 1.5 18.3 1.5 10.0
Having one partner 49.3 64.5 34.8 17.3 62.4 33.8 43.7

When asked about their knowledge about prevention of HIV/AIDS, more than half
of our sample talked about condom use, not reusing used needles/syringes and having
one faithful partner. Prevalence of the knowledge of condom use as a preventive
measure is highest among male respondents from Karnataka followed by Maharashtra.
Female respondents of UP are more aware of this measure.
Not using non tested blood and reusing used needles/syringes are believed to be
important measures by a lot of respondents from Karnataka and UP. While using
condom every time while having sex with anyone, having one faithful partner are

mentioned by UP male respondents from any other location and category, female
counterpart from UP & Karnataka talked about abstinence more than others.

Prevention of HIV/AIDS Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Condom Use 92.0 51.0 78.6 32.7 38.6 59.1 58.6
Using condom every time while having
12.4 20.5 4.0 3.5 44.1 3.0 14.6
sex with anyone
Having one faithful partner 53.2 56.0 51.7 42.6 72.3 53.5 54.9
Do not use non tested blood 44.8 75.5 31.3 19.3 60.4 49.5 46.8
Do not reuse used needles/syringes 67.7 74.0 30.3 33.2 67.3 58.1 55.1
Abstinence 4.0 11.5 9.0 1.0 3.5 11.1 6.6
Avoid reuse of shaving blades 1.0 1.5 1.5 .5 0.7
Avoid sharing clothes of Positive
.5 0.1
person (AIDS patient)
Should avoid sexual intercourse with a
.5 0.1
Positive women
Avoid sexual intercourse during
.5 0.1
Before marriage go for HIV Test .5 0.1
It can spread through mosquito bite .5 0.1

PPTCT: It is an important component of the Indian government’s AIDS control

programme. Parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT) of HIV, or perinatal transmission,
accounting for few percent of the total HIV infection load in the country. Parent-To Child
Transmission (PPTCT) of HIV can occur during pregnancy, at the time of delivery or
through breastfeeding. If an HIV positive woman becomes pregnant, there is a high
chance that the baby will also be infected.

Elements of the PPTCT programme:

• Primary prevention of HIV infection in young people & women of child bearing
age through promotion and provision of free, subsidized or commercially
marketed condoms, provide diagnosis for treatment of sexually transmitted
diseases, and behaviour change communication efforts to reduce behaviour that
place individuals at risk, and information about risks of PTCT during pregnancy,
delivery, breastfeeding & encouragement to see VCT counselor or health
provider for information on how to prevent HIV/AIDS among infants & young
• Prevention of unintended pregnancies in HIV positive women through
reproductive health services, which include family planning.
• Prevention of transmission from an HIV positive woman to her infant through
anti-retroviral (ARV) prophylaxis and safer delivery practices.

• Care and support services to HIV-infected women who are enrolled with the
programme and to their children and families, including counselling on infant

Only little more than half of the total sample is aware about PPTCT whereas
among female respondents in every location, it accounts for quite high percentage. The
male-female gap in the awareness level is the shortest in UP while it is highest in

Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Heard about Prevention of Parent of 62.8 52.7
28.1 69.3 45.5 69.5 57.1
Child Transmission PPTCT

ITCT: HIV counselling and testing services were started in India in 1997. There are now
more than 4000 Counselling and Testing Centres, mainly located in government
hospitals. Under NACP-III, Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centres (VCTC) and
facilities providing Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT)
services are remodelled as a hub or ‘Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre’ (ICTC)
to provide services to all clients under one roof. An ICTC is a place where a person is
counselled and tested for HIV, of his own free will or as advised by a medical provider.
The main functions of an ICTC are:
• Conducting HIV diagnostic tests.
• Providing basic information on the modes of HIV transmission, and
promoting behavioural change to reduce vulnerability.
• Link people with other HIV prevention, care and treatment services.

Ideally, a health facility should have one integrated counselling and testing centre for
all groups of people. However, an ICTC is located in facilities that serve specific
categories such as pregnant women. Accordingly, an ICTC is located in the Obstetrics
and Gynaecology Department of a medical college or a district hospital or in a maternity
home where the majority of clients who access counselling and testing services are
pregnant women. The justification for such a centre is the need for providing medical
care to prevent HIV transmission from infected pregnant women to their infants.
Similarly an ICTC is located in a TB microscopy centre or in a TB sanatorium, where the
majority of clients are TB patients. As TB is the most common co-infection in people with

HIV, availability of HIV counselling and testing can help patients to diagnose their status
for accessing early treatment.3
The awareness level of the total sample is rather low than that of PPTCT. Less
than 50% of the sample knows about ICTC. In Karnataka, the awareness level is the
lowest with the highest male-female gap in the level of knowledge. With the lowest male-
female gap UP reveals quite high level of knowledge.

Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

Heard about integrated counseling & 49.5
8.9 46.1 60 50.5 64.3 64.2
Testing Centre (ICTC)

In India, Primary Health Centres (PHCs) are the cornerstone of rural healthcare;
a first port of call for the sick and an effective referral system; in addition to being the
main focus of social and economic development of the community. It forms the first level
of contact and a link between individuals and the national health system; bringing
healthcare delivery as close as possible to where people live and work.
Each PHC is targeted to cover a population of approximately 25,000 and is
charged with providing promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative care. This
implies offering a wide range of services such as health education, promotion of
nutrition, basic sanitation, the provision of mother and child family welfare services,
immunization, disease control and appropriate treatment for illness and injury.
These facilities are a part of the three tier healthcare system; the PHCs act as
referral centers for the Community Health Centres (CHCs), 30-bed hospitals and higher
order public hospitals at the taluka and district levels.4

Service providers Karnataka Maharashtra U.P. Total

PHC 3.1 40.8 5.9 7.5 13.1 2.1 13.9
CHC 26.6 .8 25.4 8.5 9.6
Hospital 68.8 85.6 66.9 86.3 70.8 87.5 77.5

With the options given as PHC, CHC and hospitals, more than three-fourth of the
respondents know that these services are available in the hospital, whether public or
private. PHCs, which are the government health care service center at the village level,
provide these services as per the opinion of around 14 percent of our sample. Rest 10%
people knows that only CHC, the healthcare facilities at the next level, provide all these
Awareness about CHC is very low among female in Karnataka while in other
locations it is nil. But awareness about the provision of PPTCT & ITCT services in the
hospitals is the highest among female respondents in any location undertaken in the