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Modernist literature is marked by a break with the sequential, developmental, causeand-effect presentation of the 'reality' of realist fiction, toward

a presentation of experience as layered, allusive, discontinuous; the use, to these ends, of fragmentation and juxtaposition, motif, symbol, allusion. Language is no longer seen as transparent, something if used correctly allows us to 'see through' to reality: rather language is seen as a complex, nuanced site of our construction of the 'real'. Experimentation in form in order to present differently, afresh, the structure, the connections, and the experience of life. The tightening of form: an emphasis on cohesion, interrelatedness and depth in the structure of the aesthetic object and of experience; this is accomplished in part through the use of various devices such as motif, juxtaposition, significant parallels, different voices, shifts and overlays in time and place and perspective. The (re)presentation of inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of consciousness. The use of such structural approaches to experience as psychoanalysis, myth, the symbolic apprehension and comprehension of reality. The use of interior or symbolic landscape: the world is moved 'inside', structured symbolically or metaphorically. Time is moved into the interior as well: time becomes psychological time (time as innerly experienced) or symbolic time (time or measures of time as symbols, or time as it accommodates a symbolic rather than a historical reality), not the 'historical' or railway time of realism. Time is used as well more complexly as a structuring device through a movement backwards and forwards through time, the juxtaposing of events of different times, and so forth. A HAUNTED HOUSE is a symbolic representation of Modernism as seen through Virginia Woolf?s style. It is not accidental the fact that it is a short-novel; the profound concentration of images, symbols, connections... Analysis

The story A Haunted House by Virginia Woolf is a short story full of symbolism, imagery, and irony. The story is narrated in the third-person limited or the limited omniscience point of view which helps the reader to get a more in-depth perception of how the ghosts and the living people feel and helps the reader understand some of the thoughts that these flat, static characters have throughout the story. The time period is never clearly stated but it appears to be a long time ago, possibly in the late 1800s at an old English house with a garden. AHaunted House is about a ghost couple, male and female, who go around in a house that was once theirs. The reason for being

in the house is that they are searching for buried treasure. Whatever our you woke, there was a door shutting (Woolf 41). The person that occupies the house hears the doors and windows opening and shutting, being well aware of the fact that there are ghost in the house but she is not scared of the ghosts causing harm to her. The ghosts fear that the couple now living in the house might have already found it. The ghost couple searches every single room of the house, going back and forth, double-checking everything. The climax of the story is when the ghost couple comes to the conclusion that the couple occupying the house has never found buried treasure and it could possibly be in the garden. The ghost couple also realizes that the treasure is actually safe and is still in fact theirs. Finally, the author reveals that the buried treasure is "the light in the heart (Woolf 42). Throughout the story, Virginia Woolf, uses the repetition of the words here and it. By using the repetition of the word here and it, Woolf emphasizes the significance of both of the words. The couple says it could be here in the book room, the drawing room and the upstairs. They also say if its upstairs or if they left it in the drawing room. This makes the reader start to question what exactly are the ghosts looking for and where did they leave it? The author also makes the reader wonder if it is here and if not here then where is it? When Woolf finally explains that it is treasure, the reader is led to imagine what kind of treasure are the ghosts looking for? In the last sentence when the author reveals that the ghosts were looking for the light in the heart and by this she was referring to a love that a partner can have for another partner (Woolf 42). Woolf reveals clues throughout the story by showing the reader the happy thoughts and love that the ghosts shared with each other. For example, we slept here (Woolf 41) and kisses without number (Woolf 41). The story has a symbolic meaning to it because the treasure is not an actually tangible item, rather a symbol of love. Imagery is used in the story very often and is used for great effect by giving the reader a mental picture of what is being described and giving the reader the perception that Woolf desires for the reader. Examples of imagery in the story are abundant but a specific example is in the simile, The doors go shutting in the distance, gently knocking like the pulse of a heart. This puts the reader right in the story and allows them to see the doors shutting and the ghosts moving through the house. Just by the title, A Haunted House, the story makes the perception of the house seem that of an evil place. This shows the irony because both of the ghosts are the protagonists and throughout the story it shows the reader the memories of joy and love between the ghost couple. The irony of the story also helps in allowing the reader to understand the storys theme, which is something is not always what it seems to be. In this story the ghosts are actually the protagonists unlike other stories where ghosts are seen as the antagonists.

Type of Work
......."A Haunted House" is a short short story in the fantasy genre about a ghost couple and a living couple occupying the same dwelling.


.......Hogarth Press published the story in London in 1921 as part of a collection of Woolf stories entitled Monday or Tuesday. In the same year, Harcourt, Brace, and Company, Inc., published the collection in New York City.

.......The action takes place in a coastal region of Southeastern England at a house in an unidentified locale where there is a farm. The time is the late nineteenth century or the early twentieth century.

Living Couple: Current occupants of a house. Ghost Couple: Past occupants of the house.

Point of View
.......The living man and woman tell the story in first-person point of view, reporting the conversation and activity of the ghost couple.

.......The tone is playful and lighthearted. The reader realizes that the ghosts who are conducting a searchpose no threat to the living couple.

Plot Summary
.......A man and woman who occupy a house hear male and female ghosts wandering about the dwelling as they talk about a finding a treasure. The living man and woman have no knowledge of a treasure, such as gold or money, hidden on their property. ....... When they were alive, the ghosts had occupied the house more than a century before the current residents. The woman died first, and the man left the house and traveled. "He . . . went North, went East, saw the stars turned in the Southern sky; sought the house, found it dropped beneath the Downs," the narration says. The Downs are a range of chalk mountains along the southeastern coast of England. .......After the man died, he rejoined the woman ghost at the house they once occupied, the same house where the living man and woman now dwell. As the ghosts search for their treasure, they roam the house, opening and closing doors and drawing curtains back. Although they try not to disturb the living couple, the latter can hear them now and then. .......And what is the treasure the ghosts seek? The narration reveals that it is the rediscovery of the places in and around the house where the ghosts spent little moments expressing their love for each other. The female ghost says, "Here, sleeping; in the garden reading; laughing, rolling apples in the loft. Here we left our treasure." After an encounter with the ghost couple in their bedroom, the living couple realize what the ghosts are seeking.

Theme: Love
.......In the second sentence of the story, the phrase "hand in hand" hints that the ghosts are in love. The author then leads the reader to believe that the story is about finding a treasure, perhaps gold or money. In fact, the story is about treasure the treasure of love. As the ghosts wander about the house, they are rediscovering places full of memories of their love for each other.

.......The climax occurs at the end of the story, when the narration reveals that the treasure is "the light in the heart"love.

Wharton's Style
.......Wharton's style in this story has a poetic touch. .......In the second sentence, for example, she uses a commonplace poetic device, inversion, when she writes "making sure a ghostly couple" instead of "a ghostly couple making sure." This is the same device that Edgar Allan Poe uses in the first line of "The Raven," his most famous poem: "Once upon a midnight dreary (instead of once upon a dreary midnight). Another example of inversion occurs in these two sentences: Stooping, holding their silver lamp above us, long they look and deeply. Long they pause. .......Wharton also repeats a phrase"Safe, safe, safe" in way that makes it resemble a refrain in a ballad. .......In addition, Wharton uses the kind of finespun imagery that occurs frequently in poetry. Examples of this imagery appear under Figures of Speech.

Figures of Speech
Alliteration So fine, so rare, coolly sunk beneath the surface the beam I sought always burnt behind the glass Wandering through the house, opening the windows, whispering not to wake us, the ghostly couple seek their joy. The wind drives straightly; the flame stoops slightly The wind falls, the rain slides silver down the glass Anaphora So fine, so rare "What did I come in here for? What did I want to find?" The window panes reflected apples, reflected roses; the faces bent; the faces pondering; the faces that search the sleepers and seek their hidden joy. Hyperbole Kisses without number

Metaphor trees spun darkness for a wandering beam of sun

Comparison of the trees to a weaver (trees spun)

Death was the glass

Comparison of death to the glass

"Safe, safe, safe," the pulse of the house beat gladly.

Comparison of the house to a beating heart

Moonbeams splash and spill wildly in the rain.

Comparison of moonbeams to a liquid

Onomatopoeia the hum of the threshing machine

Paradox from the deepest wells of silence the wood pigeon drew its bubble of sound
Sound comes from silence.

Modernism and Virginia Woolf

Virgina Woolf exhibited the most important elements of modernism in her works very effectively. As she rejected the conventional techniques of Nineteenth Century literature, Woolf used poetic and symbolic language in her works, especially in The Waves, so that her works are mostly considered to be beautiful in form and not meaning. Along with a poetic language, she used also irony effectively in her A Haunted House which differentiates the short story from its classical sorts and simple ghost stories. Woolf, in order to emphasize inner psychological and emotional motives of her character and to let us see what is inside her characters head, she used Stream of Consciousness literary technique in her both works. In my essay, I will focus on the use of language, irony and stream of consciousness technique as modernist techniques by Virginia Woolf in her works A Haunted House and The Waves. Woolf used stream of consciousness literary technique in her short story A Haunted House. In the story, the use of stream of consciousness is very important, since the technique itself helps meaning to be conveyed to readers by characters. Woolf used the technique very effectively, but complicated. Its being complicated, actually, is not the way we should see the story in my opinion. As we read her story, it resolves itself like a puzzle gradually. However, For instance, stream of consciousness which was used in the story creates ambiguity in Woolfs A Haunted House. Here we left it, she said. And he added, Oh, but here too! Its upstairs, she murmured. And in the garden, he whispered Quietly, they said, or we shall wake them. (Woolf, 3) In the quotation, we see they, we or she, but who are they? Or who is she? These questions are not clear till we read the story to the end and find out who are these people. Despite being rather ambiguous, in her story, stream of consciousness not only gives the story a mystic aspect, but also makes the story much more interesting to us. Besides, with the help of stream of consciousness, we can easily understand ghostly couples past and association of their past with the story, because couples conversations and inner thoughts reveal the realities to us: Here we slept," she says. And he adds, "Kisses without number." "Waking in the morning" "Silver between the trees " "Upstairs " "In the garden " "When summer came " "In winter snowtime (Woolf, 4)

Poetic language is almost everywhere in the story. Repetition of words in a prose is good example of poetic language. For example, we see Safe, safe, safe, the heart of the house beats proudly (Woolf, 5), apart from the repetition in the story the metaphorical language supports Woolfs poetic language quiet effectively, as well. the heart of the house beats proudly (Woolf, 5) As normally, heart is an organ related to human being, but the metaphor heart of the house creates very good image as Woolf allows us to feel the atmosphere of the house much better and deeper. Woolfs short story A Haunted House might seem as a ghost story from the term Haunted in its title. In fact, the story is not a simple ghost story that gives us horrific and creepy images, but it is a story that has a meaning which is revealed at the end, thats why she uses irony of Haunted in her work. At first glance, the term Haunted might seem rather horrific as one can understand that the house is simply haunted by ghosts. However, at the end, the story reveals its meaning and we understand that ghostly couple does not haunt the people in the house, but they try to make them understand the joy of life they have, as a valuable treasure. Symbols are mostly used in poetry in modern times, but quickly spread out to the novels which helped the novelist and his/her novels to gain more meanings and value, but, again, they are rather obscure in language. Being complicated and difficult to understand,The Waves is among the best example of modernist style novels. Woolf used symbols in The Waves which made her novel difficult to understand due to metaphorical meaning of the words. For example, The Waves itself is a symbol which symbolizes the life, because, in the novel Woolf presents the ocean as a symbol of procreation and life-giving energy. (J.Ward, 2003) With an elastic language, Woolf writes her novel The Waves like music in a poetic language. She writes to rhythm, not to plot. So what concerns the reader is not the meaning or the message in the novel, but the beauty of the language itself. Stream of consciousness technique in the The Waves adds novel a great sense of understanding inner thoughts of character. In realist writers works, for example, it was not possible to get this feeling because of the omniscience point of view or fixed point of view narrative technique which was only controlled by author. So the characters were like puppets as we were aware that they were being managed by their authors. However, Woolf breaks these rules with her technique and let characters act freely. In conclusion, both works A Haunted House and The Waves blaze the trail in modernist literature. By using some modernist techniques in a great efficiency, Woolf presents her works not in a language that is based on strict rules, but she prefers to play with the language and shape her works in a better form with her own creativity. In spite of being rather difficult to understand, language of her works and symbols show the beauty of Woolfs works. She is not an author who relies on conventional narrative style which is rather insufficient for her, as she says: Life is not a series of gig lamps symmetrically arranged; life is a luminous halo, a semi-transparent envelope surrounding us from the beginning of consciousness to the end. (Faulkner, 31)