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1D/2D modelling suite for integral water solutions



1D/2D modelling suite for integral water solutions

General SOBEK is a powerful modelling suite for ood forecasting, optimisation of drainage systems, control of irrigation systems,

Throughout the world, there is a growing need for integral water solutions. We need protection from excess water in order to live safely in delta areas and river basins. Our water systems also need to be clean and sustainable. To support water authorities, consultancy rms, research institutes and universities worldwide, Deltares offers an integrated modelling suite called SOBEK for the integral simulation.

sewer overow design, river morphology, salt intrusion and surface water quality. The programmes within the SOBEK modelling suite simulate the complex ows and the water related processes in almost any system. The programmes represent phenomena and physical processes in an accurate way in one-dimensional (1D) network systems and on two-dimensional (2D) horizontal grids. It is the ideal tool for guiding the designer in making optimum use of resources. It has been developed - and is being further developed - jointly with Dutch public institutes and governmental organisations, research institutes, universities and private consultants all over the world. Integrated approach SOBEK offers one software environment for the simulation of all management problems in the areas of river and estuarine systems, drainage and irrigation systems and wastewater and storm water systems. This allows for combinations of ow in closed conduits, open channels, rivers overland ows, as well as a variety of hydraulic, hydrological and environmental processes.

Example integrated model (D-Flow 1D Pipes and D-Flow 1D Open Water plus D-Rainfall Runoff Open Water programmes), Hong Kong

A powerful hydrodynamic 1D/2D simulation engine The hydrodynamic 1D/2D simulation engine is the computational core of SOBEK. This engine is used in all D-Flow programmes


SOBEK modelling suite. Thus allowing the combined

simulation of pipe-, river-, channel- and overland ow through an implicit coupling of 1D and 2D ow equations. SOBEK is the ideal tool for studying the effects of dam breaks, river oods, dike breaches, urban ooding etc. Robustness of numerical operations The hydrodynamic 1D/2D simulation engine is equipped with a very robust scheme for numerical computation. It also guarantees mass conservation, even in case of transitions through suddenly varying cross section shapes. The engine combines computations of subcritical and supercritical ow, at scales selected by the user. It handles ooding and drying of channels without the use of articial methods such as the Preissmann slot. Numerical efficiency The hydrodynamic 1D/2D simulation engine has a very efficient numerical solution algorithm; this is based upon the optimum combination of a minimum connection search direct solver and the conjugate gradient method. It also applies a variable time step selector, which suppresses the waste of computational time wherever this is feasible. Size of models The size of the model is only limited by the size of the internal memory of the computer used.

SOBEK allows you to simulate the interaction of water and water related processes in time and space. The suite is mostly used for the modelling of integrated water systems for water management, design, planning and policy making. SOBEK consists of a number of well-tested and validated programmes, which are linked to and integrated with one-another.

of hydraulic structure (pumps, weirs, gates, culverts, sluices and bridges of virtually any shape and dimension). It may also take into account deposited soil layers partially blocking culverts and bridges. Various options for automatic control of the structures are available as standard, including time control, hydraulic control and PID control with both xed and variable set-points. Sediment transport capacity can be computed and visualised on the network. The effects of wind on water levels can be modelled, by specifying the wind force and direction as constants or time series. All possible boundary conditions and initial conditions can be applied. Lateral in and outows can be specied as constants, time-based, formula-based or read automatically from the D-Rainfall Runoff Open Water programme. Lateral ows from other D-Rainfall Runoff programmes can easily be coupled. The D-Flow 1D Open Water programme interfaces completely with all SOBEK programmes to provide an integrated model of the water system.

D-Flow 1D Open Water This programme works with the complete de Saint Venant Equations, including transient ow phenomena and backwater proles. It models any cross section (open and closed), including asymmetrical proles, and y-z proles. It even allows you to dene different subsections within a cross section, using alternative resistance formulations and/or coefficients in each subsection. The hydrodynamic 1D/2D simulation engine has an automatic drying and ooding procedure that is 100% mass conservative. The engine can deal with steep canals with supercritical ow and moving hydraulic jumps are simulated as easily as canals with a mild slope and subcritical ow. Complex networks of any size with internal loops and branches are easily handled without any problems. You can specify nearly any type

D-Flow 1D Pipes This programme uses the complete de Saint Venant Equations, thus including backwater and transient ow phenomena. It models a wide variety of cross sections and manhole shapes (including user-dened ones) and allows you to build up your own cross section and manhole database. It is specially designed to handle

Example Graphical User Interface (GUI)

large and complex sewer networks on an ordinary PC, where the computation time is only linear with the size of the network and independent of its complexity. The hydrodynamic 1D/2D simulation engine has an automatic drying and pressurised procedure and handles real supercritical ow and is always 100% mass conservative. It uses a self-selecting time step so your computer will not crash and accuracy is guaranteed. All possible boundary conditions can be specied by you or are automatically applied. You can specify virtually any type of hydraulic structure, such as single or multiple stage pumps, weirs of any shape, rectangular and circular gates, culverts and basins. All structures handle free, submerged and transient ow conditions. The D-Flow 1D Pipes programme includes rainfall runoff inow, dry weather ows and the processes for various types of paved areas, such as streets, roofs and parking lots. You may dene your own time and spatially varied rainfall pattern, or historical data of storm events and long time series with or without dry periods. Detailed inltration as a time-dependent process following the HORTON equation is also available. Real-time control options, including PID control, are available for all structures and are ideal for complex centralised control systems using rainfall predictions. Sediment transport computation shows where sediment might be deposited; interfaces completely with the D-Flow 1D Open Water programme to provide an integrated model of the urban water system and its environment. D-Rainfall Runoff Open Water This programme contains a library of Rainfall Runoff modules from polder subcatchment scale up to river catchment scale, such as HBV and SCS. The catchment areas can easily be modelled in a lumped or detailed manner with no restriction to the number of catchment areas. The catchment areas can be modelled in D-Flow 2D Overland This programme is fully integrated with the D-Flow 1D Open Water and D-Flow 1D Pipes programmes for accurate ood simulation of river systems, polder areas, breaches of levees/ dikes and dams, streets, etc. It is based upon the complete de Saint Venant Equations. The hydrodynamic 1D/2D simulation engine simulates steep fronts, wetting and drying processes, subcritical and supercritical ow. It also handles multi domains any detail using land elevation curves, soil characteristics, land cultivation, drainage characteristics etc. It distinguishes between various rainfall run-off processes such as surface run-off, sub-soil drainage and storage in saturated and unsaturated areas, taking crop evaporation and capillary rise into account. The D-Rainfall Runoff Open Water programme uses separate storm events or long time series of meteorological data for statistical analysis. You can input your own rainfall patterns or use historical data and model any number of rainfall gauges taking the spatial variation into account. It can model both ood events and dry spells. This programme can be used in combination with the D-Flow 1D Open Water programme and the D-Real Time Control programme. The D-Rainfall Runoff Open Water programme can also be used as a stand-alone, using reservoir approach for open water ow. and nested multi domains. The D-Flow 2D Overland programme includes rainfall on the 2D grid.
QUICKIN, a powerful editor of grid related data, such as bathymetries

D-Water Quality 1D This programme is based on the water quality 1D/2D/3D simulation engine which offers you more than 30 years of collective water quality modelling experience worldwide. It models almost any water quality variable and its related water quality processes. This component is highly exible due to the many standard options and user-dened options available. It uses a library of 900 processes and substances, including eutrophication, adsorption, desorption, nutrients, bacteria, oxygen, phyloplankton, heavy metals and
Example ood modelling Daly River, Australia

micro-pollutants. The interactive processes editor allows you to

select the water quality variables and processes you want to model. Pre-dened sets of water quality variables and processes can be used for particular problems or following the standard set of rules and regulations for specic regions. To analyse the origin of pollutants in any water system, fraction computations can be easily made. No additional input data is required for fraction computations, which makes it easy to trace water or pollutants from to its source throughout the network. The state-of-the-art numerical schemes of the water quality 1D/2D/3D simulation engine use a nite volume approach and the programme display mass balances. It is fully integrated with the standard user interface. Which means that standard network editing, animations, graphs and other post-processing facilities of SOBEK are used. Various options are available to avoid the tedious job of dening your boundary conditions. For example dening default boundary values for clusters of inow locations. The possibility to overwrite these defaults for specic locations, and the option to link your own ASCII input le with boundary data.

helps you make informed choices about automation and the best water control strategy. All standard irrigation automation concepts can be handled with this programme.

Graphical User Interface The Graphical User Interface (GUI) is one of the most user-friendly in the market. Under the umbrella of this GUI the programmes combine into an exceptionally versatile and easy-to-use power suite. The GUI allows the user to visualize model input, reference data and simulation results as time series and animations of one- and two-dimensional data sets on the map and in side views. The SOBEK modelling suite is open for additional pre and post processing tools (such as the QUICKIN tool), a powerful editor of grid related data (such as bathymetries for the D-Flow 2D Overland programme) running standalone and as ArcGIS plug-in. The SOBEK programmes are also available as plug-ins in the open operational framework called Delft-FEWS. Within Delft-FEWS the programmes can either be deployed in a stand-alone, manually driven environment, or in a fully automated distributed clientserver environment.

Validation The validation of a modelling system such as SOBEK requires continuous attention. Even though the individual programmes of the suite have been thoroughly tested during their development, the suite as a whole requires intensive testing and validation too. To this end, a regular programme is established and tests of many of the most likely combinations are continually performed. As a policy, new versions are released only after an extensive beta testing period, to ensure that our users are only provided
Example Graphical User Interface of Delft-FEWS with SOBEK programmes as plug-ins, Po River, Italy

with stable and validated products.

System requirements D-Real Time Control Real-time control often saves money in the construction, alteration and management of the water system infrastructure. The D-Real Time Control programme shows to what extent the existing infrastructure can be used in a better way. It allows you to simulate complex real-time control of all hydraulic structures in rivers, canals, irrigation and drainage systems and/or pipe networks. This programme allows the system to react optimally to actual water levels, discharges, (forecasted) rainfall, by controlling gates, weirs, sluices and pumps. The D-Real Time Control programme can also be linked to Matlab, the industrial standard for control engineers, and even allows you to dene your complete control system in Matlab. It enables you to intervene in events taking place within your water system. This programme Processor Memory Disk free Minimal 1,5 GHz 512 MB 2 GB Preferred 3 GHz 4 GB 20 GB SOBEK is supported on Microsoft Windows. The advised minimum requirements are a conguration consisting of:

Users meetings Deltares organizes an annual international SOBEK users meeting. Multiple smaller SOBEK users meetings are organized at international conferences worldwide; providing excellent venues to get updates on the latest developments and to meet other SOBEK users.

Deltares Academy Please visit the for all information about our SOBEK training courses.

Ongoing developments To keep SOBEK up-to-date with state-of-the-art knowledge, we

Example D-Flow Flexible Mesh, San Francisco Bay, USA

constantly update and extend the system. Please contact us if you are interested in particular features that go beyond the default functionality mentioned. Developments of the SOBEK suite currently include: D-Morphology 1D programme (1D-3D) D-Water Quality 2D programme (1D-3D) Flexible Mesh support: an integrated engine based on 1D networks and 3D/2D layered mesh of mixed triangles, quadrilaterals, and more complex cells DeltaShell, open exible modelling suite for 0D-3D models OpenMI compliant (in DeltaShell) OpenDA (in DeltaShell) Redhat/Linux.

Service packages Deltares offers high quality services to consultancy rms, governmental organizations, universities and research institutes worldwide. Several SOBEK service packages, including fully validated high quality SOBEK distributions, are available to suit your specic needs! For consultancy rms, governmental organizations and research institutes worldwide we have designed our Basic Service Packages, Advance Service Packages, Professional Service Package, Premium Service Package and Enterprise Service Package. For universities and schools, we offer our Education Service Package. Designed with you in mind, they offer you your requested level of convenience.

For our beta testing programme, please contact

Support desk The SOBEK support desk is the users instantly accessible contact point for all questions and problems concerning the software. The support team answers the majority of questions instantly or takes responsibility that a timely reply is given by one of the other SOBEK team members. All incoming queries on the software packages, current or future performance, are recorded in our professional issue tracker system. This system is an important instrument in the realisation of improvements to the programmes, the manuals and the Deltares Academy training courses. New versions of SOBEK will be released once a year to all users, as part of their package.
Impression of the new user interface: DeltaShell, open exible modelling suite for 0D-3D models

Photos by:, Rijkswaterstaat / Joop van Houdt.

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