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MATERIAL HANDLING The handling of material is a human activity which has een !

erformed since time immemorial" The construction of the great !yramids and other historical monuments all over the world called for the handling of various ty!es of materials in various form methods" Material handling has now ecome an im!ortant and s!ecialised function of all industrial activity" It is as im!ortant as# costs and the !roduction !rocess" A modern manufacturing !lant wor$s on assem ly line !rinci!les" In an automo ile !lant# the chassis moves along the assem ly line where different wor$ers attach different !arts in turn tighten a olt or ma$e certain ad%ustments" &inally# the finished car emerges at the end of the !rocess" A similar !rocedure is followed for other assem ly line !roduction !rocesses" 'efore it reaches the ultimate customer# the !roduct has to !ass through a series of handling !rocesses ( from the !rocurement of raw materials to the sale of the final article" The manufacturing esta lishment first receives the raw material or s!are !arts which go into the ma$ing of the !roduct" They are conveyed to the !lace where they are stored" Then they are ta$en to the !reliminary fa rication or manufacture or the first !roduction !rocess" Thereafter# they are again sent to the storage efore they are moved into the various stages of manufacturing o!erations" )nce the machine and !rocessing o!erations are finished# the semi* manufactured or finished !roduct moves to final ins!ection and !ac$aging" +hen all the manufacturing o!erations are com!leted# it is again sent into storage to await trans!ortation to consumers" Material handling is an essential !roduction function" )rganisations do not !ay ade,uate attention to this function" )n an average# fifteen to twenty !ercent of the cost of a !roduct is incurred on material handling" )ver and a ove this tangi le cost of material handling and of la our and machinery costs# they are the hidden costs of material handling which arise from the damage of raw materials to the finished !roducts# delay in trans!ortation# deterioration in the ,uality of the !roduct# waste of !roductive la our time and loss of !roduction" This total material handling cost must e minimi-ed y designing a !ro!er system" Material handling is underta$en at every stage of logistics activity# and is an integral !art of the other elements of logistics function" Material is handled during the !roduction !rocess# warehouses or storage# in trans!ort# during !ac$ing and when goods are returned y the customer for one reason or the other" This would insure cost reduction in the o!eration of the overall material handling function and increase !roductivity" MATERIAL HANDLING ./.TEM Material is handled at the following stage i" Raw material is trans!orted from the vendor to the vendor to the warehouse of the !roduction unit" It is received y truc$s# y rail wagons or even y shi!" At the warehouse the handling of material ta$es !lace"

Thereafter# the material is stored" ii" At the time the material is re,uired for !roduction !rocess# it is again handled" It is fed into the !roduction !rocess" iii" This time the material handling is generally an integral !art of the !roduction !rocess" iv" After the material has een finally !rocessed and turn into a finished !roduct# the finished !roduct is handled and loaded for dis!atch y a given mode of trans!ort to a field warehouse or a dealer" v" .ometimes# the finished !roduct is !ac$ed and directly loaded for trans!ort"

vi" The material !roduced at the end of the !rocess may e intermediate finished !roduct# so it also re,uired handling" vii" The semi*finished !roduct is trans!orted to other !roduction unit so0 this re,uired another material handling !rocess" viii" Assuming that the !roduct has een stored in its final finished form# it has to e finished efore dis!atch from the !roduction center" i1" The goods may e dis!atched straight to the customer0 in this case the handling of the goods is done y the customer himself"

1" The goods may e dis!atched to a field warehouse of the com!any# or to a !u lic warehouse# or to warehouse of stoc$ist or distri utor" In this case they are stored suita ly for dis!atching to a customer# retailer or dealer# as the case may e" Material handling involves the following !oint2 a3 Receiving or dis!atching of goods involving unloading# loading0 3 &low of material within the !roduction unit and warehouse0 c3 +eighing of raw materials and finished !roducts at warehouse0 d3 .am!ling of raw materials# intermediate !roducts and finished !roducts at nominated stages0 e3 Documentation" Each of the a ove functions have een discussed in more detail in the following !aragra!hs" Recei!t and dis!atch 4 loading ( unloading The recei!t of raw materials or the dis!atch of finished !roducts# at the !roduction center# !lant warehouse or field warehouse may e considered a !art of the trans!ortation function" Recei!t i" Recei!t of wagons# truc$s# shi!s# etc"# in a nominated area or location" ii" 5nloading of individual truc$# wagon or shi!" iii" .torage of the goods 6whether raw material or finished !roduct3 unloaded" iv" +eighing of the goods received" v" Documentation for recei!ts of goods"

vi" Documentation for the storage of goods" vii" 7ommunication to all concerned a out the recei!t of the goods" Dis!atch i" Recei!t of road truc$s# rail wagons# shi!s# etc"# in a nominated area or location" ii" +eighing if goods whether directly or indirectly" iii" Loading of individual truc$# wagon or shi!" iv" .torage of ade,uate material to ensure uninterru!ted loading" v" .am!ling of goods that are loaded" vi" Documentation of dis!atches# storage# weighing and sam!les" vii" 7ommunication of information a out dis!atches to all concern"

In general# the activities !erformed under material handling for the recei!t and dis!atch of goods would re,uire arrangement for2 i" The loading and unloading of truc$s# wagons or shi!s0 ii" +aiting s!ace for truc$s# wagons and shi!s0 iii" Ade,uate storage s!ace0 iv" +eighing facility0 v" .am!ling facility0 vi" Documentation and communication system" These arrangement are discussed riefly in the following !aragra!hs 83 Loading and unloading The loading and unloading of goods has to e e1amined from the stand!oint of s!eed of loading and unloading # convenience and the saving on damage during the unloading9 loading o!erations" The loading and unloading facilities include suita le civil engineering structures for the erthing of truc$s# rail wagons or the shi!s and the loading unloading and handling machinery" 5nloading structures &i1ed unloading structures include a sufficient num er of !ro!erly designed doc$s for the unloading of road truc$s# ade,uate length of a !latform of a !ro!er design for unloading rail wagons# and an ade,uate num er of erths or wharfs of suita le design for shi!s"

RAIL :LAT&)RM. Rail !latforms are so designed that the wagons stand alongside a rail !latform" The height of the rail !latform# measured from the to! of the rail surface# is $e!t at 8;< cms" 'ut the !latform may e at the rali level# de!ending on the consignments re,uired to e unloaded or loaded" Heavy crane consignments are usually unloaded on o!en rail*level !latform# for crane movement is convenient on such !latforms" Loose consignments li$e coal# sand# earth# etc"# are also loaded on rail*level !latforms" These !latforms have only !aved surfaces" The width of the !latform is determined on the asis of the storage s!ace re,uired# the s!ace for the movement of the men or machinery" 'ut s!ecial care has to e e1ercised to $ee! loaded or unloaded materials away from the trac$ so that no derailment occurs" The length of a rail !latform is determined y the num er of railway wagons re,uired to e unloaded or loaded at one time" The num er of wagons !laced at one time for unloading or loading should e determined on the asis of the incoming or outgoing materials for the rated ca!acity of the !lant" Infrastructure facilities should e li erally !rovided so as to ta$e care of an increase in the ca!acity for loading and unloading o!eration" Increases in loading and unloading ca!acity may not e !ossi le or ecome too e1!ensive if sought to e underta$en only at a later date# for then a ma%or change may e called for in the layout of the rail*yard !latforms# which may not e !ossi le or may re,uire ma%or structural changes# including demolition# and this may turn out to e e1!ensive" )ften# it may e convenient and some times desira le to s!lit the length of the !latform to achieve greater fle1i ility in loading and unloading o!erations" This would ta$e care of the !ractical !ro lem which arises when one wagon in the middle of a large num er of wagons lined along the !latform is found to e defective or not loada le for some reason" The !latforms may e of e,ual lengths and !ositioned along two trac$s" IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIII :latform length distri uted over two or more !latforms

This arrangement may e further modified to achieve greater fle1i ility in loading and unloading y !ositioning a !latform on either side of a trac$" IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIII )ne !latform on either side of trac$ 'ut the arrangements ecome inconvenient y reason of the e1istence of the island !latform and !resent difficulties in conveying the material from or to the island !latform" This arrangement# however# is convenient when loading and unloading o!erations are arranged with the hel! of an overhead or underground conveyor"

.HI: +HAR&. +harfs or erths are !rovided for the erthing of shi!s" .hi!s are erthed alongside a wharf" The length of a erth or a wharf and the draft set a limit to the ca!acity of the shi! handled at the erth" The length of the shi! to e handled at a wharf has to e less than the length of the wharf# so that the

vessel can e anchored fast to the ollards" The draft at wharf has to e more than the draft of the shi!# which is determined y the weight of the vessel" Thus# the draft at the wharf determines the ma1imum load that can e rought in y the shi!" It is always etter to ring in a shi! with the ma1imum load so that the freight charge !er tonne may e the minimum" 'ollard

.chematic design of a shi! alongside a wharf )wing to the silting that ta$es !lace ecause of natural and man*made reasons in many !orts# the draft has a tendency to decrease" Desilting o!erations may have to e underta$en to accommodate a !articular ca!acity shi!"

T/:E. )& HANDLING MA7HINER/ Normally# road truc$s# rail wagons or shi!s can e unloaded manually" 'ut with the large volume of materials to e handled# the manual system ecomes unwidely# and some degree of mechani-ation has to e resorted" Also in order to s!eed u! the loading9unloading of materials and to ma$e it convenient and chea!er# handling machinery may e installed on truc$ doc$s# railway !latforms and wharfs Handling machinery is of two ty!es" &i1ed machinery# such as granty cranes# or fi1ed cranes which have a certain reach re,uired y vehicles to come close to them for loading and unloading cargo" If a doc$ or !latform is occu!ied for one reason or the other# the machinery cannot e utili-ed for loading and

unloading" In this case# the second ty!e of machinery can e used to move near the vehicle" In this category fall the various ty!es of mo ile cranes or for$ lifts or !ay loaders# which lift the material from the truc$# wagon or shi!" To s!eed u! the o!erations# various ty!es of conveyor systems may also e installed" Recei!t and Des!atch of vehicles The incoming or outgoing vehicles cannot e straightaway !laced for loading and unloading# es!ecially when the !receding vehicles are under o!eration" &or e1am!le# while some truc$s are eing unloaded at the doc$s# more truc$s may come in" .imilarly# some railway wagons may e under unloading# in meantime# more wagons may come in" .!ecial arrangements such as 7irculating area for road vehicles# Marshalling /ard for Rail wagons# etc" have to e made for these vehicles# wagons and shi!s" 7irculating Area for Road =ehicles &or road vehicles# a circulating area is !rovided where vehicles can e !ar$ed# awaiting their turn for handling# otherwise they would have to wait outside the factory gates and may loc$ the entry or e1it of vehicular traffic" Arrangements should also e made for sufficient num er of toilets so that the crew do not commit nuisance outside" Marshalling /ard for Rail +agons Railway wagons on their inward and outward %ourney# a marshalling yard is !rovided" The wagons meant for the factory is sorted out and are ta$en to the factory" The marshalling is also re,uired to sort out em!ty from loaded wagons" The design of a marshalling yard calls for a s!eciali-ed s$ills" A marshalling yard consists of two or more lines# suita ly connected with loading lines" The design of a marshalling yard calls for careful railway o!erating considerations# so that there may e an easy flow of wagons from and to the loading !oints and a ,uic$ marshalling of different wagons" E>5I:MENT .toring The different $inds of e,ui!ment which are used in a storeroom can e roadly classified into two categories# vi-" A %udicious selection of different store e,ui!ment is a $ey of the successful o!eration of a storeroom" )nce a ty!ical set is done it is difficult to change the set u! in future" The commonly used e,ui!ment in storeroom are as follows2 7a inets .tac$ing o1es .!ecial storage rac$s Gravity feed rac$s )utdoor !latform and rac$s )!en and closed shelves Trays

Drums The selections of the e,ui!ment shall e governed y si-e# sha!e# other !hysical characteristics# and the e1tent of !reservation re,uired" The selection of the material for rac$s etc" wood or steel should e carefully done" The steel e,ui!ment has advantages of strength# cleanliness and fire resistance"

Material Handling E,ui!ments In any given set u! the material handling e,ui!ments the layout of the stores# !roduction sho!s is to e coordinated well" They are closely related with each other" Manual material handling Here the initial investment is low" The e,ui!ment used in such systems are rac$s# drawers# ins# hand truc$s# and gravity conveyors" The o!erations are done manually" .o the !ro lems related to la our control e1ist" The systematic wor$ing# handling higher loads# s!eed of o!eration is generally at low level" 5tilisation of availa le s!ace cannot e done eyond certain height due to natural human constraints The common ty!e of material handling e,ui!ment used in stores is as follows2 Trolleys Hoists Monorail 'elt conveyor Roller conveyor 7rane

The selection of the material handling e,ui!ment de!ends u!on the si-e# sha!e and weight of the item the location of the item in the stores# etc" Manual e,ui!ments Hand carts ( 5n!owered wagons# dollies# and truc$s !ushed a out y wor$ers" Hydraulic scissor*lift ta les These are used for loading and unloading heavy materials li$e tools# die etc" these are used as goods lift from trans!orting and raw material from ground level to finish first floor level" They are driven y electric*o!erated !ower !ac$"

.tac$ers and !orta le cranes2 These are used for loading and unloading heavy materials from truc$s" Also loading heavy dies on the !ress machines" These are o!erated hydraulically"

Manual stac$er These are fa ricated from steel channels for strength" They can e shifted any where in the sho!" +ithout ending they can lift heavy materials" 'y hydraulic !um! they lift or lower the material" Hydraulic :allet truc$s >uic$ lift !um!s design" 5ltra*urethane wheels and sealed dual*!recision all earings re,uire less than ?< l s" !ulling force at full ca!acity" Hydraulic !um! includes overload and u!!er limit relief valve" &ingerti! lever control for selecting raising# neutral or lowering !ositions" Articulation steering wheels" Include two steering wheels and two front load rollers" .teering wheels include earing dust covers# !roviding longer life" .!ring*loaded loo! handle automatically returns to vertical !osition which not in use"

Hydraulic !um! design facilitates easy*access seal re!lacement" Red !owder coat finish is hel!s as antirust" :edal lift elevating sho! tric$s# mechanical material stac$ers# and motori-ed stac$ers" Monorail traveling trolleys# !orta le gantry cranes are useful e,ui!ments in stores"

:allet Truc$s These are used for low level of wor$ing# to lift the material# move the material" Height is ad%usta le for any essential height" It is manually o!erated# safe and move on castor wheels# which are easy to move"

7astor +heels These are made with the !ressed thic$ steel# ase" They are versatile to e used for all moving material carrying e,ui!ments" These ma$e the e,ui!ments easy to maneuvering the e,ui!ment" They have thrust earings for easy movements" Ru er or !olyurethane material is used for low load ca!acity re,uirements" &or$*lift truc$ These truc$s are much used in the !roduction sho!s and warehouses" They are good in moving the material from a !lace to !lace" )ver and a ove the tote o1es on the for$s can e elevated to desired level a ove the ground level" Ladders Different ty!es of ladders are re,uired in stores for !lacing of the material at high level !oints" They are of different ty!es" As !er the re,uirements they are used" +all su!!orting e1tenda le ladder" .elf su!!orting e1tenda le ladder" Trolley ased strong ladder# with solid steel ase# the safety loc$s are !rovided" Normally the ladders are made of thic$ aluminium sections" This ma$es them light in weight# non*rusting# and rust !roof" .afety loc$s# ru er shoes# ro!es# !ulleys and castor loc$s are !rovided for ease of movements"

Mechanised systems Mechani-ed and automatic e,ui!ments need higher level investment" )n long term they may e economical" Machine !ower# electrical energy or mechanical engineering techni,ues are used in !lace of la our" They use for$lift truc$s# tow tractors# order !ic$er truc$s# cranes and conveyors 7onveyers 7onveyer system to move material or !roducts has given start for the engineers" .teel9!lastic alls or rollers are mechanical mounted on the side channels and the !roducts move on them y driver motor or the !ower of gravity" 'elt*Motor*driven chain that drags" Materials along a metal slide ase Rollers These are good for moving heavy materials from one !lace to other !lace" The !ath is well guided y the num er of rollers mounted on a structure" The rollers can e !owered y motor" 7ranes 7ranes are useful to !ic$ u! and shift the heavy material from one !lace to other !lace" Hoists are mounted on overhead rails0 they lift# swing# and trans!ort large and heavy materials" The cranes and hoists are having limited travel distance" These are s!ecifically used to shift heavy goods from and to shi!s" Elevators A ty!e of crane that# while in a fi1ed !osition# lifts materials usually etween floors of uildings" Turnta les2 This device is used to mechani-e the wor$ing on com!onents in the different stages in continuation to avoid handling" The stations on turn ta le hold# inde1# and rotate materials or !arts from o!eration to o!eration"

Automated systems The conce!t of a totally automated storage and retrieval system has een inviting the attention of !rofessionals to match the storage system9 with the ra!id develo!ments in the technology" In automated systems com!uter !rograms are used to achieve controls on the movements of e,ui!ments" Here the total movement is co*coordinated and !erfectly synchroni-ed" These are systems for receiving orders for

materials from anywhere in o!erations or unloading areas# collecting the materials from locations within warehouse# and delivering the materials from locations within a warehouse# and delivering the materials to wor$stations in o!erations or loading areas" 7om!uters and communication systems are used for !lacing orders for materials# locating the materials in storage# giving commands for delivery of the materials to locations for loading9unloading9o!erations# and ad%usting inventory records showing the amount and location of materials" Automated Guided =ehicle .ystems 6AG=.3 Ta$e the material order as !er the list Automatically load the containers of materials from unloading area" Deliver to the !lace" 5nloading the material" The o!erator carries with him the list of items to e items to e retrieved" 'y ma$ing use of !redefined system he goes through the storeroom# sto!s the handling e,ui!ment at res!ective ins and com!letes the list in a !ic$ing tour" He may go aisle* y*aisle or according to items in list or y any other system" )!eration Research techni,ues of se,uencing# routing# etc"# can e a!!lied to determine the o!timal locations of items and o!timal route in a !ic$ing tour" 'enefits Increase storage ca!acity" Increase system throughout due to their continuous and tireless use" Reduce the la our costs" :roduct ,uality is im!roved with the elimination of human error" Identify !arts ased on ar codes" )ffer higher return on investment" 'etter ca!a ility than standard inventory control systems"

:A7@AGING Introduction The term !ac$aging may e defined as the use of containers and !arts# together with the decoration and la eling of the !roduct in order to contain# !rotect and identify the merchandise and facilitate the use of the !roduct" .ales !romotion is an im!ortant consideration in the selection of !ac$aging aids in motivating a customer to uy the !roduct" The degree of motivation de!ends on the ty!e of !roduct# the ty!e of customer and the demand and su!!ly situation" The !rinting matter and the com!any em lem or trade mar$ !ro%ect the manufacturerAs image to the customer" All $inds of !roducts# namely# solids# li,uids# gases sus!ensions and colloids#

have usually to e !ac$ed efore distri ution" De!ending on the mar$et area# !ac$aging may e classified as for domestic sale or for e1!ort sale" The various goods may e classified into the following road categories2 8" Engineering goods0 B" 7onsumer goods0 8" Engineering goods These may e divided further into the following2 6a3 Heavy engineering goods# such as !um!as# com!ressors# engines# machinery# s!ares# etc" 6 3 Light engineering goods# such as instruments# small electronic motors# etc" 6c3 Domestic a!!liances# such as sewing machines# fans# mi1ers# radios# tvs# etc" B" 7onsumer goods These may e classified as under2 a3 &ood !roducts2 7anned !roducts li$e vegeta les and fruits" 'a$ery !roducts li$e iscuits# read# ca$es# etc" everages# alcoholic# soft drin$s# %uices# tea# coffee# cocoa# etc" Toffee# chocolates# etc" )ther !roducts li$e sugar salt# s!ices# etc" 3 7osmetics# such as tooth!aste# hair cream# sham!oo# face !owder# nail !olish# etc" :A7@AGING MATERIAL. Cute .ince it has een recogni-ed that renewa le resources should continue to e the mainstay# for a num er of a!!lications# the use of %ute# also $nown as hesian or urla!# is common and encouraged" Interestingly# India still continues to e1!ort a si-a le !ortion of its %ute !ac$aging !roduction" New varieties of %ute# etter methods of weaving and im!arting im!roved functional ,ualities to it*li$e ma$ing it odour free* are some of the areas which have received s!ecial attention" There is a general shift towards the use of synthetics in !erformance to %ute in ul$ !ac$aging" :ac$aging :a!er and 'oard In the field of !a!er and oard# the country is entirely de!endent u!on indigenous forest resources which# however# are eing ra!idly de!leted" 'am oo constitutes the main su!!ly source of !a!er raw materials" Research is under way on the use of ,uic$ yielding tim er varieties and of hard woods for !a!er manufacture" Glass The use of glass containers still continues to e encouraged for mil$# li,uid#

!harmaceutical !re!arations# fluid everages# etc" India has a undant su!!lies of minerals which are re,uired for the manufacture of glass" Tin!late India !roduces hot di!!ed tin!late" :resently most of the mills ado!t the electrolytic !rocess of coating tin" Attem!ts have een made to manufacture differential coatings as well" Tin!late consum!tion is restricted y the slow growth in the !rocessed food industry# and large*scale uses continue to e for !etroleum oils# edi le oils and !aints" Tin!late containers for !ac$aging have een ado!ted in India ecause of the necessity for long !eriods of shelf (life and the inade,uacies of the system of handling and trans!ortation which has made high* strength !ac$aging com!ulsory" +ith the view to reducing de!endence on tin!late# dual !ac$aging systems have een ado!ted for certain food !roducts# where y the use of refill !ac$ages is encouraged" 7ello!hane A small ,uantity of cello!hane is manufactured y a few units in India" There has een hardly any e1!ansion in its use in this country owing to the high cost of in!uts for the manufacture of cello!hane and adverse atmos!heric conditions and mar$eting systems" Aluminium &oils and Tu es The use of aluminium foils is confined mostly to !harmaceuticals# foods and to acco" The alternatives to aluminium foil are metalised !lastics" Even though the introduction of colla!si le tu es was generally for tooth*!aste and !harmaceutical ointments a great variety of ty!ical Indian !roducts have got into colla!si le tu es" :lastics The Indigenous !roduction of !lastics had its origin in industrial alcohol" The setting u! of !etro*chemical com!le1es has had considera le im!act on the !romotion of !lastic raw materials" Earlier# the country was de!endant on high and low density !olyethylene" .mall ,uantities of im!orts of other thermo*!lastics used to meet the countryAs !ac$aging re,uirements" The versatility of !lastics and their a ility to u!grade indigenous materials has naturally encouraged their greater use" a3 Laminated Cute :ac$aging2 Even during the early si1ties# India egan to e1!ort %ute ags made from !olyethylene e1trusion coated or !olyethylene laminated %ute materials" The large*scale e1!ansion of the fertili-er industry in the country resulted in the e1!ansion of mar$ets for this material" Many e1!ort commodities use this as a !ac$aging or as a water !roof wra!!ing material for the safe transit of goods" 3 )ther laminates and coatings2 In the a sence of oriented !oly!ro!ylene# !olyethylene*coated !a!ers have had the ma1imum share of the fle1i le !ouch mar$et" Industries have found

!olyethylene*coated materials to e ine1!ensive and have favoured their use" :olyethylene* coated foil# glassine !a!er# !oster*!a!er*all find e1tensive mar$ets in the country" c3 .hrin$a le &ilms2 India uses shrin$a le films and heat*set !lastic films" In the area of shrin$ !ac$aging# however# the industry has limited it to the intermediate !ac$ages rather than e1tend it to trans!ortation !ac$ages"

:R)D57T AND :A7@AGE DE.IGN Many !roducts must e distri uted in the way they are manufactured" These may e costly to !rotect and may e su %ect to fre,uent damage" A !roduct can undergo slight changes in design so that o %ectiona le o trusions may e reduced or removed or the wea$ elements# which are li$ely to ecome damaged in shi!ment# may e strengthened" It is not ade,uate reali-ed that o trusions or wea$ !oints can result in unnecessarily higher trans!ortation# !ac$aging and damage costs" The si-e# sha!e or closure of many consumer !ac$ages often offer sufficient fle1i ility to sufficient fle1i ility to effectively create a modular !ac$aging or to standardi-es a reduced num er of different !ac$ages or containers of im!roved designs" The manner in which a !roduct is sold or !ac$aged also has a direct earing on trans!ortation costs" The higher the density the lower the trans!ortation cost" :rotective !ac$aging The !ro lem of !rotecting the !roduct through the distri ution !rocess without damage is a ma%or concern of the mar$eting and logistic manager" The o %ective is to arrive at an o!timum !rotection level that will meet the desired customer service standard at a minimum !ac$aging e1!ense" )nly the most critical and highly e1!ensive items should e !ac$aged for full !rotection" Reduction in the !rotective levels must e evaluated against the added costs of warehousing# com!ulsory use of rac$s and e1!ensive redesign of mechani-ed and automated handling system su %ecting the !ac$ages to dro! and im!acts" 7ost reduction in !ac$aging The !ro lems of the higher costs of !hysical distri ution are caused when we e1amine !ac$aging narrowly and de!artmentally" The mar$eting management continues to loo$ at !ac$aging strictly from a sales !oint of view" :ac$aging engineers# who are under !urchasing or manufacturing# e1amine it only as a !rotective device" )nly a !hysical distri ution manager

can loo$ at !ac$aging roadly and conceive of changes in design# si-e# mode of trans!ortation# etc" which will contri ute to the effectiveness of the distri ution system" Most com!anies continue to deal with !ac$aging as an engineering !ro lem without the total system outloo$"

Trans!ort :ac$aging &or the internal movement of goods# the Indian railways have introduced s!ecially designed containers" They differ from inter*modal containers in dimensions and in ca!acity0 ut they meet the re,uirements of the reduction of gloss and damage in transit# and minimi-ed the !ac$aging costs" The develo!ment of inter*indol containers has een underta$en in India" The countryAs maritime trans!ort has een geared to carry container cargo" Efforts have een made to develo! container !orts in the country" Testing of :ac$aging Tests on !ac$aging are !erformed mainly to determine its com!ati ility and trans!ort*worthiness" The various tests carried out are to determine tensile strength# rea$ing load# urst factor# tearing strength# resistance to humidity 6with salt s!ray3 and vi rations# dro! strength# etc" The Indian .tandards Institution has now develo!ed various standards for !ac$aging"