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FARM IRRIGATION STRUCTURES

A. R. Robinson

Handbook No. 2

lo vcl\ , Prepared In ioopea oii "ith ti. 'nined Statcs A. International D)Celopmnn. (onlrac All) l)SAN-( (X)Ws All Il the ' reported opinions, oniclti+ons or raretonIr ndaior di hose author I(cnlri (or)kiild not tho .e l thi tizldly aIgcII. or he United States go%,rnmeIt. Mention o
publication issolel\ to pio idt: lwiiilii endorseentrn h AlI)

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WATER MANAGEMENT SYNTHESIS PROJECT

University Services Center Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado

Agricultural & Irrigation E-ingineering Utah State University Logan, Utah

March 1983

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page TA BLE OF CO NTE NTS ........................................... LIST IN (I O F fIG U RES ........................................... IL IST IN (I 0)1. I'A P,LE S ............................................ O RI) ... FO R L W I. I N T RO DI A( I ( )N .. ............................................... .. ............................................ TIJ RES .................................. H v

vii
I 3 3 3 7 12 12
15

1. C I IA N Nt I.S A Nt) '-IRtU

1. l)cli ,c ; ( hdnm .l mid I) i' ' .................................... a. (Channcl [)e-ign ..................... ... .................................... b. Iarth I)itchc., ........ ........... c. I ned )i h . .. .. . . ........ l) (rm rctc I rning ...........................................
2)

:,.phalti

( o(t creuc

............

................................

asi n r%, .. . ......................................... 3, N1 k ihbcr Sheeting ........................... 4) \-pV p lIt, l'lall ............ ............................ 5) ( h ij Se a t ... ........................ i ld ............. ri t 6) 1 arth c

15

15
. 17 17 17

........ ................. ......... 2. Control S'rtrtucc, a. [)l,,i~ l Stuc :tic.................................................. h . )ro p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . ............................. c. C hec . . ... .........
d . I IrrInr

19
29 37

t,, ( )utlCt.

....

.....

........

...

.........................

45
62 62 63 68 68

3. W ater M casuring Structures ...................................... a . W eirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . h . F lum es . ... . ... . . ... . . .. . . ... . .. . ... . .. . ... .. . ..... .. .. . .. .. c. Orifice ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. ,Miscellaneous Stru tures, .........................................

a. Culverl,,, Biridges, I mines, Crossings, Siphons ...................


b. )rainage Structures .......................................... c. A utom ated Structu res , ......................................... d. Other Structure ......................................... III. LOW tPKESSUIR[ PIPE S YSTEM S ................................. I. Pip e )esig n ... .. .. . . ... .. . . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. ... ... ... .. .. .. . .. .. a. U nderground ................................................ b . Su rface ... .. ... .. . ... . .. . . .. . .. . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .... . .. .. . . .. ........................... c. Pipeline C apacity ................. 2 . Stru ctu res ... . ... . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . .. .. ... ... . .. .. .. .. .. . . . a . in let Structu res .............................................. b. Pressure and Flow Control Stands .............................. c. D ischarge Control Structures ................................... d. M iscellaneous Structures ......................................

68
69 71 71 73 73 73 73 73 77 77 78 83 84

IV. CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION ..........................

87
87

1. D itch

C onstruction .............................................

2. Ditch Structures .................... 3. Pipe System s ................................................... V. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE ...............................
1. Op era tio n . . ... ... . .. .. .. ... . . .. . . .. . ... . . .. .. . ... .... ... .. ... . 2. Maintenance ................................................

88
88 91
91 91

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................93
VII. DEFINITION OF TERMS........................................ 95

1. Channels and Structures

.. .....................................

2. Hyd ra ulics ...........................

..........................

95 96

APPENDIX I - Concrete for Small Jobs APPENDIX 2 - Standard Drawings of SCS Structures APPENDIX 3 - ASAE Standard S 261.5 Design and Installation of Non-Reinforced Concrete Irrigation Pipe Systems APPENDIX 4 - ASAE Standard S376 Design, Installation and Performance of Underground Thermoplastic Irrigation Pipelines

LISTING OF FIGURES
Figure I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1) 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 . .. .. . .. ..................... Surface irrigatio n canal sy ,tcm ..... Manning eLJuitin1 ',Olition for determining canal dcsign ................. ................ ........ Animal pous,,ered V\-dcher ............... Tra'tor pmc ,ercd V-ditch,r ......................................... Sugce te. irte cd', e tIor llechtijit al reconstruction of earthen channels ........... ................ -anal ....... ,m all c Ic, T ype, o I . ... . .. .. ..... C o icletc licd atn al' .. .. . . . ............. Page 3

6
10 I) I 13 14 16 18 1. 19 21 21 22 22 24 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 50 50

..

.. ... ... .. . ... . . ...... . l'rccaot concictu :hanm nel ,,cctik , ...... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . \ " i n wri iti( I -,\ , t ill .......... .......... ditches l'. lwt,.',tn t'.o ht . l)ii,,n to ...... . .... l th"t o ili 1)ii ioni ,)\ i, lI ......... . lakita in iidaii aid l r i,,ed Seminodui l I,, .............. ............... id Indil } tt it l t .ed ui, I)ivior-tu itm ....................................... [renh type pro trtitoiil di'. ,%djU\tahie p ; ttt tl block di, i,,or .................................. ....... .......... . .................. Tswo-vay concrete hl() k di,. i,o ................................ . .. Three-way divisor. .... Concrete trapezo' idal two-.as dikisol . ................................ ................. Portab le gate,, tr- di,.i'or ,tftjctures ................. ............... structures piefabricated d, ,t ud usine u cmre, snt Di,,ision Drop struct t.-, ,,' tot tgrade control ................................

Exat ples oI ,m all drop )trucmu ,, .......

............................. ............................... D rop stricture conibiicd ,Aith turnout , .. Concretc tr apeitmdd d,p lructire ................................ ....... .............................. (oncrete "top-e ck ......... Concrcte hlock dro i and check ,,tructure ............................... lDtop-ch,.xck ,t e treC ti,11e xIiic:d Lw ncrcte sect ions ................... lDrop .,:ructure \%ith i-ra, el-i()ck ',tilling basin ........................... ......................................... Tvpical pipe di op 'etructire Sloping rock drop stmucLtiL tc . ... .................................... l)itch check iM ined ditch s'ith ,,iphon tubes ............................ Sm all concrete ditch check ........................................... ............. W ooden ditch -heck, \kith different openings ............. W ood 'imt c \%all check w ith turnout .................................. Concrete block check ,ith apron for erosion control .................... ................................... C oncretc blo.ck check ,(ructure .... Portable can. as check vith dischar e sleeve ............................ Flexible, portable ditch ch Ck ......................................... Portable m etal check .. . ........................................... Two types of portable checks ....... ................................. G ated p ipe o utlet ................................................... Commonly used turnouts for farm irrigation ditches ..................... C oncrete pipe turnout ............................................... W ooden turnout for basin and border irrigation ........................ Two designs of wooden turnouts .....................................

46

Turnout-check structure using extruded concrete sections .................

51

ii'

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

Neyrpic gates and modular turnouts..................................52 Trapezoidal panel outlets .. .......................................... Concrete orifice pan l outlets........................................ Brick masonry installation for panel outlets ............................ Precast concrete slab installation for panel outlet ........................ Head loss through circular concrete turnouts ........................... Spiles used for furrow or corrugation irrigation ......................... Siphon tubes for furrow irrigation ................................... L.arge siphon with priming pum p for turnout ........................... licharge of siphon tubes ............................................ (.oncrete lined ditch v ith bank cuts for irrigating .......................

54 55 56 57 58 59 59 60 61 64

58
59 60

Rectanguhir

eir ...... .... ..................................... Ninety-degre V -notch 'cir ........................................... FParshall measuring flumne6

65
65

61
63 64 65

Cutthroat

TIrapezoidal measuri ng flum e .........................................

ea uring

u e ........

..... [ 1 .............................. .........


..................................

6
66

Broad crested v, eir (fb-c-w) measuring flume ............................ Flume for ,carrying irrigation water across a depression .................. Inverted ,i ,hon made from concrete pipe .............................. End details for siphon crossirg........................................ 1Int staid for indergroad pipeline .................................. piLal concrete pump stand ... ..................................... ombinat ion gate and oerflo itaind.................................79 Float valve stand.............. .......................... .. ....... Typical alfalfa pmal hydrant........................................81 Orchard valve hydrant.... ... .....................................

67
67 68 69

66
67 68 69 70 71 72

70
77 78 80 82

73
74 75

Giated surface pipe and tubing attached to .ortable hydrants...............


Open pot hydrant with orchard valve .................................. Air vnt for underground pipelines .. ...............................

82
82

85

iv

LISTING OF TABLES
Table
I Values of Manning roughness coefficient n for earthen and lined canals ....

Page
5

Suggested maximum flow velocities and side slopes for lined and unlined ... .......... ....... ..... .... ....... ...... .... ... ... ch annels ..... Earth irrigation ditch sizes for different slopes, roughness and discharges... D ischarge capacity of spiles .......................................... Head loss in concrete pipe with concentric gasket joints .................. Resistance coefficient A for fittings and valves ..........................

8 9 62 75 76

3 4 5 6

PREFACE
The purpose of this handbook is to provide information on small structures used in irrigated agriculture, primarily for selecting those structures needed to improve on-farm water management. Complete information on design, construction and operation of the multitude of structures that are available is impossible to assemble in one publication. [his handbook is intended to emphasize the importance of adequate control and distribution of irrigation water, enumerate some of the successful structures that are avail-

able, give a selected amount of design information, show a limited number of examples of design procedures, and give
references where more information can be

obtained. With the exception of low pressure underground pipeline systems, only surface systems are discussed. Sprinkler and other methods of irrigation are not covered in this handbook. Information on small canals and structures is given for flows of less tha; 0. 14 cubic meters per second (5 cubic feet per second). Generally the flows will be in the 0.03 to 0.06 m3 /s (1-2 cfs) range. Structures that can be constructed from local materials and with local labor are emphasized. Precast structures and structures constructed from precast brick block and sections are also presented. In addition to the extensive bibliography listed for small canals and structures, there is a section presenting standard definitions of terms used in the handbook. Appendices given include: 1)preparation of concrete for small jobs; 2) standard designs of farm irrigation structures (including metric conversion factors); 3) standards for pipe irrigation systems; and
4) standards for plastic pipe irrigation systems.

FARM IRRIGATION STRUCTURES


A. R. Rkobin,,n

I. INTRODUCTION
Surface methods of irrigation are still used on most of the 234 million hectares (1972 data) of irrigatcd,cultivated lands in the world with tihe remaining lands being irrigated by sprinkler and tricklc system s (3). It has been projccted that tile irrigated area will increase to about 273 million ha by 1990. An estimated 86 million ha of' tile world's irrigated lands have sv\,terns that now need improvement of both the main and on-farm systems for di:ributing and applying irrigation water. -Fhe United cerns as well as reliable water delivery aind
a regulated filo\% rate. Improvcd watcr

control structures, propcrlV used, can materially impro.c tihe use and control of irrigation \water. li Is possible for n surface irrigation. ,,toil, to havc ,atcr percent application Cefticiencics of 7)to 810) and higher. The priuary purpose ot this handbook is to present in! rnalion oil siall irrieation channel, anld ,irlcturcs thai can be used to inpro(\ C 01- -LfiFi.a ICr in aIaCepresurc pipe ,,stems arC also Iment. I.' considered. I lie applicat i ( i1li inforIllation w.ill result iII mtuch less , asIe of, irrigation watcr 'mil thte icsultaiit inccasec

States of America presently (1980) has about 21 million ha of irrigated,cultivated lands, of which 70 percent is surface ir-

rigation. The sprinkle and trickle methods of irrigation use pumps almost entirely. Pumps require a large energy input, and initially, tile systems require a large capital outlay. There is limited use of gravity pressure sprinkle and trickle systems. In the near future, the obvious world shortage of cheap fossil fuel energ,
will probably mean a return to gravity

in water tor existim crops ald tl irrigating -iddiiioial areas. lmpro\ cnient of water management on individual farms will result in higher crop yields also.

pressure irrigation systems. The rapidly expanding world population will den' -Id an increasing food supply which will also require an increase in production from irrigated agriculture, mostly From surfacer
gravity systems.

There has bcen a lack of attention to the design and (peration of the irrigation systems at the farin level because governlthe scconmeit custody usually ends v\ith dary canal ,sstens, and farmers, either by organizationotO individually, operate the balance of the systems. [here also has been tile ass tlinpti Oll that lar i irrigation should be I )\% cost and si rtic
therefore, tialit v ha' been a sco1ndary consideratiOt .

Water application efficiencies for stirface irrigation systems a.otind the world typically have been quite low, 40-50 percent (11). Water conveyance efficiencies can be quite low also, possibly in the 40-50 percent range, due to canal and ditch seepage, leakage, and sp'llage. Overall irrigation efficiencies !hen might range as low as 28-35 percent indicating that 65-72 percent of the water is lost to the individual farm use. Overall, the efficiencies can be materially increased with canal and ditch mainter-ance and lining, use and improvement of control structures, and improved on-farm water management. Good farm irrigation watei management includes all of these con-

It is imf1po-tant that the ,ystcns and structires, be adapted for tlsC inI different coIntries v, ith consideration for availability and existen,c of materials, skills, labor, financing and customs. Generally, the procedures and structural designs in this handbook are described simply. The structures are usually easy to operate, arc reliable and give good, positive control. Some will require more maintenance than others. Structures and linings that require specialized and expensive equipment for installation are not emphasized. Small, low cost structures that can be constructed entirely with local materials and labor are presented.

II. CHANNELS AND STRUCTURES


1. Delivery Channels and )itches The channels discussed here are tertiary and quaternary canals, i.e., the canals commonly called farm and field laterals. They supply water to farm or field outlets and turnouts. The larger canals (tertiary) are called farm laterals (USA), tne.skA (Egypt) and minors (Pakistan and India), while the smaller ones (quaternary) are called field laterals and head-ditches (USA) and marwas (*gvpt ), ( Tigur ). ni ned carth or liniThe channels may bC 11 ed with concrete, masonry or asphalt, a. ('hannel Ile.ign. In orcler to determine the channel size required, the maxim uim discharge, together with the desired shape of the section and an estimate of the channel

Q = C AR2's' /n where Q = discharge, (L ' /T). A R cross sectional area of ditch, (L2). hydraulic radius--area divided by the wetted perimeter, (L).

(1)

longitudinal slope, (L/L).

=Manning

roughness coefficient (L') (same value for both metric and English units). 1.0 when using metric units, 1.49 for English units.

roughness, must he known. The Manning ot cornmonly used relaequation is the nm tiorslhip for determining channel discharge and will be used in this handbook.

., \ TertiaryQuternary Canal
Form Field F

Tertiary Farm Quaternary Field Figure 1. Surface irrigation canal system.

The Manning roughness coefficient, n, for canals varies from 0.010 for smooth concrete to over 0.10 for channels with weeds and brush. Table I lists values of' n for earthen and lined channels that can be used for design. The value for n should be
chosen only after a careful study of the

given flow with a measured slope in a given material or with a selected lining of a predetermined shape. In other situations an estimate of the discharge is required while knowing tic ditch size and slope, with an estimate of the roughness (Manning n from Table I ). Figure 2 gives a solti-

field situation.

The design problem is usually to determine the width and depth required for a

tion for Equation I that can be used to make estimates of the ditch shape and flow. The following are two examples using Figure 2.

Example 1
Earth canal in clay loam after e.vathering, clean; n 0).022 (Table 1).

Assume. Bottom width, B - 0.45 m (1.5 ft) Longitudinal slope, s = 0.001 Side slope, z 1.5 (1.5 horizontal to I vertical) Discharge, Q 0. 10 m's (3.5 cfs) Problem. Determine the depth of flow. Solution."Solve for the i',, in Figure 2. Ef = (Qn/ s)/ i ' [(0.10)(0.022)/(0.032)l/(0.12) From Figure 2 for z = 1.5, E,,, 0.57, then D/B Since B = 0.45 m, then D = 0.27 m (0.89 ft).

0.57 0.60.

Example 2
Brick with vertical wall, mortar trowel finished surface, n - 0.013 ('[able I). Assume: Bottom vidth, 13 0.45 m (t.5 ft) Depth of' sction, 0.45 m (1.5 ft) Freeboard, 0.15 m (0.5 ft) Depth of f1obs, 1) 0.30 m ( .0 ft) Longitudinal slopc, s 0.001 Side slope, 1 0 Problem: Determine the discharge. Solution: From Figure 2, for )/B - 0.67 and z E,, (Qn.,sj; " ' or 0 then E,,
=

0.28

Q,) L V,,,s B3 1,n (0.28)(0.032)(0.12)/0.013 Q - 0.083 m's (2.93 cfs)

Table 1. Values of Manning roughness coefficient, n, for earthen and lined channels (30).
Roughness coefficient n

Type of' Channel and Description A. Excavated earthen channels a. Straight and un1iform 1.(lean. rCceitly Completed 2. (Ican, after veatherine ctimi, clean ,in it 3. (Gra,.cl, tin as-, fey weeds 4. With short ,_ and w ecd, 5. With long Lt[I.t b. Winding and ,Iugish 1. No vegetati onr 2. (irass, sonic weed, 3. )ense weccds Or aquatic plants in (feep chanelics 4. Farth hottorn and rubble sides ilad weedv banks 0 5. Ston hottm 6. Cobble hotil Iand clean sides c. Channels not maintaied, weeds and brush utlt.It high as flo, depth 1l)erse ,,ed,. 2. ('lean bottom, brush on sides 3. Same, highest state of flow 4. Detise brush, high Iage 13. Lined or builtl-up channels a. Cement 1. Neat, ,mootli surface 2. Mortar b. Concrete 1. lrowel 1fi110h 2. Float finish 3. l:inisltCd, .ith gravel on bottom 4. Urifinished c. Brick 1.Glazed 2. In cernei mortar d. Masonry 1. Cemented rubble 2. Dry rubble

Ninimum

Normal

Maximumf

0.016 0.018
0.022

0.018 0.022
0.025

0.020 0.025
0.030

0.022 0.030 0.023 0.025 0.030 0.028 0.025 0.030 0.050 0.040 0.045
0.080

0.027 0.040 0.025 0.030 0.03 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.080 0.050 0.070 0.100 0.011 0.013 0.013 0.015 0.017 0.017 0.013 0.015 0.025 0.032

0.033 0.0-45 0.030 0.033 0.040 0.035 0.040 0.050 0.120 0.080 0.110 0.140 0.013 0.015 0.015 0.016 0.020 0.020 0.015 0.018 0.030 0.035

0.010 0.011 0.011 0.013 0.015 0.014 0.011 0.012 0.017 0.023

Ee = On/Is B84 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 2

(English

Unit) 4 6 8 10

040

1.6

1.4B 1.2 CI CC S 0OC,,' 2 0O-,14

Q_

1.0 -

00004 0 000 0002

" 2028

o020 0,24
0,228 OC-5 0 00 0890

e ,

,
- .'

8/

"

_ ' 001C

0C,32C0 , 25 . 0 " C 0 00 2 2 0013 1377 0 0248 0 C -:I, 40 -0 0 -. 0 55 1 5 0 90 0 755 1 1 0000 1 00 I6 26 20

C 0 ,7 00 6 80 00 0.8 0 -6 00 08 890 2"'"' 0010 00 2 0 00189 O0 4

0 50

508-9

0.6

20 6

3 50

0.4 0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6
Em
=

0.8 1.0
Qn/f
-

2
B8/3 (Metric Units)

10

Figure 2. Manning equation solution for determining canal design (30).

Note that the amount of flow is inversely proportional to the roughness, n; i.e., an increase in roughness decreases the
discharge in direct proportion; with shape, slope and depth remaining the

It is customary to use a gradient of 0.001 in many areas. The slope of the ditch should be such that tle bed does not
erode arid tile water flows at a selfcleaning velocitv; i.e., there is no deposi-

same. If the discharge remains constant


and the roughness increases (such as from

tion. A heavy clay soil will allow fairly


high velociilc:, with out eroding, (Table 2). neces<,arv to inse:t drops into At times it ik the ditch to reduce \elocilties and prevent scour and erosion. [For soils that are nort he ilaxiulllni mallv enctountered, velocities Li,.cn in Table 2 should not be

growing vegetation), then the depth of


flow must increase. So that the ditch is riot overtopped, there should be a freeboard (distance

from the maximum water surface to tile


top of the banks) of at least 15 cm (6 iri.) for the small canals. The banks tend 'o

exceeded. ,or Lxaniple 1, the a',erage velocity for an carth cai.iad in clav lo;ttn is
0.43 m, s (1.4 ,).For Lxaniple 2 and fIt

lower with seasoning, aging of the canal,


and use of the banks by traffic. b. Earth Ditches.

elocitv is 0.61 in,,'s (2.0 lined ditch, the ,


ft!s). Both of thcc velocities are in tile safe rangc. Ior unlined ditch side slopes, the loscr %,alue(steepr slOpC) given in Table 2 s1ho1uld be usC6 for cuts and the

Unlined earth ditches are the most cornmon means of conveying irrigation water to the farm fields. Unlined ditches are preferred by many farmers because they can be built cheaply and easily, and maintained with farm equipment. Also, unlined ditches provide flexibility - it is easy to change the layout, increase capacity, or even eliminate them after a rotation and rebuild them the next season. However, they have many disadvantages that make them less desirable than lined ditches or underground pipe. 1.They occupy more land than lined ditches. 2. They usually lose more water due to seepage, leakage and spillage. 3. Rodents can cause leakage. 4. If weed growth is a problem, frequent cleaning is needed. 5. Earth ditches can erode and meander, creating problems in maintaining straight and proper alignment. The slope for an earth ditch may be as low as 0.00018. (Egyptian irrigation canals generally have slopes ranging from 0.00018 to 0.00020.) However, small slopes result in slow flow velocities, large cross sections, and possible sediment deposition on the bed.

higher va!ue (flatter slopes) for canals cxcavated in a fill section. File approximate si/ing of earth ditches 1.5) is with a side slope of I!':2 (z given in Table 3 and cal be used for preliminiary design. With an estimate of slope, roughness factor and desired discharge, several possible ditch sizes can be determined. Conversely, with a known ditch shape (bottom width), roughness and discharge, the required depth and slope can be estimated. By using the Manning F.qIation (I), tables car be developed similar to Table 3 for other ditch shapes, roughness and slopes. Ditch ocatioins should be carefully planned to adequately serve tile irrigated area. If adjacent fields are being leveled, any needed fill material for the ditch can be easily obtained. Earth ditches cal be formed manually or with pulled ditchers. The animal powered V-ditcher shown in Figure 3 cal be used to form the ditch. The V-ditcher is run in furrows opened by a moldboard-type plow. Two furrows are made adjacent to each other with the furrow slice thrown in opposite directions. The V-ditcher then moves the soil to form a berm on each side. Usually it is necessary to plow a second or third time to obtain more earth for the banks.

8 Table 2. Suggested maximum flow velocities and side slopes for lined and unlined channels (5). Maximum Flow Velocities m/sec ft/sec

Type of Surface

Side Slopes Range (z)*

Unlined Ditches, seasoned Sand Sandy loam Clay loam Clays Gravel Rock Lined Ditches Concrete Cast-in-place Precast Brick Asphalt Concrete Exposed membrane Buried membrane t Plastic Buried membrane +
0

0.3 0.5 0.6 0.9 0.9 1.2

-0.7 -0.7 - 0.9 - 1.5 - 1.5 - 1.8

1.0 - 2.3 1.6 - 2.3 2.0 - 3.0 3.0 - 5.0 3.0 - 5.0 4.0- 6.0

3 2-22 1 /2-2 1-2 **

1-1
'A-I

1.5 - 2.5 1.5 -2.0 1.2- 1.8 1.2 1.8 0.9 - 1.5 0.7 - 1.0 0.6 - 0.9

5.0-8.2t 5.0 -6.5 4.0- 6.0 4.0 -6.0 3.0 - 5.0 1.6 - 3.3 2.0 - 3.0

34-I

0-1 0-1 1-1 1/2-2 2 2

tt tt

z is the hori/ontal unit to one (1) vertical unit. * Side ,lope,, of 1:1 for ,,mall canals in clay and clay loam are common. t Flows in this, scicity range may be supercrifical (see definitions) and difficult to conIrol. They arc not recommended except for special uses. it Small preca,, and brick channels may have vertical walls (z - 0). I Nla.imu !t , vloit ies ,,, ill depend on the cover over the membrane.

Tractor drawn ditchers may he obtained in many different designs and sizes, Figure 4. They may be adjusted manually or hydraulically. Generally the "no ;e" element is at an angle with the "wings'' so that when tilted, a somewhat flat bottom is obtained. The wings are adjustable for different widths. By combining tilt with wing spread, depth and top width can be

varied. In use, the first pass is not at full depth unless the earth is reasonably soft. On the second pass the tractor wheels or tracks will compact the earth moved out on the first pass. This will reduce seepage and stabilize the banks. Compaction of the banks and bed by manual or machine tamping or rolling is desirable.

Table 3. Earth irrigation ditch sizes for different slopes, roughness and discharges (33).
Flat bed before ditch is formed 0.0005 n = 0.03 B m
0.15 0.30

Finished ditch section s = 0.1301 0.04 n = 003 n = 0.04 Q ft/s


1.9 m'/s 0.04 0.06 ft' 1.5 m'. s 0.08 0.10

s = 0.002 n = 0.03 n = 0.04 Q


ft' s 2.7 3.7 m'/s 0.06 0.08 ft'is 2.1 2.8 mrs 0.10 0A3

s = 0.003 n = 0.03 Q
ft/s 3.4 4.5

n = 0.04 Q
m/s 0.07 0.10 ft'/s 2.5 3.4

D ft
0.5 1.0

F
ft 1.0 1.0

W
ft 0.5 0.5 In 0.30 0.46 ft 1.00 1.50 In 2.6 3.0

r
fi 8.5 10.0 m2 0.19 o.23

A
ft: 2.00 2.5(0 In 0.15 0.16

R
ft m. 0.04 0.05

Q
It's 1.4 I.S

Q
n
0.03 0. 04 ft. s 10 1.4 m's 0.05 0.07

m
0.30 0.30

m
0.15 0.15

0.49
0.54

0.46 0.61 0.30 0.46 0.61 0.46 0.61 0.61 0.91

1.5 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 3.0

0.30 0.30 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.41 0.41 0.46 0.46

1.0 1.0 1.2 12 1.2 1 33 1.33 1.5 1.5

0.15 0.15 11.21 0.21 1.21 0.24 0.24 0.30 0.30

0.5 0.61 0.5 0.76 0.7 0.38 0.7 0.46 0. 1 0.61 0.8 0.53 0.8 0.61 1.0 0.46 0.61 1.0

2.(X) 2.51) 1.25 1.50 2(X) 1.75 2.00 1.50 2.00

3.5 4.0 3.4 3.7 4.2 4.1 4.5 4.7 5.3

!1.5 13.0 11.3 12.3 13.8 13.6 14.6 15.5 17.5

0.28 3X) 0.33 3.50 ( I i,.36 0,3" 3.96 0 42 4.56 0.43 4.65 0.49 5.31 (.59 6.38 0.73 7.88

0.18 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 (0.26 0.29

0.59 0.62 0.63 O.68 0.3 0.74 (.78 0.86 0.94

O.'7 0.08 1.08 0.10 ().12 0.12 0.14 0.18

2.3 2.5 2.7 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.9 6.4

015 0.06 0.06 1.0 0.0S 0.09 0.11 0.14 0.18

17 2.1 2(0 2.5 1.1 3.2 3.8 4.8 6.3

0.09 O.11 0.11 0.14 0.16

2.6 3.3 4.0 3.9 4.8 5.7

0.07 0.08 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.13 0.15

20 2.5 3.0 2.9 3.6 4.3 4.5 5.3

O13 0.16 0.16

4.7 5.6 5.5

0.10 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.17

3.5 4.2 4.1 5.1 6.1

0.16

5.7

0.12 0.15 0.14 0.18

4.3 5.2 5.0 6.2

A - cross sectional area R -hydraulic radius n - Manning's roughness coefficient 0.03 - soil with gravel 0.04 - soil with grass
s - slope

'"
,

Q - ditch flow capacity

-7.

AT
NN
I

T
Cut or Fill Bed Made to Elev.
Design Water Surface

W Compacted ISurface

Fill

Wcter

.- / N

Flat Bed before Ditch is Formed

Finished

Ditch Section

10

Figure 3. Animal powered V-ditcher

t i r

~Figure

4. Tractor powered V-ditchers.

Many old ditches become eroded and deteriorated and it is better to remove the old ditches and form new ones. Figure 5 gives a procedure for doing this that will result in a new, more stable channel that will lose less water than the old one. The compaction and forming of the new channel can be done manually or with a machine. Soil which has a high percentage of silt and clay will form the best channel from all standpoints. The importance of good construction for earth channels depends a great deal on expected ditch usage. Some ditches, such as those run on a contour for grain and

rice, are used only one season and then filled in. Other ditches are relatively permanent and should be constructed with more eflotrt and care. I)itches intended for lurro\% or border irrigation directly from tile ditch need substantial banks; and the banks might be higher for using spiles and siphon tubes than or open ditch bank cuts. In this case the top of the banks should be a minimum of 25 cm (10 in.) above tlie surrounding field surtface. Banks must be high enough to allow tile water level to be increased by checks if needed. If seepage is excessive, compaction of lie banks or deposition of a clay blanket can be tried.

I) Remove the Old Banks and Pile the Organic, Vegetation Filled Bank

Soil away from the New Channel Site.

2) Build a Pad of Clean, Moist Soil on the New Channel Site and Compact the Pad in 10-15 cm (4-6 in) Layers.

3) Pull the Ditch in Stages, Compacting the Bank Soil between each Excavation In 10-15 cm (4-6 in ) Layers

4) Continue Enlarging the Channel and Comlipacting the Moist Soil Deposited on the Banks in Layers.

5) Trim and Shape the New Compacted Banks to the DesignCross


Section

Figure 5. Suggested procedure for mechanical reconstruction of earthen channels with a tractor-drawn scraper, ditcher, and compactor (30).

12 c. Lined )itches. Often farm ditches are lined to reduce water loss and maintenance and to inprove water control. lining can reduce the amount of seepage loss, control weed growth and prevent the ditch from eroding. Lined ditches with sloping sidewalls must have adequate support from earthen banks that Thould be constructed to an ele\ ,:tion of 10 to 15 cm (4-6 in.) above the top of the lining. These banks inlst be maintained to protect the lining from damage. I.inings also reduce the amount of land occupied hy the ditches and may provide some control against damage hy rodents or burrowing animals. i However, improved water control is the major benefit of lining. There is a reduction in watr storage and ponding and water moves through the system at a faster rate. The most common types of lining for larger canals are concrete and concrete witi masonry. Asphaltic linings and cornpacled soil materials are also being used. Limited use has been made of chemical sealants and plastic membranes. [or small canals and ditches, brick or rock masonry linings are common in some areas. The selection and construction of a lining is governed by: 1) the availability of the material, 2) equipment and labor required for installation, 3) site of ditch, and 4) climatic and soil conditions. Chemoical composition of the water may he a factor. Many times the initial cot governs the type of ditch lining chosen. I lowever, t[le availability and need for .water should also be considered. FIluctuating water tables and intermittent streams of water can damage linings. Tile drains can be used to lower the ,kater table below the hottom of the canal to prevent damage to the lining, Livestock cat damage some linings and, if necessary, special provisions should be made for livestock watering it suitable locations. Washing of clothes and utensils should be anticipated and provided for in some areas. Vegetation can damage some linings unless steps are taken to control growth. Figure 6 shows some types of small channel linings, 1. Concrete Lining. Concrete linings have many fine qualities. When properly constructed, and where site conditions are favorable, the linings will give long service with minimum repair and maintenance cost. They will withstand high water velocities and are resistant to damage from animais, machines and man. Sulphate resistant cement should be used when irrigation water or the soil contains high concentrations of sulphates. Instructions for preparation and mixing of the concrete are given in Appendix 1. Concrete lining can be placed in many I.handplaced by plastering on sides and bottom; 2. using forms and pouring alternate panels; 3. pneumatically 4. blown; precast concrete box or part sections; and 5. slipform using heavy equipment (Figure 7a, b). The slipform method requires very careful scheduling of operations and a large amount of equipment, including a transit mixer for the concrete. For small canals, reinforcing steel is generally not necessary and the concrete linings are usually placed without it. In some areas, particularly India, Turkey and Egypt, precast sections are placed manually in the small farm ditches. Figure 8 shows forms for casting small, rectangular sections. Precast concrete sections are usually manufactured at a central place and hauled to the job site (22, 36). Precast sections may be made box-shaped, semicircular, trapezoidalshaped or half-parabolic. The semicircular sections are usually made by pipe companies, 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) in length, 46-61 cm (18-24 in.) in diameter. The sections can be placed above the ground surface, supported on cradle-type pedestals when needed to cross low areas. Parabolic sections 20-30 cm (8-12 in.) wide are made in halves in Egypt, and when installed and mortared, can result in lined ditches with a range of top widths. This feature is desirable since the same precast sections can be used for a narrow range of ditch sizes by varying the top width.

13

a) Rectangular Brick Masonry on a Poured Concrete Pad

b) Poured Concrete- Trapezoidal

c) Sprayed or Hand Placed Cement Mortar, Soil Cement or Asphalt - Parabolic

d) Precast Concrete-Semicircular, Parabolic or Rectangular

N '?

$5

e)

Precast Concrete (SCS photo )

Figure 6. Types of linings for small canals (30).

14

(a)

(b)

'VF

Figure 7. Concrete lined canals. Lining with slipform (a) and (b), and the alternate panel method (c) (25).

15

When the concrete lining is hand placcJ

is similar in installation to cement con-

and the ditch is not over 0.6 m (2 It) deep, the side slopes can be as steep as ',.tancy
horizontal to I vertical. ( are iust be excrciscd with the concrete mix w it docs Whell rlll ilie sItep ,ide'. not ,lui steeper slope, or %citical sidesl alre tishold the conIc(s)rt ed, foriii, at(: crete inl place:_ uni it -et,. Nolnrinlorced , itica sides cin be li .. concrce lisiny < , r)Ide( plh !ip t 0.5 Il (I .6 It). lhe lsed bottom and sidcs ,stlh;ild hae t ;iickics of at least I cil ( in) and expansioncontractioni 1ilt" Mreneded. The alternate pancl mthod call he used iniall paratb)lic and i iiie Io to) trapc/oidal diichlue, and ciual' . ( , 36). [-r are tl'sed and these sections, tide ti> % \iti altrnaticly tie secltin, are i)tld the finisited scCtioin, used IhIi fltr llit ill-, , Itilt < if). iunt c enuiiis' oie,, (I iul e (prelrnmed ciack,) spic:d a! iiiirals (f 1.5 to 1 iii (5-!) It) are nccded fi the C\palisio l Ind . nititctioi t() t(l Ie iinre ili:.rack , are filled i loirced coiilcictc. I Ic withIflexiblc, a'phflaftic iierial ito preen Wiaicr leak aie. to sa%e concrcte and to facilitate forithe soil suberade diould be os ere\ile exact and coipacted to h caed shape, Wzradc and alignment of the underside If lie Iiiiiiic...\ Iactor or atimnial dra,%,li dilchcr ,ai do) i ufficienly acf curate e:\casat lii i 0 Miih Illilii i i Oii hand s ork rCqUiicd. (Cancfil attention llUst be paid 1to tih liiuidatiollto an% lills are itth %kpicialtv ditch iliiri ai ade, e carefull, ill hil Md vvd. compacted arid cseted prior to placerierit (f' conIcrCe. [he top of the dike or bLr ol eiiier side o tie dich should hase a iiinilmn %idti of 0.4-0.5 iii (I .3-1 .6 It). The berm should he seeded ito gas after cotutruciort if' possible.
ing,

crete but has a shorter service life expecsince it is more subjcct to


mechanical and animal damage. I osever, this type to ling when properl ilntalled 'id maintained call givc saiislactomrv pcrloiance (28). Ii can he thod or hand placcd b, ilic porin placed in inlnlil , sinilai I() cenilent coicretc. 1 (lc\ c, ahe ,itbgradc must he rl-Oin sterilized It) preent vcegctatioll damnagin tile lin,.

3. Asolrv. Sin .c layer brick, tile or stolel lay be t!,s.ed fomr ,satisfactory lining o)f field iri it'atioii channels (23). The aie laid Flat ol the bricks, tile, or ,iesnt, of the cornpacted sides and bottoi trapezoidal channel and ,he joi!,t, are filled ith enleilt mortar. [)r a rectanlleular channel, the bottom iial\ be concrete or %6itli vcrlical ilmasolry walls. litsasonrv Wall height shotild be limited to 5-6 cot:rses for brick. {1[suallv the %atlci side of tihe masoniry tiictirt i , plastered, particularl v if' tihe bricks are liot of' good quality. The mortar should have a ceient -sari d ratio of' 1:4. The choice of brick, tile or stonc depend. mainly on its avatilabilits and cost. ,lasonry channels are successfully uCd ii maily areas of the world. In some. areas, only tie sides of the channels are lined, but this ik usually not recomni dcd sirice the bottom may erode and causC the sides to fail.

ti

/tic C 'oncreh'. ' The asphaltic 2...V concrete lining has had only limited use. It

i' mu! Rutwer-like luali, IJ have been lining i materials These .Thvcliv used but have riot been successful in some areas. Vailiering, particularIv exposure to the sun, ha, been a problem. Subgrades must be sterilized with chemicals to prevent vegetalive damiage. Mechanical and animal damage hae contributed to failures. lo"wever, plastic sheeting used underneath precast or poured concrete sections has been successful in reducing

.4. ..

water losses.

16
1.2 Dio. 2-5 Long M.S. Rod Pin

Sliding Pin
'

---

0.5

Dio.

Hinge M.S.Sheet 10OX 14 X 0.5 8 Gauge


Wooden Side Board ".. 0"--

3.5 i..

M.S. Sheet 12 Gouge Thick

OUTER FORM
15-29 0.6 Dia.255
MS. Handle
-N N N NNl3

USE THIS FORM TOi

_25

C over

'

,.
N

5
N
"N

MS.10Gae N NCROSS
Wooden Inner Board

,/4-45

SECTION
OF FRA ASSEMBLY OF FORM

15-22

INNER FORM
13-25

MAKE THIS SECTION


100 All Dimensions in cm

5-2

PRECAST CONCRETE CHANNEL SECTION

Figure 8. Precast concrvte channel sections. Wooden forms used for casting (22).

17

5. Chemical Sealants. Chemical sealants have been used to reduce seepage losses from canals only to a limited extent. Some have been used successfully, but otlrs have failed after a short life. 6. Earthen Materials. One of the oldest methods for reducing seepage losses and improving ditches is to remove the porous earth and replace ii with clay material, When impervious earthen material is found near the ditch, it may be used to solve the problem. If the material is slightly moist, and if it is placed in 10-15 cm (4-6 in.) layers and rolled and/or compacted, the effectiveness of the lining will be greatly increased. However, some clays are subject to excessive shrinking and cracking upon drying and should not be placed as lining material. Bentonite clay is sometimes used to line
ditches. This material swells greatly when wet and is best adapted to ditches that are not subject to frequent wetting and drying. It is usually mixed with the surface layer of soil with a disk or spike-tooth harrow. It may also be placed as a blanket on the ditch bottom and covered for protection with about . cm (2 in) of sodl or gravel. 2. Control Structures

1. availability of water requiring division, equitable delivery, and minimizing leakage, spillage and seepage, 2. topography of the area and available hydraulic head for the system, 3. size of area served by each canal, lateral and turnout, 4. amount of time each canal is used and number of times each turnout is used, 5. number of turnouts and the amount of regulation for each, 6. need for regulating flow depths in the system requiring permanent and/or temporary checking, 7. importance of minimizing head loss in the system, 8. need for flow measurement, and 9. availability of materials and labor. Social and economic considerations are
very important for the improved system and include: 1. availability of skills and cost of labor for construction and irrigation, 2. cost of materials, 3. marginal cost or value of water, 4. availability of capital to finance the improved system, 5. organization, or lack thereof, of the

Small irrigation structures must be adapted for use in particular areas depending on the availability and cost of materials and labor. The irrigation methods, customs in the area and the irrigation water delivery schedule are factors also. Small, low cost structures that can be bt'Alt and installed with local labor and materials are desired. Control structures must be easy to operate, relatively leak proof and give good, positive control. Both permanent and temporaryportable ,tructures are discussed. Physical layout, operational features, and socioeconomic factors should be considered when selecting small, irrigation control struc..ures. The important decision considerations of the physical system of divisors, drops, checks and turnouts inelude:

water users, 6. level of experience and understanding of the users, 7. cooperative nature of the users, 8. pride in ownership, and 9. potential theft problems of the structures and materials for other uses. In some areas domestic uses (washing and bathing) and animal access must be considered also. The layout of a small canal system with different structures is given in Figure 9. It is diff':ult to separate small irrigation structures into distinct categories since division structures may also serve as checks and/Gr turnouts. For this publication the primary function of the structures has been used to categorize the structures.

18

TURNOUT

NMF:ASUMRN(.

>I'

_-

-..

401

'7..U

i rd-"

44

F-

9. A,

'

G 1)1

, ",., ..... E: .,n. v. 1' -1" p E'

K;

tei

,. fL 0"e, 'NS I

6.

rIPE

.'I _.

f.

I_

ROI

I'igure 9. A fat i

irrig~ationi .ssteni.

19 a. Divi'ion Structures.
Divisors (diversion structures) are used to sepirate a flow into two or more parts, , These striciC tiressiml)ly divide the flow, in a ditch intw the dcsircd meICasurcd or pm()poi tioinal pa ts. ldJc lly, ,,tcr lc,l and flow iMthe i1i-015,, ti tillr ctitroll, cd and ii iasUtlcJ. li e CJili i,is OfI tIle oclp liii. are 11t icctirie i ihc_ -ictur.C a c prlopoltli is a , ilIC dC.iI di, l in ofl di-char-. h_,cu ,, I the Illo,ituation. Ihc ol 'piiii_,. Ilai K' r lor - iiKid unabletlc pCili. in t)ehe iccd I(1 IleC\ibifitv. I IO\\ C'C, , t) Iac i '.C w, " ttl a dilsl , tlhe tilt Cd;"ii) d vl+n Io Ii fltv, eoiiditoit lh'- " t c 1111ifiLt and stidaid. I Itc1 Itt ,, iiHal do r 1 (1o tiscd 1t diid tlie til., hCtv c.ten I liicic,. Ftiume II ;,) a1(nm lkii /uumr /iI
,O

ed and the middle divisor is movable for


adjusting the flow between the middle chan:c!,. The divisor shown in Figure 10 does lint al avs , accluratelv divide the flow due to) the larc pier aid the lov, velocity fHim, [)i,,irs that .,cc accurate proporti)li, d c tile hk)v, at a cmliirol secti)n ,j i iee tipCicriticai fhlo , (sec dcfini-

t u tils) cm'ii 1ich asthas s ,l i't l in 1 1. I,, can I): acUraly,, di,,ided v, ithout ,,uper,_ritic l t s iif:i1 tlicre is a lir -trailhi approach Ups rn ; 2) there is no b,.ackvatercffc,_t in the d ,lwnstreaml Channels, and 3) tilt' sctutinls, have uniori 11icuhn i.1 r -,(3). lledi,,i-,or show n in Piuioic 11, tllhoilh cffcctic Vs a di. cid I, ha, ticl distillct dlis-atantae ol a la.ree hyt1rulic hitad losMost small irtion
riwatioii
-

nee>tdll ccd Itoco ,erve head

h-re teillilc

. M \m.trC+.ll

, tilc I]\-

and i ini i/C k)"', .m tie di, isor in Fig'urc I I is l'nt-talkv nW lctI icildllC d.

4
4.,

Figure 10. IDi~isor I(o distribtite (lie t'IoNN beINeen tIvo ditches (4).

20

....

Figuire 11. D~ivisioni box b'r FUoN% to t'our (titct- (.S(*

Photo).

proportional It) lie Yro s ao unIL ItlIIl delivered. Ih. 11, rc a tsr , LtO llcl% Cq-iitale Cti'ribuiiion xxIthoutt proI .l i ta control dei.c at cach ridixiCual ttrllotlu f'or pelriocic retkilii (29). Illaicat where dcli,, tric, are ha-d oi Crop acr-caie or on land irritlcC, .CLtbic0 dlitrbutiol of axaillabl xatcr to uers , h s beil attempted. -or 1i,,talce, in In dia, Pakistan a Il lI vp t , eIsuire i e r is

In some area,, the amount of' vate-r delivered to a t mniav v.ary, hut al! deliveries ,..thin the ,ystcil are to remain

macle at the hliad oI the terhiarv canal anid euitultittle Cistrihutioni1 serves a,a si , for dellivery. This method c(ltlic, that the
tertiary catnal be dsigit, lhil itt lex elcis '< riiall\ Ohe sa lc Ir"cach Iturnot (,hic IoM11noo it tl v ti,_ lx M oi tlc control). lhi xater c-a,:l h clillicult to til itaill, particiila Mlv <lr lt tii t t the end of tih terltiary sytm. or a sys",vtemi xhere Iliere arc sex cral turnonuts, there 1hOould he tel,(itl.l infl]xM to Jinsure that all xaltr uscrs get their allottd share.

21 The semimodular turnout shown in Figure 12 delivers equitable amounts reasonably well. The entrance is shaped so that an equitable share of the flow is extracted. Exit conditions are s>uch that
changes in down.stream ,aLtcr ievel, do

duty or use. A constant water depth of 25 cm is assumed to exist on the upstream side for all divisor turnouts in the individual system. Suhmergence on the dwustreani end of Ohe pipe is assIumed
hilt rarelyV ocIIr,,, ICsilinn in flow, vara-

not significantlv chanL' the discharge over a ralgec of dom ll,,:cmijl depths. HIowever, the disch a r i re:dti d Mhcn P, < rC. Ih the r cai d Ioii 0p ,M\ce.dt i
This divisor ttiltlill water nleasutI ily
8wlp ';tli he

tions due to dCth, of flow at the outltC


belo, ile top (o 1t pipc.
, tled inI sou)thern Al ,w v1tW~l' i 1l~lrOpe tid ol()'th AfkriC1 is >-,hown l in [ire 14. The di. dine blade iS adinstablc an1d cilihraion, hivc hecn made sor/)11<(' S that1;i h(2 HO% lllit e !' pr0portio id ac' hirnels (b). The ciii aiclv ht~t'.\,.cll I,,,

tie a

, ) Z1 a

,
thati I
'>eri"ithe

h-C

(I/Ul <f w''iow~4'

ate ',Cc~ eI I!

r)(1

put-

di 1 i('.lI AatIet h eu , pose ()I e II Li l IC, oil dclivci,, t( It(_ svtelm. [inur, 3 ,ho,
the pipe otutlets that prcSntil artc usCd in
tgvp, I~;kistarr and India. In 4Lvpt, pipe

I II f"low Collde<,i!ii S ,-.I IIC e ', Iit di. , 1,trcit_ dil ions do nt di e ttc amlotlil and Civision of llo,\ 0%C[ ;t 'ci: raine since tie 1lo'A inormiallv piltv.C,, to ,upercritiCal

dial;nter, are deterrnirned depenCiding on the arca to he irrigated tild asN,,,uiIcd \.aZtr Max WS

flov, over a crCst. 1hi, divi,,or is quite expCiI,,iC to build.

L Roof Block

..

Ma X. W. S.

in Delivery

-Flow

S ECT ON

-------------

U 0'"
CL

.,-

Figure 12. Senimodule divisor used in India and Pakistan (29).

22

(a)

Present Field Outlets

(b)

Improved

Outlets

Figure 13. D)ivisor-turnouts used in Egypt and India. Sharp SapEdge Edge

W S . in De iv r

F low

SE CTION

F lo w

_.A djustable "-

PLAN Figure 14. French-type proportional divisor (6).

23

A simple type of proportional divisor is shown in Figure 15 and has an adjLIstaJle divisor board. This divisor can be made
serm iportable (movable) roin vwood or metal and permanent froll HoncrCte or masonry. Its usefulnesS is limited except as a means for temporarily dividing the flow. The dcvice requires calibra.ition for different settin, ofi the dli\Por board and different fio\' condiltion ... h er design for an adjustable di\ ioi i,sio\% n ill Plate

are fastened to the surface, the area for 1oxN would be reduced by the width of tihe two algle iron pieces. Stheet metal liners
for forimcd gare ,lots as )hownoil lIate 2, Appendi\ 2, ll hC Cben suc'C,fl also. Alotlier alterillti\toC I trucltlrc like [inure 18 ',wtuld be to( elimlinatC L'ate slots entirely alld (1',C s -labI' gaile". Ih es Late ' , %otld e placd iI trtpc/oidal or rectalgular ,ction, and %kotildcomplcic, hoit 1hb 1m as \ or parltiall o11truct in [inurC 19. I bead"/lntanes are ease of iiil serillon\anl III11o lie ditches. The nesiL e LI diaint C tick 1 ad in11cit for depth and po1iilit i bri rCm\cd M for oher tL_,1. rcent de' elopmnent of t he () !d Baik (o)operatic Programell. is sllall irrination Strlictures fabricated I ron)l conct coiirpt lts produced oll Cxtrus1in mai1ichics (9). Figure 20 Sho\,s a Jnil- consltcted A [:A.

I, Appendix 2.
Several These us V 1)iC r two (111d fth c wau v

smhill ivisnrs arc ,P(Ms n in 1[iLtures 16-IS.


can .ltructre> bu cittCted iiI place to the inside dinnion, shown, 1 -ing concrete, concrtce blocks, brick, or rock. The designs ba _e heen modlif died to provide for an overflo\\ !ctlion ahose the gate or )top log slots to a',ure that the water ill not overflo\w Olto the ditch

banks, but that exceCsS Flow \ 1ill Spill into the downstream ditch. They arc most often used to divert the full incoming flow into one ditch or another.
In some are:as, structtlres Mith formed

from the ,'r/ib~rzUu'4r section s now being produced in InIdia. I o Sti/cs of


trap,.'oidal and rectangular sections are beiig produced h cxtrusion . Itollow

gate slots and sliding gates are a source of problems. The slotS become chipped and broken. Gates and stop logs become lost or stolen. When in use they Jam, leak and become clogged with ,ediment and debris. An alternative to the formed gate slots is angle iron guides which are fastened to the inner face of the structtires in the same position as the slots. Since these guides

blocks with uate crooves are also being made. A conihination pump out let sion structure is shovn in Plate dix 2. The wood (or metal) necessary to diffuse and still from the pipe. and divi3, Appenbaftle is the flow

~ Divisor ~Board.....

."

oil

Hinged

4"

o p0

1I

-" "

-.

(0.9 2 m )_

Figure 15. Adjustable proportional divisor (see Plate 1, Appendix 2).

25

(041m)

(10cm)

4"Concrete

Foundaton

(F 1cm)

Figure 16. Two-way concrete block divisor (12).

C' onc. Cap -4"' Concrete Foundation (l0cm) I"X 2"Slots 28&

Figure 17. Three-way divisor (12).

26

/O6"'
0...

1"X""SIO

(3X5rinY-'

((.

I55%

Figure 18. Concrete trapezoidal two-way divisor (14). (See Plate 2, Appendix 2).

27

Top of Division Structure-

ea Is

Flow

Sloping Val I

of Divisor or"

0.

Canal

\Flow
I

(a)
\ Rubber Seals

Trapezoidal Gate
z
I '

Section

Pipe or Rod
I o I
I

Top of Divisor

L-------------

---------------

Wall of Divisor or Canal

Section (b) Rectangular Gate

Figure 19. Portable gates for divisor structures.

,.

-0 0
Top View Isometric View

Section A-A Figure 20. Division structure using extruded, prefabricated sections (9).

29

b. Drops (Grade Control Structures). Drops are required to reduce channel grade whenever the natural grade would result in erosive flow velocities in unlined earth channels. Drops are used to 1) control the upstream water velociies to reduce erosion, 2) drop the flow to a lower level, 3) dissipate the excess energy, and 4) control downstream erosion, Drops are particularly needed for newly constructed channels to reduce erosive velocities. After a period of time, the banks and bed may stabilize as the banks become sodded with grass, and drops may no longer be needed. For a steeply sloping chainel, erosion can be cotrolled by conveying water from on level to another in a stairstep manner with drops (Figure 21). Drops in series are generally spaced so that the difference in water surface is in the drop at each m elevation ft). (1.0-2.0 range of"0.3-0.6 The drop spacing may need to be modified if there a' - irrigation turnouts in the s-ries requiriLg a prescribed depth of water between two drops.

left of the structure must be provided. Figure 24 shows a concrete drop and check structure under construction (a) and after several years of operation (b). Rock riprap can be used for a distance downstream from the structure to prevent bank erosion. In some areas there may be objections to water impounding in the downstream apron because of mosquito breeding. An opening in the lower sill is often provided for drainage during nonflow periods. Plates 4, 5, and 6, Appendix 2, give designs for trapezoidal drop structures for drops ranging from 0.3-0.9 m (1-3 ft).

-.

,. .

-,

--

-- 4 7',...3t

O"r, , ...

"

Figure 22 shows selected , . types of drop structures that 07" confrom can be constructed crete, concrete block, brick or -, . stone. T hese structures arc . j. quite effective but may be quite expensive to bui!d, par. ticularly from formed concrete. Whcre water is to be diverted from one ditch to a " lower ditch or field, a drop like that shown in Figure 23 can be used. This structure is a combined turnout, check and Figure 21. Drop structures used for grade control (4). drop. The roughness blocks sec(teeth) in the downstream tion are used to accelerate the dissipation of energy and allow use of a shorter and shallower stilling basin. Provision for erosion control in the earth channel to the
'.>

30

V-~L Al o

t j to.kS itI be I. ed I or n orfor b~dd o,

3cc < ~ v,~

-1

-ArN

N.

Fiue2.EaplsoNml

ro

tutrs

31 The drop-check structure shown in Figure 25 can be constructed of concrete, precast concrete, or brick masonry. The wall thickness is usually 7.5 to 10 cm (3-4 in). For the small irrigation ditches, a structure with an opening of 60 cm (2.0 ft) should generally be used. Optional side walls for the stilling basin are shown. The drop and check structure can be easily constructed with standard concrete block following the directions stated on Figure 26. The length of the stilling pool (L) should be at least twice the fall height (I/). Rock protection is placed at the end of the stilling pool to compensate for the relatively short pool. Concrete drop structures that have been developed ovcr a long period of years by the USDA Soil Conservation Service are shown in Appendix 2. Trapezoidal chute drops for ditch elevation changes of 0.30-0.91 in (1.0-3.0 ft) are given in Plates 4, 5, 6. Vertical, rectangular basin drops are given in Plates 7, 8, 9, 10 for clevation change. of 0. 15 to 0.61 m (0.5-2.0 ft). In most cases, the smaller structures with drops of 0.30 in (I .0 ft) or less do not require reinforcing steel for construction. Adequate cutoff walls arc provided at either end of the structures to prevent seepage and leakage which might cause the structures to be undermined. These structures have many operational advan tages, but disadvan.age intclu tide high cost and a great aoun it of labor to co mistrct.

Figure 23. Drop structure combined with turnout.

32

44

itis above h1

No~te: S teel reinforcement must he supported oil wire bridges or small pieces of concrete so that wir/lC'. i.,roun.l

Figure 24a. Forms for trapezoidal drop structure ready for pouring concrete (SCS Photo).

'4,

4,a

'

Figure 24b. Concrete trapezoidal drop structure (SCS Photo).

33

Drive-thru irrigation drops made from concrete blocks and concrete are given in Plates 11 and 12 (Appendix 2). These drops are termed drive-through since one set of wheels of tractor-powered ditch cleaning equipment can pass through the structures. Since these structures are long in length, wing walls are not necessary to control the seepage path. In those areas where wood is available, drop structures like that shown in Plate 13
J~

can be used. For long life, the wood should be treated with a preservative. Sheet meta! drop, can be made to the same basic dimeisions. Drop-check structures made from the

cxtru(ded concrete sections are shown in


Figure 27 (9). The opening in the rectangular check portion of the structure is 30 cm (12 in) wide and the drop does no+ usually exceed 30 cm (12 in).

roo
,-1 <--

10MNo)ch

SE

Noc

- 0 25'(008m) Wide 05'(015m) Deep

Note

Moaximum Dischorge

6 cfs ( 0 17 m /s

"

,'-ge

Ara_.i

'o),

"

Figure 25. Concrete drop-check (21, 33). Optional sidewalls are shown (SCS Photo).

34

Check
Board .Wooden , Flow Concrete Bottom of Ditch ?../' [,i Type of Check f O/ 0p t io n a l Wooden Check /Metal Tie Metal Tie H -- BXBX16 Blocks Crr, 7rel3 6 cm ) C
/

Check Board Metal Flange

Floor

8XBX 16

eda

~ 4I
.4location

H
lotc 1.5"ft(.61m 2,0 f t ( 0.9 1 m

Lro C.30m 6 0rri4 1 .0f2 t ft


3.0 ft 4.0 ft 1 22n 1.82

Dig down as shown by survey 2. Stock blocks to desired shape for correct of wall and height of sill 3 Pour concrete In cares of blocks - each e oapl Pour remnoining concrete for splash
rand Floor 5. Any steel ( reinforcing ) in cores will1

greatly strengthen the structure

Figure 26. Concrete block drop and check structure (21).

'

Section A-A 12.0"


\

End View

II

II

-----L -'
Figr7 D c Isometric View

Figure 27. Drop-check structure using extruded concrete sections (9).

36 In a study made on the performance of small drop-check structures (16) several conclusions were made to aid future designs. I. Commercial prefabricated structures generally did not have adequate stilling basins. 2. End sills and low tail water depth caused de to waterid Casedi excessie eXover thieour end sills. [he cascadi r t il e e nd il h Scor grle Should be lined with rock or gravel. 3. Wide basin.s performed better for downstreaml scour pre,,ention. 4. Trapezoidal basins operated s>t cessfullv only wi tl high tailwater. (Properly placed blocks io hr w o uld im prov e peratio n .) 5. A nonaerated nappe (see definition of terms) from the drop structure resulted in bcttei ,i lIn ech ,clim 6. Headwall stRuCtur : % 1 ade t C cutoff depth and "idiii s iMiA gracllined basin or plain c p (Ilic l "as ef'fective andC 1l(!> 1051 l e c e dCno al.
The structure describcd as a 1111(Avull with gravel-lii ,(/ bu isi; %as erv effective as a drop. Only the %ertical wall of the

structure shown in igure 26 is used and can he concrete or masonry. Precast concrete wkalls are quite comnmon and economicijal, buL are \cry hea vv arid recltire hoists to place. [or a riasonrv wail, the ,hickrnrSo=tifcedl concet, 20 cur ( 12 in.), unrcin re c-.d concre t ,20 cm (8 in.) and rinl'_t ,d cai nrte, M ce (4 in. , I opening or itli charnel ir n fastcned to the edge, are u,ed %itfl stop logs to adjust eleation of the dro(p opening. [hC widlh of the gravel-lined bain ,hIould be about t icthel i catn all opcnnigl cr d e len 3l [lie enthe io hc e III 1ehiot l a anto times t di ci c (ifp'all m aid do\-,lal naiin ditch capacilt llit all ihe b lal Ca ll ditch mi Iiiiiiall C e h a <,in cit t dg t h oclov ihl AM" wvith the depilh d dossnustrearlil n a ( the ditch boo heirie b tihe'aiic as the -: i in i h d ,.il diflerence in l ip<,i limii aldit o icstreart.:. lier urfaces itlio l ri l ditch discloar c,. lar ciii (1-2 ra,)l ii) oi iii cuh.,d uipabo/ut to) 2.5 5.0 to 5.0) <,i/c iii rock a lasecr cll (2 in) tick >hiould be used for the stilling pool. l)uriii,g pcralin, tihe flow will adjus tile ,ic and shape of tile pool for a stabilized stfling po l (igurc 28).

Figure 28. Drop structure with gravel/rock stilling basin (16).

37 A pipe drop structure is shown in Figure 29. Capacities range from 65 /s (2.3 ft 3 /s) for 25.4 cm (10 in.) diameter pipe, to 154 1/s (5.5 ft 3/s) for 38.1 cm (15 in.) pipe, both 3.3 m (l Ift) long operating with a 0.3 m (1 ft) water depth. The pipe diameter is sized specifically to maintain an upstream water level. The change in water surface elevation upstream to downstream of the pipe structure ranges from 0.30-0.91 m (1-3 ft) depending on the design. Concrete, asbestos cement and baked clay pipe may be used as well as corrugated metal pipe. Riprap protection from erosion is usually needed on the downstream side. Disadvantages are that the pipe entrance is easily pluged with debris and the pipe alternately primc,: and breaks when the flow is less than the It should be noted that many of the drops can also be used as water measuring weirs. Drops like those shown in Figures 25 and 26 can be adapted for water measurement by carefully measuring the width of the opening and the upstream water depth. This function is discussed in the sectiGa on measurement of flow. c. Checks. Irrigation ditch checks may be permanent or temporary, portable or stationary. They may check the entire flow or allow a portion of it to pass. The primary purpose of a check is to increase the ditch storage and water surface elevation. Many times, checks and drops are combined into one

PLAN ISOMETRIC VIEW OF CONCRETE SLAB Top of Ditch Bank

Ditch Bottom

Corrugated MetalPipe

- _

D,""_., /

Watertight Welded Joint SECTIONAL

Level Line ELEVATION ON CENTER LINE

Ditch Bottom

Figure 29. Typical pipe drop structure (3, 21, 33). design flow, causing surging. One advci tage is that the structure can be used as a road crossing, possibly using a somewhat longer length of pipe. Different designs of pipe drops are given in Plates 14, 15, and 16, Appendix 2. Chutes as drops can be cheaply constructed where rock is locally available, Chutes as shown in Figure 30 are suitable where falls (H) of 1.5 to 3 m (5-10 ft) are encountered. Fairly large rock, 15-20 cm (6-8 in) in diameter can be used, placed in two layers. The rock layer extends above the waterline at the ditch sides. The rough rock face of the chute assists in dissipating the energy of the falling water. A shallow stilling basin is desirable. structure so that a discussion of drops also applies to checks as indicated in the foregoing section on drops. A variety of checks are used in both lined and unlined ditches. The checks are fitted with checkboards, slide gates or other means for releasing a portion of the flow while maintaining a desired water level. It is highly recommended that checks have an overflow provision so that the ditch will not be overtopped if the check is inadvertently left closed when turnouts are closed. This can be accomplished by providing a weir overflow section on the check at an elevation lower than the ditch bank.

38

Flo w._._,,,

Not under 12"

Ditch Bed Line H(optional)

Stilling Basin

I o More
"Rock Drop=J 3XH
V

j
Ditch Cross Section

Note: I. Gravel (If available) should be used to fill between Rocks 2. Rocks con be Grouted

Figure 30. Sloping rock drop structure (21).

,o

-.

-.

)
Att

..,

4.,

:.

Figure 31. Ditch check in lined ditch with siphon tubes.

39 Several different types of ditch checks utilizing various methods to control the flow are shown in Figure 31, 32, 33 and 34. Figure 34 is a simlp check sructure combined with a turnool. Adequate erosion protection for the bypassed f'low must be provided downstream from a check in the form of a basin, rock riprap, or a paved apron. Checks may be used for measuring irrigation flows using standard weir or orifice relationships (6, 35). It should be kept in mind that when checked for irrigating, the waler surface in the ditch should typiclly he I10-I5 cm (4-6 in.) above the field ground surface (possibly more for piles and siphons). Also a freeboard for the canal hank of 15 cm (6 in.) above tile water si" ,'ace ra ust be maintained. This results in the top of in.) ditch banks being 25-30 cm (1M-I above the suLrron nd iriug g&ro nd surface. Several simpl chwck.s that can be made from wood, shect metal, concrete or masonry are shown in Figure 33. The width is determined for the rectangular opening by the width of the ditch, bank elevation, and maximum flow that the structure will pass. However, the opening is usually 50-60 cm (20-24 in.) wide with tile bottom within a few cen,],neters (5-10) (2-4 in.) of the bottom of the ditch. Checkboards in widths of 5-10 cm (2-4 in.) are sometimes used to give incremental depths when required during an irrigation. Checks with rectangular or circular opening.,, are sized using the orifice equaith maxinum flow and a tion (6, 35) small difference (5-10 cm) (2-4 in.) in the depth upstream and downstream from the check. Inall cases the cutoff wall for the checks should project to a depth below (8 in.) for clay the ditch bottorn of 20 Cmw soils and 30 cm (12 in.) for sandy soils. The wall should extend into each bank 20-30 cm (8-12 in.) at the elevation of maximum water level. With careful backfilling and compaction, the check should not "wash out."

Figure 32. Small concrete ditch check (21).

40

Ditch Bank

----

L - -

. --.

..-

(a)

Top-opening Gate with Removable Section Cover

Ditch Bank-

Opening

b) Center-opening Gate with Unit Slide Cover


rl5tch Bank

(c)

Bottom-opening Gate with Swinging Cover

Figure 33. Wooden ditch checks with different openings (19).

41

Gate Boards Removed

!' k

'

T u rn o u t

Figure 34. Wood, single-wall check with turnout (19).

42 Checks that can be made from concrete blocks or brick tna.sonr set on a concrete foundation are given in Figures 35 and 36. In both cases, the bottom of the opening should be set at the level of the upstream ditch bottom. The depth and width of' structures will vary depend;.nc on the ditch but usually for small ditches they are built to the dimensions given in Figures 35 and 36. The rubble or masonry spilay basin shown in Figure 35 should be set so that the bottom is 5-7 cm (2-3 in.) below the original ditch hottoni. The gravel lined plunge pool described in the sect ion on drops can be used %, ith a check like Figure 36 it downstream erosion is a problem. The design of permanent, cast-in-place concrete checks is given in Plate 17, Appendix 2. Portable irrigationdams are checks used to raise the water level in ditches for direct irrigation. They can be made by the irrigators or purchased. Figure 37 shows a canvas check with a sleeve for discharging part of the water. The sleeve can be tied with a drawstring to control the flow to be bypassed. A pipe or long, strong stick is used acro',s the top. The canvas has a long section upstream that is anchored in the soil and partly covered to prevent leakage. Plastic and rubber sheeting can be used instead of the canvas cloth as shown in Figure 38. The overflow section can be raised or lowered by turning and anchoring the crossmember.

A>
36" C
"-4"(10cm)
F!

Conc.

"

Foundation

Front View
- I"

L..A
Fr,', m

F~u~b~eg (Optono!)
-

2' (cm
406em
I

x 5cm) Gap

"

8"2 cn)

_L_ -1

."

....i'

1rcrefe Cop
(9Cm) ojndot

, <.

on: .

.1 1
t. ,' ,(c

'

1
-'-,,,,

Conc on

r
-Section

(13rr

r3

A -A

Top View

Figure 35. Concrete block check with apron for erosion control (12).

43

I x 2"

,'

"

Figure 36. Concrete block check structure (14).

44

? . . .6

/Fold

Down Top 2" of Canvas and 'Double Stitch

1/4x

/4"Carstrip 2

Coole, Jails

L Dounle

-----

Soshcord for Cloin


M ki " Op ; I J trea,,m Face, Reinfrcp and [Loubrle ' itch

SLEEVE DETAIL SEAM DETAIL


..

I)z,m en,,

for Cran dos [-Jam 1311es-6 S0me', i.'O " ' c " 2 7,-o '
(j

'-0

r 0

0 -'end

V "Gr equim es Spaced 64? r e ts distant around

of Sleeve

2-* SLEEVE L.AYOU T

Fg,

A.,, .

_.

"./

Figure 37. Portable canvas check with discharge sleeve (21).

45

177
! .,, :,

Figure 38. Flexible, portable ditch check. Rigid and flexible portable c'hck damts are shown in Figures 39 and 40. The rigid dam in Figure 39 is made from metal and driven into the soil. Flow can then be passed Jownstrearn through a gate. The series of dams in Figure 40a are flexible and r-Ade from canvas. Siphon tubes are ingr used to irrigate the area served between e... dam. The metal dam in Figure 40b checks the flow for discharge through the upstream gate onto borders. When the ditch is in operation, this gate is held in place in the trapezoidal lined ditch by the water pressure. d. Turnout, Outlets. When irri ation water is delivered from the distribut.ry or secondary canal to the tertiary canal, a gated turnout of some design is used. Turnout structures are sometimes similar to check structures but are placed into ditch banks to permit water to be emoved from the ditch. A rotation sv,,m of watcr delivery to the tertiary :ana!s is common where the water is on fo: a prescribed number of days and off for a period. Variable amounts of flow are delivered during the "on" period depending on availability. When the tertiary system has been designed to deliver equal amounts of water, divisors used as turnouts are used as shown in Figures 12 and 13. These divisor-turnouts are common'y used in Pakistan, India and Egypt. Turnouts and outlets are also used on the tertiary canals (farm laterals) for water rel..'ase to the quaternary canals (field ditches). They have gates or stop logs for individual flow control (see Plate 18, Appendix 2). These devices may also serve as divisors as shown in Figures 17, 18 and 20; drop structures, Figures 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27; and check structures, Figures 34, 35 and 36. Small control structures and devices such as gated outlets are used to deliver the water from the field ditches (quaternary canals) to the farm fields. Devices used for this purpose include siphon tubes, spiles (straight tubes), slots in lined canals, and bank cuts in earth canals. For basin irrigation, regular outlet structures like Plate 16, Appendix 2, are used to deliver water to the field.

46

/L4Ox4Omm (5x

15

Ditch Bank Water Level

Canal Bottom

7cm

120-180cm ,48'72 '' )

7cm

Angle Bar .O 40 x40 mmZ)" (1.5"

4E D11

U! SECTION A-A

Mt ll Metallic Gotle-I

ELEVATION

Figure 39. Portable metal check (21).

*-

tN~

Figure 40. Two types of portable checks (25).

47

'unul or ditch guaes attached to pipe (Figure 41) are the most common type of tUrnout. 1he .are ma he aittachd to a
concrete o r itimt
',,hca(kall

the gate stem, the amoint of flow is determined haed on prcvious calibrations.
'1(a/I)i/'
ulcs

or Jirectl

arc Coit

olY V

for s'e.Ld

to a steel, concrtc or platic pipc , lich protrudes thloulmif the dit:h Kink (se ,at,, 1 tialll,, the[ Plate 19, Appcrili\ 2). t oI the lip"ireti ,ide, bittl 't be placed )t l dt ( llli l t icld )I (ie pipe or ditch .'letilirie. cawe of o)perlit n n111d [here a lrr ltil . ()tcII ll\ d.'iried \;hlit lle plate% ditch gates iII tl'. I he stlUl ol m r titlld li te iltl I \ elm,.'licit .'anti rod om he contollel'cd Aitli ,1 ant ljlat 11 4 . hand ; . heel as 1 l Ii I i n, : / /:: has been used as ticd ,i ill tihe aiti , tititcld t I tlie pipe l.,.S.,\. 5 . f hlie di te I tlar l d ,, ,,v ttlkiii t ipu has ar ll) L - hio\ ,. lI , ith ttll. I , , t i il pipe ()te type (f al l a tliiut
Pot
(c . . evteestor ll-trat
I

tulrnout colltrl inI held outlets on lined le gate." arc diths ( icure, 42a tnd 43). h1 1 t ila1-shaped l,1r 1mio llijitte.1 i iitml\ lined dithch and tc i concrete o , llttiltI l apcioidal lin11s. alon thcew ; (l ate", attclcd to pilpe, caIl h lll(tllt l eithIr +e:rticIllv or 11 tl anulc, aild Ctl he mo,,t ,._cases, rock. uso,,%tlled II cine rth itcte',. i:n riprap \kill be neteed Lit tile pipe dischare atic itdimension end t t)l er,,i,. t Ii Ii I I i I,, 43. and l I'I aIIIre a II-

d ,ceo idie ,
(t

imt

dter-

iWrarlt itenc tile f


lti to

c Ilwtid il tie CLtllil atlld


i pipe c.tec. \Vitl

,t1res, 42/i. ()ii//'z bo,>'" are l ii inI i 44 and 45. lic.,e turliu tare eC rterlly he frnllt od but be, t Iltel l Iatll limde.Ilr c iportale ;itd Itiav c tue. lhie\ ;ti.' needed. I Ilie 1o b\ tie i rri;attir '1. .resct a,1tceC t at[ r heir,,,, lie fiCld 1utl s ltd he ,b clw- i t tiiit'C er,,io0 . -ipto 15 iii h f
Il'hct r how"s are pritiularl\ adapted 1orthe larte flo\, s nccd-d,itt border atd basin

tile

d [tlie are ti(1 tv, ) eads",ial dilfeCrricn' ill of galc op'ntitlu rittited h\ tie ri,,e itt

irriationt.

Figure 4i. (ated

pipe outlet.

48 A (colnf'ie /lockuA lurtu ditch constructed from extruded block. for an unlined ditch I.sloAn IIin t-mr 46 (9). [he turnoul is combined with a check structure and 1tiltc, block Mith formed gate grooves set on a 5 cin (2 in.) thick colrete slah. [rosion protection is needed dowlsrcam frmhe' hi011 [turnout[.
.

1'IPir/ O /'Ct'C /?t0uc/It's

aLd tertir\ Itt Caalsla, Iswk',ell as iarll trntllrOls arc Jio\i in Figure 47. Thc modulc is a metering device with nmo ahl ,lidos ', itich can he opened singly ori in mnltiples to obtain tie desired f'low v. Typically, the sInaII distributor (mOdulC) has compartments

as intakes for seCCOndart

(0i, 21) , used

for 5, 10, 15 and 3()I , flo\ for a ma\itim flmo of 6() , (2.1 cf\). For corrccl operalion, the parnlt canial should operate 'Aithin a prcribed depth with onlv sniall fluctualioln. 10 ntIlltillI lie near collatl opcrat in. depth up-lirlal flotll the modulc, c.tllslill tipsI ntC,11l or do lus-,tran le c ,ie '(eaoe . u-ed inI 111C par cllan a as -,l *h1(M i1 in 1 L t'ur 47. Ilie ad ai taeC,, 0f ti,, ,,% stemCI are: I 1 atom.tic. Clati\ el\Cas, otion. 2) prc,ct di,,char'. miromwIts, and 3) llotl cas, to tamllp \ii. A i1h. di",ad an',tac', arc: I)relai cil\e\pesi' e, 2) ,iiiijccl to clOtgeintig 'Ailh dcbris, attd .3) rctiiilCs an alllost ct.an depth ii ( \ i Ai icl in tuFn requires depti cI (Il. i

~I MM*
, ." "&' '. . .

*'

i' * At "u"

.~

"

:.~

, .--

}:

''

iv"'

Figure 42. CommonIN usedI turnouts for farm irrigation ditches (SCS Photo) (25).

49

3Rivets "% I"Strop Iron

Bottom -~ -2"

1"I
*

H oI e s O, D.C.3" C.

WL1 GATE I3 I 114 L Iron ~-9 4- 4 , Welded to Me!;h


L

"-.--.Flow

---

.GUIDE
SECTION1AL ELEVATI)r

DETAIL

W
r I Ii fi! 2 Z

Gale Gride

as [-irectpd

L. Drill -Ho 8 l r L PLAN

.
-

Additionol

os END H ELEVATION

Needed-Not Port of Structure Described 4

K)

4" #10

(2 Wires across Top

D\

H-----SIDE

ELEVATION

Mesh VIEW NORMAL TO HEADWALL

"

.C, -2" Min,

4"o0.C. Mox.

H, in
6 8

W , n
1

Capraciti Rang cIT


28

in Cm.. .
15.2 203 22 25

C. .
56 64
-4

n
17 17

cm , in
43 43 14

cm
6

Cfs
7 - 10

s
20-28

I0

25.-

29

2 1

53 1 22

56

15

38

1.6-24

45- 58

12

3051 33

84

2 1

53 125

64

15

38

2 4 - 3 1

58 - 88

Figure 43. Conc

H',' pipe lurrlou (34).

50
t"x 4"% 2'- 2"

Ix % 4x

I-I0"

,Ground Level

I"

3" Gole1
Handle

2"X4"X3L6z/

Vx6 "

<U

-" "6 " -'

Center Line of Ditch Bank

Figure 44. Wooden turnout for basin and border irrigation (34).

".

, ."

SolI Surface

S~il Su r fce

]Flow " Opening

Apron Depressed 4"to 6"(10-15cm) below Soil Surface

Figure 45. Two designs of wooden turnouts--apron (1) level with soil surface and (2) depressed below soil surface (19).

51

H~
-II[ II
i'
-

__

I I
Flow
0

Top

View

12. CC
(3 Jcm)

II

I ii

I
II

7
I I LL___JJ

Section A-A
Figure 46. Turnout-check struc!ure using extruded concrete sections (9).

52 Constant Level Gate Rubber Seal


. -"

.......

Turnou t

Constant LvlGate

Module

Conta Level

,\ ' X':

ta

GateLel

Module

Figure 47. Neyrpic gates and modulr turnouts (6,21).

53 Trapezoidal panel outlets as used in Spain and Pakistan (31) are shown in Figure 48. They are precast from concrete and easily inserted in the ditch by the farmer. Forms are used for constructing the panel and lid so that the two fit together closely for a minimum of leakage. Outlets of variable heights can be constructed. The outlets do not have an adjustment for variable openings and must be operated either fully open or fully closed. This feature is not desirable for many systems. Circular concrete turnouts have been recently developed and are widely used in Pakistan (Figures 49, 50 and 51) (31). The outlet gates are operated fully open or closed, which is particularly adapted to the system. Irrigation water is rotated to each farmer on Pakistan watercourses on a weekly basis. Consequently, outlets from tertiary to quaternary ditches are used frequently. The water is seldom divided, so gates do not need to regulate flows-only to direct it. Field sizes are small, and thus the conveyance system is extensive, requiring numerous outlets along the tertiary channels. The turnouts are generally used in pairs--one to check the flow in the ditch and the other to divert the flow. The circular concrete turnouts also serve as drops when opened in series along a tertiary canal, Because cement, sand and bricks are readily available and local craftsmen are talented in constructing masonry structures, the outlet structures are particularly adapted to fit local needs. The circular panel is precast using steel molds constructed locally. The lid is, cast in the panel and then ground smooth by turning the lid in its panel to assure a light, relatively leakproof fit. Most of the supporting structures are brick masonry and are constructed in place as shown in Figure 50. Another turnout design using precast concrete sections is shown in Figure 51. The head !osses for a range of discharges and sizes of circular panel turnouts are given in Figure 52 (31). To install, the soil placed around the structures needs to be carefully compacted to prevent washouts. Soils should be moist when placed and compacted in layers. A hand tamper should be used. For some installations a cutoff wall as shown in Figure 50 may be needed, but for cohesive soils, the wall is probably not needed. However, since water leakage around structures is a major problem, care should be exercised to prevent leaks and possible loss of the structure. Spiles are used to release irrigation water from the head ditch into the field for furrow or corrugation irrigation. Spiles are usually short pieces of pipe inserted through the ditch bank. Normally, the spiles are installed each season although they can be left in place for longer periods. Figure 53 gives the general plan for using spiles and Table 4 gives the discharge for sizes ranging from 1.0 cm (0.5 in.) to 10 cm (4.0 in.) in diameter. Siphon tubes are widely used for furrow and flood irrigation from lined and unlined head ditches, as shown in Figure 54. Aluminum and plastic tubes are quite common and are set manually over the ditch bank with each irrigation. Very large siphons can be used for turnouts as shown in Figure 55. The flow is started using a hand pump. The large siphons are useful for irrigating large, level borders. The discharge for individual siphon tubes is given in Figure 56 and Table 4. Head is the difference in elevation of the water level in the ditch and the discharge from the pipe if flowing free, or the water level in the ditch and water level in the furrow or field if the end is submerged. For conventional siphon tubes, as shown in Figure 54, there is need to reset or reprime after an interruption of flow in the supply canal. Siphon tubes are available that hold their "prime" after flow interruption, so that flow continues after the supply canal is refilled. However, these tubes are quite expensive compared to the conventional ones. Be sure to set the di ,arge end of spiles and siphon tubes as low as possible to minimize erosion. If there is erosion, cloth, sacking, plastic sheeting or vegetative material should be place under the discharge.

54

K-

PANEL TM = 6

m m =

VARIABLE HEIGHTS ,

LID

---

2.5cm dM =4 3cm 65 cm 41 cm--.-5m

19 cm

-70cm

-FRONT VIEW

'----- -----5 cm
CROSS SECTION

/,
4.4 c m

*/

Figure 48. Trapezoidal panel outlet (31).

55

Grooves MdSealfor

Handles

Reinforcing
1-7Ba

Concave to Reduce Weight Cross Section

PanelI/

Enlarged Cross Section of the Sealing Surface


Figure 49. Concrete orifice panel otlet (31).

56

'"-Optional ,'-.,, Cutoff

Isometric View

T 40cm

I Brick

Flo0cm6cr

---

2 Brick

50cm
Panel ,,,

38cm

Floor

96cm Top View

98cm
Side View

Figure 50. Brick masonry installation for panel outlet (31).

57

Isometric View
0;i

&

//

I-

91cm (35 8''

Panel Shape for


---- Adjoining Structures

/
0/

C-)/

E/
0

L
"

S /

rf)rf) ro - [

I "](5.

6m(6"

Grooves

Pone,//66cm(26.0")

5.

Grooves

ii
"(12 2")|'

31cm

(220")

56 cm 2.

46 cm

1 1."M-

"-'LO

5.7"

Side Sections (2)

Bottom

Section

Figure 51. Precast concrete slab installation for panel outlet. (31).

120

Flow Rate, 0 (cfs) 3

D=20 cm
10(79in)

(98)

25

(11.8)

30

-4.0

35 (138) 40
(15.7)

3.5

E
/

3.0

45 (177 25
0n

6 6
00

50 4 '-

2.0 0 1.5
I

22.7

60 23.6 in.)

1.0

0.5 0

20

40

60

80 100 Flow Rate, Q ( ps)

120

140

10 160

Figure 52. Head loss through circular concrete turnouts of various diameters, 1), flowing full, assuming a submerged orifice coefficient of 0.8 (31).

59
Water Surface, Checked Water Surface, Unchecked Ground Level

Water Surface Water Surface, Top of Spiles Check

Check

Checked

C~ek"[3aom of

Slop e 0900 1

Wo ier SJrface, Unchecked

1 lIioror e t-,.',.r, ottorn of First Spile and Unche!cked W'Nter Surface

HEAD

DITCH

Figure 53. Spiles used for fuirro,

,,r corrugation irrigation (34).

7-.

.j--

-,;

,4

Figure 54. Siphon tubes for furrow irrigation.

60

, 0
."'.4.

ilium

;:

4 '"

- .- z.

. *:

-,,

'

-,

3.

'. w#

...........
- , V.
-

,;:. ....

bJ

-7

it

1-iurt- 55 lare 'Niphon %1ith priming pump for tur flOut (SCS Photo).

isiphon Tube Field [ e/ S h Tb / Field Ditch

Water Surface in Field or Furrow

Head

Note: For Siphons Constructed of Metal, Plywood or Plastic Discharge (Eps) 02


/

10 8 6

0.1
,i

0.4 I
,

0.6 , 08 1.0

10
2

K;
o/

""

: ./-' .Q,,.

"~
.--

.-

bE

..... "--:

o.

/./ .....
2 4 6 80 Discharge 20 (gpm) 40

. .. ..I --.. . t-

(70

-- "

c-

...

I.

0.81.0

6080I00

200

Figure 56. Discharge of siphon tubes (34).

62 Table 4. Flow through small spiles and siphons (5).


Diameter
of Spite

PresSure head (ceniimeters)


.....

or Siphon
cm.

2.5

7.5

10

12.5

15

17.5

20

I.iter,, per seconld


0.03 0.13 0.30 0.05 0.19 0.42 0.06 0.23 0.51 0.07 0.26 0.59 0.07 0.3(0 0.66 .O8 0.32 0.73 0.09 0.35 0.79

1
2 3

0.09 0.73 0.84

4 5
6 7 8 9
10

0.53
0.83 1.19 1.62 2.11 2.67
3.30

0.75
1.17 1.68 2.29 2.99 3.78
4.67

0.91
1.43 2.06 2.80 3.66 4.63
5.72

1.06
1.65 2.38 3.24 4.23 5.35
6.60

1.18
1.85 2.66 3.62 4.72 5.98
7.38

1.29
2.02 2.91 3.96 5.18 6.55
8.)9

1.40
2.18 3.14 4.28 5.59 71.07
8.73

1.49
2.33 3.36 4.58 5.98 7.56
9.34

Bank or ditch cutl, (notches) are the simplest method for irrigating f'rom a head ditch. FigLure 57 is a concrete ditch with notches and small gates spaced frequently along he ditch. The least desirable method is CUtS made in the earth canal bank with a shovel. This method is probably the least costly but result,, in variable flow rates and the channel bank cuts erode. Also, the refilled Cuts frequently leak or wash out. To avoid num,.'rous cuts in the canal bank in farrow irigation, use small, ternporary .,'et ditches. These are small ditches running parallel to the quaternary canals. The water is diverted from the quaternary canal into the set ditch by one bank cut, or preferably, by some type of turnout. The water is then distributed by cuts in the set ditches to 6-12 furrows, depending on conditions. This method is better than having a cut in the quaternary canals for each furrow, although siphon tubes are the most desirable method. 3. Water Measuring Structures On-farm water measurement has generally been ignored in many areas of the world, but is very important for good irrigation water rnanagement arid use. Just as it is important for the farmer to know ,iow, nLuch seed he plants, how much fertilizer he applies, and how Much crop he harvests, lie should know how much water was applied to each crop,

each held, o\er tile entire season. Water incasirements can he made at the field and farm level by ,evcral means (4, 6, 7, 21, 25, 27, 35). .\ sunniary of' the characteristics and l tintations of several methods is gi,,en by Hi/ (6). a. W$eirs.

(ne method of Measurement is to use an existing drop, check or turnout structure as a rectangular wir. Structures like Figures 24, 25, 26, 32, 34, 35 and 36 can be adapted for mCasurenent by det, .,ining the \, idth of the opening aidm rounting a staff gage upstream to otain the depth of flo, over the base of the openfig. I or an accurate measurement, the do,lnstrcatn water surface must he below the base of' the opening arid the nappe of the jet must be aerated underneath. The rectangular vseir equation Is

Q
where

(I'I

(2)

Q
C

L
h

discharge - In's (cfs) coefficient - 1.83 (metric) 3.33 (English) i (ft)

width of opening,

and and head over the weir, m (ft).

Actually, Lquation 2 is for a sharp edge weir with a deep pool upstream, but using it as suggested will not result in a significant error in measurement provided that If and L are de'.ermined with care.

63 The standardrectangularweir is easy to construct and simple to use. It can be made from concrete, masonry, steel or wood but should have a metal blade (4, 6, 35), Figure 58. In the U.S.A., small rectangular weirs are usually made in standard widths of 30.5, 45.7, 61.0 cm (1, 1.5 and 2 ft) for which rating tables are available. A prescribed distance must be maintained between the tip of the weir blade and the bottom of the ditch and between the sides of the opening and the ditch banks. Only the upstream measure of water depth over the weir crest (Figure 58) and a rating table are needed to obtain the discharge. One major drawback is the large head loss equirement to obtain an accurate measurement. The downstream depth must be at some point below the weir blade elevation for correct measurement. The 90-egree [,'-notch weir (Figure 59) has some advantages in irrigation water measurement (35). The water depth over the bottom of the V is determined as with the rectangular weir and the installation requirements are similar. The V-notch has the advantage of being able to accurately measure a large range of flows, particularly low flows. However, the head requirement is even greater than the rectangular weir, which can be a distinct disadvantage. b. Hlumes. There are several measuring flumes that should be considered when measuring irrigation flows less than 142 I/s (5 cfs). The Parshall meusuring fh;me has received wide acceptance and is u.,ed in many areas (Figure 60) (6, 21, 35). The 15.2 and 22.9 cm (6 and 9 in.) flumes have the desired flow range and rating tables have been prepared for them. The ParshaI! flume, as with other flumes, can be used while submerged, i.e., when the depth of flow downstream relative to that upstream is greater than approximately 70 percent. This means that the loss of hydraulic head can be considerably less than when using weirs. This is a distinct advantagc. Requiremcnts, rating tables and cures for discharge with ,arious degrees of submergence are a, ailablc (35). [he Parshall flume can be constru, ted as a permanent installation %I. th concrete, masonry, metal and w.ood, or as a portable device using metal, \,ood or fiberglass. The Cutthru meauring ./uuc' is an acceptable flume for irrigation uses. It can be constructed from the above materials and can he permanent or portable (27). The construction is much simpler than the lParshall flume since there is a flat bottom throughout and the parallel-walled throat section is eliminated (Figure 61). The 11unic will operate under free- tlo\ or s'-ubmerged conditions, and there are tables and charts available for determining the flow. The 4 in. hy 3 ft and 8 in. by 3 ft flumes (27) cover the desired range of discharges for small gravity irrigation systeis. The trapezoidul ./lume is used to measure flow in small systems (26). This flume, which has sloping sidewalls, was initally designed to be an integral part of a concrete-lined irrigation ditch (Figure 62). Flume F-I (26) has the desired flow range up to 5 cls (14- l/s). It has a flat bottom throughout arid 1:1 sloping sidewalls. The flume can be constructed with concrete, masonry, metal, wood and fiberglass. The advantages are: 1) the shape fits the common ditch shape, 2) there is less head loss, and 3) it accommodates a large range of flows. The disadvantages are: I) it is more difficult to construct, and 2) the cost is greater than other flumes.

--

-.

...

-.*

., -.

>-.

"..-..-

4.

4 -

Iigure 57.

oncrete lined ditch with bank cuts for irrigating

65

oint to Measure Depth (h) 4h min.

t.,,

VA-

Figure

58. Rectangular weir used as a combination measuring device and drop * "n structure (35). :..7\ . . '. . : ,

/Point to Measure
4".

,.'.'.m

Depth ( h)
h' .

scurety

(35).

ot- we r

Fiur 5.

4ieydgreVnth wer(3)

66

Figure 60. Parshall measuring flumes. (35).

Figure 61. Cutthroat measuring flume (27).

67

Figure 62. Trapezoidal measuring flume (26).

Optional Staff

-"

-4 .

Gage
Stilling Well
-

for Recorder~~
-

"-_-

Concrete Lined

~-'~-

Canal

Survey Point for Establishing Gage Zero Reference

. a-wFigue6

.m

Figure 63. Broad crested weir (b-c-w) measuring flume (7).

68 A recent development has been the broad crested weir flume (b-c-w) (7), which is particularly adapted for placemerit in an ex'sting lined ditch. Details of the flume are shown in Figure 63. The construction is simply a concrete block with an approach ramp placed with defined incremental heights; the correct height being determined from a design discharge and corresponding normal depth of flow. Thc design discharge is usually the maximum sustained flow in the channel, Depth of flow through the b-c-w flume is determined at a definitive point upstream adapted for measirement by determining the area of the opening and the flow depth on the upstream and downstream sides of the opening. Figure 52 can be used to determine the flow rate for the circular panel turnout (Figures 50 and 51). For small flows, spiles and siphon tubes (Figures 53 and 54) can be used for flow measurement using Table 4 and Figure 56. An accurate measurement of the pipe inside diameter and the hydraulic head is necessary.

Figure 64. Flume for carr)ig irrigation water across a depression (SCS Photo).

using a staff gage or water stage recorder. The advantages are: 1) simple cois'_ruction, 2) 'idequate accuracy of measureme t, and 3) low head loss at design discharge. The disadvantages may be: 1) high head losses at flows less than design discharge, 2) canal blockage, and 3) sediment deposition. c. Oriices and Other Devices. Several of the control structures can be modified to serve as orifice type measuring devices also. The canal gate shown in Figure 41 serves the purpose very well with the addition of wells to measure the water depths upstream and downstream from the gate and an elbow or obstruction on the downstream end so that the pipe flows full. The gate has been calibrated for a range of standard sizes and flows (35). Other orifice type structures such as Figures 13, 33, 34, 39 and 50 can be

4. Miscellaneous Structures a. Cuherts, howls . ings, Sip Bridges, umes, Cross..

Open irrigation ditcles must have crossing structures so that people and equipment can cross. Concrete and metal pipe is most commonly used for culverts over irrigation ditches. Bridges made from concrete, lumber and metal sections are used in most areas. Bridges are sometimes combined with check and drop structures. Flumes constructed of wood, metal or concrete carry water across depressions. These can be constructed with sub- or super-structure to support a channel or pipe as shown in Figure 64. The structure must have ample strength to support the flume when it is flowing at maximum capacity.

69 possible sources. Generally, though, waste water is from over-irrigation. One major source of waste is irrigation water furnished on a 24-hour basis, which is only tended by tne farmer during the daylight hours. However, for surface irrigation it is normal for some water to pass into drainage ways or"tail" ditches in order that all areas in the field, including the ends, receive sufficient water. Some of the same structures used to convey irrigation water are used for wasteways and drainage ways. In particular, drops and chutes are required and pipe crossings arc conmonly used. Of particularce . rn is the section where the i;n enters a larger main small open drain. Eros,. n ,, ill occur unless, some structure is used to safely convey the tlow from the higher level to the drain level. Many times a cantileverted pipe outlet is used for this situation. Because of the pipe, large scour holes and excess bank erosion usually occur. Simple outlet structures and rock riprap can alleviate this situation. Whenever possible, waste water should be diverted to a ditch or canal at a lower elevation so it can be reused on another field.

Inverted siphons made from concrete or steel pipe are useful for carrying the flow across depressions, channels and underneath roads. They differ from culverts since the pipe is lower than the water surface in the irrigation ditch. The siphons may be more expensive than flumes to build, but are more durable. Figute 65 shows an inverted siphon made from standard concrete pipe with concrete entrance and exit structures. The earth fill over the pipe should be a minimum of 1.0 m (3 ft) because of vehicular loads. Designs for siphon crossing inlet and exit structures are given in Figure 66. The structures are made from extruded concrete sections (9). Designs of concrete inlet and outlet structures for siphons of different diameters are given on Plate 20, Appendix 2. b. Drainage Structures and W'asteway's. Irrigation water that leaves the canal, farm, or areas of application must be conducted to a drainage way. This water is normally called waste water and may result from several causes. In some areas, waste water can come from excess rainfall and leakage and spillage from canals and structures are

"

,j. ._R

o o d o r o t h e r o b s t r u c t io n

, , , . ._

__ ,

Ditch b an k '

9'iried Pipe,4

Figure 65. Inverted siphon made from concrete pipe (25).

0A

Top View

eel

Isometric %.'iew

Sectio, A-A
Figure 66. End details for siphon crossing (9).

71 47), sinking floats and water clock principles that may be of limited use in developing countries. ti. Other .Structures. In some cases, sand traps and trash

c. Automated.Structures. Automatic control devices have been developed for underground pipe systems and, to a limited extent, for surface systems (3). NanV of the anutonatic devices utilize pneumatic, radio and dcc-

Ironic controls. In aiddition to turning


water on and off, str jctures and devices

racks (screens) can be used in areas where


there is a large amount of sedinent and trash (3). Thesc structures are qite specialized and require a great amount of observation and maintenance for successtnl opCration. Th cv ar, rarely used for IarmII irrigation individual surl'ackc systels. Usuall; the farmrs will mlalnuallv remove trash anid dcpusited sediment Ir,' channels and structtir.s. Refer to the section on pipe line sruetures for details on trash screens and d,:siliing boxes that can b adapted to the needs of surface systems.

have been dceclope:

to aUtomaticallN

reduce thc fle, alcr al initial highflow :.Sell'-propelled, for "cut-back'' ii riga ti. traveling si1-hows have hcen used sucneded cessfullv whcre a large di.,chare !,, for border irricaoLni. Mitost o tile Ceulipinlnt aid devicCs for antOlatioli arc quitC cOM)plicatCd and require a great altlltll o! skill nl attion for operalion. ThCrC arC a limitld LUmlIber of irrigation gale , arid checks operated by manual tilmers, hydrauilic presure (Figure

73

I11. LOW PRESSURE PIPE SYSTEMS


There are three types of on-farm low pressure pipe systems (3). The first is a buried pipe system where water enters by gravity from an irrigation ditch or pumpstand. Water is released directly to the field from risers on the buried pipeline. Buried pipelines with risers are usually made of concrete, asbestos - concrete, or more recently, rigid plastic. hi naThe second pipe -,stem is a coin tion of buried pipe and portable su rface pipe attached to the risers. The surface pipe is usually gated so that water is delivered at many points along the pipe.
The third type is completely portable surface pipe where the water isdelivered

less than 500 cm (16 ft). If pressure heads exceed 650 cm (21 ft), reinforced concrete, steel, asbestos-cement, plastic and other pressure pipe is used. Low pressure concrete pipe commonly has mortared tongue and groove joints, although rubber-gasket, flexible-joint pipe is also used. The pipe should be located with care to serve the area and should be positioned away fron hca\v traftic. Experielce has shown that a iiimuin depth of' 0.6 in (2 ft) over the top of'the pipe i,, safe in areas ehiClCs and iIne an ilinal-dra',l usinig plinents and 1.0-1.5 in1(3-5 ft) in aireas ;t int practices and using mechanical cult i, hea, vehicular traf!ic. P~ipe capacity
must be large elotgh to: the inaxinluinl 3 gives ater requireinetii,. \,
'Appendix

directly by pump or from an open ditch turnout. The surfac pipe is used to deliver water from the open eld or from gated sections along the pipe. Surface pipeline is usually rigid aluminumr or plastic pipe but can also be flexible plastic and rubber-like materials. Pipe distribution sy,,tcms ofter many advantages and are finding increasing Use in developing cotrntries (3, 4, 20, 24, 25, 33, 36). The advantages are: 1) miniima seepage and evaporation losses, 2) no loss of land to ditches, 31 better weed control through elimination of ditch banks, d) ease of'water distributi on on uneven land, 5) -educed nmaintenmnce, and 6) good -ontrol of irrigation ,.ater. The disadvantages ae: 1, high initial cost inrd 2) damage or loss from vandalism. 1. Pipe Design a. Underground. Ncareinforced concrete pipe has bcn used extensively for low pressute systems with asbestos-cement, plastic, and very recently, fiberglass pipe, also used. Most low pressure systems operate at a head

ASA. .261 .5(or design and insallation of nolriilorced concrete irrigait ion pipe svsteims aiid Appindi\ 4, A S- 5376 for design, installattion aild pertlorinalce of undergrotmd thermoplastic irrigation pipelines.
b. Surface.

Surface pipe is used instead of an open ditch and usually h:As Z.iult it ude of small gates (gated pipe) to distribute the flow. The pip'. is usually alulinum. C.'om11on sizes include 127, 152, 203, and 254 rn nd 10 in ) d;armetr in 6-9 in (5, 6, 8, ..
(20-30 ft) lengths. In some areas, plastic

pipe (PVC) is used. ('uick couplings are available which are relatively leakproof. c. lipeline Capacity. The pipeline diamtc'er which will deliver the desired 1,1;1ount of irrigation water determined. The capacity -e mus.., depends on the size and roughness of the pipe, hydraulic losses of the entrance, exit, bends, joints, valves, etc., and the differen,.e in elevation (head) at the entrance and exit.

-1~.

'..

74 There are a number of reationships (equations) that have been developed for determining th friction lo,,ses (head losses) in pipe. However, for low head, on-farm irrigation systems, the Manning equation adapted for pipe flow is recommended for simplicity. Because, for pipe, the hydraulic radius, R, equals D/4, and the area, A, equalsrD 2 /4,
Q z C D' 's' /n (3)

for the low head pipe system will probably be one or more alfalfa type valves discharging through hydrants. 2. From a selection of pipe diameter and estimated discharge, determine 1 from Table 5. 3. Determine and sum the resistance
coefficients K
...

For Equation 3, C' is 0.31 for metric arid 0.46 for English units, Table 5 gives the head loss for concre e pipe with gasket joints (n 0.011). Head losses for other types of pipe (such as plastic) of similar diameter can be determined by increasing or decreasing the values in Table 5 [or the different roughness, l:, values. As an example, if the n value i,, 0.008 (plastic pipe), then tile head losses in Table 5 for the same diameter and discharge should be decreased by the factor 0.008/0.011 0.73. The actual head loss for pipe friction (H,) is found by dividing the length of pipe system by 1(0 and multiplying by the value found from Fable 5 (n - 0.011). Tile total head loss in a pipeline (H[ ) is the sum of the pipe friction losses and other head losses caused by entrances, valves, elbows, tees and structures. These losses are accumulated depending on the friction and head losses,, thus H/=
(K, + K. + K, + ... K,,) + H, (4)

pipeline features, such as line valves, elbows, tees, risers and delivery valves. 4. Solve Equation 4 for the discharge

K for the different

Q.

5. If the determined discharge Q is different from the estimated discharge used in step (2), repeat the computations from step (2) using the computed discharge to obtain 1-1,. The final computation after these trials will give the correct discharge. To actually design the system, it is necessary to first have a topographic profile of the system showing the ground surface. and pipeline elevations. Upon knowing the location of each pipeline feature, such as stands, risers, valves, etc., and the water delivery schedule, the next step is to determine the hydraulic grade line for each possible schedule. The hydraulic gradient at the point of delivery and the valve characteristic determines the discharge there. The capacity of a gravity pipe system is the difference in the elevation between the upper water surface and that where the lower end discharges. If the system is supplied by a pump, the head can be increased. The usual practice is to design the underground pipe system so that the hydraulic gradient is 30 cm (1 ft) above the ground surface at the discharging alfalfa valve. This will insure adequate flow without excessive erosion for direct irrigation. If rigid or flexible gated pipe is used with a hydrant, the hydraulic gradient will need to be 61-91 cm (2-3 ft) at the alfalfa valve level.
basically determined by the pipe diameter and

where g = aceleration of gravity, 9.8 m/sec: (32.2 ft/sec). Values of the resistance coefficient K for different features are given in Table 6. For the gravity system, the pipe discharge and size is determined by the following steps.

1. Determine -J , as the difference in 1

elevation of the water surface at the entrance and at the point of lowest discharge. The point of discharge

Table 5. Head loss in concrete pipe with concentric gasket joints* (3).

Pipe Diameter
Flow rate (Q) L/s 15.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 150.0 ftr/s 0.53 0.71 1.06 1.41 1.77 2.12 2.47 2.82 3.1 3.53 5.30 0.14 0.25 0.55 0.98 1.54 2.21 3.01 3.93 4.97 203 mm (8in.) 254 mm (10 in.) 305 mm (12 in.) 356 mm (14 in.) 381 mm (15 in.) 406 mm (16 in.) 457 mm (18 in.) 533 mm (21 in.)

Head loss (m 100 m or ft 100 ft)

0.07 0 17 0.30 0.46 0.67 0.91 1.19 1.51 1.86 4.18

0.06 0.11 0.i8 0.25 0.34 0.45 0.57 0.70 1.58

0.08 0.11 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.31 0.69

0.08 0.10 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.48

0.07 0.10 0.12 0.15 0.34

0.05 0.07 0.08 0.18

0.08

*Computed from Manning Formula, n = 0.011

Table 6. Resistance coeftficienl A for ue in f'nrmula I 1

K Q: 2.Ag for fillings and valves (33).


,orml nl d~itn ccr I , ,, iniX 2( 1 1111 (. i n.) 250 111111 1 u . 3( 11 lm 1) (12 In.)

Standard pipc RCC ui.ub lrwIgcd 90, JCL rcc, ( u rln ' l fl t, h.'cd 9()dI I CC,

..
Ce-. . i"%

2(.17

o0.26

0.15 0. 10 0.56 5 .6} .0 0.80 2.04 2.78

. 0.14 0.09 0..52 5.5{1 0.00 2.A) 0.80 2.04 2.8

0.24

0.12 0.08 0.48 5.40 0.0.45 2.00 0.80 2.04 2.78

I !,lwcd 1in-c tfluo I lam.eed hta lnt flov,


Va.I %. C':

0.12 0.60 5.80 0. 11 2.X 0.80

0. 11 0.58 5.701 0.09 2. W)2.W 0.80

. ;lbe fl ai id .1TC tlaruecd Sv. \.ne :h :k lag.d I.ot .\ltalta (20)' Orchard (2(0)'

()ter
Ilet,, ur Cnitl'ran Ce7 IiaIt, d p1 u Ciiin! Sharp cur neocd

Sliughtl.* uturIded Bell-noutli h


Sudden cnflariemncn, K d ,*h.+ d

0.78 0.50 0.23 0.0-4

.\ll All All .

diamcters

diamtecrs diametners diameters


diameter of large pipe

dinrlC!Cr Of smnalIer pipe and d:

Sudden cnn) rat iwlt, K

vc Cd ,

tarIletCr ol ',maller pipC a : l,

- diameter of large pipe

ier

-I I, th

,.

1,

:i.

c: ,..,n.,

st .' n {I1 "

), and hv..draliL gridinll I' 30.0 ciii cm

10 In ahbom',ai c.

77

2. Structures Control structures are needed for the loy pressure Lundergroutnd pipe ,,,tems to deliver the correct flow at the desired locaioi, (3,4, ".0, 33). Aprendi\ 2 give , desin intormation on ,tructUrc,, t tihe sy'stems. A.-itho u h Loitcrtte pipe i,, o), the dc iun can he adapted to other pipe material, a. Inlet Structure. . Water may enter a pipeline by gravity from an irrigation ditch or may be

pumped rom a well or canal. Inlet str ,clures are usCd to direct the atcr into th' pipe sVIeml LLd also may serc Lis . debri. and sedinment trap.
i C en, te Is 1.( \'u'''vi I,[1 . \\ i pipeline tromin nopeii n ditch, a ',t ur2tlft.' ,,d. like that ,,tmiti l i vurc 6- 1, i, lhw ielct lAI\ arc CotII', l,:iCd Ot poLred concItcc,, tc b',, -, brick ma/t [\ or d ;tlrge lCter :oIlcItC pp Ile\ are. equipped %% 11 I it trah rac or ,ciertn amd ai relli alec I . Plates 21, 22 anid 23, .\ppcndi\ 2 Ui\c de.,i ns I r iia.it, iInlets,.
.ater

Top of Ditch

Removable Wood Cover

Ba n k-x
Trash Screen Water Surface

FIow
Ditch B<t.,."'
27 77 7
'YII

..
,
I

Field Surface

.
:1 141

Buried Pipe

-:;

..

Flow

Figure 67. An inlet stand for taking Aater b graitN from a ditch into an underground pipeline (4, 32).

78

2. Pump Stands. Stands are installed to receive water from a pump and convey it into a pipeline. They are open at the top and the stand diameter is larger than the pipeline, usually 3 to 4 limes larger. This allows the stand to act as a surge chamher and allows entrapped air to escape. They are built high enoUgh to develop the head needed and are given some freeboard. A typical stand is shown in ligen re 68. If an minl ,tally high stand is necded, the ',tand is cap1)ed and a smaller diametr stee! pipe is extended to the neccssary height. A

flexible coupling is put in the pump line to protect the stand from pump viorations. Plates 24 and 25, Appendix 2, give designs for pump stands. Plate 26, Appendix 2, shows an inlet stand comhined with a sand trap. b. Pressure an IFlow ( onirol .S'tands.
Control structures are needed to mainlain delivery s, aler levels, regulate the flow into branchin g lines, limit pipe pressures, and provide for the removal of er1frained air.

Concrete

Water Surface

Pipe Mortar Fillet


Flexible
Couplingo t pp "Fp

Fo
Flap 3

i'nF lo w
DischarePp

/Fillet Base

Mortar

Concet Pp

Figure 68. rypieai concrete pump stand: The flexible coupling is needed to absorb vibrations from the purmp; the flap gate prevents back f'low, to (he pump (4, 32).

79 1. Gate Stands. Gate stands are diversion structures that control the flow into laterals. They are also used to increase the pressure upstream, to prevent high pressures, and to act as air vents and surge chambers. The gates are often used to control pressures as required by upstream outlets. A single structure is often built to function as a gate stand and as an overflow stand as shown in Figure 69. Plate 27, Appendix 2, gives the design of a gate stand combined with an overflow stand, 2. Overflow Stands. These serve as check and drop structures in addition to the other functions of a stand. As a check, the stand regulates upstream pressures to maintain uniform flow from outlets or into laterals. As a drop, it limits the excess head developed by the natural slope. It may be used with or without the side turnout shown in Figure 69. It has the disadvantage that air is often entrained in the water as it spills from the overflow baffle. To minimize this, a gate which is normally open is installed between the two chambers in the stands. When pressure is needed for upstream diversion, the gate is closed sufficiently to bring the water level to the crest with only a small ove rflow. An overflow stand usually is not needed in areas of flat or very slight slopes (see Plate 27, Appendix 2).

OPERATING
WATER SURFAC E7

MAX V7 R SUF ACE-

,FREEBOARD fMIN.

CONCRETE

PIPE [

CONCRETE IRRIGATION PIPE

FIELD

SURFACE

-IELD

SURFACE

MORTAR FILLET

.MORTAR FILLET

FO

'SLID GE

-FL.OW

CONCrRETE WS

Figure 69. Combination gate and overflow .and used for regulating upstream pressures and diverting water into other pipeline laterals or for direct irrigation (4, 32).

80 3. Float Valve Stands. On steep slopes, it is advantageous to install a seniiclosed system with float valve stands as shown in Figure 70. Design of the stand is given on Plate 28, Appendix 2. The float valve,, open when the downstream pressure falls to a predetermined level, and admit into the line only as much flow as can be released by the hydrants that are open. Thus, each valve automatically controls pressure in the reach of pipe downstream from it. When a pipeline is served directly from storage, float valves provide full control of the water from the lower end of the line. High overflow stands on steep slopes may be eliminated by using float valves. A semiclosed system is efficient, since surplus water is not wasted at the end of
WATER FREEBOARD
I'

the line as is sometimes done when overflow stands are used. Tables giving head loss for various size and types of valves at diffei nt openings are useful in selecting the proper valve (24). 4. Line Gate Valves. Line gates in each lateral are sometimes substituted for gate stands. These valves are regular gate valves with special hubs that are mortared directly into the line. They permit operation from the ground rather than from the siand top. The present trend is toward increased use of line gate valves with adjacent, small diameter, capped, vent stands instead of large gate stands. Friction losses in wide open gate valves are low and are often expressed as equivalent lengths of straight pipe (24).
SURFACE

MIN.

--REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE

I
\\-FLOAT

FIELD

SURFACE

FLOAT VALVE

"

MORTAR

FILLET-

-FLOW

,,

ilFLOW

reul7e 777-7/ 777 77

by the fla7ave(,3) ./.">. 77 Z 17 72//

Figure 70. Float valve stand; pressure and flow in the line are automatically regulated by the float valve (4, 32).

81

ALFALFA VALVE-

FIELD SURFACE

2.' MINIMUM"

":"

"*

CONCRETE/ PIPE --K////// ///

,.;:: -..

'---.

. "..3

:. ,;-'',

///

MORTAR . FILLET

Figure 71. Typical alfalfa valve hydrant; the riser and valve assembly are sometimes cast to a short section of main pipeline to simplify installation (4, 32).

82
of ground surfocet

I.

,:.)

" -'.;

Figure 72. Orchard valve hydrant showing the recunmended installation of the valve in the riser (4).

....

Figure 73. Cated surface pipe and tubing attached to portable hydrar-,s fitted ever alfalfa or orchard valves. The flow to the furrows is adjusted from individual outlets in the pipe or tube (4).

Figure 74. Open-pot hydrant with orchard valve and slide gate control (4).

83 c. Discharge Control Structures. Outlets are necessary to deliver water from the pipeline to the land surface or into some distributing device. They consist of risers buih of vertical sections of pipe into which outlet valves or gates are installed to control discharge. Outlet I'a/ve.S. Outlet valves are us1. ed to distribute water directly into border strips, basins or ditches where relatively large flows are needed. Two general types are used in the United States of America, alflilvla vulves and orchard valves. Alfalta valvcs are normally grouted to the top of a pipe riser as shown in [i- urc 7 1 Plate 29, Appendix 2). This is referred to as an alfalfa valve hydrant. (,Orchard cakes are smaller than alfalla ,al. es and are Used where smaller floss are accenahle. They are usuall% installed inside !he FIiurc 72 (Plate 30, riser as shown ini ,.eater usuallI', flos, s Appendix 2)..Si from an ortiard cal,,e with lower velocities, they are common ly used in place of alfalfa valves here erosion is a problem or ss here the pressure in the riser is extra hih. Portable h,,drants and sheet metal stands cal fit over the valves for water delivery into surface pipe or ditches. The hydrants are constructed so that the valves can be regulated with the hydrant in place. (iated surface pipe or tubing call be attached to the hydrant to distribute water to furrows ot corrugawhich water is distributed to the furrows. The :lide gates are placed on tile inside of the open pot to mninimlize erosion. The water level in tile hydralt is regulated vjih an orchard valve. When line pressures are lo enough, the valve in the riser may be omitted with control at tile slide gates. In installations, whcre the hydraulic gradient is not more than 31) to 6) cm (I to 2 ft) ahose tile ground, the pot may be capped and tile orchard valve elininated. In th case, the slide gales are installed and )peratcd from tile outside of tihe riser. I he low is controlled by adlu,tmieo ot line pfcsurs and tlhe

gate.
Capped pot outlets hasc the ad .aln-

allof iw lucte or debris to tagc ot nt ow enlte the ri,,ci to cioes the slide vales.
ItJoCwcr, tlie\ pr sid ICs ntrol of the floss, midTc' oki Itoill Iti wat- r It l t tlel lc e Ct as Ic Ih. le. is Mlo e se'. .
leplaced h\ sp,c:iul "sic.,,i_>pc %Ilcs l', cl sioli. Ilio use ol which allo capped pot Mitlet\ ih usuall, hnited 1t

orchards and permanent crops where small flows are distributed inlto lurrows.

With low, line pressures, the pot is sometimes om1itted and le slide gate put in tile sidc, ,Ithe riser ss hich may be left open or capped. Flow, ratings and maximiiUill rcC uimended design capacities ior sdide eates has e been determined (24). e tydrant. Sceral dif3..r/me ferent types of hydrants are used to connect the pipelines to) ,urlace pipe or tubing. I hse are essenitially ,ariations of those mentionied previously in which the slide gares arc replaced by nipples or connections for attachment of the stirface pipe. Unless excess pressure is it, the pipeline, the riser must extend high enough to produce the req iI red pressure in the surface pipe. If the pressure in the pipeline is more than required, the riser may be equipped with an orchard valve to prevent it from overflowing.

tions (Figure 73). Sheet metal stands are

ith naultiplC-connecsometime, fitted v. tions so that one stand may -,ere several surface pipes individually or
simultaneously.

2. Pot ttydrants. [here are several types of distributing hydrants, two of which ar, the alf:-lfa and orchard type where the water tlow', from the top of the riser. Another, used for furrow irrigation, consists of a riser pipe extending to the ground level svith a larger pipe, called a pot, fitted over it as shown in Figure 74. The pot has openings fitted with slide gates through

84 The height of an open hydrant should equal or exceed the head loss in the gated pipe or tubing plus freeboard, Relceences are availab!le which are ht lpful in determining head loss in surface pipe and tubing (24). l)ischargc into the furrows is controlled by individual out lets along the pipe or inbe. d. fiscelaneou. .S'tructure.s. vent high surge pressures. Vents are needed at all high points of a line, where the pipe slope increases sharply down grade, at sharp turns in tile line, at t h end of the line, and directly below any structure that entrains air in the flowing water. In addition to recasing air, open vets serve to release the line when gates or vales are opened or closed. I'hey also prevent pipe collaps: from vacuum when the line is
drained. The cross-sectional area of the vent riser .Ihould be at least one-hal f the area of the pipeline. A typical installation is shoswn in Figure 75 with design inforpressure surges and pi event daiage to

/.,un1 lT'ps. Sand traps are usually


buil! into the pipe inlet structures. Mcst of the suspnded inaterial may be reioved by inaking the stanj extra large in diameter to insurc low walev vlocity and to provide it '..ting basin, The toltorn f the. t ,h ' tiid is set soMe

distance bclowK i,,'erIlof the outlet pipes r..i--pr .,,'idc space for sediment dc-tpo'it.on (.see Plate 26, Appendix 2).

Sediment collecting in the pipeline is minimized if a mini iniu velocity of' 60 cm/sec (2 ft/sec), and preferably 90 cm/sec (3 ft/scc), is maintained. Sedinient deposits in the pipeline reduce the capacity and eventually nay plug the line. It is pariicuii rly i lortant that sediment be removed from the water when sLurface pipe and tubes are used. Sediment deposition in this equipment makes (he pipe very difficult to move. 2. Debri.s amn Wed .S'creen.s. Debris and weed screens should be provided at every gravity inlet. NIuch of the difficuliy caused by this material will be eliminated if provision is made to remove it from the water before entering the pipe. Designs are given in Plates 31 and 32, Appendix 2. 3. Air "ents. Vents are required on every pipeline to release air and to pre-

ination given on Plate 33, Appendix 2. It is often recommended that the small vent pipe extend part way dowvi into the riser. Air trapped ;n the .pace between the end of tle pipe and the -'oocrete cap absorbs pressure waves and the riser thus acts as a surge char,,ber. The area of the smaller vent pipe should not be less than one-sixtieth of' the main line area and in no case less tha2 5 cm (2 in.) in diameter. All vents should extend at least 120 cm (4 ft) above the ground or as high as necessary to prevent overifow during normal oreration. The 120 cm (4 ft) height is for visibility to prevent damage during field operation. If an excessively high vent stand is required, it may be advisable to install an airrelief valve to reduce the height as indicated in Figure 75. Air-relief valves permit air to escape or enter but do not allow water to pass. They should not be located where it may be necessary to relieve momentary high pressure surges.

85

Water Surfmace

Maximum

Freeboard 1'(30cm) for ar rcOpen Vent

_..

>, Steel Pipe Field Surfoce....

Air Relief Valve

Morta r.",,,-Precast Concrete Pipe-, Mortar Fiilet A


'2"(5cm )

Concrete Reducer Min. D,

Figure 75. Air vent for underground pipelines. The vent pipe is sometimes allowed to project into the riser to form an air pocket and surge chamber in the top of the riser (4, 32).

87 IV. CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION Thr-.e is an apparent lack of concern and understanding of tile construction and operation requirements of small gravity irrigation systems and watcr control structures. This partly results from past emphasis on I ie design of large struclures and from governmental responsibility for irrigation sensters ecding at the point where the use ()I small structures starts. ThC small sIructtirCs and systems require an emiphasis1 on econour y ri Itati on w.hile is uring struction and in all reliable, simple operation for the farmnerThere is ome tie stte. operator of ( ruct ures small Stt ru betweeri the similarity linings ,u,;r,' and the larger and ditch and canals in soie construction phases like foundations, concrete inix, hack filling, erosion prevention, etc. Two types of constructi0in for irrigation structuires predominate in developing countries. The most common type is brick-masonry, which may be covered with concrete mortar. (oncree footings and slabs are used Under the brick construction. Prec:ist concrete blocks, sections and complete structures are next in comnmon use. File sections may be flat, part circular, or parabolic for forming masonry lining or strticturcs. Metal structires havc only limited uses and wood, hardly at all, becatise of shortage, susceptibility to tire, and need for using [he wood for other tises. Other than canal lining, poured-in-place concrete has only control limited use in siall irrigation st ructures. The need for forms, and onsite rnixing and poturing of concrete makes these strticttires costly and labor intensive, 1. Ditch Construction Small earth irrigation ditches can be formed by hand or machine in either cut or fill sections. Tile fill sections should be well conpacted in layers 10 to 15 cm (4-6 in.) deep. If the ditch section is higher than the field, an earth pad should be constructed and the ditch formed as shown in Figure 5. The side slupes of an earth ditch should not be steeper than 1:1 with recommended side sicpes given in Table 2. Permanent ditch bank, or berms should be at least 30 to 76 cm (12-30 in.) wide at the top as given in Table 3. The banks must be high enough to give a freeboard over tle maxinium water level of 15 cm (6 in.). A discussion of lined dIitch construction has been given in Secti n 11, 1c. For the small ditches, masonry lining using brick, concrete lIniirg and precast concrete lining are the most conmon. Other types of lining such as asphaltic and plastic are in developing co!intries almost never useduseful as liners below but Would be precast linings. Fhe ditch section:; need to be overexcavated to accommodate the thickness of the lining material. [he soil should be compacted using a hand tzmper if a roller or other mechanical method is not available. Prior to placing the lining, the soil should be sprinkled with water if it has dried. The concrete and mortar used for ditch linings should 'ollow the specifications given in Appencix I . It ;:hould be thoroughly mixed, preferably by machine and kept free of soil and debris. The local concr2'e and/or brick mason should be relied upon to lay the brick or place the concrete in an acceptable marnner. For tile small concrete ditches, it is not necessary reintforcing steel. The thick riCss of to :,c the ;irng should range between 5 and 10 cn (2-4 in.) depending on tie ditch size and flow velocity (13). There shotild be contraction joints cut traniscrselv in the wet concrete to about one-third its depth, about 3 ni (10 ft) apart If tle slope of the ditch lining i,over 0.02 (2 percent), collars extending 30 cm (I ft) beiow, and laterally from the sides of the lining are requirc,, at each joint. The joint shotild be over the collar. After a period of time the joint should be filled with expansive material like bitumen. Construction joints abutting structures should contain a suitable expansion joint material, such as bitumen oi rubber.
t.W

.a.

Aw

88 Precast concrete liners should be placed on the earth sections that have been coinpacted and shaped to the outside shape of the liner. It is important that the liner is in complete contact vith the soil or the plastic sheet underlying the Fiinr. le joints of' the prccast ,Cction ri ust be perfectly aligned lh,: n mortared.:,. Misalignment sill rlduc e fl ov ',-i,- Ity of the ditch and also promnote cracking at the join(. be covered Brick lined cha nnls should with a 1 cm (0.4 in.) laver of concrete mortar, particularl\ %-henthe brik is not of good quality. I is very important that the soil be well colpact'd, mnoistenled, and Shaped for p lacing thC brick initg. 2. I)itch Struclure__ After the cow rete or brick mortar has
had time to properly cure, the structures

should be carefully back filled. This phase is very important since the most corn mon structural failure is impi oper or insuffici ent backfi! ii-,. Backfill soil should be rmi:,t and coinpacted in 10-15 cm (4-6 in.) la ers. When com plete, the back ill I should extend :tboc e hc sidt(,alls of tile s'ructure. 3. Pipe Systems The c ,,truI en, inst a Ilat ion and tesling of lov, pr,,ure pipe systems should gicraliy 1f0llo\s the spCcifications given b.% the .\lmrican SociCtv of Agriciltual I mince>tr nunreilitrccd concrete irie atlwll pipe ,stcmic, (2) (Appendix 3), anJ !t1! uLdergr:rr hii itrigation pipeli:(, (i) i.Appen.i,. 4). these -. d i -, relatlc it ,., practices for coniStruc'icf :d;io 1nitzllalicrf. -or specificat101s and il'-,uctiolis on] itnakine concrete and mortar or the pipeline ,n ictures, refer to Appcndix I Pipe trenchct ,hnuld be excavated deeply enough ',o that 0.75 to 1.20 m (30-48 in.)of c4ocr is placed over plastic pipe and a minim urn of 0.6 Ii (24 in, cover o, er concrete pipe (3). The ppe should be uniforinly supported over its entire length oi firm, stable material in the trench. When trenches are excavated in soils containing rock or it, soils subject to appreciable swclling or shrinkage, the trenches Should be overexcavated and back filled with stable materials to provide a firm, unifoim base. Trench widths just adequate to allow room for pipe insiallation provide maximum support for the finished pipeline. Before backfiling, fill plastic pipe with water and check for leaks. Keep the pipe full of water during backfilling to prevent collapse of the pipe. The trench is partially backfilled and water is added until the fill is thoroughly saturated. Allow to dry and then complete the backfilling.

Fake care to prepare the ouddtoll Ior structure., that are to be po~ird from c,,!i. crete or built fr'om bric,..A c' ncretc pad, slab or footing W0 cm (4 in.) thick shotlid be sufficient. This is placed oi the excavated soil that ha,, been leeled and compacted (also wetted). It is important that the soil be wetted before pouring the concrete since a dry soil will remove water from the fresh concrete, reducing its final strength.
If forms are required, they must be tied or braced so that they cannot move. Bi ick structures must be made using the best local construction practices with the water side covered with a thin layer of mortar, Gate slots should be made with metal angles or channels and fastened to the structure rather than forming the slots in the concrete or mortar. The new concrete should be allowed to cure for at least 5 days by covering it with cloth, canvas, burlap or sand, which should remain wet for the day period. In some areas, concrete curing compounds are available. Directions fir their use are printed on the con.ainers.

89 For concrete pipe with mortar joints, partially backfill the trench while the mortar is still plastic. Complete backfilling after the mortar joint-, have set for at least 30 hours. The pipeline should not be filled with w before backfillin.. is conber pkted. Pipelines ,hould bc tested for leaks by observing the trench after two weeks of conli nuotio, %ater in the lines. Coniiect concre t pipelines to structures ;1sing mortar. StruL'Ctrc are coristrulcted in a manner similar to those preiously decCri bcd for conc:etc 1itches. I"or pump stands, lte line frol the p)uLm1p mLut have a flexible j.nt so that vibrations are not iransmilled to the stands.

91 V. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 1. Operation. The operation of farm irrigation systems varies widely and is somewhat dependent on the operation and water delivery schedule of the secondary delivery canals (distributary canals, Figure 1). Usually the farmers, either by organization or individtally, operate tile balance of the system (tertiary and quaternary canals, Figure I). The \ ater deli\ cry methods or schedule,, for the secondary canals can be broadly classilied as demand, rotation or continuous flow systems (3). Anoher method classi ties the system water dclivrv as either rigid (predetermined) or flexible (nodified) schedule. In developing countries, wkater delivery t'rom the government operated system usually follows a rigid schedule and gives a varied amount on a fixed frequency. The rigid schedule and varied amount often supply excess water during periods of low crop demand, resulting in water waste and drainage problems. Conversely, during periods of greater crop water demand, not enough water is available resulting in farmer conflicts. The above factors indicate that the flows in a particular system vary widely and this is usually the case. The proper operation of an irrigation system depends on an organizational structure that ,,ill insure equitable delivery to the water users. To have equitable delivery, there mtIst be water measurement, good conveyance systems and positive control, which Will restult from properly "'.,igned on-farm irrigation systems. A farmer-run organization is necessary to obtain correct water delivery based on the right and land holding of each individual. One individual employed or designated by the farmer organization should be responsible for equitable wkater delivery and also for recommending maintenance of the system. 2. Maintenance. Good maintenance of irrigation systems and struct tires is necessary for etficient deli,.ery and use of 'v ater. The on-far i Irrigation ,all maintenance ()I sI canals arnd sirucarcs should he tile responihility (f the uculti,,ator and is a continuing task.

I. Seep arca, in ditchcs or around sirucrtlrcs dhould be immCdiatCly


repaired. atid \celatioli 2. Renio\c ,cdinleutl fro)m diche, ,,sitactuares, anild repair fcatuoc, Ihri la\ c bcen dairraged or deterioratcd. 3. Design sirtLIIt,, III unlined ditches so they, % ill not iiiicrerc ,iih ditch cleanin ,,liCr) mcchanical equipmet is, usId. 4. l.)itclhcs need to be cleaned at least once a o,ear (more often where weed grov, h is eor,, rapid), and 5. the ditch should bc reshaped at tic same rime. Clean, r,_slaped canals have a lower roughnes , ,.alurC ([able I) and ,.,ill therefore alloy, the v,atcr to flow laster with less ponding than poorly maintained canals. Clean channels can conser,.e head in areas v,here gravity irrigation systems operate ,.,ith limited ;aailable head. Since the discharec is iu,.rse l, pro ortioral to the roughnCs , coefficient (Lquationi I), a channel nay carry as inuch as four tines the iloy'. %hcn clean as wkhcn coniaining dense weeds (Table I). Lov,, short uro%ing grass on the ditch banks is recommended for stabilization, but shoIld not interfere with the flow capacity of the ditch. Weeds along the ditch banks should be eliminated. Rodents and btrrrowing animal are a major cause of ditch and structure fdilures and should be controlled. If rodents are known to be a majo. problem in an area, rodent activity around an irrigation structure can be reduced by mixing coarse sand and gravel with the backfill material when the structure is installed.

. .r.

"

92 Ditch erosion, bank scouring, weak or low spots in the ditch bank, strUCtUre cracking and deterioration, and crosior around or belo\, structures are ail laitena,c itenms that iIst be corrected. It scouring, or r(osiol is occurring, change' and'or additions to the ditch structulre, slould he ritadc. Additional grade control or ec rg., disipatin, siructires In.ay be llecCssa rs. ]ln at ent.- s, crc it is available, placing :rushcd iock or coarse on the ditch bank and bed or;i,.ci dOW)SCall ii frl) I ',r.Lucitr llV aSsist in ricirUiI. scoul arid e:r1sioii. lIhoken coticlCtc o! hriuk Is useful fur tlis, pultPose. (rcks in conicrctC, ltiioin\ arid brick structtires s,.lio ld he repair'Cp l h rite mi llortar or h\ oilicr man,. Nlii.t cracks. are caused b, tCiitpcraitirC and 1ioisItire changes. ttove ever, . hen cra.kg i- cansed by foundation settlement and/or backfill iiornmenit and pressure, the

structure may need to he removed and rebuilt. lhe structures should be installed so that water does not pond in the ditches when the irrigation flow is off. Ponding enhanices seepage, bank failure, mosquito bredin, and contrihutes to stlucture failure. Ito,, v,,er, in stnic arca> ponding is desired ior domcstic. pulrpos such as
li,.,t"ock \atermnL'.

Metal structures and rIetal part>, of other structures ,hould be protC.tCu by' painting and or- rustproofiinc.', Metal in contact vih tile soil iiav lnced special treatment. Nictal part> ,,h t,id be kept to a tiirnutit, but it used, mu he tirmly attached arnd prtccted 'tainst ,. andalisn or remov1)al lor other tisC. A good maintelanice progra in ctt pirolong the life of canals and stLuCtureS several time, r. A\ routine, thorough program should he maii,tained.

93

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY
I.
American Society of Agricultural Frigineers. 1981-82. Agricultural [-ngrs. Yearbook. ASAE S 376. I)es n, /istallution nd I'er/armance ol L nderground Thermopl.Stic Irrigation i'iphlnis. St. Joseph, \Iich. American Society of Agricultural tngineer,,. 1981-82. Agricultural lFngr,. Yearbook, ASAFL S 261.5. lh'strn unl hnstalllation ol \'wnretwn/rced ( oncrete lrriioeatn Pipe S.',/ems. St. .oseph, Mich. American Society o .,\grctilt ural FIngineer,. 1980. lesi'n and Operation f1.burm Irrigution .ish'ms. .\lntwraph No. 3. ASA-. St. Joseph, Mich. American Socit, o)I .\gonomy.1967. Irratun of'.-.riculturul Lands, Chapter 42: "Water (ontrol aMid MicLsurcnirc nt on thc iai." ASA Monograph No. 11. Madison, Wi . Hoolier, K. I. 1974. i;ur/acc Irrautio n. I.A( Agricultural Development Paper No. 95. luod and Agiiculilmal (}rganiation of tihe United Nations. Rome, Italy. Bo-,, Mi. ( . 1976. 1)i% harw .eau'mt'nnt .Str'ttir's. I'ubl. No. 20. International Institute 1or 1 and ecltaitin ard Iniprs,,encit. Vageningen, Netherlands.
(1cm ens11,, .\ .1. aid .1. A. RCphidglc. 198G. (on tmirti, . '1i11pl,' iasrminrl I'lun; ./()r Irrt'twiw ( nulu/ I atirier', Iulletin No. 2268. . l)epatrticn it AgricuIlture, Science and ilduciit(iu Adiiiii',tIration. PhoCnix, Aril.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

(ode, W. I'. 1957. / arim Irrillioi


Agricihural

.Slrjijtur's. hul. 4 9 6 -s. Colorado State University, \perinent Station. Iort ollin,, ('olo.

9.

IlA)

World Bank ( opciralie Programi. 1981. Smufl Irrigation Struclures. Rev. 1.

Rome, lItal.

10.

I'rainji,

K, K.

19".. Swlta'-otl-lhc-.rt, lrrii.,atmon, I)ruim'ue and

oo0(1 Control (No. od

I). International
1I . (Mjares,

'otnini,,ion on Irrigatitri and Drainage. New )elhi, India.

I. K. aMrid \W. OiViria. 1980). 1)esi i.'nui d Iurro w Irrittltont .Sivsm tr' .r Imiprovc'd .Seimlal l'ertlihnmuc. .Amer. Soc. of Agr. ligrs., Paper No. 80-2517. )ecember.

12.

Otilden, R. ( ). arid ( 1. ( ). \Vood, atd. 1952. /1 iw-CoNt Irriialtin .Structures. Portland


Cerir.i) i .\,',0Ciation . ( hlcitl, Ill.

13.

Hansen. V. F., (). \\ . I,i'in and (). -. Stringiam. 1979. lrri, atmon Principles and 1'rar'tices, I-uirth Idiion. John \Vilev and Sos. Ness York, N.Y.
Hterpich, R. I. aiid II. I . NIlge,. 1959. Irnition f' ut'r Control Structures. [.and Reclaatioin " {otnihimtton w No. 82. [)epartMent of Agricultural Lingineeririg, Agricultural xlpeilineti Statili. Manhattan, Ks. Holy, Milos. 1979. Irriation Structrc. Puib. No. 135. Central Board of Irrigation
arid Pover. Ness I)ellhi, India.

14.

15.

16.

Htlrnplercss, A. S. and ,\. R. Robinon. 1971. held Evaluation of rI -)rop(hec'k Structures olor Iarm IrriQation.Svstem.s. A RS 42-140. USDA Agricultural Rsearch Service and Idaho Agriculural t-xperirnent Station. Kimberly, Id. International Corniti.sion on Irrigation and Drainage. 1967. .MultlingualTechnical Dictionuary on Irrigationand I)raimae. IC ID Central Office. NeA )elhi, India. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage. 1969. Transactions, Vol. IV. Mexico City, Mexico.

17.

18.

94
19. Johnston, C. N. 1945. Farm Irrigaton Structure%. hCir:ular 362. 1'.,,, rit vO it Calilornia, (i'ltecg of. AgricthturC. i\gricultural ['pei incn.I Sk.ii L. Her kele',Ca. Koi,,k . P. K . 197() I)"tI~i C'rit'ria ( 'wtts/r Ucim l (lidit' and Wateria/ 'l dtar;tm /It Irrig ltioiti P w '/nc. VS ).'\ (" P'ASA. !SAIl) \l,o India NC.% IClhii, I Rdi;; Kraat,, I). 13. an i I. K. N ialiajat. 1975. 'smll! l/ldta/o h ( j rar,IIr(\ I \( and Drainace Paper<, 20 1 (2 wolmilc,). Ioud and .. \eiultur' (c )Ofr/;nitoi United NaipinN. Romc, Ital.
l 1) Lict2 lioI;

20.

21.

of the

22.

\mntwu\ t Michael, .\. MI., ). R.., rora, ct al. 197(. IlanflhooA ,, / arm Imricalitmt ICAR., D;\,, on of *-\e;culiralInei necrinig, Inia .ir..ul.ial Rccar,.h Iniiintc. Nev, I)clhil, Indilt.

23.
24.

MIiciacl, "\. \ I. 1t) . Irrea'uot, I ( I h ori,t aII .TD. \Ck lC\.h, ellOdo.

I rac t'c . \ ka t'.,

111'hie i IIou',c IV I

Pillshurr., A. R. 1952. ( w irt" 1';p' or lr,u aion. I M,.. o1 ( a;11riia, A\ericulti lzll Lxpein nt SIt.oin, Lt.r.,io li Scr\icc 0.irc. 418. Bcrkclc,. ( a Rohin,,on, \. ., (. \V. I auritzen, ). C. Nitckel and I. I 1htc'lan 19)63. )\tb/, i . tion, Cotrtd atl Aea rcm t'w Irrc,,a tot If at'r im /;c/ / arm. t N-D.\ ,,i.scellanteo: tl'hli. ation No, 926. 1' S. (ii ,crm ncnt.n 1; m t'L ()Iftcc. a\dlimtgtoil. 1). C. Robi i on, \ . H.. I 9(. "(-I. I -gypr1ar ",", atcr Collin", Colo.

25.

26.

Irapez oIdaI Iwoc', for :L t 11 11(1wr I s cPIr)o /c(t. Repr I .c and N l a I tVCrne It )rojct, C oorad o ado SIata . I 'i '.IlI t. IsI t

27.

Skogerboc, (I. V., k. Be ncrt and \V. Walker. 1973. .citt tiad lnnalltion (l (utthroat Ilhtnme%lor A!;a urmt , lrrmtmon and'I I)r If'i ttr. I cclIIcI BUI.li n No. 120. Colorado .\L'ricuhtural ~lxpcrircnt SIation. Iori Colins. Colo. The Asphalt ln,,titotc. 1976 ..I pha/i In /tvdrauIc . \Latual Scricx No. 12. Asphalt Institute BIde. (.ollccc Park, Md. Thioma,, C. \. 1959. 1 or/d Ira, lic, II If a/cr Aliii urc Farm lurnout. AS(-. Paper, L S. BUrCau (of kuclami;ai.

28.

29.

nu' and ( omrolat

ic

I)en'.,Der, ( olH. (\liino)

30.

Trout, I. .. aid I). \ . Kemper. 1980. IfIa/ctr(our', Ittprotcmcni/ .\aual Waier Management Ielmnical Rcpor NO. 58. Water ,lana'lcii Rcc;ih Pr(jcc:, ( f otA do State Ii;i,.r.,\,. Ioi (io liu,, ( 010. Trout, Thlou , W.. I) Kemper, and -alii Sadrult a I i 19W l. ( irtular (, ttr(tv I rimationl Iurnoti: /h)jin!n unti; ( on ,rottion. IIandhoin: NO. 1. Water Nanagerrici Synthc.,i Pricct, I rivincering Rcecar,h (enter, ( olorado ilat Ini\er-,i\. Iort ( ol-

31.

lins, (o010.
32.
33.

U.S. IDepartiient Or .\gri,.ulitunc.aStuadr! I)ra n ,il for Irrmation .Structturv . USI)DA


Soil ('on.er\ation ,wr,.ice, ,kah nv' on, 1). C. (Sce Appecidi ,,) U.S. DCpatrlt;C) o ..\grICUlit re. Nt onal .inci'ermtni Ifundhmook. Section 15: "Irrigation. 1S'I)A Soil Conserzatior; Scri.c. WdahiriviO, IM U.S. Department Ot Inte,"imr. 1951. Irr ,aton ..tdU iwr , ' (,ndc. USIA1 Bureau of Reclamation, 1..,i. (im minct Pritiitig ()Imfti. \VaQiitori, D.(. U.S. Department of Iiterior. 1981 . HI a/cr .\Icaurment Aafun.ti. (.-SDI Bureau of Reclanation, 1.5. (mjoicrimnmit Printing Office. Wadhingtori, D.(.

34.

35.

36.

Zimmerman, J. D. 1966. Irriauion. John Wiley & Sons, In(. NcA York, N.Y.

95

VII. DEFINITION OF TERMS (17)


1. CHANNELS AND STRUiCTLRES
a. Delivery (hannels. [\YV.crcoure, talrn lateral or field latcial I
IIain ott t'loll Secondar. canals. [)i,trlblar%, ecoIId'tr% :an1l]. ('aiakl ,.hi,'h tal,ke or Iturnoults. ,. . ilttlt. h ,llh ' a ll uppl, v,,ie tt Illillnt c:a.I

t takiti c o tll Tertiar, canals. [[-arm liateral,, ditrihlutarr m ior-,] ( ,irial,


an ZIJ dJstrih tariC,, p inl tlld vatmr to '101-11itlio1 ,. ouleiC

,'outdar. ,o
-

outl , or turtIm

lateral,

tS.\), ;mcnA,

(I

pt , mintor- (India tnd llakitan.

%I ( anal, ik L! tit: trou Quaternar. canals. ilield lateral,. ub-mimior ditribuar) ii,. lIcad-ditch itluim llc , Mid ,I k re.lr it) ill1)(1r, an1d s,,app l : hld (['Fyp). .1 Mdriaol id lata IL .\, '.katcr,.,ure ( India b. Div'i.sio,, Structures.

Distributor, diior, diider. ;Tru tort: built n

tlltakec at tie t he'.cci tv., ,r ,rli

s, either , canal to di,,rinhut !hc ti. i tetc oei tell clnd ()I a Icanal ,r

J)i~ision box, proportional di,,tributor. A tarn ,ru.ttirc to diidc he


r dir.he,,. Kc[.'. cei t. , ,r ate

ater ;i

tuppl

c. I)rop.s, (hut's. )rops


Irop str(tlrte, lull rla,e cr tie ,atcr ,u tlcturo,. A ,truc!turc desiLnecd to losv cnergy. ith atac di ipaliwti ()I in a channel in a -.horr distance and v,

Ditch dro). A farm luc

hcn the dopc rc built to absorb the v\ce ,' vridc v.

of the ditch is ,,reater than the vradc ,.hich 0lould b uscd in the ditch.

Frosi,,e %clocitie, are reduced upstream.


Chutes. An inclined drop or tall in ',khjh the Hl,.crin
tf

le .alcr

,ujratx is

achieed oxcr a relat d. Checks.

channel. hort icl. t ln ih )t

Check, check structure. Structure huilt or placed a,.ro, a .hannic at ,uitable atCe ,ippl'. Stop log,, and and reCule v. anel, point to, ,control .atcr I ) introl depth,,. che.k panel, are theirnoablc KLlnon, pla.vd in -,lo t.o Check drop. (hck Check stop.
.\

,tructure combined %,kith a drop,

or a dual purpoe -Iru.turc.

permanent or temporary st ruc:Urc inserted in a dit,.h to partly or 1eel t, permit irrigation ..holly -heCk the lo, . Used to raise the 'Aater

through bank cuts, ,piles or siphon tubes. e. Turnouts.

la. he portable.

Offtake regulator. A structure built at the head of an oh taking di>tributar, channel to control and regulate .ater tromrn the parent canal.

96
Headgate. Structure at the head of a watercourse, farm lateral or field lateral which coniects with the distributing clannel. The turnout may be placed through the banks of tertiary and quaternary cana]s for water delivery to the fields. Turnout. Structure that releases the water from a head ditch. Can be used to allow the water to pass through the banks of the head ditch onto a field, thus acting as a check gate and a head gate at the same time.

.Mivcellaneou .S ructure.s and Der'ices


Measuring structures. Weir,, measuring flumes, structures used to find depth-discharge relationship. Pipeline structures. Striicturcs' used with underground, low pressure irrigation pipeline
sys',ei s.

Drainage structures, tail escape structures. Structures for conveying water away from irrigated areas into a drainage system. Dilch siruclures. Inlets, OUtfalls, o,,erfow sections, checks, drops, crossings, out lets.
I)ruinaue tie and pipe tructure.s. Inlets, outlets.
IJIVA./ing ho(.We,

sand trups. Structurcs to reduce the flow velocities so that sand and silt settles and can be removed.

Olher d'l ic'is.

*Siphon tubes - Pipes over ditch banks. *Spiles - Pipes through ditch banks. HFlexihle pipe and tubing - To convey flow from pipes or spiles.

2. HYI)RAULICS
a. ,erated .appe. Undersurface of water flowing over a weir-type structure that has an ample supply of air h. (ritical I)epth. l)epth of flow in an open chanucl where *I;c,ilgy of flow is at a minimum value, i.e., where H f V:'/.L isat a minimum. c. Friction Losses. loss in hydraulic head duc to friction caused by the roughness of the surfaces that are incontat with the flowing water. d. [eloci., Ilead. The average velocity (V) multiplied by itself (V,) divided by twice (2) 2 the gravity acceleration (g) 9.81 m/s: (32.2 fti's ). This results in the velocity head in meters (or feet). e. Availahle Head. Difference inelevation of an upper water surface and a lower surface such as a field or water surface.

f.

1-trdraulic hlead. Depth of water referenced to a lower elevation. Height that water
will stand in a tube. Energy available.

g.ttead Loss. Energy lost as a result of friction, impact or turbulence. Simply, the difference intwo water surfaces connected by pipes or channels.

97

h. ilydraulic Grade l.ine. In an opcn channel, the water surface is the hydraulic grade line. In a clo-ed pipe, a line joining the elevations to which water would stand in open gage tubes. i. Il'draulic Gradient. Slope of hydraulic grade line. cttcd perimeter. ater di',. dc b, the v, J. 1I draulic Radiu.%. Area of rihe oI.,ic v, I-of pipes tlo.ill full, this is equal to the diameter di. ided by four (4). A. ,A'uhmerge(l Now. A cotdiit ion of 1lo. through or oer a ,tructure where such flow, is
affected h. the depth of vat er oin the donstream side.

Hoi. 1. Supercritical IoIv. Vclocito tol


o,. , focii.' '1

is greater thait :ritical tiov, (see 2h). High

CONCRETE

INFORMATION
PORTLAND CEMENT [ ASSOCIATION

Concrete for Small Jobs


Concrete is a widelyI used building tniatrial around the alIm and iotne. Foundatiotis, wall,. sidv:lks, patios, steps. floors, and driv,.'eas\ ae buit l tntelw rs ,.v (olclct, has sc,:il desirahlc popcirtiCs that iiake it :i versatilh Mid Iiijiiili h Ilii i11:iterial FI NI ll,mixed Coilclete call be foiiid Ilto pIa,.ticatll\ an' shape. IILIIdened CoIiCI I IN Iso11 iiid dldble, Thie ll i 11i:11 ci ilis tlhe V.<is "CelIIilIt" alld
ciii ic,_etc."

its greater durability. The tules formmaking good concrete are simple: l.Use propelr ingredients. 1vre 2. Propoitioi the in redients correctly. 3. Mea|Slle the liligediilits accurately. 4. Mix the ingrediet, tlloitghly.

CHOOSING THE INGREDIENTS


Pirtlaiid cement is not a brmd oflcemnent but a type. Most portland cement is ,gic ili color. lowever, white portland cement is uaulltli'act ured fron special raw materials that piiduce a pLre white color. It cal be used instead of the iirnal grey pirtlaid cement, but it is higher in price, w.hich Ini Lst tict its use to decorative york and other stiecial jiiis. 'il can Iv piirtland centc' illbags t yoUr local biildiin materials dealer. In tile United States, a bag weighs )4 I. and hoiilds I cu.lt.: In Canida, a bag weighs 80 lb. and hiilds abiut . u.l. ('enteilt ill bags shLiild lie stied ill a dry lication, pref'Ca l til ilrised wiiiidetn pl'ltitins. Simiietittes wlei bags lia l e n :stiir'd ti-I hitie time. the cclici ill the liiver p:irt io a pile devehi 1 is Wlrehouiie pack. tlim is, the cenietit alil+ii to be hardeicd aroMnd the edges (if the bags. You call us]ally ttCirlect tllsN b%rnhliiie tile ba, ii tile iiior. To :ivid v-aiehii-e lac,.', bags, shoild not ie ,tacked more t11,uh1 ,c cn high. ('eieuit suitatll I'iuS Ili Concret., should be ftre-flowitig. 'he prcsence ofIlullps that calltiu be ,tlilveri/ed readil, bt%%C, c tinli thiitnub fnd liliecl iiudiCates that the cetuieIit has :ibts-niled iuistIre. Such cement shild iever be used ftiIploirt:int woirk. but wheiu the lumps have been screuied iit thi iugh an irdiarv liuiuse screci, it ca be used fir ccltainl ttiiiiIu iobs sucl, as setting fIuce posts. Water Iur rtiakilu Concrete cail be almost aniyV Iatutal watc that is dritkabe and has III protounced taste or iidiit. Althiugl, stoe waters that are not suitable for drink-

('en ,,i iNfhe 1111 tilic er >rId hl liildiug ttateriils, dealcis in b:i., It shuid he cAlhed h%it morl exact nam+e, iportlaid cemett"*ti diflteit ate it rll oth(er killds (dl cements use(d ttir t(lici puirpiies. such hi. ti iplc, nia solll cettent, (Conmrch i,the nixtilic if two cu)1iiiuis. paste :iiid aggregates. Pate i, cociisd I' pirtlaid cent. . walcl, and air. Al-rieeate> en iert iiti, ilals such asnd. raw. and CltlhCd ,Iti,. I)iiii tliixvig. the cciiiciii and a inriti a paste that Coatt, tle si-tlaciu t ei piece i1 aeltegtl,. I -iall withiu Iti to llilc hours itcl ixilie. d clutlial] ,eatiiin starlts betcel the celiiet iiid the watelr..V, tli.; clititical cdttiicl pr11Cc t L Ceh iteC it IVSl iidleis C Ltdurally :Ilt the Ci)illctc Is ,aid It) -i. I_ i al,.. the . Wtc l pa'itc W.ihl haideii iucII like ilid biuid the :ieucee:ites ticether it) loirIll the siliil iias th ai , ci, uicrte, Altlioleh~ read, mixed c'{Icietc is wldcl, uscd lor lar'eu coilstrilctiiii fls,.itI 11' 't lw:ivs piractical to use read, mixed colcietc iI i llll jobs. IIl i'llt e cises. tlli l iiuI l id Ciuncretc %()LIluire irt be Iles lhti I ciu.vd.. which i, less thall ill st re:ind tilix liiducer, will Nuppl, .. \uid iu some airas there i,i,ready mix plant. It 'lou are faced with )lie (t these cir:littstalices. inikilie yiolr oln Concrete Inay be the in ily practical sotiitiimi. Thu is hard work but it has the advattage oif low ciist. atid the amiiuuit uul cmcretttmixed catll le adjusted tii suit utilolvil work pace. (uality cncrete costs ii nore ito make thatu pool c~tucrete, hut is far more econuimical ili the liig run because if

Portlanld Cenut t A ssocia tin 1 971

ing will mIAkc ',;aio actorv coiciclt, Use 1li\ \ lll ' tito diiik,

to be on tle sale side.

Air is;lstAii ilillimitalt ingr'dent 'iOnii;iking lod conlcrete. III lli.h Li'T I1930 s,it, %:Is discoveied tliat ai l ilie
I'tOl ll) Ofl IlliC I 0'+.C: l[+'lC b "u b b le eC e l1] % cd ls I 1Ct Nd 1 lh liu l ,h ll tile CO tlC rC l C ll )]+ i ii,. d It I,,d i lllt\ ]ll td lIft tlllI chil llated

inof ie ii.t'.ct1r ,,,akmg'corewt'r(' .svicc if t' oI II , sii sItall pdrih.'cks. (Guvel of ci'2', cd Sloie ate tile most commllionlv used co r gi.!lt' e.. ThC\ ',1it Id ctniISiS (4 particles that are
sO l t l, h all d. inllt m o lI c IIlld I tllI ible , n o t[ s o t l o rll ak y . \ ilh a i
ln i-

. sl\e h -k e p icc e s , P l

c le s sh o u ld r Mllg e ill

siz e

I tcahwiduc 1t ,MIt-ia nd dc-icCil Slt ,lcl ioll. Colicicte cIt.IjiiiifIi ic .'h a ll h .,, is c it'd 'ill-ciiil~ilcd CtollC eIct. IKildCncd COliCtIt' CtIIu\ Jtiitdj I l I,-n wu, c i. When this ldl'I Clt'/c's. It l . c'\Oii Coiil'i, lie sSille th.t call rupitmt. (scald) (lie cmiiC C& i!II1ICC. Ile ti kll i tbbics , OClt 'ts ies~ W i s 0l Ii c \.Otf,' tIM tic '..x\pilitlinL w tel. IIIus rhilCVII plCi ii,, C Ali llnd ;)Iid 'ilt111 dlIItiJlc (1) tile CiIrcte', Air c tliljlllll '!i l 1, 1l1 1 l i nt,11,! t c 0 Il'tWIc' 1 'X[scWd I0 ( lc il it' > ,,i tjid ihid, tid,.] t 0() lld t i :1 ticiccrs Ill ctld ciii ;itc:.. 11d Ill t l i cilniic!-, ,1ii ih:i IIl ]i. / 'c 't'fii c,.VCit' I t I CC',' i .111d 1h illla c ,,.l ,c.1 .it ,imiliid he used lot ill c\tt lcii Cii ,I cIt '. k. L..lt l 11C ,ii.hI ' , ,
sidcwiks. p Air il
tiit

t10m1 1 II., o11 tilt' III:IXIIII+llli S'/ used tor life job. The ci1lllitil0 [luXinI mllMi/CS lik ' . I . ofr II: fit. Generlk , tileIn i, t'oiCMio0 CAi lilli\ Is ohllilled by nlsifig tile

I:irot'st-sIte Com cl-, wI tale tc tliit !., practical or Ivailable.


(' arse iggregatt iii llt 2 ill. sie., to' ex lilli'. mly be ill tis'ed il a 1i0k ttliiLd tioi Wit tir iit'rvv I'nollg. Ill walls. tilt' largest i) 'cc slli I, lt'\'eC be mlt' e tiii oMii -4'iftl the tIickieSs ot tic liisiitd w: I seclioI. [or slibs, tlie maxi-

mini si/e should lolt exceed one-thiid the thickness ot Ill. sldb. It' C,)IICItC is to be pILiced ro01.1It1. rcintoucing birs or 'I, l ic. it' AiVIIIIIII" c t" tiit' lewgre ate ';liouild lnot be Illl l,. tl c-tuIIIti. (t ti ' cIC r Sl),ce bctwcen the bars 'I [tit's ti 1w I', ,t'cl i tui ill ll d til' pip'v . (ir b ll closeSt to
t.

. mid

icps,. ill-i did\:iltt n


tlti

,\1 lit tl e iiipl', ill tili iiix. ill. withi n

ll es
:li
ic

d I

l;ilitlidlit ,i1,) lis


ailr

t'O'. ll u li 1 it1 tati i{;l

t id hi tix i, Ii
elt's

l\.'ildihI
le tc

h,cail', but
Iirlest-"ize

lite liilx

Iibbi<,
,,

ict Ilik, bli abh iis


. with

i
lli

r ,:tlc icalils

C ittSild its

-ikiit,

i',lu ll2h_. ijlic ,tlid cl it oc i 1c


ild '

lot

riiikimlg cit'cieie

woitcr is reiulird.

,l'i hed dC iil lit


,

d \ccslvc' diit. cli\. sill. Ct,., 01

Hlill' r t INC '11s AiC lr fit sI hckl em~di to IM IlIVh 11ht ill ca I XMb JliJ ' lt, il li M e :.Ilc .1li d llMIl itl. i-lill-, iIL91

elT t l il!tilClilt'

w M il trea li l Wll' nentI I S[III , ftl pel ilt!' Ic CCHi lei irtl

oLIS h

n oly rlr-

rial> sil-I'm.C s S.MIll IlNWc, C

~i\ ll-clliI

llH I J2LT.'lt . Rcitk

Clete V,10h 1,>i, SIitn'lti M LId dtill~i ilit,,.

mix plants shotk thti i0 hiic III lil ,' Alld W\ nItl pi)w ably sell \Vou ;i ;:;iili lill:ltil . Ile i illio ntl lo be ttddtd t' the lix dcependk tii lt' b l d -, ;hl-t'iliiiili i/tlt{. lii iniforitition a ll to' ,'btuilied Ut in i btnl ini lll;iteliils
stppi lC)r lilt' CaCd lx )odtlic't. Tli c I., ;l iolhei lietlh d +. i lll ifb~ t -enilliwled Cl)iClete. "T ) iV Vi' l 1 . IMiNc 4 tLk il_ id ITICA:tiSlim 11

It Vtill Stispect 1h1.l the siiid Ci,[lil.ili.; t iliich extrcnuI lv linc iiItiCrl . sliCh 1>clV i1d silt. Check its suitabilit[ I'll tnslic i l l klmi cillcrcte h\ tie si)-c lled silt test I1: i . I).Fill all tldliily kLiIrt C lilinH i 0 itmilk bethle to
Fi

*.Silt test eiigmade ina quart canningjar.

.lir-ei rdi railln ti LIh NJ'-'C , 111,11i, cCIl il 11111llllll P


Thce. , Celliei s alt ' idt'.:1ificd t t il

tui(i1/ ibie t_'[Iol


Ii l !lket

Ill p,wr lanid .

CeM l~llsthat Ctolllu ll ;ill Iile lgrm illld i -e ll lll , .l 1t.... [ blic is "'il-'ltiauliil.!". :n

are .ivaiLilc 1'r(m portlInd ceenlts. "id

the sa;lte smipplicrs that slil !cIuar,

Aggicg'<tes life ntierils such as, suid, glil. id ciushed"stotle th~jt ll rn kL' t11 ) Il ,'0 N CCuI i t l e v.]umje (f)t'"..:il rC
lct is aitliiit'r tidler Iiateriil tt reduce the alliotll t)I, ct'iitilt 't'tlilldd1 Ill Cic~cl. \X litut aggregates. ciictCIce \Mttild hcc ,er% epciniv ,. ]i:rtlrilC. without

corcrete. Tley'

a... iCt..cs. ctciicrC'tc wV uld shrink -t Lrt'l d dt' l 1upoun drying 'iid this Wiuld ledI t1 et.CNSiVe cr'ickiiuu Aggiegates restraui tie Ahriiikiuge tihit (occur, wliel Ctr'crtt' liardlens.

Agreu tle irc divided in

tii ,' size.. !file mid Coarse.


. ..

[inc ', Oi_2g l lc,IS aiw;i s ,''.lid. dild ctilawt' a iltC,'oIC is LIS11ANl -rajv-l mr citihcd -,(line....

Natiiial s idh is ile ntst c iuitlih uicd l'iIc Olglegate itive r. llliliiImifltircd saind. ialde % Crtslilii gravel tIr Ilhit',k l tii :i i:lii ll l,, e' . Si!d sli uld havc p:irticle's rinin-i illsi/C Iirmn I/ in. doiwn li dnsi-size parlicics l. in llcllmtii h tl pass llritigh a Nt. 100 iesi sieve

(O.000
21

t)pcniiis If tie squjie inchl .. ,loriur sand should

i--I.I I
4'?

[~~Al
r~~~~~~~

r7.

_,,
.+,I. I,I I~,tIi Ai'I+. I~' ' A,,+ lI+:i' tI, I,,-tIIIA, C. It ,.

A wl.

la' fui~ \

,S +i.

,i

,.I'

lU: l

e~ i

t file'

Ab.c 4 11 k

ti e .C I k + I

l l ' +t

I J lit

l' + \\

t c 1A. . Ail A I llU , I 111[vllt tllu w , IC l11, l,' \' k, . he I, III I IA l ,, II t . I1.1 kuIIt, I eI I c II, I It,

II I t I1', 'd l-,

il 'kl l A,IIIiI ' l i I \A, tl, II lP< l' l III) ,+ 'll, .

1~

2J. \",,.'ll-grTid,..'

31Z-'IF2t:v(C h;J'

i+;rti,l,. ,, )t*,ritil

i/N.Shim t

1,pj1,A[I1%c
I ()p 1n. l It t 111\ l l it
,

it'lf
Il t ll .1i\ -. t' .l

JJ
\t. , V,LA IN '. Il] \ w lth \' iit

f'ro m ll I

; tt l I-'. I ,\.,
;ld,.TII I uI 1 V l ,kIII) , It. q 'C')lClCtlAI~e' ", II;ll II ' t l h,e Sl,',uld ill (J U:', t 1 M , Il e '-; N A.'1 t I l,.' , ui In u l+, t i i,. ht mi it l ea+ s t f iv e , h I tl vucil t )uu t lm l , Ill (h Itl l +,ll I .I) l t1 hd tI( h l tli 1 1 1X u L ' IV'It h 12 1 . A d cl d ,. ; v % +;I % dl,+ l th tl e' -, 11 11d i t t h ie ,.u lt tl,.e [lltl 1 it in ;1) 11lhu th ct,-lujirIt.; lu1 SliIk,.C theu c,>utaln.i l>+ l fi.+'< +l+ ', mibl t .I mi illU t,. 1",t, ! cIle sI 0y, h ml' I , ,,Ai ICW Ai Itc I tl h e ." ,Jil.d .. th tl ,.. IlA ll II1' it)A-,111t ( d Itu if 111111)ll . .Nl tldi; ,iIit lld , 1 p ,,cilt IIll .,,e't lie ( t t ill If 1l1.\_'IA)h,,,c llte IAlnd . 1 I I ]l 'l ,'l +. lIII(t? thlln ;. In . thlick , thei,. ,;r d i.l Inl ~ ,tt ld l,.'h lI,+t\ C h tr til e.' 1. % Jl+ li ti 11 1\I l l,' c l i \;d \\' dI M !. (G wd~ lilleC idt 0 )~ II I'u t0 1tl_', .U,+':t." h A,' I lull 1Al '1 llt_ l'IIC', tlt tl C '-l lJ 1llt.t Ill It,,. IAI 'Cl-l. I)tlI Ilti e_' cct',+ mI~i tll ,l ;A "I,*I,.' ll/,..' I Ile hv,u p';itI c .. Itill Aru Al th(e hull;1 I : l lC ,_tu lilt"\ 'Illd~ t[l,' .ie - +k ,11c ti" tiI ll i hle MC, ' ,t 1 hctm cell lthe Llfr'Cf MU C,..\u r m - %,killJll ,.'Cil dl bi tIItIl Adt lm ;nrd ..ll, c l e.ir ; d it), IL,' \\tll l, h..'d lIF Suc~h +. ~ pI'<+..';, ,dt , 1thC lltII't uco )II<I)II1 ;ll 'liltA] \' lka 1)1 c tl
tl11,+ , i

'\,_t. ", 1i p ,,l

, Imacd . ;r+ vwill hC tXplih mcd IIill .. t " I.lw 1 Ih< mill lIIilch ll pave 7. "Ih .C \ dI . ,H II l l AM I .,h , , u ld ) 11C A1 ',Al 1,, (1 1 i ,' III C 1, I I It1 )ll 1, li 'l l N. b \ v,'cul ' lil wn , k+ \A,C i I : t i,.+' IL 11 l Il ";hh i,, \ t It llll ,. t , l 'C )IIIlll,. ld c' d 1, )1 ICt~ llm l, f Illm V\ AI h e. txp l4N,l Illi \ ,I i.,It i wJ_ Ilic, u i.t ,' V, i,_u 4 t he t lt l l i l I l l t I ,+lm -,,cl (11 ll., tII t_' );lI-,.. !ll.
+

l h

IIIl Ile' l Iit '( lilt he

,J )m + ll im, Ad CA'!I A 121 'lt IAl, A, ',

i,. C Ilcl( _ ( tfC [l cI

',

., lHtt 11t;1111 1 , 11u,+b+'l AA l k,' Ct_'uh ,.d '+Ih ll. MC + u ";lit ,lt"l. I rImu , .' :1 dlc l i lt,111 a1, 11l~l i' llt'tIlkll ;im llicl,+"-, ) ItI k:It . IIlX Illic ll_'t ; 'It ,.' littlc l t I d illitiull t ) t, l l limikth u tll~x ltl c, ' Ith ttmlt l lk cl c l lict._ ,. i,,, o .'I littlc lc,+' , (:IllIIhud ill ,._lial
,' thc,.d Ili t,"ld l tllhit..' htw t Adl :+)Ilcltct h ; t)h(; ill the, 0Ctl, i , ,k;lh llt,, .\',h IIk il, .v.:Id hu u0'C i Cl I Ciu+h l d ,IM~ie, r,.dtuct_ th,\ile ,II 1()l Colll m-2, i, ,. h\.'.rc/ ,, 3 1)l'l~ l . Mid Ilic .,,C flhe v:11ti Im ,lilld h\ 3) 1Ih. 'lh +i ,~ , (di imi ctiia Liwit' li lathl,+ I w,,ill tm a~ke+ a. l-C r.'I.t hIm ic . -1llr, I-, J )1(alt tile t i);l ;+lntimtl I 'm htr lanld

t ,m i ,uI III.' %cl


,

k. (1t ,,it
i
L'

l,

ku,, , ,, Ls l
111M l e dh

\ 0 Ctill', )11",ll
dl . lBeulm u All~d

tile cj',
i

i t.'t

(tl

Ilhi m ixer,
m idc v(mt

.ill t_-, 1-'x Ad I lld+till 1+r ++lT l


lhi,, Ill~lt+ell,1i Ill t Ililt, IA I [ Itcc_)tIllhIl

t) c+ ',imlst

ca.lm+city
w c.igh ()lut

.1 cu lIt.

life 111 killiv

"I m cv imlple, il, wt ill rnixcr 'litl-,clttillld CtmIt+ llltll u.\ VlM\1' W l M+J dh c+'lc l , Xll . ;,

.I +'eIC, 1; ,1 l

+CICCIIud )

,,CICIC \w tiill 2.5

. Ilui;~ li~llilli-"-I/C' ,X .3 7 11).(l

,y t I\

Lrd et-d Ilrne llld C( ) l "c ,_

' ,llI s. t+gi

.l ,. ,lc -,tlmlt.ltv!% trIll I , t'lihlc hld iil,.., lnlalt!riA ll >,ipp t l ". . It' theicI ,,I ; :t~rc-d Illix ' l~t~ ht~cl l \~ll lr~g .it k'. i l luith',i++ pl,'tu Iv r,. ,i li, i 1 1111ll. 11! v, iil ii11.c l , , i ;t th, IL"2ti 111111, i : c7<it.,+
1)11\ 11i\,': tile' CMll t.cl .'1 IIt cd 1%'.' 1 the i u te ldc ml + '-tilw jh t.'Ic illlimconll CI_'tu' Cl.-I'

B m\ lin,,. mid ci) r-

d ,,, h 3 1u 1)If to 'lvl'ild 10 X .3 .1() lb. ,At w',1ll, . 11 .\t AM AIC' 1ti1i1iU tlu",hcd ,llmle (dl the ,afiile.. i/c+. \v..iuh mitt .3 11) p'c' :ubic ~ m ili l, ,,'ic l ()r 4.5 X 3 1) l i ,x, itd iii-,tc'id (AtI 2h _ . id 3'Ifb . ll-i cilh ic hI 1 Ies,,
C ()a+u l c II-,c c (d IT
+

-,- 1"0 I11). 1)1 .l

lt:

0 )
Ill

.X

i 6 11 I-

Al i ,

11"

lu'

"~lt.i

11). (d 'S'~ \,.i


,1(t.1I;IIt.'

d 'A pi, A.;il-<.

p fl

!(Ir tlll .' ,

Al I+,

i ttl,: . 1<

"

:mllc h ll t:

ICJ~l ll

el

Ili

i k l; ml Ic ,

it_ m\ ", ou l tU , t rdyk '

ii i l %%flii , ill iltd tlit] tt l ' tl IIIt.:. , l_''{ , p+ile)' 1,, l evv\'ll t..uii I'l(UiI hccm_'t nliit, Akct illi t_' ,.c (A laiill, I)) lIm l Ilt' tle h) tli tii Ix,cr ill Ali tiio )'A,'cltd a-iLt, ilc ple , ;t, tlim- p ilt I"i ul>,uIill\ l-+;1tiim td w ithi \Aaiiti id tc mltll lili lill ai.cctlilkilaI HAli (Ilit I \ l',lltCC t!I IM, M-h, It()ill liluh,'t Iel r.,

"Imtllid

It ll c ilIi\

d irt. It 1, 2 , '("" l

o L o ~cl

i'.' t. .\I 1 A l d i~ i, ict+ lli h,!ll,_hc . A_'l Il l

l ;l l ct
tt. .*

+ ''' l % l llt'"pl I)t

inl ilalillL (ttiilintitit,,

.toi-,
If(

(d

H ll i Mli
nid ."l i

neueded. l'h ic il ll ilIXiil , . ()~i


t1d

Wvilliic.cd

._cilltip d mvii 1ui t he' to, kllt \\ itul


IC I Al1)/lM I1
+

t l 1,_ll . ' It II . ,

(i IClfll -{T~ l'i


'

PROPORTIONING THE IINGREDIENTS


Ihi cmtict.iete., thie cen'lililt andic

y-, tII if p ro cc .I , AI(A1, I, th l )it w illI II l Ii,h i, C It ,.."Atli ;iit_ the ill tl ll,tl A1" ,olicicte \ mll I i ci+ctw ill l,..'ltiiie_. U l i t let+ h i')1, v..i;l. I ,lI mpic I m111n ui t. ,w Iid I (A ,,'ll:, I,)r iII squt ._ o>r (0 lie

rttulds cvm'r

wa.ter folrml ;1 t);iSt thfti stirpieco ()I' a ,repate. \Vithini a te,w hours, the

W i+ dth (11.) / Lengt,.,h (ft.) X "liickiict,, (Iin.)


I .....

.. .... .. ( ubic fee,+'t

Table 1. Proportions by Weight to Make 1 Cu.Ft. of Concrete


Air entrariei concrete

Concrete without air


Coarse

Stze

Coarse

coarse aggregate, In.

Cement. b. 29 27 25 24 23
stone IS it!(

Sand, lb 53 46 42 39 38 t
Se

aqgregate, I, 46 55 65 70 75
oinase

Water, lb. 10 10 10 9 9

Cement, l). 29 27 25 24 23

Sand, lb. 59 53 47 45 43

aggregate, lb." 46 55 65 70 75

Water, lb. 11 11 10 10 9

1 1".
If crushet

.qt~reqat.

by 3 1l1 and ircreise sanrd by 3 Iti.

Table 2. Proportions by Volume


I size coarse aggregate, in.

Air-etraited concrete Coarse aggregate

Concrete without air I Water


'

Cement 1 1

Sand 2' 2,

Ceniet 1 1

Sand 2 2'f1

Coarse aggregate

W3ter

1
2

1
2

A
1/
.

2
1 1 1 1 2, 2,

2
2% 3

1
1 1

2'/
2, 2V

2/
2 3

Y2

or example.

:1 4-in.-thick

Iatio slalb. 12 ft. wide and 15 I't.


IXig

605
Ih.. wC h , = 6(.4 r 7 bg s. A (' tdia at to buy 9 4J v o12 ill need ----7.5 ir 8 bt'i.s il vmit buv 'our

cY I 2 X 15 X 4 ii .w il( teq llig , .,tl -r i . thick wtm ld requiire: hi h, Il0 . h i, d ,S wall 3 It. 10 x X 31 ;< 3 -----. . 2) cult.
Tht.l lllutut 0v,c, Illl1d dIttCVCil e
" C'. ,(I ,kd .

cte tclerillilucd bS tlc above,_ I tit ti d 1() It'cl

,t"

lii sch Ctitigclcls II the cae iw th c .ll, , le i.IeIIII t(of ofe Cimiltnu t t tA] quiird . uldbc 20 1 )1.10 1 20) 22ci.11. *lhe ql I Ahtu c ", --I :eia.l it b11 cL l b h calcla td bsJ 111111111) c IIi Ic n lb. C, ubic ccl t Ic( C c . ie 122 II tll .eVItIlttltbs tile (dcit 1iMt ateria lticded IM I cIult. ulver l ill [L ei . til t OIiu c111 wi itpl. c 3 i Itmtilled Cm ,'.-ltiu Iod thie 1 XIII~ h ll I I"L ()t ll v'ilahle :u100 t, toi he .i ill., tle utLui1ititiC', it Itaelial tlceded wuould be a.", tllhw".: 22 < 25 S5l1h. ifI ceitcil C

spul~nt. uil 5 I ec..st II pccei

' it) 1O IeC t.'lI I'm~"Iut.h COJOJIll2tUlCICIC . 5

h16 ,,sc.,

[v:ilkble. aii a . 11'iiii-ciaiiiitiw ce ntis int C~eet ill ,m will ials, liced tI, iblu : all : -ciitmilil t! jgeCit. Apgrcg;aits ate ,tdd, h\w tle tnl (2,100 lb.) m hy tile cubic y:rd (27 cult 1. (Ouantlutu, ni arI2.Ielcs Call b Colld itut i u'lll, InI c.i c Vtls. iil Vi'Ce er . b. slit3-,
M viu J 1 (1I l
iVIhttiewih of' sanld i I O 11. per Cubic. liiio~ 1wt () b. p,,I clhic lt)-I 1il the We1t. (t coarse aogoe-

1,010 2-,ic...) ACi,, d ly. I. (01t lb. ,it Sald ct)lill, ) I1 .3 I .. ' 1 q 04It2 Ct.yd.. and 1.73 lb. od vlavcl Coin-7 , 7 1 .7 cr 1.vd .5I . 27 MEASURING THE INGREDIENTS

22
22
.-.

4
r

'ij () 4 lb. (ofu, d ' 1$ I .3 lb. it ii~is'~ll~tr

ter, t, musL

be nicaiured tCCUriitely to enslie produc-

SincC it is ,ce.'tll

uiiuussihc it) iecovel all (d the tate-

tim

rial.a 10 pc -rccihl allitv, cc -htdd bc miajde it c)Vel liu)IIi-l Wiisv.ti _. Ii isI, , lc elI L ive ,u. 111t2itt left t.er tlhatll It till h I I- it 10, b t4 l fl[ )I iiatcil lc1 tile crud elh (it the job. 'lit. Llil litllL, irucrceused lii.
i I
1l "l

t unititini b itchc,, (I tu ilitv cincrele. Ivredietts ltnu betl',ut ' to IA Vlgt ()l v'itlittC. II, ," easuicii,. eit K ss vci, ht Is tc lltlc tided because it is IitLrc 'IIA1C tlld hence.,: lllu 'cs etrC ulilt'rliil( I't1i4 hatch It() Itch...\l-u. i is ci,, it Ii lnAkc adpi't ints ill mix
sntl. t' uu:usnu;ic PtutT tlti\ I tl sule Is .2ccIiu,utC etucl b"s
I,. i

t.. h,.iefnie

bet_'

vuuh'l

\S,'lclilu

551) ' ii. O ll, Shttj 5 I- ill Vt. if ct,., t'il -24+ (, 101 1) 24 1.1 t lb. id ,.tid 1. 7 1lh.of Ll'i,vcl 1.430 1- (0.1 I / 1 .4301) Since a I[.S. bau- tt cemc il )4 lh..,Siu will iced

[ clt muc ut eitt .,htlh! be, I' \ c ihct Ilt.e'- t,, ttecallutui calvtlut/,tl st l pills tir h: ,c|c \ ih l c C ll I 'Ih l I, "z l ,u l c cuittnICI on1 it. ,,\lte[ wvi

,cheitn h;Itltlhue riitterulils-. llI a se a telle ilift l i .

lir- cici 1.'tcdic l t'ce. tnalk

hi, ICjIMii LI A\~i, Jlti I i ie01'Ci


luL

!,ick tii iiiii


IM citl

Ii i

tIL,,
l

icil %%eticid. A.c ollii


i Ie\c m

-'cl.It

\(ii

l\ \'thhttrC, IIrIIIg AirL1IIC:i

)ill

IIi

Itirt' I tj Ii k 1-1~

10 N

I! HO %~iilIK

1,

hI

2-

lc\:II*

MIXING TH-E INGR:EDIEN\TS

1.1 it&\

,Il

m -ti

)I1(1

1,1C

L lC

P'I0I)\

l1t1\i111

P J11 il

L'

C I

Il

!,'oiL

. (11cte

I C. l t -,~ pm i iI

itjLc i

ii~ clii

M''1

L.'ltjiii\

>M '.

Iloti W ahi e,

ti. '11! I

HII

It

\ Iillt > )W

111Citt CliiLI

Iii IL~lu i \l~i

l.i for
Illlt

il

>lu

ui~

tWi

uillliCI

lI IL

C "u i I

lh titl Mid

i
uti

iIN

ItLI lW2 IIIt

tile CttiijlConLhuihlci

Witii

iI IL

.and.titii

tiiijd

ihitiuti
N Iit l ie

Ihe

iti% Ii l xiltu" u ihi

it,

I'

il .IiLl I

I]

: 21101t

irc IJI INL illt

ti l d ,t Itlit ItII,\

i c IN r ih

" I '~ith

iL'

vt

tl!

Li

X tilt

iui'li

iiIll

hII~

ll

it'li

rtt[

LLI

i ,11CI' i '11 tJ LIL

co ill! to

h3 ei (li

ii

11%11 Ill

1.t1ud L-i1) 1

1 l hjld i llt''; t Iqie1 r ~I

w 111 ilii

ltleudl lllvi

11uMlit.h

tlLJVL

isIir(iited it ''All heli~ilt h

-1)Irn.

4 l ll.uiunl jp hAI :11 .1uuu ducrle..ndepne

IL' h r all

whe

%(th to

I r II itid , 111

Il~u d lit w',

hn

5 ':!It) 'hrlii. t i~ ,1.ll :ei all l% local 'l'e h" Ilairn.s ulituru Nri cu

k: -p ~ elc Illi 1'.ilw


-T ,11 I." II .l 1Ld lm w h ic I IC Cl-Cl lk 11 , IC I

li t 'it 11 mi h (I)C)
II\ 1 " 111 11 1

'1

, (

41

1!d, d'

'iIII1)1 dI

IIIIp

lI-,1)1 1 1cII1 1C ,

ci IIIc,

..- ,"

" .. i~~
q ' ,

III I~tll,.", 111',' ; l I, '


Itl

IIJ \

lu -. l~q d I

t N1

CIkItllt.\ . I 11, .':lt .] fill,. 11_'11M 1, I,1' LIk ,


I/'Jll

LIE-

I It.l l : I I I , t l ,, ll V/I/ L ,,,h// . '( I tl. I

", 111, Ill xl I I !

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l li

l,,. .\ t ( r l / A.,ct,;
l

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It V
li~~L 11 i I

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t i

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....

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ldi ,t-

lxl~~~~~~~~lt.+~~~~~% Is. i r,;l..\-ih . ;n


hI\' l l. li h

+ lg t It,'
l-'J;lt ,llt

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.:
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lN

ill Ill CI

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It .11

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,igr'.art

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cur

1 . 1

h. is lilI v

IaucI . I I

ll

",illirI

h ul

-c

slal nd.

Ib ,.

t ir m iiit'.ll. tw,-' l

l l ita .'N mgg Ix dIIJh)N . i- e d tJIII,+.' im ll itil ad l I l , '. l1 a,, .tm o It- difli t ti llo j . ,il,,h<+,,,.t c,. ,d lp l1)l ,ii lpr 1 \',vt l if i II l w- i +, w ~l t ,h I ( ',:I 'l) , \ 1 11 tI-, .et i,.i n ,'
. I~t 1*111~l :

f 11d J111+'vi ,11 ,u Lttrc a g e m . lt fi h imt.n .M I s a e h I .\ VII L+ )a, .. \,c I t~ arIIL t ,.] V ,I)o I +TI 11-L I \ Ih 'IIt I..t Nanid il . 'aut .r .':, IV I)'t lII.I +

11 .

t:I I lCi..l 1+I +'I t '..t


1[ l:( llc lli
,,II

th,, ,wmi

,.'Um.u .;n

\vill ll I Ihill~t'lltNC J', 'h't 1 .I+ X t '". It i l~l.', I ,1._l ,"d lh ,+II Al k~ll t 1 '.4 f) . 1 1,ll l' 1 W l_'~ ul Ill t' l thAll 11! .'. Itt kl ,l t N lll.. il IIt +:', 11 1 (th IC l llll 1t."+2 If 111i 11 J:i1 'l ,;~llt t ,+ ,,,d , ttu ,.d l, tl II . .%% t ,++1'll } Ii, )I III,,Il+ iml IL,. % ;: tI. 2.' SIll C , 'I-}ttl : Ilt ILI HIN the .' Cl :-, se ll MIL l ItcI.

c 1 l%% 1,+ illuI I. l 6, r~ild r)1,l~ i ) i tk (o cdllw ; I,I ll(r,. lln Illiv... t. it +I(I '-I tt111-, 11 .] I ll At Id i. d( l i~ C +lb i t\ ,ll'' m.lk hL - ll\ ',ire 1-,tril ',1 I O CCH,.+Ir ", ( d ,. heiJ I tnt,.'i~l hild b,_ thp t.c'll~~,&)I Iv ' ll~ lq'A t t' t u'! t l. h t he \ii. ll ll(tt t+' lt 'tpvu,+.'t w lh,.Il ti .', - ) +l~lt 11m ' d id pa) t.' Itll~t'; tplCs I M Ix ll, ;tII t'Ji ll, h'C S.., 11iCil,,l ld C II~ t IJ ,c h
-111C ocl l , d'lI imh :, r he zc j n w l \u+ C

c 1111\.

hh_ +l h.t ,_ ,,lc lict,. ' til

M*

Fig. 7. Tiff, mi\ is I,,, l+t lhe i.a it contains too( little sand arid co.'rm l'or the, amo un~t" .'.ement pate. Suc.h a mix wou'>tld not he eco' nomic.al o)r du aral \%ttl , ld hav'.e a stronag tendency to crack.

ag.gregai

H.CILI

MC

CO-~

M*

1a~

J~il,11II

11

F~ig. 8. Th1is mi\ is f,, o No]ll because it conlains toJo mirch sand anl c.oarse aggregate. It v',ould he lifl'ictilt toJplace.' arid finish ,properly.

A7T

+ i+ ., ,+ +.... .

iA

s-tII

1 ti , the trial hatch. I t1 .d iu I It \ 1J+l )I it 1ilt I ,[II o \ il t t+


I f It c p I, I tIlTiT ' I , t I ,,,
,

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I i I l I I lIkt ' u

,.,
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\ C .' tI t I

+ C+k 't ):II N I t Il C It ,I c Il kItit+ t + mtq+ < ti,ild li

2 I)

4Idd 2 IIi. )i1,'llid . It it is >,till Lit id


, C ',I Idt+I C I i' I ICl , R c'. 11, \ 1t 1 +' It ' , c'

II 'L;It + LI1t l dLt,+t LI, \IC

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c ici th !,Ii t + jiNt


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l,' \\ 'i h t.. 1 , ll , Iclu t i tLcl I,+ , 111, 111ll 1 1C IT T I

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clit

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+

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hItwill o jli> \,to

t. ilC ; 1 l+,1 t W il lb rH I tIM._t c'111 l,. i,'t () be.'CLt+',+ tl ,. iMl I01C t l tti l1 Mlt 'IC-UICI 1". i 't t'i t~lll I 1 etX lt+ltIWSCL

,' t, o /1( 1l ,.' tII i t 11 (\I i t t'

, 11 Il t LCC
lt

Lll i'

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t(IT

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ill,utv~i l

e~

lt I dill ' ilt< i tl . ck ,.hNc i11) l+_. I t th\ t,11. :11!1t 'Idd 2,t t l dt L' *iI I ut .ct t UI ctis I il NiIL iiit.Ii < (Ti+< ' juid_O ,igr.,~ t.i. .)'r ,t i l iit tl11te, -:l .,- mid,,e,Id I III+. cl lhic Jb. , I 5'.ll Id LI+ h)i)~c I i. t ,, l we1 !,l
e I II rIIL!o o\\.

S a Th
tin t

l ed Itiqutire d en fi,._;l>L ic mid+ .tl i\.'lt llt' i l ti reve Thmid


Utl11l %,()iu

mt ,,m
u +i it'rv ,1111tcU~l.

M+l I I t , ,",,. 'Il cincii , ,: +I V i 1 + t li'cti hilt.i -,ili It",t crlusuct ii Mix H .d+c Cthe - C d+ MLUcL: lll 1. -,LtI JIClli hu

d li fe e c oltl e x t h5 j ch , R+ c i ll ,._ ill il , [T L-I~ m i Lt


I L~li + ,I t I: I I+<lc IIl I L tt I CC It,_aI I:, a II ICUt IU

tl

W thi J- h \ v tuIr i ti ,- wi l 1) mlt l ll'h

t II

vel .++hm

\o,:_.eitl
I \\',-'iht.

k>, !ii t l h 'ife'h cansll

,ic+'Icidm p I()

theU :icliusit]c (0,

hatve Li Uillitt)llII C(III . 1,1C. I'l(T>il ,ltC S ()f" :IIic CC'III Int lt )kv11 :tLti urc%. ( S t eaks in~dic:itl c thlii file SLI it~t .ivc nott b,.wnil irthr j,-hhil t imt+'c.) Next, sl+icaid this m ix-

Im o" t toll I [IUIt,!. It- fill Ii x i' ,,

' ll t Lilt.i ,+t' ,_t . t he

wi evetlhl it"le1,.

+ thc' iequtiledl tqtl~fl(I, er the sl) ji+ld dlt ip

.'ig. 9). "|+his Illi\ w)!i',se aggrega'+;t.

m uch sa.nld atld no~t enougtlh It WMIld placet. ;,li] l'liih eas ily. b~ut xmllt no(t be Cuo~lll liC;l, allt is , )catti-, 1,11 be#++ it cot inls tool

lFig. l(0. "' il, fil. is, 1,,, t.iars, aik +.;tvt ;uli( lit pIIlace+ andt pllltro t' lILF ltL'.

/w !l l b ltlwe it Conta1;ins tl)<) fiuch h s+and. If %m,<ullt ;,,. diff~ic+ult toJ ld ret'ill inl }livacycolbl andlt fin~is-h Iprope.rl~ tynd ,i

,ii+l',

) Ne ,y lilkely to craJck. mitlt Id he

i; T
_, + . 7

4A.

.. S

--.1,

it, of coars aggregate ima layer on top. The mi:terials are again turned by shovel until the coarse aggregate has been tunliifrlv blended with the mixture of sand and cement. After at least three turnings, form a depression or hollow in the center of' the pile and slowly add the proper anount of water. Finally. turn all tle materials in toward the center id 0i*tiftiW iiiiin il'........ ceme ...... coarse aggregate have all been tlhorougily combined. Prepackaged mixes. Jobs small enough for hand mixing can usually be done with convenient prepackaged concrete mixes. Buildingimaterials suppliers, hardware stores, and even some supermarkets sell prepackaged concrete niixe:., All the necessary irigredients -portland cement. dry sand, and dry coarse aggregate are combined in the bag in the correct proportions. Packages are available in different weights, but tIre most common sizes are 45 and 90 lb. A 90-lb. package makes "I cuft. of concrete. All you do is add w,iter and iiix. Directions for mixing arid tire correct amnint of water to add are given on the bag. To ensure that you get good quality from prepackaged concrete mixes, the American Society for Testing and Materials has adopted Specifications for Packaged, Dry, Coiibined Materials for Mortar and Concrete (ASTM C387). This specification covers Ite quality of the ingredients, tie strength of concrete obtained with the ingredients, and the type of bag fi which tire ingredients are packaged. ASTM C387 also requires that prepackaged concrete mixes meetinrg this specification be so identified on the bag. To obtain a quality product, make sure the prepackaged mix you buy conta ns a statement on the bag that it neets ASTI C387. If the concrete will be exposed to freeze-thaw qr deicers, prepackaged mixes must be machine mixed and must be made with air-entraining cement, or an air-enitraining agent must be added to the mixing water,

As pointed out above, prepackaged mixes are most con. venient for tile very small job requiring only a few cubic feet of concrete. However, for larger jobs up to I cu.yd. (27 cu.ft.), you would be wise to compare the cost ,f using prepackaged mixes with the cost of buying file separate ingredients

gre...

.......

Cleaning the mixer. Soon after you finish using the mixer 1( (before the concrete can harden), it should be thoroughly cleaned. To clean file inside of the mixer drum, add water and a few shovels of coarse aggregate while the drum is turning. Follow this by hosing with water. The thin cement film that builds up oii the exterior parts of the mixer may be removed with vinegar. Concrete that builds up inside the mixer drum requires scraping and wire brushing for removal. Ileavy hammers or chisels that might tear up the drum and blades should not be used. Remove stubborn buildup with I a solution of I part hydrochloric acid (inuriatic acid) in 3 parts of water. Allow 30 minutes for penetration, thei scrape or wire brush aid rinse with clear water. li.r'roch'oric acid is hazardous and toxic and reqitres adequa!e safety precautions. Skin, contact and breathing of futmes should be avoided. As a general precautionary rule, rubber or plastic gloves and chenical safety goggles should be worn. If the acid is used hidoors, adequate ventilation shold be provided. Follov the storage and handling precautions stated on the label of the acid container. Dry tire mixer drum thoroughly to prevent rusting and store the mixer with the opening of the drum poiting down. Do not appiy oil to tile inside of the drum unless the mixer is to be stored for an extended period of time. Thoroughly wipe off the oil before using the mixer again, as it may adversely affect the quality of the concrete.

The Portland Cement Association disclaims any and all responsibility for the application of the principles or procedures discussed in this publication or for fhe accuracy of the sources other than work performed or information developed by the Association. Caution: Avoid prolonged contact between unhardened (wet) cement or concrete mixtures and skin surfaces. To prevent such contact, it is advisable to wear protective clothing. Skin areas that have been exposed to vet cement or concrete, either directly or through saturated clothing, should be thoroughly washed with water.

PORTLAND CEMENT

ASSOCIATION

An organization of remen manufacturers to improme and extend the uses of portland (emet and contrete Ihrough scientific research, engineering field viork, And market development.

5420 Old Orchard Road, Skokie, Illinois 60076

Printed In U.S.A. IS174,01T

APPENDIX 2 STANDARD DESIGNS OF FARM IRRIGATION STRUCTURES


U.S. Department of Agriculture

Soil Conscrvation Service

Index - Appendix 2
Plate I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Steel division box. Concrete trapezoidal division box. Combination pump outlet and division box. Trapezoidal chute drop, 0.30 m (1 '-0") drop. Trapezoidal chute drop, 0.61 m (2'-0") drop. Trapezoidal chute drop, 0.91 m (3 '-0") drop. Concrete vertical drop, 0.15 in (0 '-6 ") drop. Concrete vertical drop, 0.30 m (1 '-0") drop. Concrete vertical drop, 0.46 m (1 '-6") drop. Concrete vertical drop, 0.61 rn (2 '-0") drop. Concrete block drive-through irrigation drop, 0.30 m (1 '-0") drop. Concrete drive-through irrigation drop, 0.30 in (1 '-0") drop. Vertical wood drop, 0.30 - 0.61 ni (1 '-0" to 2 '-0") drop. Pipe drop, 0.31 m (12") water depth. Pipe drop with check inlet, 0.31 m (12") Aater depth. Pipe drop, 0.38 m (15") water depth. Concrete check. Concrete turnout. Pipe turnout. Siphon inlet or outlet. Gravity inlet for buried pipelines. Gravity inlet for underground pipe. Inlet structure for irrigation pipelines. High head pump stand for concrete pipe. Low head pump stand for concrete pipe. Pipe sand trap for concrete pipeline. Overflow gate stand for pipelines. Float valve stands for pipelines. Alfalfa valve outlet for pipelines. Orchard valve outlet for pipelines. Irrigation water desilting box and trash screen. Irrigation water trash screci. Vent for concrete pipelines. Dimensional Conversions

0.025 __ meters (m) = 0.30 times ( /) ___- feet (ft ') ___ft = 2.54 / in. __ centimeters (cm) = 30.48
= =

__ inches (in")

0.093 / _--ft' 0.028 / _fil


=

0.76 / ___yd' (cubic yard) - 1 yard

3 ft

36 in.

__m'/s = 0.00063 / __GPM (gallons per minute) __m'/s = 0.028 / __cfs (cubic feet per second)

= t

we/g ab~d cU-ffm

NOTES:

JCIvQ

I.

eAd MOW $'&At ou~ The bo. c. S. copr/rucle-o /,; od'eid.s Ief,". r,,Ah.0 o.- 6&A by aod/Ag oovoAer o@ i d~rio',Ag boarad. rer boxes S 0' &- 1Z 0-l,,jplae . anyler
-v -n "hea 9'dda-a' bo//e-t a/ha/Andi rnid ,,l M'e M/w ,n rcld,1,;2f PIP

c~pd

-. Cae~strI'Ac

-"Xa/ .sho/I cafaro, to the r~~u.S i1poclfizatio.u J/,

Ar/al

IIN,
-4

~-I .

~f

j~f

in*~~Mzr

I3O f TRC /fb


Noe

20 3.0
M

-. 0 A. 0.3 /Afi
;A.,e~w,, sApw,/P/a/d,

/0.9

79i'' 22%47.2 ZZ 2'4 60.7

Sce

9-0 2.0 0.1 2 f 40/R.5 0752

71.5 /21.2 mes 1hiA~

Plate 2

"/

I -N

" !" B(9

DTALE

OF GANTESO

,I

FOR DIVISION BOXES


In, Cu Yd /L,,,/'Cu YoY

A"'

"

'-

Lin FA

24

/57

2/6

/56

269

510

"-':""i

so-/VoA r/: / r

C/7,'7f"1

0 Z'e

oo

1-d 2it

cls"o,

//7 /'

s/

0/1

/.

01a.

%..1"< " -- -

""

'

"

'

';

I~

re

/1/-

,CONCRETE

TRAPEZOIDAL

DIVISION BOX

d :1 2'

8 -: ': 1'-6': 6 2'-0"

SECTONAL

ELEVATION

A-A

1
,M I.

A-I AI (T\I O ,'

1(1(1 (o \.T,
.",'
-6 4

IIV.\T

(I . l

r,0 19,O00012 -1

Plate 3
Note: I. Place 6"x6" No. 10 wire mesh at center
of oll sections Lap mesh 6' at all joints.

2 Thickness of concrete in apron floor and wings to be 4" 3. If desired, top of floor of box may

be below elevation at outletz in which


Pipe drain (See note 3) case a drain through bottom of floor should be provided.

IceC
(See detail) (See detail)

- 6ote slots
\(See detail).000

.1

"

ISOMETRIC

0*

DETAIL OF GATE SLOT BAFFLE SLOT AND ,CIA~


4-"
___ _ __.

4 --

DETAIL

OF

WOOD

BAFFLE

TABLE OF QUANTITIVES
LUMBER L. FT. WIRE MESH CONCRETE! Ft. Sq. 163
* W ithou t

6",
__ _

t
=
__ Ba f fle sloI

8""

'-6"
1

1"6"

6.

4" l 27.5'
--

2"a 7.6 4"

Yds. Cu. 2.5 a p rons


.9

__ x4 _

2"x

Bafle17

I
I,, / / I __,_, / /
j

"it

In cohesive soil, when outlets are on opposite sides, aprons may be omitted. LUMBERI
d 'Depth of flaw in ditch water surface to

.1
" _____"
_______ _

f="Freeboord

from

top of ditch bank

Capccity

1050- 1600 PUMP

G. P M. OUTLET

COMBINATION

9 -6"
SECTION A-A

AND

DIVISION

BOX

U.S. DEI'ARTMENT OF AGRICULTUHE

SOI L CONSERVATION SERVICE


6-8-59 7L-36-23

Plate 4

"Gate

S101 .. '4" -4"


0

i_

23-0" .

BB SECTIONAL ELEVATION A-A


C C

o'
B

Chule A
I lock l V.

OBLIQUE VIEW

2;1 2 l j'-i"

2"

SECTION
(DETAIL OF CHUTE

B-B
BLOCK)

7
Ditch Bottomm

-O

1
35

/Gate

Slot

(See Detail)

S-WoterSurfoce

8--1

[I '

A71 '
-- 'II

I
-E< Ch

rWater surface,
,ute N

l I Bock-

Ditch Bottom-'/

'4"_ _

-4" .....

_J ".._ I

" B.] LC

-Notch In End Sill

"I

-.-.

*_j
..Notch in

SECTIONAL

ELEVATION

D-D

2-8".
3."

End Sill

2L..,

/Sheet

Liner Recommended MAetal

SECTIONAL

ELEVATION

C-C

PLAN SHOWING GATE SLOT DETAIL

TABLE OF QUANTITIES ITEM


CONCRE[TE

40-ENCLATURE d - DEFFII OF WATER 10 DITCH


itIGHT OF FALL IN WATER SURFACE

0.16 CU.YS.

Q,6.0 c Is

TRAPEZOIDAL
d-12'

CHUTE

DROP

SYl

CI.()N SE tVATION SEH'UVICE


3-60

7-L-36-30

7'- 4"
1'.4"_ I'4'_

Plate 5
I'A_. I'-i

2'-Q" _

jtio. Rods
Mas. Spocing

Gate Stat

Rod--'

___!5S-2' z-"

Ro2'-1"-

SECTIONAL ELEVATION

A-A

'\ Chute

-,

lock Did. Rod '

7,-

_ - W'
SECTION
(DETAIL

B-B
BLOCK)
E

OF CHUTE

OBLIQUE
[Floor Block

VIEW

Nk
Gate Slot

Rods -~io. 1,rMOt Spacng

3.Did Pod 3f_~


-3.c

(See Detail) Water Surfacej; F -

IB'
4' 6"
___

Flow
"W Ditch B ,. J ".Chute "-Fo ...
,'"

SECTION

C-C

(DETAIL OF FLOOR BLOCKS)

D.. tch
3T-, 0

Jz

A -- Jlock
2'-0"'

"i"-

A jBloc ,

-Do Rods 2 6" _ "9" ~_ Cj 4' 0" Notch in end sill

r-4"

-. 4"

2 0"
.

__

'14"--4:"-

,..
M

-SECTIONAL

ELEVATION
-Sheet

E-E

V
-

'b

metal liner recommended

~
- L

Zii---j'<Dia.
----------8"

Rods
Notch in end sill _ . .

PLAN SHOWING SECTIONAL ELEVATION D-D


NOT:" 1 6'

GATE SLOT DETAIL

ho.

i0 -12F u(fp,

TAELE -F ZJANTI I

.I

31." - lAtrEA ROD5.

CONC;ETE

I2 EC ciP*ION --

] u.,T -os.
0N 6.0 cA s

TRAPEZOIDAL
-

CHUTE
(T It

DROP
H.2'.0" U)I'I', lT'E

e-

T OF .ATER I 0ITC h, 17 rf tALL ii, ATE SiFACE

d-12"
I S TM J.'

(Il

S.O, I. (:ONSEVATI0N SEH V ICE


__~~~~~ _

26 ._____________ 0 17-L-36-321,

4'
-o
_

Plate 6
.

'-4"

1'-4

'

'-4"

--

Gate Slots
. . ..

18" II Spacing

2"

3'-2"

2'-,

dia. Rods.

SECTIONAL ELEVATION

A-A

.8

I_

2 1-60

dia Rods

'_ 2"L V,'-, "


2"

.
T

SECTION 6-B
(DETAIL OF CHUTE BLOCK)
Floor Block

d .Ro 3" W

o F -"_

atSl
2 -Gate Sil

OBLIQUE VIEW

SECTION C-C
(DETAIL OF FLOOR BLOCKS)F

iSee Detail)
Water ,

" 1,

'

"

,"'t

Ditch Bottom ,-. 0"'

6. -,
d dia.Rod

-o

x. S p c irn L.

6'-0 *

Woter

v ONNN~K

Surface I.

2".T
N

II/
-,'

/
x

'-8"
IN SECTIONAL 2,-1" S-2" _ ELEVATION D-D rSheet Metal Liner
Recommended

A 'oloor
dBlRde26ock
ia Rods

4
E octkeI

. ' - - ' - , - -m
alL i !End

L.. . ..... -6L.

2 6l' "'5"6

.,.,\ BotDom B otorn


E-E
Notch In Sill

Dtch

SECTIONAL ELEVATION
%0IdE1;CLAT1I;E fOTE:

6" X E'10. 10 WIRTo[Sh IN 2l1 PLAC OF It, RODS.

PLAN SHOWING

GATE SLOT DETAIL

IT- DEPTHOF, -A TE I M OF FALL ftAI[ER 50FAE -EGPh

TABLE r I IT[ CONCRETE R;1NFOPCING tOEL

'F ,JA'TITIES O N IU AMOrr 1.33Cu.r1S. 157 INFT.

I
Q- 60 cfs

3/A" IARATER RO)S

TRAPEZOIDAL
d 12"
I I. I I.I'.

CHUTE DROP
H- 3'-0"
.'IIIt:

r 3I I.NT III.'.; I( (I

SO-;011, (:

lV.\rA -l,:0 U1,

VL(:I-:

Plate 7

ISOMETRIC VIEW

ISOMETRIC VIEW
( LOOKING UPSTREAM)

1 ( , LOOKING .a,. lS.s ,.

DOWNSTREAM)

Oita
L

IL '.(eeOdal
Y4

1 I'2

Gate Slot

-7F -- I-I / "

' Got@ Slot r ' B rd , o I oa s

*1

"-l-Otch -i I Bottom

6 0

3'2' 16,1 16"-1


SECTIONAL ELEVATION A-A
'" 4.

.h

PLAN

CONCRETE THEl FOOTINGS FORUPSTREAM WALL ANDo DOWNSTIEM WALL BUrLL BEP0 I(D AGAINTr CO018OLID TEDMATEtlAL. lINE TNI C931$$ OF THEF00TIA,4 SKILL NOT Ei LE3S TUNT 311 NTNE.

ECTIONELEVATION
(DETAIL OF SLOT IN END SILL)

AE

TMETHICKNESS 1nTHEFOW~O WALLtS SMALL NOTBE LESSTUN+I , Cs. OF THECONCRETE THE TICUIESS OF TPECONCRETE 11TWEFLOOR SAIL &HALL NOT BELESS THANFOUI INCH S.

TASL

OF OUAINTITIES 10.7 %Y53.

, TE

0, 6.0 cfs

CONCRETE VERTICAL DROP FOR NONCOHESIVE SOILS


d 12al I. ( )NsI"ItV\'IN
12-5 9

H, 0'-6' L3:6VI(3E

7-L-56-5

Plate 8

i,

/2

I-

I.(LOKIN DONTEM
,0
Wae Sufc

>

(LOOING UPSREA
N

-7'

~I

(LOOKING

DOWNSTREAM)

( LOOKING

UPSTREAM )

-,-r-~ tVtr$ufc
I
-

I'i2" Gare Slot

For
Water Surface-Ditch Bottom _ ..-

B'oards

.7
,

jl. '

! 2. Gate Slot

PLAN

-Slot inEnd Sill

TABLE OF

5"A4--

0L

oter $ixocerA

(Se Detail

dT 1

I'-0

r [

OTkS

~3

US~[ COCRT AL

VERT[ IC

fLLALL DRO

.d

12_ FOUOHEIV FORI

- 1_0 SOILS[

FIR

NO

14- 1

N'A'I'I

"
12-L-36-36

Plate 9

-J

S__

A
OBLIQUE VIEW
(LOOKING UPSTREAM)
o tIx2Gte

OBLIQUE VIEW
(LOOKING DOWNSTREAM)

7
Water
Sufae

x 2* Gate Slot

Slot for

2-0

I Board

n"71

-r4
.Waltr Surface
-

Ditch Bottom

!n

Slotinend sill

Ditch Bottom

4'

3-8

3/Bdia.

rods placed

ppr .

L _ 3'- 1" 5*
SECTIONAL ELEVATION A-A PLAN

__

NOT ES
T E CON CRETE FOOTINGS FOR UPSTREAM IALL AD DOWNSTREAM WALL SMALL BE POURED
AGAINST CONSOLIDATEDMATERIAL. LESS THA THE THICKNESS OF THE FOOTNGS SMALL NOT BE SIX INCEIS. ES. OF THE CONCRETEIN THE FORMEDWALL$ SMALLNOT BE LESS THAN THE THICINESS INC FIVE THU F.OUR SMLL O BE LE3$ SLA.B OF THE CONCRTE I THE FLOOR HE THICKNEFSS

(DETAIL OF SLOT INEND SILL)

ELEVATION

INCHE. rEIORCE
BE 3/

D A O UPSTREA OOING, INFLOOR, STEEL ENT

TIS MALL FOO WNSTREAW


CENTER

OIAMETER ROOS PLACED AT CENTER OF SLAB AND SPACED APPRO?. 9'

To CERTER BOTH WA S. WALLS RIFORC[14[BE STEEL lI FORMWED 9 ER O F WA LL ANDo PACD APPRO0X. XT C

BE 3/9; DIAWETER, OS.,LACEDAT SMHALL AL L VERTICAL CElTR TO C T I ,0TH ArY3

RODS IN THE FORMED WALLS SHALL EIfTrTID FR044 TIE GROUND UP. THESE RODS ARE TO BE PLACED AjOUT 2 FROM THE DIRT Sl1E OF THE WALL A1o THREE INCHES F Ow THE AIR OR VITER SIDE. HORIZONMTALRODS IN FORKED WALLS SMALL BE PLACED ABOUT 3 FROM BOI".ONOF FOOTING AND 5PACED APPROI. 9' CENTER TO CERTER UPWARD FROW BOTTOM RO1S, AS SHO'i IN THE ELEHATION SECTION A-A.

IT iCRETE T

TABLE OF QUANTITIES llFW0'IPTI~R

(AMOUNT .02 CU.TD.

6.0

cFI

CONCRETE VERTICA
FOR NONCOHESIVE
d.12" -I.R I I' T I)I I' ,,": I.:." (;II I

DROP

FKN OPCiG
ST(IL 3!' DIAMETER RODS 164.5 LIN.FT.

SOILS
.T TIII-: E 'I

I" 6'

. _)11.(' t:1:{V.VIIN
1 12-59

SI,:{VI(E

...............

7 L-36-37

Plate 10

-J,
I?'

0~ 01

I<I

OBLIQUE VIEW
(LOOKING DOWNSTREAM)

OBLIQUE VIEW
(LOOKING UPSTREAM)

Water Surac

o,++,o.-Do.od.,
Water_.Wla

rl'x2' Gate Slot

] ot_ SurfaceaGae

-'Ite2 Gate Slot ForI oars la

Bottom

B
7

--Dtc

+
"

Dith atoil

Botto.moFo

oad

.+---~~J .1 .10,_ ,
4'-It
War.f4

SECTIONAL ELEVATION A-A

PLAN

NOTES
THE CONCRETEFOOTINGS FOR UPSTREAMWALL AND DOWNITREAMWALL SHALL BE P R[D LGAINST CONSOLIDATES NATERIAL. TM THICKNESS OF THE FOOTINGS SHALL NOT 9L

ELEVATION (DETAIL OF SLOT IN END SILL)

LESS THAN SI INCHES. FIVE IMCTES.

THE THICKNESS OF THE CONCRETE Im THE FORMED WALLS SHALL 90T BE LESS THAN THE THICKNESS OF THE CONCRETE IN THE FLOOR SLAB SMALL ROT BE LESS 76AN FOUR INCHES. REINFOR~CEIIET STEEL I ' FOCR UPSTR A FOOTIN , AND DO"TSTRFAM TOOTING SHALL ODD PLACTO AT CENTER OF SLAB AND SPACED APPROX. 9 CENTER BE s/O[C IAW[T[ TO CENTFR SOTH .ATS. F /H DIM[TER RODS PLACED AT R1FOCFNENT STEL IN FORKEO RALLS SMALL 8F CENTER OF NA-L ANT SPACED IPR0O. 9N CEMTR TO CENTER BOTH VATS. ALL RTICAL OFRO TIE COUND IF. THESE NODS ARE TO ROD! IN THE ;CRMFD WALLS SMALL EFTEN E DIPT SI[ OF THE WAILLAND THREF INCHES RO. THE I FRN BE PLACES A-CUT AIR OR NATER SITE. II RIZC.TAL RODS IN FORMED WALLS SHALL,E PLACED ABOUT I' UFVAD FION C FLTI.8t0TC OF FOOTING AND SPACES APARON. 9" CETN r TO CEnT'E DT1OT RCDS, AS SIO i IN TE ELEAION SECTION -A.

TABLE M'ESNRIPTION ONCR TE

OF ',UAOTITIES _

AP O_

,C.o 1..

0 6.0 c.t.s. CONCRETE VERTICAL DROP


FOR NONCOHESIVE SOILS
H -2'-O'
I" Ti DIT.IAI I F;N I ';" ,FHI(I (1I I It-.

;(I'r ci;

..

..

..
0H.0 LiN..

CSTL 3,T

IA~IS1CUS

d 12"
______ __(___._'_I.:1_V,\TI()N

_.'I__V9L1-

rm-f9 36-138

Plate 11

EB1LL
MARK

OF MATERIAL
UNI T 0 UAN

DESCkIPT ION

I
3_3 4 5

6"x 8"x 16",corner block.

8%8"x 16":,streTcer block


8"x3" 8",cornet block. B" B'x8",corner block w l gate slot.

Ea.

LaEo E. E Ea.

-16 4 2 2

Not used -6 4". 8" 16",stetcher block 7 8' 8x 16'stretther block wit h 0a45"end cut 8 1/4 of on 6". 8"x 16", stretcher block with 0 45'end cut. 9 ;b of a 4"x B"i 16", stretcher block with o 45"end cut. --.. 10 4"x4" 16",co.'ner block may reploce usual concrete end sill.

En.

Eo.

2_

11 4'8"x8",corner block ISOMETRIC VIEW


CONCRETE with coticrete end s;ll with mark K blocks__ MORTAR . GROUT ......... BLOCK WED ME5H REINFORCEMENT STLC' 3 /' d;o bars

En.

Ea

Cu yJ. 0.62 Cu e,. 0.60 Cu yd. 0.05 Cul. 0.26 Lm ft1 32 Lin. ft 109

do reinforcin

A =j~c toor1e

slats

II

-I

NOTES
Concreie block walls tobe retnfcrced by placing high tension steel wire rgesm ho i wre, similar to Carte,- cters Elo -Mesh inhorizontal block joints os sno n in Sectional Elevation A-A. The jint iicness between cc-:'e t e b!ccli sholl be oboul V4 in. The con-e-e tocks
Shoi:be Ia., wilt, staggered ,eTicot joints

I
-_ . ... ... 2-I" 8"

I9

4' '9
-r

-I

PLAN

OSshown on the plans. The openings in the blocks shall be oigned vertica:i, and
filled with concrete grout 0'tclh -\ )Oftom
,

Wide mortar joints ,-,Gate sot

Oter $utface @. ! .-

-\-: :,"O !c ,.U ,, ,'7i\,...----cck web mesh D

Oi~ C3. 02 ~Y~ C _, 022>tWater "',


-

, ,_

surface

[.G1 i
.

.IO arcig-"' ,re ,.'in, n C2/ ", i ct. c-cp.5.-atT ---- -- T -- j-i

"9q
,c ,
CONCF:ETE BLOCK
H

0'6.cps.

Icr

29-"9I
___7'-6"

. 3'-5
- 2"

LRIVE-THRU SECTIOAL ELEiVATION A-Al

IRRIGATION DROP
I'-

____________________________________________________

t)

19,000 CO

T1

Plate 12
I
S/,',ch,, Sb,, yd
S I

VO TES:

-. 3 ,v,ea',

ccordance

w,,

4rspec,c/,'a,,S I'aefr W'al,'


trY

A/c, Con/,e./"
ard.'

-36?
Oy, 4eA Q'//

2/ O/C

Paceeyc.

Me $bc,-e, .5al/ More yr,~'

be 4,i-

a/"occ.~p,etd
2

ok

,' r e

51ao// 6e co.'7,paclied / a dle,,s,/ e.?aal /P -- ,/co/ATe Carec M'e den ',ly of/A. A. 6,,*/ .// enolsi-,e C-,,ew,,/ 1M4 r9,"'ed 4 e 5A 11Q tho/ iv0c,4 IA./ Cae'7POC~on w111/ be o,6A',nr 3Tn -j dra,n? rep/.zce5 Droaw,n 9 y 1.-i

NOrES
4. 5TA1VD'01'2L
5. Cecre/e

CONT.
-A/.&.'L', 1p L'A

2f_6,Y5

shall Colo,/a the tw,7v/5o Colns/ruct//,7 Spgrclllcation J1, Cancrete, or 32Z, R-'en1o,-tn.1 steel 5hall coiornm t0 the roagn.'emiwlts of Con s/.acllon Spercl'Icatlon-34, Stelelatrzelneol

_C___

Sur r

rI

S/0.I

.ac -? - -I

2130 9

..

,1

Woh-r-'IC

I.OO/e.)0l

Sc~rt'ceL-

T,9L4 O

IESINUIVT

VPN
0(( l ,Y,
7
_6

IS B0/temN

.4I

NCE7

DRIVCTCM4

47~~f

G)

DRO
'
FA
Boh'o.-, -A,/cA A3,IOt)

1
111d.,,o

6 56 0
/-0 -L-_0 0

~ ~ ~ _. q ~ 1.6 3- -6 09 16 ~ ~ 2-

~ _O-6 ~
L'i.

i. -O R , dF-C-SP-1

*
. \i C a .

Plate 13

-~

7,,
VIEW

PLAN

"

"OBLIQUE

C/ow

SECTION

A-A

SECTION C-C

SECTION

B-B

DETAIL OF GATE GUIDE


(OPTIONAL)

4 1Ilumber to be presure treoted anda ecured Wv/) cement ceaoed (.ol0I


2 8 vadtb oil0f 0,.; d a'dep,/b of waoer n dA b 4'- helOig of Ao// m water

urface

leng /'7 of apron 0- COpCitl //n Ca. .S D,'ns,on. o7


____' _

Co aoc

48,1/ of "alero/

'a

Gale qulde ,vol incldedI

Zf

4 13

7,*I ICINqII-2'-_2,.0in~~20

1 1.O"! / I e .I. 6" ' l'-4-6 z'm'-2 3494


em .3

,_74
/'!
4 /l r----l-/ _--

T' 1-8f1j1/ is3 -T //: 20

114

VERTICAL
d=12"

WOOD DROP /
-

II-(N

Iix

Ii'., SI I.
T T 2/ pf 2228p

22

Iii~I

H"'-O" to2'-0/ ):I'M .\'r~NT o . \: .VIC


1-6 5,09,00-102

Plate 14

-i-

PLAN ISOMETRIC VIEW OF


Water

Surface
D 12' 31-0 -iSenoeN.5
.

CONCRETE SLAB
(e oeN.5

Topo Ditch BankF- 6

Walede

on
D |

Surfac il

OCRT

SA

aer

L-,j

" go. " -Watertight


Lo V

Corrugated Metal PipeConcevee 0! Sinb

WtrSrae

Co,J -Ditch
,/

Botto ..

I-

itch Bottom
L2

!...,l ............

Loitch Bottom .-

4 0 . ON CENTER
D I2"

SECTIONAL
PIPESIZE
DESIGN CAPALITY

ELEVATION

LINE
0-15*
3.7 C.F.S.

CAPACITY

AND LENGTHS REOUIPEr_

D
I.CCr.S. 4

[10"
L2 R.L
I V

2.4 C.F.S.

HC R 1'-0. _ 1-'

9 HAI. 2.3 S.

HAx.

L2

RA L2

9 HAX. 5.5

L2

RL 2

4.2 .1

2.-0.

S. 9
&.4

3.2
3.5 6.4 3.

II -0" 121-0" [4.3 3.4 12'-6*-0 5.? 4.1 [6. 4.7I iHI-C IFT6~.E 5.2 14G IF_ - 6.6 5.2

II'-C" 12'-' 1 4.5 12v13-6'

111-0, 121-0/
_16-0

14-

-7_5-0'V:

S C

T16d0

Is 6.6 .

-I-i

--YOT-

NOTES I. SELECT A PIPE SIZE THAT WILL PPOVIDE A OHEATFR CAPACIT THAN IS REWUIRED TO SISCHARCE THE NOR"L ST4 NAH U ED WHAI IEMICATINS. TPT TTIPEEP THE ifLOCITy IN TH PIPE I [LOW 3 FPS 9AS D n N0IC . IPTRIGATING T tA. 0HER THaiC RC . TEO -TAL PIPE DROP I USED AT A DITCH COSSIHC. IkNREASE WIDTH CF TOP OP AN 4 1T'ENSt, L2 AT 1S-3". THE CRCP (M) FOR AN 'PECIFIC STRUCTURE CAR 3E I4PAASE[ I INCF5. ' , PIJCIMC THE TOP OF THE ITIST PIPE 3 ITCRHESSALOW THE TCP CF THE CONCRETE FLOCH OF THE INLET. THE THICKNESS SSJACEMT SE THE PLCT SLE3 TO THE PIPE HCLSL HE IC[E 'ED I INCES TO lKUE I

2.
3.

NITERI'm~CCNNET ICC "10' C, PIPE. THEEINLET TC HE PIP[ SGHOULD ME1^uCCED TO A 3 INCH HA IJO A1I[ 04 G lPROVE T E FTC IH H ^F TOE INLET.
4. THE COP STqGCTJPE IS IRSIIED3H CUTTING A STAMpSA LENGTh CI COPUCATED PETIL PIPE. WHICH I FA1UAST ;[' IN 14ULTIPLES OF 2 FT. IN LF11TH. CM A , ' ANGLE AMC OELOINS THE 5 COT JO1INTS3 TSC tTH TS PCH A 9G'O . PIPE TO AT It GA. COPRIJGATEn HETAL. JCItT BET[-E HTIZS.TAL 1O i-ETICAL PIEC15 0' PIPE TO QE JJTT ELSED INO wATETTICHT. SIX IMCH HIND FLACEC PIP-AP
HAY

5.

46

U3STI1%T[) FlQ CONCRETE SLAa.

4CAC 15LAC A C
d DEPTH OF P ATA

P o

IN DITCH

E ,N~A I SIT, DIA'EI. CE RIPE

I12 VM

LAI'1H CT L.TH GP IISSIT 'IT.f l DISCrA2r DRIP OF

VERTICIL PIPE ALONt ENTER LINE H r,,IZCNTAL PIPE ALONG CENTEA LINE T PiPE T PIPE 11'1iG - C.F.S. LIEP tPAICE

TAlLE

CF

Cr~rrAFTF ^,IA.TITICS,

D -2
0- 15"

0 .,

HI.

C.SH 29 .RU

CORRUGATED METAL PIPE

DROP

AE
d '12'
I> S E I'I',\I(TIt :NT (i",\(ijl'I.EII''

SO1 I. ('()INS'RVIlI()N HlI'\'VICE:


2-60

7- L- 36-24

Plate 15

Concrete, 4 Req. (2 Eaoch Side) / 8Djo Rod&


_-r

"1 Bolts Set 6" 1n 2 Doa Gaby

/l

--

Max Spacing 12"-

, Ga, D te slat
l"x!a2" Creosoltd
_

__-,

CMF" l

1 .~y-. .... ... .. .

PLAN ISOMETRIC VIEW OF INLET

ifx

Got, $lot

" ----2'

;0

,CONCRETE 3.O"

Ditch Bottom

-I

a._ Rods
| i " -et MoI. Spacing 12"

"

I Top Of Dtch Bank-

Of
_ ,o.

Con,
7
. _

(f--_-Wolerilght
______

Corrugated Metal Pipe-Welded Joint\

Ditch Bank,,!

_
,

90.,

Level Line..
___.

IliIDitch
. .oom
_ -- ___

SECTIONAL ELEVATION
_CAPACITY

ON CENTERLINE
PEQUIOPFD
D_ D

AND LENGTHS
_15"'

PIPE SIZE

0"

RECOT4OEMT'ED DESIGN CAACI Y 0" 11I-0" 22-C-2 4.w

1 C.r., I.7

2.4 C.I.S. h.L 12'-0*'4 *. 3 2 EvO',-0" - 0 .4 1ll'-0"

I1.7 _ .1
_6 7.7

C F.S 0.1 12'-0"] F 0-I:-0 ; .0P.

2.wi70* 3 I1Q. -O

~I~7 12'-C"J
-O'

vO~ 9 5.5 WAX.11'-0* L2 .,5 7.-,


-]

., 5'-C" -1.2-. r;.; 3.2 -_ -. - 3.7

_-,--" 12-0"
3-~lO

1 .6
-.

1122'-')".14 -0. -2 4.1 .2~lIC '4.7 I_10 1'.0,


5.2 3'-

2-, 121-0*
3

..

3-" 3.7-I'-

V -o"I-.-6

.2 -

-0

8'-0

-. 6

8,1 1 7-o" lB-V

I.

NOTES SEIECT A PIPE SIZE ThAT WILL PTOOIDE A GREATFRCAPAC1Tf 'PANI 0PrEQUIREO TO DISCHARGE TIle ho "' L TPEAI " S 1 E WH IRRIGATING.I TR TO 11P TIle VELcITT IN THE PIPE BELOW 3 IPS 5AE OP F A ON HOPwAL I PIG(ATION STREAW. NO DIPE 1 1 SION 1-C". 12

2. WHEN T E COPLC.IATE D07TAL PIPE DPOPIS USED AT A DITCHCROSING, INCREAOE WIDTHOf TOP
3.
P TPr D OP 1 ) F11 ANY OPECIFIC STPL'CTUPE CAN BE INCREASED 3 ICHES rIf PLACING THE TO OF THE PIS I PI E 3 ICHErS ElOW TEOP OfP THE CONCRFTI PLCto OF THE '4LfT. THE THICK0E50 Or t"E FLOOP SLA9 ADJOCE T TO TE PiPE ULD 9F IMCPEAE 3 COES TO -AzE A WATEQTIT CO~xECTICO P ithTOP PIPE. TH INLET TO TOE PIPE OOULD0' ROUGOEDTO A 3 ICO "A410 TO .AVE F011Ik0 AND IPPPOVE TIE EFFICIENCT OF THT INLET.

A. THE DPCP
cut

r't TIIOE IS EPIPJO RI CUTTING A OTATOAPDLENGTH OF CDPPu 4T71D 'ETAL PIPE. WHICH IS PAO FACTUPEO IN I'11T10L15 CT 2 IT. IN LEwGTH. C A A L0 ANl 4L WELDING THE

JOIxTO TCGETIERTO P:" A OExD. NOC PIP TO 77 " CA. C0"'UCATEO "OTAL. JOINT BfrE EAO '".0IGOTL AN, iERTICAL PIECESOF PIPE TO RE BTT .,LFEDAIO ,ATETICOT.

T,_

LS (J: " A'TI TIE'

I STEEL )IA" I.

CoJ.f25. LII.F

0.17 ru. Y,". 3S LIX.FT. 3.

17 Ct". IEO. 3 I.T.

GILi. bOLTS I/,- :[IA. GAL(.1AS4Pj hI/;*i.

"

I -

0 - S1I 'pEE :1 'pTp -LE"Sl i iplil') L LE"5TPOP 'AL

F F111111

CE ziTEP

,CORRUGATED
PIE ALOxO CEE
- Ik .

TEP"I

hO1'

-P7E 'EOIP 1 LIxE

WITH
.(JI1.

METAL PIPE DROP CHECK INLET sEIII


'.I I(ITlt

0- :
-

1:'L4 PPE

1:,: ,'..4 2*" PIPE - C.r.;.


.,: k

d- 12" , I)I-:I",7Ii-TOT ':N' i-l,7il

C()'-I:HVVI)N

,
-

';:'L "AT6

I2-60

-r

7-L-36-25

.3

1'-3"

Plate 16

2.
-*4

'

4o

PLAN

Woter Surface VF-3' Ditch Bonk7'


F 9" !

ISOMETRIC VIEW OF
,CONCRETE
' \ (See note No. 5)

SLAB

Concrete slob

Top of Ditch Bank

-p
-Ditch Bottom
, 5h"

- Loe LnH
.... .Lz .......

"a
-tf
I 4 0
"

Ditch Bto
,.

SECTIONAL

ELEVATION

ON CENTER

LINE

rAPATITY iND PIOF LF.NTHS REQUtIPEO


PIPE 't i cII A Ct)r 11 I Sl 0 -10, *I.P=

DESIGNCAPACITY I.6 C.F.t. 2.4 C.F.S. 11. QW 1iZ. R.L2 1 9 PIX. L? P'L2 P.O* ..2 2.3 13'-0" 14-"0'4.3 3.4 13'-0" 4' 1-6' 5.1 2. 4 4.1 I -( 1'-02_-_

41"0

V 4.3 5.4
C.1

3.7 C.F.S. 9 WAS, L? _rL2 5.6 13-0 14'-0' E.61 146" IO-f
7.5

5.9 5.4 j

11.4

3.5 s5. 3.7 J_-0" 15-

I4-

V.

18'-0" 1 "0 I

'

(.0 7.1

g.? 4.7

.? Iw-C" 5.6 151-0"

i4-0"

11t-C ".4 .8 WV-0" 7.4

i'"-C-

4 9.1

i.-' iSt-c*

t6'-(,

17'-0*

io-' 20'-0

NCTES
1. SELECTA PIPE SIZE THAI WILL PROVIPE A GPEATER CAPACITY T01A. IS PFQUIREDTO OISCHARGE THE ORIAL STPEMI USEDW$(4 IRRIAIIG. TRY TO KEEP THE VELOCITYIN THE PIPEBELOW3 FPS eASIEDON hOR IL IlltGTtAYG STRE It. 2. AHEN THE C01RUIGATED PETALPIFE CROP IS USED AT A DITCH CROS3140, INCREASE AIM01 OF TOP CF aM AN DIHEI.SICk L2 3T 8'-'. 3. THE31OP(H) FOR ANY SPECIFIC STRUCTURE CIA af INCREASED 3 INICnES 3Y PLA*INGTHE ToP OF st TCP CF TlhC'ORCETE FLOI OF THE INLET. In THICTIE RISERPIPE I INCIES3ELO I 3 INCHES TOIAstEA B E IkCREASED SHCULD TO THE PIPE FLOORSLAB ADJACEkT 4ISS OF TIlE "ITERTICHT CONNECTION wlpIs THE PIPE. TVE INLtEl TO THE PIPE 5110ULD 3E IOUNDEDTO A 3 I1C" PAOU S TC SAVE PE041hG ANI IIPROiE EFrCIENCT CF THE INLET. TIhE LENGTHOF CCQRTGTED NETALPIPE, IS FCRIED BYCUTTING A STANDARD STRUCTURE 4. TKEDROP wELDIIGITKE ' INPULTIPLE.Of 2 FT. IN LENGTH.04 A Wo INGLEAWtO WHICh I H4LIACTURED to oR4 A 030 IEIID.PiP( TO BE 1 CAelECCRIVATEO ETAL. JOINT CAT JOINTSIOCIET"Eq PIECES OF PIPE TO BE 3UIT wELtEDAND WATETIICT. hC IOC1AL ANDVERTICAL 1C S(CT.EX SLA3. FOR CONCRETE INCH NAD PLAC.ED RIP-lAPWAY BE SUSSTITUTED .$i 4Ou[ 'I, LAT' iRE
-

4EPTN Of

ATEP In DITCH

L2 - LENGTH OF hORltIlTL PIPE ALONG 0(1E CT Y i[ IL C IT VI PIPE " 5IP

IN CITCn D - "lIET10 CF PIPE R - Nw T8 OF vfTICAIL. P:PE ALONGCENTERLIAE


F
-11111C1D

LINE

- DISCAFGE EGN TFR PiPE - C.r.s. H - DROP OF OATE S%,RFA.

CORRUGATED METAL PIPE DROP


rICNCPETE QIIANTITS 0 to, 0.33 Co.sS.
O IS' TABLE OF

d' 15 I
, I4 lI'AI*t'AII.MI NT III. ,5lItXI.1'tll

D~g

0.35 CU.YDS,

0.
.....

2 -s

2-60

7-L-3-, -- 36 -2G6

Plate 17

ISOMETRIC VIEW
b

,-

Gate slots (see detail)

;/!.

(,e

Wt,,r surface C

Iic
.

4 Ditc botom

bDtchm

bat tor

B
C

L,-!0
B 2'-6*

-JcF,_B
6.

k=

J'
.46'

A7

SECTION A-A Sheet metal liner recommended

PLAN
L_ -3 I,-Y!I 7' -6" 2 -6"

GATE SLOT DETAIL


Concrete quantity - 0.55 cu. yd.

roWate-r su rfct ,

NOM EN CLATURE
. -I-I B - Bottom width of structure b Bottom width of ditch

SECTIONAL ELEVATIN B-B


'-3 ' 2-6" -

d =Depth of water in ditch

-T I

',1

I/I" CONCRETE CHECK B, 2'-6" So;01I ()N':lIVVrIN N.-1.:l V IC. . . ....... 4-60 ... 46 ....... 7-L-36-44 d,12"

-~ SECTIONAL ELEVATION C-C

Plate 18

ISOMETRIC

VIEW

Bottom of farm

lateral

Water surface

Ditch bottom AA

'I

SECTION A-A
b'

'-" 0"

tl

0
Sheet metal liner recommended

____

PLAN

7'-0"

~
--1,

]%
-

2
DETAIL OF GATE SLOT

I-t 3"

__L _ , _2' 0 _

Concrete

quantity

*0.47

cu. yd.

I-"

NOMENCLATURE

SECTIONAL ELEVATION
3. 2 ' -

B-B

B-Bottorn width of structure b- Bottom width of ditch d Depth of water in ditch

-. _

--

-- -2/ Ii--"

d -o 12"

CONCRETE

TURNOUT

B,-2'- 0"

2I'" 9 -" SECTIONAL ELEVATION

C-C

',Of1. ......

()NSEH'VATIOiN
....... ... 4-60

S.E:I\(ICI ........ 7-L-36 -45

Plate 19

w
Top of field ditch

1.

..ogate

6 1.5'

Form irrigation ditch

Top of field

ditch

.p

gate

bottom

e"

SECTIONAL

ELEVATION

A-

e feet feet feet. feet feet 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 40 6.0 6.0 6.0

Note: Top of pipe inlet not to be above the water surface.

Pipe capacity with wateras surface top of at inlet some elevation pipe and outlet unsubmerged. Pipe diameter "D" ir, inches 1 1 Turnout Capacity c.f. e. . .

0.7 1.25 6.0

1.5 1.2 0.7 1.50 6.0 2.0 1.2 0.7 2.00 .0 1.5 1.33 0.77 2.75 8.0 2.0 1.33 0.77 2.00 8.0

NOMENCLATURE b =Bottom width of form irrigation ditch d F Depth of water in form irrigation ditch

52"

Diameter

Gate

W,* Top width F * Free boardt


L Length of pipe

CORRUGATED METAL TURNOUT TSO


I0Il

PIPE

D Diameter of pipe

J. H. r)I1 AHTMENT OF AOIt('cITI:HIE

CONSVVAIN SE'RVICE

3-0o

7-L-36-40

Plate 20

PLAN
TRASH RACK NOT SHOWN

ISOMETRIC VIEW

See

71.. k.

5e4'/

IL
SECTIONAL ELEVATION A-A
TrASH RACK NOT SHOWN

II
IIe

4
*911/ars

w/h /'doi

4o/es

lo

we/d, a//bors /" 7"on 9

itsar
"
-,

/o o/o 2" /0f-l--!

-7' Z-'4"long

TRASH
"We.
4: .e.r--,,,y sl /M Oe "d/'o cleod /2' ce,71r /!oene,- /,n ewnl.- o1's.,;24s

RACK DETAIL
TABLE OF DIMENSIONS AND QUANTITIES
8 "K 20 J C/'
-

P/PAt

50"7
0

LO. /85
/76

37..

f"
/"" ,'.

Z*

IJs Z2jj
/6

4"I'iT
2.Z5
_

A Ouna
4'141&

7o.-r'ers .I/a'-,ce /o

,;njp,
Ob.

'o/'

/Ig' Jj'6'

/.0-

c4'-n4rs Omer /6.ms ore rnmOxdn

ILLL.ia"

/78

4.
6.

e- s c,
Cieo- d~s/jnce

. e m-vi'& r, /0 o
"ren,'/rc,

X-9"1i fOO7// o/o s/rucl,ro/ sledl - 76 /bs

J2. 40
SIPHON INLET AND

J_ Z.

_5

, s/eel//o ou/c7,C

CONCRETE

/le'/ (2'o

s,,/e o '/Pe /o-

OUTLET
I'
.

FOR

8" TO 15" DIA. FIPE


w ,\uII(:ULTLt';

pools/, a 4Vom e,7d c7 smao/h n/o/olob /c v'ros,47? bond


:,

IDII'AItr3IK-

I, ('ONSII(\'T(.N S

I '

A,, ,m,,,'r

/jfn lh of 411 overoh ,e

o be 3'.

L_

1-64

5.O1900.35-1

Plate 21

I-TT

_. Ourtd pipe
Av A

PLAN

Removable wood cover TOpof dirc, b'ni


I

3-6" OBLIQUE

VIEW

Trash screen (see detail)

"shahin97
2"x4" m

1I
I

N"
Buried I1
I II. 1/ J .

I
IoI

I.

both ays

~I

6ii--

/'

',--

SECTIONAL 1 4"1
Approx.

ELEVATION A-A
14"

ELEVATION

2'-8,

_A prox.

iI .__ II

~-H A

_-between _
O

-Steel mesh placed x4" wood


t .1-

f rame

.TABLE
H
CONCRETE cu.yds. 1.00 1.10 r'-6 11.30 6T6" 1.20 1.40

OF QUANTITIES
REINFORCING STEEL dia. rods lin.ft. 128.5 134.5 152.5 158.5 175.6 STEEL MESH WOOD 4"x4..10 gage sq.ft O x:4.inf 8 I'sheothinj 8 10 bd. ft. 8 I'x4"-2 I lin.ft 8 redwo:j 8 prefe,red)

11
0I ' I '-- " TRedwood frame9_0" o" boards Coe oening with 4'x4"-10 gage steel mesh preferred '"

DETAIL OF TRASH SCREEN

NOTES- I. Maximum Q,5.3c.l.c., 2390 g;.m. 2. May also be used -is Terminal Outlet for pipe lint with trash screen omitted

CONCRETE GRAVITY i'JLET FOR BURIED PIPE LINES


U.8. I)iPAITMENT (IF AI UCULTU HE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 3"60

7-L-36-I
__l

i~a

ie

Plate 22
Mortar /

'~

~ /i*---Inlet --- 1 90

openin~g

PLAN
Cover opening with 44x4"

Install removable Cover

I gage steel mesh

j
F ld surfc

12 Min.

[~'

Concrete pipe

Top of ditch bank Water surface


Ifnlet opening Ditch bottom .Il p i .,

"D

~.

ROS SCTON

Eapproximately

~~Reinforcing steel at
when indicated in
table below.

12"cc

ELEVATION

NOM ENCL AT URE


d
Max, ) I
9.

Depth of water in ditch

.... Spec
P ip

1079

48C

12
0-Pie I04 16 Concrete

80 55 _ .L 3 218 0 _630 1.77

Concrete Base H..lM less JH-more tho~r. Reinforcin steel Cuyd. t CIN eng 0.7e Length007 -0. 71 05 ___6" 4-W 0.05 00, 9 .0 0 _ 6 20 6 _r' -O & 0 .1 4" 4 6"

W__ o-_oLo -__


0 3

top o! concrete base 1 0 =Dischcrge through structure in ct s. and g.p m


0 ,--g hruhsrcueinCf.a c.6 gp

F- Freeboard in ditch D= Diameter of vertIL0- pipe D, Diameter of underground pipe Thickness of concrete base H 2 Height of verticat pipe above

6'

18 c-I18 Irrigatin

0 07 0.14

6" 8' 1

0.10 0.i1

3.14 1410 3.98 1785

241,108021 24

18-

27
30
'Closs

4.12205

84 0.22-1 0. 208 21 3a 6"_1023 0-I

6'

jZ 0.-161

19
2

Co 7 5.94 __._ 2665 33 28 9-62 42] 0-6Renfcre

~ 7 3

175

~ 2 ~

6f

., 0 39 " 8crere 8_03!8 ,; I 05 -

0 2_ 031312
0 351 3/8

o .5o/ 070
L I0. 2

2e

2.7

8 10.500 6
6o8

2 ' 38'

If
1 GRAVITY
......

_ _ _

INLET

'/z"1

46

FOR CONCRETE

PIPE

],

' '59

l 7- L - 36 - ,_2

Fiate 23

T-Se

role-

(See no II/

4_741,_,

-A

V~a/
PZ AN V/CW
'se

around~\\

e
no,'. Ad8

/2 3. Col rolled S/eel bond-,.

V2wide,

4-1

I (
J.o

*.~,

I /

I-Weld
//ce

all aro-

nd s&il

0/ ehar: L

cc. i re&r 4w y.%x 7

around'.-.

f//ct-fille

, -

.'C.P noc

O~a

See

'2",~~~mcnri

aound. lrfli
aCud

a/llio
R /7/

Pipoe, (See

4-.

tlac.eac way. ,qLTCR/M r CTIOV

4pin

S,-C7-10N

If (1500-9)U/hn-io/e) pipeo as Spec,/Aled , i e lares'o erwioA ofr ,ASTM ocs9nalion.: C. 76. 2. A/I non- reinforced cancrair pipoe lines laid uilh /7z-d,jaj& 4 io// coA form t or rceeS the ro.uroemls/ of //'j la/es,' ,eeiiin of A45TM C,/2. AlI ncn -reinfe: 'cod concrale frn,. /a or ecA-eed ,,e cAO/ joj~ b!W jtl laid Wi/A tlines ,oe tleEit rev/Paon a jr O.9/non '-rehn forced Casl r -Doc q Covecci' pipe sAvclcon farM /v or o.'-el Me refwirCeen/ of~h MclaeJ1 rev.ISIOn o! RSAW 0*'?Z 4 All ioc#5 ecvoloed, anolnorl occupied by /Me S/ruc/ucir xha//be /jacklV//cd wil ca/hpl Me qrotind jarface. Me hackiI.aull Ze ccmpaci'eod /0 a dcn e,.'e/ /o Mde o'ensiljv ol*.4- adjlocen/ earM l7'e ,noislvrc can 'en l or Me hC'rlll/rwleegiol sAo/ So smc4 /Wa/ Me re uI.;rv cai'ipoc/io. wi/I' ha

4. P/pe shell he Clas

~il-

5. Bars .shall/ iOl' rein f'crciny s/leel. 6, 7;61r s/nrcc/cire mayjec used as an1,nlc& or an r~ tfa'iih ,-ocKs not Ahe// ned0ed for an OU//C A /*rO YIC/e 0oWrar fo p'pC. /"In When Ustea an Oul/re 7 Th,r sec/ion ",,// confont, Oo no/c w/ bul .jill 6e a ha/f 4cbon ofr pipe.0' a SA-ccjuie iha// be ins/a//ed in oceordoance wilh JXoi/ Consereo/jon Serpice Z 7yinearin Slono'i-d 4*SPecif*1%s/iont .. Colo. - 587 'Strct rat far .Wj/ao 3

SP'

f(

P0.Q

/A;7/0A

P/Pt 1///tS
j

9,-~iI~ SA/1D~9O/ p4l ED

HZLI-4-PZ gapte, -

~41~Y~ [0 lie~aecic
Le.,

4te.SOiL
t

-. t,

CONSMVA'rIM SERlVICE

Plate 24
Moiyfillet -/ " .j/ I // )' r' -Mcftv PJ fillet

PLAN
Removable (Optional) cover

',
U.4-Water sur~
1

-j--Water Note:

- - -surface.Z

]
gate---

Pump dischorge
'
_

HFlop
(See
v/ f el -- -'

I.

Fow

I
I
"

t-

/ F ie ld

urfo ce

uFlexible 1
,

X
coupling
-

4z

Mortar fillet

E3
or "l M o r ta

fillet-SFIci

0 Ii
I / "'

6''
-

I
Reinforcing steel at approxntely 12"c-c when ndicalea in

Concrete
pipe Concrete

: .
base

. _

__-"

CROSS

SECTION

table below.

ELEVATION
W Nofes When 0 . 27 or when 0 2 is greater than I 1/2 0 eliminate flop gote and use a
check valve in pjmp discharge pipe

Ma

Max

0 g.
I

[) 1ITO pm cr - . _e,'C 12 14

A...

. i

,b

1 Concrete Bose 'T -d.. . T.. . ... ... T--T . .... . :in g sfe elo IO o r l p j H more th on lu Re,nfro . - , , "I , ''',' u

NOMENCLATURE

-Ifomefe,

ao

l pipe

0.79 1 07 1231.40 .- 7 2.18 241


314

355 -4 0 550

4 4" 4"" 4"


4'
"

0',05 05 (co 06
,,.07

6 6" 6'

I Concrete 630 16 18 C-18 lfrrigOhO 795 I 960 20 1080- 211410 24


t 1785-2

6"

( .07 0 08 0.0o4 0.ia I1 01 1-

--

--

---

O0DI Diameter of underground pipe i,,eter of pump lischorge pipe e


H -,-k!,:gh of

--1
.

f
verlical pipe above

.1, 4

--

fop of conrete tone 0 -1O6 ,scr-e through structure in cfs. u"d g p n'

016
0 20

3.98

4.91 5.94 2665


707 962 112 57

-,-..-

-.C c

Cs r: Rerforcedl , Ppe

6 6"

" B" 8-

8*

'3
39 5!

8" 3'
8"

Oi3 " 0.22 0.26!~8 0.30 %" :,2' 0 35 3/9 22 3 9~ .o 0 5 i +B 23' 3


l

3175 36 '4520 42

Concree __962i4 P~e

8"0 2i 8 4 j, I

8 "

5 o e '
62

HG HIGH
PUMP

5r, 3/
/ 12

38'
46

STAND

EDNNTPF HEAD NON - TAPERED


FOR CONCRETE
V ,l0 V8'

PIPE

5640 48

_0

SO111.

(I,

F It[1\''l ( N SJ:F\'(VIH
'27 L6-

Plate 25

Mortarfillet

,/

PLAN
Alternate pumnp discharge pipe location . .......

when 0 ( 36

movable cove7

--

Cut opening in

more layers

ov r Tor papertwo of

Pump discharge : pipe

Slayers
j
I-

(---'

--

concrete pipe Install two or more lof tar paper between pump
pipe and

-discharge
I

concrete riser
I

Water surface -,

Waler su
Field i surface --.

Field
surface
-p

piepe Concrete e

E. fillto-N

Note: D

D,

,,ronetet, ba,,-Con-'Ve base

pipe

"

Reinforcing steel at

CROSS SECTION

approximately 12",-c
when indicated In
table below

ELEVATION

-'"ncrete r rore mrls trion JO'Reniarcing steel Len CJyd t 0u NoT pe i rie C - -T lfm12 . . . - -7 - -. ,ze0 id . . .:. 5 i 0 .7 9 1 3 .5 0.07 6 005 24 073 - 0. 005 I_07 I 480 7 56" 0-() -6 _- _ -5 .. I06 12- 5 o 0 6" 0 C6 4" C CIcrete 630 140 0 ,1 4" t7 ",l 79 1 77 -- - 1 -7 j- - ! 16 -l' C-1li - IJ lrrace r qai~ 4" C)7.0 1 6&" 0 L . 5

Max.

AS TM Spec

HzI-

NOMENCLATURE

Diameter of vertical pipe Of underground pipe -ater D2 -Diameter of Pump discharge pipe
-

Op Thickness of concrete base H H i ght o f ve r ic al p ip e a b o ve

- - 9_9080 1i785 1

20

Pipe

2
714
,

14 6 O_' 04
-

.13

T 0
_

T 8

4
19

8'

3,98

491 2205 -30 5.94 2665 313 707-7-T-53YS[I R 9.62

CIC1 6 " 023 R e"ifrced 8" ,_3 5 6--:'" " Concrete' 88'039 -pipe

6"; r.2

e/aI
8" 8'

top of concrete base b ~vrtclpp in CiS and g.pm. through structure 0- Discharqe

026 0-30 : 0 35

039

21 T _22i
.

........... 424320 12 5TT5640 48

.. 8 " 050 8" 062

.... 81

8'

0-50 062

'e
_

230-_ -. 38: 461

STAND LOW UP1TN EA PUMP LO HEAD FOR CONCRETE PIPE

I0I
,
.o

CONSERIVATION SERVICE , ,I- 9.7

-43

Plate 26

water -'-Mo. surface

/"

-76 :'c'"as A.S.T.M.2 C Reinforced concrete pipe

"

R etnd orn oulet as

vAVA Field surface. .

Moriar

tallbl.,w D Inietor ouvet

ROS

TIOrN

--

gteel f Mter

oi

elo

12"c-c oath ways. Size as shown in table below.

NOMENCLATURE
Ma . Mo-. O 1 Bass Concret, ] - more han-IT~i,-Tnforcing steel LelO'or D1- D7meter of vertical concrete pipe OpDiameter of inlet or outlet pipe Dzz=Diameter of inlet or outlet pipe

1 .49-1.17 ,

.1.22 6-7 0 T
795

c" 3 ............... 8 ,; 1, 5 16"50_


36 8' .39j 8"

30 3.5
3 5

3/8'. W/
8

2'2'
23'

Height cf vertical concrete pipe


,bove fop of coincrete base

2.40

1075-

.42T50 8

'I 1/2' 1/2' i/2"" 461 53 71'j

4 141Q _ .. 7 _198 _L~j 8 4.90 2200 60

8 8: J

62 76 . 91

8" 8'

62 76 91

, ,icharge ,n c f 5

through struct ure an d g pm.

f
__-59

CONCRETE PIPE SAND TRAP FOR CONCRETE PIPE LINE U " ).1 I,4 r' F: I OF' A6i14lCIU TUREtF 0 11.1')N-I,:ItV IrION SE11TVIC

7,-,L-_ 6-8

Plate 27
Mortar Opening for overflow

,-;
'
. 7 _'

-/,ol
J-

X ,,\ "q,.not shown).* <<;..Mo---r-fillet

\-\1

Slide stand

'late(frane '

PLAN

NOTE: Provide permanent ladder fostenee to stand to piovlde access to gate wheel. Broken out section to show opening between pipes.
ti fn...

Max. water surface-I

Operating

i
"
"-Concrete Irrigation pipe ASTM C-11,8,

waler surface

Class E reinforced concrete pipe ASTM C- 76-

Field surface

dsurface

-I
"

i
Mortar fillet -Mcrlor fillet fillet

I I

I
i
i

IY

(frame not

Slide stand-gate

shown) "

'1'.
-

"f

Mortar cradle

Concrete base

\._Mixora under

cradle pipe

CROSS

SECTION

"-.. Rtinforcing steel ot


approximately 12"c-c each way. Size as shown in table below.

ELEVATION
(Gate not shcwn)

TABLE OF DIMENSIONS DL D

AND QUANTITIES Base ;--.-ore--i Heinarigd 1 volume

Concrete
H e

cR

-o

---

Inches Inc.ies-Feel8 t30

volume 0.31

inches '

C -nches , Inches,Cu.yd SizeLgtht


8 f0123/8 24

steel

NOMENCLATURE D- Diameter of concrete stand ppe 0 - Diameter of underground concrete pipe and concrete overflow pipe H -Height of structure

Thickness of concrete bose

12 3 14 130

- 5-2 3 'r 54is-56 "6

6 -0.37 -0388

00,34 .443
.4"07

- 26

-1
_

30 0br..

0,48 1,-"298I

261
I

OVERFLOW
COQNCRETE
r..,. ,,,.;," '. ,..t

-_o30 9I, -42 73/4!


-.

8
.~.

-60.3
0.75 T 7

for PIPE

GATE, STAND LINES


'

1-24_L

20

21-42

8L.7,e i

3~.L L

8 Q! 7
:

0.75 3/8

SOIL"(KA(V'I

-''

' ,,,

.,,,,,,','.',',,,"

$,.IC
5,0-19,000 29-l \

112~

164

Plate 28

-Hydrouhc gr
a

ce

ine

ILI

... . . . ..
_Float
Fo

. ..

.. .. .. .
-- Hydraulic ..

C-76 class 1 reintorced concrete pipe


ASTM

grade line a e.l.ne

D/

Pt Z U.

-.Floot"1"

F valve

-F;eld

surfoce

S See noteV

M c,ior fillet -

C0,:,~e Pg~e

-Ccncrete

pipe

Flow-

_\

4-I

'-FHeinforing

steel

at Oproximately

12" C-C size as shoan ir tabe belo,

CROSS

SECTIOIJ
Note I Pr,',,e On oulle' area eaucl tc o reater thon the '2fe3 f t v":,e (whose don.:er is D;,) NCMENCLATURE ii 30
3 O

i
C , C _ .r 2 4. E
2;: .
'

Design ,Y

Flow

Copocity and Stamd Dinmeler h-e: 0' , kr'.. 0 r 30


3. ,r

h:50' Copoc ty

c :. s .45 .2O
p 2, :

a ,c z, Ca 1 f s , m 64 2P5
2 C

: ,e D - D a m e er of c onc ,ite s rer' D -Diameter 0 of undergroand concrete pipe


voie

in 30

c f O
1 58 4 05

gpm 415
7io 182

2
'!2

2
"2

4 D7
7 242

82 E0

4 75 2580

S53 3,2 I5'; , .' ~.0

0582030, 3 3 Ol0 4085 421


0

float D ? Nominal diameter -f H-~ H- He g' of stand pipe

bose - Thrc,2ness of C47ncr.t h - Dffe,ence n head {rdaulc grade lines bet,,een ilet and outlet pipe

TABL...E D

OF QUANTITIES
.. H:more t'an I0
1' Cu
...0 T_

H;ches. 1H.0' r les


CU yd

Remr IeelIJ
SZ
. .-

yd

<.n~tf,

30
33 4 2. 48B 60

F" 8"

Q2 035 G5l" 5. r, 62 C 97

3n 8

!0

035 C" 062

8
8" 8"

2' 22_ 3F

I,

.461
'

8t"

FNO-BALANCED FLOAT

VALVE STANDS

____Q__O{QP.Th_

for

P.IpE

L__I
I- ,il I I.l1l II

___

I' 4 I)t-.I1,1i Im k.N I

___,(____,__,_______\' __

Plate 29
....... Opening
; 9=+

\/\

N\ \

bro ken

out

NOMENCLATURE O-Diameter of riser pipe and nominal diametei of alfalfa gate DIDiameter of urierground concrete

PLAN

pipe

90+opening broken out Alfalfa valve or modified alfalfa


Valve . . ,'

Minimum hydraulic gradient/ / -i-it


el St. a ce

Alfalfa valve or modified alfalfa


valve
-

Minimum hydraulic
gradient ., Field.surface 0

."7 .....

El
0.

0D:,

..

.0

5
"

D,

0<1

Concrete pipe-

Concrele pipeMortar fillet--

CROSS SECTION Recommended when velocity in riser exceeds 3.5feet per second and hydrants ore not used.

& CROSS SECTION Recommended when velocity in riser is less than 3.5 feet per second or when hydrants
are used.

TYPE I

TYPE ]I

ALFALFA VALVE or MODIFIED


t' S IEH'; TME ';N ll, %;((1I'

ALFALFA LINES
'

VALVE OUTLET for CONCRETE PIPE

SO I. (:(tNS1:1\VIHlflN SI-:II VI(:IP:


...... , 6, 2-9

7-L-36-3

Plate 30

in pipe ....-

~NotcbWovenNOMENCLATURE
0
Diameter of concrete riser pipe pipe D, ,1 h Diameter of Diam"eter of Height oJ field underground concrete valve outlet line above

hydraulic grade

PLAN

surface

Concrete pipe with overflow notch broken In side Hydraulic Orchard valve Field
-

grade line--\

Design water surface

Orchard valve Field

5urface

surface

00

~D-

a0

D2a

E
1b 0

E D D 1

Ma tr

Z Z iletpipe

Concrete 17771,/

0b 1AN

Mortar fillet

Concrete 171111lzz7 pipe

TYPE I
CROSS

TYPE
C

1 SECTION

SECTION

CROSS

ORCHARD

VALVE
IMENT 1*

OUTLET

FOR
t'

CONCRETE
S. DE '\IP

PIPE LINES
Mil+,((l(:tl.lAAlW

SO 1, (CONNSFV.AION SiN VICI,


i2- 5?

7-L- 36-4

Plate 31

"

~~0.

SWer'

P.-

Dio. x 6" Galvanized pipe sleevebelow

water surface'tN

..-

h
-e

orWater (l"umber1
-.

--

/P

urfacn

",,,' Center
Screen support

3:1 slopen
-" Dio, b

at

s-

--6" Di.
overflow a drai
_ _ _ _ _

qo:,. pipe sleeve Do,. rods


for drain__

'a

CENTERLINE OF CROSS SECTION


' Mesh screen over 60 " hardware cloth-)1

TABLE OF QUANTITIES
ITEM
.i~I~iijji~iiiIi

hlCONCRETE

~REINFORCING
-

UNIT CU.YODS.
LI.sTr.

QUANTITY 5.7 U83 III IN 71 2 3 2 3


I

STEEL

a3
I Iio ;

-:iii qi iV:Itli fiii____


' '" i

60 MESP COPPER SCREEN I/4'" HARDWARE CLOTH

SQ.FT. SQ. FT.

I*(,
iii~ii s
'

i ND Place
-ofscreen *
f_ I i h

_--- . moot'iri l ng box

.I/2"

LUNGER seO.FT. 1/2" GALVANIZED PIPE SLEEVES,6' LONG EACH GALANIZED PIPE SLEEVES,51/2" LONG EACH 3/8" IA.GALVANIZED BOLTS,6 1/2" LONG L"%,H 3/8" DIA.GALVANIZED BOLTS,6" LONG 2"DIA. PIPE, B" LONG 2" PIPE COUPLING 2" PIPEILIU A" DIA. PIPE, 3'-6
6 PIPE ELBOW

EACH
EACH

screen

_________.___ --

EACH EACH EACH


EC

*4'PLAN

",

LONG

I 2 I I

_TEACH

O t /' Ox4 0 . 3i
_7"

t o
Lel

2 l

I/8'WEIR PLATE S is O n - ,br.ces 1/8"5 I 1 /2" X 12" METAL STRAP 0" End - f x 12 Metal strop to

EACH EACH

... ........ ... support center brace . .... .. ... . ... .. I.. . ...... - I (coun te rs ink) 3 c1tesn2

Capacity

up to

900 G.PM.

IRRIGATION WATER AND

DESILTING BOX

4'-o 10
SIDE VIEW

TRASH SCREEN

U. S. DEPIARTlENT OF AGRICULTURE

SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE

DETAIL

OF TRASH

SCREEN

I-L-.'20

3.3..

Plate 32

Trash screen frameN

Screen

box

N>

"

"-

ri

rflow

notch

"'

"

connection

ISO IC ET
ISO ICCrest ET

Oo.

x 6"Golvon-zed

pipe ,leave

ir -"
(D , o-t-_ -sWote surface

of weir as determined

'

by flow d&ssirsd ---. e iox 5-2 Galvanized pipe sleeve


4'-0"-6 2*x 10' Screen frame -

60 Mash screen over Plc m ohdre herdware ha Cloth-.

!]T Nii

connectio

-notchI

'~

2-01' Centerl cren support'


ICa~ (conteein vn

"D -"
-, Weir-plat=

55

-,,-.,_i

r I, Dia _cCu

rods?
sleeve

pips

w cre h

bo

... .i

with sENTERLINE

OF

CROSS

SECTION

of scree--lengthwise
4'-8f .. . -" . .... PLAN I
,

CENTETABLE
.. ." . ;
W_

OF
_

QUANTITIES
__

[ITEMI p, R '

.cu.

UNIT ros.[ QJANTI)Y i.dh

I6F M. FOACING STEEL


16 WESM COPPER SCREEN

L- FT. - 2. -. . . Q.FT. 159.FT.


BO.FT.

---

2' .......... 0 Sde1 Side.... s. _2 4"L tera braces

brac s

2%1"O' End
- ------

!1/2'
-12-

/4- HARDWsAE CLOTHi LJN4E G IZE PIPE SLEE.


1
-,A.IANlZ

14
]

LONG
12'

EACH
EACH EACH Eliv

2
_. I 3 22

" .

PIPE SLEEfE

L2"K4' Center support

I
Support

Metal strap to
certer
brace

L-I, E N 3j0" GALNI.;EO qOLTS, E' LON, tJ/R 3(counterin) ULItARIZED BOLTS, ' 1/2 L;N6

,.

7.
4'-0
-

,/;"1 1/,2L1E2

TAL SR--

"

..

Ca ac1ty

up

to

900 G.P M. TRASH SCREEN

SIDE DETA!L OF

VIEW TRASH SCREEN

IRRIGATION
tI .O.ER

WATER
AI(;

SOI_1L __

_N__,__V-1-59 N
3 - ;I - 59

STVICE

L-'36-aC
L 6-L1

Plate 33

,Freeboord open vent.

!'min for

NOTE

When the hydraulic gradient is more than 20 feet above the ground and protection from excessive water pressure is not required. an air release valve at the some nominal diameter as tihe pipe may be used in place of the toll vent p pe

Hydraulic gradient

P-

Ar relef valve

ov

Steel pipe

/ D4 'Ncm~nol
1 -- dia)

"

Field surface .

./

Mortar .-Precast concrete reducer

E E 17 1.1

,Concrete Mortar

pipe

fillet

77-?.77. F,, ......... .

..

..............
'.....

:.

,,'-..

CROSS

SECTION

DI Inches 8 0-

D3 Min. Inches 6

D4 MT,

NOMENCLATURE 01 - Diameter of underground concre'a pipe D3 -Diameter of concrete vent pipe

Nominal Dia j Inches 2 I


-

12 -,--...
5 16

10
12 12

2o
2 2 I/2

2 2

D4 -Diameter (nominal) of steel vent pipe

8 20
21 24

14 16
16
l8

2 1/2
3 3 1/2 VENT FOR CONCRETE PIPE SlI ( LINES IN M l. : -

SI'"\l'll ....... "1..... -3

. ...

APPENDIX 3 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION OF NONREINFORCE: CONCRETE IRRIGATION PIPE SYSTEMS


American Society ,,f Agricultural l-nginccr

ASAE Stand,.rd: ASAF S261.5

ASAE Standard: ASAE S261.5

DESIGN AND INSTALLATION OF NONREINFORCED CONCRETE IRRIGATION PIPE SYSTEMS

Dccloped b'y Con~rete Irrg oatn Pipe S.,steni Comn mitee; approsed by Soil and Water Division Standard% CornniMe'" (S %.0.31adopcd by ASA- 11)5': revised 196O, 1%). 162. 1963, June 196h. May
1974. Dcctirbr 1I11, reconfireed fb-r onc sear Decemiber 197), March 19hI, March 1982.

SiC'FION I-PURPOSE AND SCOPE in the design 1.1 This Standard is intended as a guide to n;incers " concrete presstre intermediate or for of low installation and detailed ,!pecificatons iftniInreinfcrced tile pieparazion and pipelines irrigation fr gat partiplr instlarifor. t prestrite itiof detaed piaior for a psarticular installation. It is restricted to !;ipelinics ssith .ents or ,.,ands open to the atIno-phele. It is nt intended ti serve as a comphlte set of design criteria and oisWrIetiin specittcati,,ns utiliie syenis i to 11C On rinre ntd,, t % I C r'oreinforced pinrete irrigatonp rne. tnefficient 1.2.1 Pipelines "I lth mortarJoitIts. 'I he pip, shilcontorm to the requitements it Aierican f,.et, for Ic,,tmg and Materials Stan. (lard Cl IS, Speci'latos 1,r Concrt:c Pipe fir Irrigation or Drainage. 1.2.2 Pipelines with rubber gasket Jolnti. I he pipce and gaskets shall conform to ASi-i: n505 io Nonreinlotced Concrete Irrigation Pip: , ith '<ubber Gaskect Joints. 1.2.3 Cast-In.place plpeimes. The pipe shall conform to Atnerican Coricrete InstitUtC Standard 3-to- 0. Specifie'attons for Cast-in- Place Nonreinforced (oncretc Pipe. SECTION 2-DESIGN CRII [RIA 2.1 Plpellne 2.1.1 Safety factors 2.1.1.1 External load limit. Although loads are generaily light on this type of installation, where there are excessiveI, high fills over the pipe, a safety factor of at least 1.25 shall be applied to the 3-edge-bearing test in computing allowkable heights of fill over precast pipe The loads :hall be determined by the mtethods outlined in ASAE Engineering Practice ASAE EP260, Design and Cotstruction of Subsurface Drains in Humid Areas. 2.1.1.2 Pressure. Maximum working head for cast-in-place pipelines shall be 15 ft (4.o ml abose the centerline of the pipe. Maximum Asirking heads for precast pipe shall riot exceed 1/4 the certified hydrostatiL test presstre as prescribed in ASTM CIl8 for mortar-jointed pipelines or 1,3 the certified hydrostatic test Pressure as prescribed iti ASTFI C505 for pipelines with rubber ga ket joints. 2.1.1.3 Soil conditions 2.1.1.3.1 Concrete pipelines shall not be installed on sitesto where ' -- sulfate salt concentration exceeds 1.0 percent as water soluble sulfate in soil samples, or 4000 parts per million sulfate in groundsater samples. Concrete pipe made with Type V cement or cement w.hose tricalcium aluminate content does not exceed 5 percent shall be used on sites where the water soluble sulfate content in soil sarnples is 0.20 to 1.0 percent, or where the sulfate content of groundwater samples ranges from 1000 to 4000 parts pe. million. Concrete pipe made with Type 11cement or cement with a tricalcium aluminate content of not more than 8 percent shall be used on sites where the water soluble sulfate cncentration in soil samples ranges from 0.10 to less than 0.20 percent, or the sulfate content in groundwater samples is from 150 to 1000 parts per million. There are no restrictions as to the type of cement used in concrete pipe for sites where the sulfate content is less than 0.10 percent in soil, or 150 parts per million in groundwater,

in stable only 3.3 shall be pipe 2.1.1.3.2 soils or soilsCast-in-place that have been stabilized as vsed in Section of the the where taies ACI p eif rfend referenced ACI pecifications, where the trench form conforms to the requirements for the trench as prescribed in Chapter 3 of ACI 346-70. 2.1.2 Friction los. In computing friction lss for motar-jointed or cast-in-place pipelines, icobey's concrete pipe equation with a cOelficiert of retardaiee K, - 0.310 or Manning's equation with routt.ess it = 0,013 shall be used. Similar ccefficients ',hould he used for pipe with rubber gasket joints, except that for "he smoothest make! of Such pipe produced, the Scobey coefficient of retardance may range up to K, - 0.370 and the Manning's roughness coefficiett down to i - 0.011. Minor losses can be compUted in tccordanlCe with ,c:Tent recorniiendations. 2.2 Stand ree/uIrenirnts 2.2.1 Stands ihi1L-2placco at each inlet to a concrete irrigation pipe systei and at such othei points as required. All stands shall be supported on a base adequate to support the stand and prevent undue movement or stre-s on the pipeline. All stands shall serve as ,ents inaddition t-) their other functions as follows: 2.2.1.1 TheY shall avoid entrainment of air. 2.2.1.2 They shall allo.. I :o 5 ft (0.3 to 1.5 m) of freeboard. 2.2.1.3 If constructed of concrete pipe, they shall be constrUcted ,f Class U Reinforced Concrete Pipe as specified in ASTM C76, Specifications for Reinforced Cotcrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe, if of greater diameter than 24 in. (610 mi). 2.2.1.4 If cast in place, they shall cot~tain steel reinforcing on tint more tha. 1 ft centers to provide steel areas equal to or greater than the least values specified for Class II Reinforced Concrete Pipe in ASTNI C76. 2.2.1.5 Tie tops of all stands shall be at least 4 ft (1.2 in) above the ground surface. If visibility is not a factor, stands may be lower if covered or equipped with trash guards. P s P -,2.2.1 Concrete box stands with vertical sides suitably reinforced to withstand handling and installation stresses. 2.2.2.2 Nontapered stands of concrete pipe suitably reinforced withstand handling and installation stresses. 2.2.2.3 Nontapered concrete pipe stands, capped and having a vent pipe to the height of the hydraulic gradeline plus freeboard. 2.2.2.4 Steel cylii.der stands mortared to a single concrete pipe riser. 2.2.3 The centerline of the pump discharge pipe shall have a minimum vertical offset above the centerline of the outlet pipe equal to the suti of the diameters of the inlet and outlet pipes. 2.2.4 Check valves shall be used in the pump discharge line vAhereser the potential backflow from the pipeline would be sufficient io drain the pipeline or damage the pump. 2.2.5 Construction shall be such as to insure that the vibration fro the pump discharge pipe is nor carried to the stand. 2.2.6 Velocltle3 In stands 2.2.6.1 Dos nward -.ater velocities shall ni. Py -ed 2 ft/sec (0.6 m, secl. In no case shall such velocities exceed the average pipeline velocity.

504

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK-1982

2.2.6.2 If the size of the stand is decreased above the pump discharge pipe, the top vent portion shall be of such inside crossofthe pump Acre dischargsectional area that, if the entire Lo%4 ing through it. the aserage sehociv a ould not exceed 10 itSc (3.0 t: see). hase a 2.2.7 Sand traps. Punip stands seNin, as sand traps sha'l minimum insid, diameter of 30 in. (''02 mtn) and shall be connn) below the inbotton is atl:ast 24 in. (t)10 structed so that time srt of the outlet pipeline. Suitable proisions for cleaning sand traps shall be prosided. 2.2.8 Gate stands 2.2.8.1 Gate stands shall bie constructed of concrete pipe or cast in place. Reinforcing requirements under paragraphs 2.2.1.3 and 2.2.1.4 appls. 2.2.8.2 Dimensions of gate stands shall be sufficient to accommodate the gate or gates required. 2.2.8.3 Gate stands shall serve as vents. 2.2.8.4 Gate stands shall be of such dimensions that gates are accessible for repair. 2.2.9 Float vale stands. Float valve stands shall be of sutficient diameter to provide accessibility for maintenaice and to dampen ,urge. (The wide-open friction loss for the valve approximates 2.4 lelocity heads for the single disk ''pe and 1.9 velocity heads for the double disk type.) .3 Vent requirements 2.3.1 Locations. Vents shall be placed: 2.3.1.1 At the do'A nstran end of each lateral, 2.3.1.2 At a design point mln,,tream from where there is opprotunity for air entraoin n:ent and inadequate opportunity for escape of that air. 2.3.1.3 At high points .vherescr there are changes itt grade doiwtnAard in direction i,!ims ot more than 10 deg. 2.3.1.4 At all turns of O0 dee or mor: Airth the exception of lines not more than 50 ft 115 ni in length. 2.3.2 The design pint in 2.3.1.2 shall be determined by the equation L ' 1.701 '1) where r rig p,2r .c in nriansrinut dr!igtn vtltiis in it the ipc li t.t 1) inside dincter If

2.4.1.1 working 2.4.1.2 working 2.4.1.3 working

An angle of 45 deg or greater when head is und," !'ft (3.0 m,. or greater when An angle of 30 d,.eg head is betwetn 10 and 20 ft (3.0 and An angle of IS deg or greater when head is 20 ft tb.1 m) or more.

te. maximum the maximum 6.1 m). the maximum

2.4.2 Anchors shall be constructed of -oncreti poured to till the space betv cen th - pipe and the undisturbed earth at the side of the bends or of plastic soil cement with at least trench on the out ide of' I part of cement to 10 parts of soil of sandy loam or coarser texture, similarly placed. 2.4.3 The anchors shall be to the full height of the outside diameter of tite pipe and shall hase a niniurnm thickn.s of 6 in. (152 mnm). The lenEh in feet normal to the direction of -hrust is determined by the equation: Ma1 a where it II r ialll working lead IIn 1) - inside diionetcr d' i pipe Ili fti I)per sq ft B na wh p.i -e pr,<.rc tile ,il 11 Iltill Jlo LIII dL fT 1 4 1,- hv."uh ,,t III,t. 2.4.4 The pipe shall be clean and act when placing te anchor, to provide agood bond between anchor and pipe. Where adequate soil tests ae now available, the allowable pasive soil pressure shall be considered to be 500 lb/ sq ft 123.9 kll o. SECTION 3-1NSTALLAI'!OI conforir to 3.1. Size and location. The pipe and appur'enam','s soall the standards ,pecified am liall be locaiod and constructed as slo.s ii plans and in the construction specibcations. otn mie engin.i'er's 3.2 JolnLt and connections 3.2.1 Joints shall be molar or tubber gasket, at specified md where required. All joints shaWl be constructed to Icave the Iside of the pipeline ani appurtera;,es free of any cl'struction which sould design standards. reduce capacity bt.,-,, 3.2.2 Joints in stands and connec tins to appurtena-I.es shall ccn-

I. d.tAnr d,wn'tr.in trom the iir

tand ili It

fe'm to the requirciients of ASTM C 118 or AS M 5"05.


3.2.3 Stoppage and horizontal joints for cast-in-place pipelines shall conform to the requirements of ACI 34o-70. Conoection joints shall he prepared by cleaning and freeing of loose or defective concrete, coatinIs, and foreign material. The contact faces of the pipe and fittings shall he wetted and the tittiig mortared into place using bonding: mortar as specified in ACI 346-70. 3.3 Placement 3.3.1 1lie pipelines shall be placed deep enough blow the land surface to perrit coerine,, the pipe a iinirru of 2 ft (0.6 ml unless sliallus crco.ertlng is specified tor rocky areas or other local condidons. it shalloer coserng is specified, there .hall be provision to protect the line front dairage bNnehicular traffic. Greater depths of conditions indic tie a need. cover shall! be specified lien local 3.3.2 Where trenches are excaiated in soi!, containing rock or other hard materials, or in soils subject to rppreciable swellitig and shrinking on ;etting or dryrig, or heiere the trench bottom is oin~table, the trenches shall be overexcavated and backfilled with selected rn'teriai t> sufficient depth ti pr-ide a suitable base, if 'Aater is It the trench. it slil be drained ana, or cortrolled or a mortar and to roainiain a tire joint to present damage t,, n0. aermariner suitabl,,e bast. 3.3.3 Irsisni pmaragraphs 3.3.1 and 3 3.2 apply ti mortarjointed and rurlher gasket pipe. Placement for castr-i-place pipe ACI 340 -70. shai be as specified itn 3.3.4 Rubber gaske pipe shall not be placed %ithi tire joints rammed toether tight enrough so that lUigitudinal compression pipe. If there is any question desel,,ps !rrom.i ..ett expansion of tile design, the end of the cuncerniti !his sth an., particular joint spigot shall be pulled back from the shoulder of the bell a slight 1r17). 'ce rot mIre tllan 0.1' in. (1.; hut dis 3.4 Curing and Iackfllllng 3.- I P.itagraphs t t 2. 3.4.3 and 1 4.1 apply to morlar-joitited pipelities mni. and 3.A.5 applies to rnortar-juiinted and rubber gaskt pipelties. 505

2.3.3 Any stand shall substitute for a vent. 2.3.4 There shall be considered opportunity for air entraitiment at all gravity inlets and at pump stands where the pump might possibly punip air. When pumping frrirm .sells. it there is a downdraft of air into :he well casiiig schile the puip isitt operation, the well s.lall be considered to pumip air. In ,uch case a vent slial, be placed immediately doss istreani froni tire puntp stand if the average do,,irs'ard helocity i the st,.rd from the pimp discharge to the pipeline exceeds I It seIc13 ni sec), 2.3.5 Size 2.3.5.1 The cross-sectional area of the sent ,shall be at least is-sctiona aria of tle plpehne (both inside half the -' measurceintl or a distance ot at least I piielie diarrerer up from the cenerhric ,i he pipeline. \bove n:s the seit rIav be reduced ito I r") or the Lr'ss.sectioitl area of tle pipelne, but not less than 2 ir. o5k)otrl dianrirr pipe shall he. us-i, ntnrrinir.ili treebourd of I it 2.3.5.2 Vents s'all I se it tot hydnaulic giadehrie 1 ie naximuni height ,hall above tile the pip,. exceed the maxmurn.torking head ,t he used 2.3.6 Air release valve,. An atr-aeuu trehe,'; alke abs a 2 in ,. S' rini) in lieu of an open vent. T, salve outlet shall h;ise Fwo inch 1CUmr-l) outlets snail be nominl inininium ciarriet. m ;c,,. .I to I rri:n) used for pipelines o' in I .. too ni.jt, outlets for pipelines of - to IU in. (il ti 2-4 tii daieter an! 4 in. (102 mml) outlets for pipelines of 12 in. (315 rmit ai.d arger diameter, 2.4 Anchorl grade or ,,honment reqalire a 2.4.1 Abrupt changes in pil;eliie stand of diameter greater thn tire pipeline or an anchr to absorb he conany axial thrust of the pipeline. Aliabrupt char:ge r.iallc sidered to be: 1982-AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK

3.4.2 There shall be an Initial back~ill ofoil around the pie and at least it in. 152 mn) tor the lull eoisering the pipe to a depth itl st-,.tion% f little blhind til e .,idth ot the trench and tit more than be 2 hrs or mre, tie initial lacktill %hall laying. Itla.sing ceases for brounght Up to and c,er the last coimplced joint. Nothing in this section shall prohibit It: complete backi-i hng ii}hle mortar bards are still plastic. It complete baktihllii is not done at this lite. tie he dcl.,cd it Ilat 20 hrs. but I,.. hle coiripllc:i6 coipletinti shall %]liiceiieer is less, to tlte nirlnulni specitied ci' r or 2 It (0 ) nit). before Aater is put into the line.t sil 3.4.3 Mortar joints are to leprotected tro drying iut. It tile it the initial backtjll is not th<ruugh rMotil. a suitable nrcrnlbrane .Menbrinies oi'isiing of otie later (it oer tire mortar shall be used. kraft paper. or paper cuit rtIl ceiernt sack, ir iiembranes cotitorrling to ASI M CI 1. Speciticatins tor Sheet Materials torCiiing Cincrete. or AS 1\ C30l Specltlcatltns Ir .iqulid .lenribtaieFirning Cinitiiinds tor Curing Cticret'i . shall le citisrder,:d su itaile. I! .irecis is here rips Ilirigtuliinal crackqs or ruptures' hbase 3..4.4 tile inial occur. it is rill riant that Ill SilI i.d In bet-ri kno it to i . l.]I hilni cuTser 1r ttrli, 1. and :111st Ih? backfill 'e thi'ri',
"IsIll

4.1.2

Inlet. An appurtenance

to deliicr siater to a

pipeline

S.%.stern.
10%of %ater Inlet, graslt. A struCtUrC it) control tile 4.1.2.1 , from an open co1ndfit' Into a pipelinte. It ia be colbilled kith a battle, gate, screen and or a %and trap. enters a systern 4.1.2.2 Stand, pump. A structure i en- %eater ;tnre sssetti. Iron a tiutlp ir r 4.1.3 Outlet. An appurtenatce to leliter water from a pipe t a pn. 4.1.3 Outle lan atp urce pipdclhe aAn te m Ii. An otlet rl, pe t hand or ii ai Seseral or att outlet gate. inas riser pipe, and s.steni. it a ialve, hhoe the ti ise s: t~pcs ol ottlets are ilehirneid as toll 4.1.3.1 Distributor, ,s, el-arm. This type o outlet has a siihe and tii arims of , cd pijv attached ti and sw,eliieg trim the til il the risr irsialls a %teel pipe risen. Chained ti of culteatrii. i trill alen a rka center post. the are iutl, lthe d iririipped, the gires allies the sater ti be iistribiteil i ir a slide Usually outlet. tihe Gate, .1.1.3.2 b1ns our ,it thegate, outlet. i|iire. used to cititrild ithertpe ,r

not riblboi i n, lo 1. ,Aliei

nnst , or

.rili niot haie

thall

lter tha:l 2 In:ir,ns ) Fiti, .30 percent h-% l%(g t ot liattrial 1chcdulin uo ln r thanI I lt.i 'Lt g rcrerall. tri, ihe aicci,:phle I,? l ,i)i ni;qs ahen ( l beinl sure ' da; iil,M ,.i trunlhiing ait i r dcci irrikalj!Lir L.ii tle th C -e't i'ia. trenchtin is inldcrtakerI I ill. t a. . ur .l trvmchiing. dloig thi irench line 1 i to i ut-k be titlli he i'.ere,' 1 r closed to prei into i pil t" iid! 3.4.5 Al iop ni and pr,,rc.s, nisluc iirk is ,irioiii "en air circilitihn, ,., i ,s b t';lled l l'it iph ,lii is -Se wnti tip.shall be kept c ., ti rh v ate!. cs,.:irmei cid li.,.l!itng shal bi ca,.ir-plal c l,:peli ,.r 3.4.6 ins ofr n A ! .;;n-0 in accord o !! l the pr

4.1.3.3 Hdrant, portable. An otlet used tor connecting stir outlet. io ai albal a vile plpt: I ct.u 4.1.3.4 Outlet, pipe, surface. Ali outlet us,_ed torattachment .drt. h.il~ ,I surlace pipe '.tthoiit a porti a %erticalpitcc % ilith Pot, ipen. A ;nill,: trthird -I!c tri tid n t r ared il tix l~rite.r than the rise'i . ii,:l top 'i the riser l iere ire Ii or more slide gates i,tie sides o! . 1l.3.5

tlpipe

the pot.

3.5

T esting
roperly prtrust ion p fun iio p c ne liirt i iutirt d . t ,ill tr 3 .5 .1 It hiall rcd, ' it. At ,rliels -greed di-sign :apacity tlt re at agreed dcsiin c'apti shall be iii ib.eetnirahle rrc or .ler hanter. "I. be objet: ti3ma|.le there shiall iie eithe. 3.5.1.1 3.5.1.2 Cirrirititig. irr,.iild aiter. delser', ,,t e ti' the ,.sterli l iiin',

4.1.3.i Riser, capped or pot. A riser estilig,iomegrin kith io,er gate" e ,- tilit ill ' I the th a at ti r cht ,,r surtace I les slicirt]. ; ot,. Ilivr, und sttac, . pped ri,,erl. i1 the utlt gates. 'nret I:.i pot is used or; o, - re, t.'ittt t i roe --cast screwk tyll' si pil, 'tirllt,!i larer than the riser icailprcl itlth, otlelt .n.,te', ul i ) ICth e ich)peil l ',' ' l,*,lt+ salses ,ic. ii pits . ats tle e riser it u Sile Ilr .A - i i, t ,he ',tc )u len "c Jpt in Wtte % ,, e il' tlr ui c Ond ripe. p ji. b t ti ,, eliminate which the diec as iitl k i h; aihrsk on top t 4.1.3.7 Vale, alfalfa. An )kl control thi . ani has an ope-irng csuail i l diaieter to the insid,: dianieter ui tile riser. A rig around the base outside ot the disk provides a seat ind seal tr a iprtable hydrant. Soit e aiilf, ;aises hnaic a itial! aorrelease 'alhC on the disk which provides a rni'souito abateor drainage o' puddles fillhmk : rigIrrigation ;is for suppltriental air -.le. se trom a pipeline neti measu.e, andi;! during fillini. sa, :i, n iibeid ilith'a led. I his 4.1.3.8 Valle. alfalfa. ntodlo the saile as the .llfalI tai e,CaeeClthat the ri1ic is '1littCd. The utli. portable ir;drants that c:n lie use., therefore, are tliisc types %iih:ch itm er the riser pi i.
.ahse is inserted inside h' ,rhard 4.1.3.4 Valle. orchard. "I the riser pipe. Like the alfalfa salve. the orchard salve protides ilovn tinl I tal disk up ;inii lls coitril h- screwing a hioui seat heli . Hlos eser. he Ipening is 'rraller than the inside diameter if the rlser pipe, ancl. therefore, the li,,i' capaciry is ,. itat or sligb. less I he up i the riser tia li cur i v ;,1, ;-305 ritti abose grouin'd surnacc. mia rise i to 12 in. (152 it. notch cut in 'tc side, or may siiilarly rise ai ground surlace .itah gates inserted in arise the izround and ha.e rAo or tlor: ,,uflet !he riser a tea tincht-s oltthe ground.

tL:nun, or strands. i5ctrim ntal ,,srti' 3.5.1.3 Pipe!ines shall 1c tested fir leak-s b% obse.sing rormal 3.5.2 ,A:tting. AIl operation any titie atter a peril, of 2 'ak,t :cntinrlul visible leak, shall be r,:paired L.ses shall not exceed 0.10, 0.05 cL' :i.t cril) of insde surtai.. per 24 1. . ,r ti .1. nor 0.0? ft hrs for a.i-rn-plact nilrtar-otcd. and rubber gasket pipeiines, , 1 10 deg CI Shall rio. be used I: thitn 5' dtl,71 l,.. W .t:inr lts, resli i. ior the tr uini i-i rnurtar- jinxel or cast-ir-place pipeline,.
-3.6 Guarantee. Unt:,s ,trerkiuse succitic.dIl agreed no.the installer ltvri its, faulty tah .reain %ailet to: tir l si guar.ntees the s , contract w(orktrianslii ,inu.i ir,: ti eect the requircnun:et, ,t th-c setnrnt tn! Such guara;te:e )hail ;-t apph% t, :;wuii'iakor it + prcpardn or ln . damnage ,.'ptitI improp,-r :tich h~tio etuIL!C )ar uedi b eitleru tetli li~., al titiape dlamae ft slit tlini !hl~ nt caused li tile diiag-e e~lrs-rinl fiir mru,:iur-s). qule totuduiI iti l, i .rar-j0i:lted pipe :aused bs it l'uka selers ien or equipruet than i'ideit F, I deg C. watr of tenlperature 1,ess

SE('I iN 4.1 Appurtenances

4-- DE

F'I l0.' o. )1

.15S

4.1.,l

Stand. A ,

toure brmed trlTn 'rctal sectitis ,fnoe, or


,

t i x lr '. o iater h h '. 4.1.1 Gat....\ Iciet used to pipeline. It na. he ipenued and c!seul bv screa act on or Ii slide ac. ures an I ehiitIes ill tile tion. The latter us used) otil-.. her.- Fr.." e-.. ili not t c.lie cscesrst aater line are si ia that sudden c]it,, i ll! berit , gates. cnd :,tlvc li the tl ae th,:; htanrrer. ]vpts Id"

, as sor'lotlirite trrn ,.cr:tctcut-i-place urs st01- . it it tia serNc tnias Itt nlltp sta ;! s,:itc sta d. or thirst % se tani. oir,,dition I'

~,I

are: true 4.1.1.1 Gate, line. A hubend gate '.hich is roirta,-:d inti gate. pipeline. It !s a scre ;%tr.:'F m ,: lt. ,i an hil 4.1.1.2 Gate, stand. A gate In -'and c nrt o su h .i pipeline. l1 is o, pipeliie, an eo trolling the t,' , has .udlesce i, tpe. Tle lsh;ei either the screts ir tile ,!ide lock it in an. desird l's tori 4.1.1.3 Gate, stand, pressure. A gate in a stand cosering an ouitlet from a pipeline. It is iif the screw type.

ir sanul rap S,,iunies. alih-n gates .11 it c,11 ini al-i I ntrl a sraller vent 'lhe:. are capped a:thi ntt.t :tthi- siulrr arc il r Ho a ie sIands are siJtu in tie to, .- tn rer,ilrlc c.ru 'lele- Fhiut snl,a her: the rate, it 'u i, -an b.. %;arted an autilaic ersl,,rcs l iters adsaritages tm c 4.1.5 Vabe, float. A ijls .actuate-d h a float in a stind. 'hich t,rtl i tie sl 1,nr l ,tie h , it'i1%r nit ni i lr ipeLne Miici perluit- the 4.1.01 ent An it piplchne. . or t lit . p-%'ag,, ,be au dcneed in the jiIrnullc terms. ll.ilrut.K tCilis shdil 4.2 ,i ( iu l-ni,:uter, Manual rl Fninreritg Practice American ,et ti% Ni. II, except u notred bcl,i': 4.2.1 vents, or stas Freeloard. I lie scrtical distanct. ti tps itf

506

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOUK-1982

abo% c the ele ation j the 4.2.2 Head, -,urklng. "I a sent or stan, .11,, %e he lil poi in t0 Aorkinv heid Ii' h'e. It Lcenterlitl. ',t :he
of eItnsc.'ute ' t
,

h- dl Illlic ,jr"delIIC At 'A orkin head. . crti.:;d d tarl.e ita ",ater il r 1i u+vntcrhIe "t the ..... hm :it desc ti , , at Oil pro tri fle, :t !he pipu+i. . vltita tti
11, ptilt, the lerT:.. I ,trii~ti tt! i ti d .i , stam': It 1 ' i, t
l.te I

(h td
inS

Standards:
2 o.d D,, lillst i.ir+ r" t trurt ur.rt, t l it' ' + H.rni iii Art:a,

i.hei Il *i'Ovr

01 11] thet t ,
*.;IS

rt ,ind

N ireitLred (.n+rt. Pipe AS I '.I Npn-:tiitii , 1,r.r , r (iurt. I, ;Stirl DraJ n, l. s ,er Pipe ALs tthe'' f, r ( 'ipe Prn Irrmt aimn ,r Drainage I' i ' :fl, ,r1 1 t , ii. e atcr .~ In (u111' ( Cru e mti , ci m't I ,r I 1, il M,-ihr,i I .,rnmig ( mipoii:I t )r
Mh. ,:rd,r t tt jmr, Ir riatio n P q~ipe h Rub. r i ,+
it

.t

plus t'rte
4.2.3 Surge.

Ihat
riter h,

nlieiii

rt.oltnn ot the A 4.2.4


ing i1t t1i, ,. ,t.

.+h,.rcin kh a Ilt li. CmAl Iit, tI ", tI( h,

()rC r , Llr t aite.m

Wmaer hammer.
',herCeIn

I hat ptcriomen,n,
prn_',u e %koc%pas

resuiltig trom

ch.

thrugh the sater ,it the speed I swu Wa'ter hainiier Cut pr! indULe , riem. itlentar, pressure. It is not to he .intlu+d stlh ulrge, ,.th,uou h under certain cnditton both ,a he actiated sitnuitameousl,,

APPENDIX 4 DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND PERFORMANCE OF UNI)ERGROUND THERMOPLASTIC IRRIGATION PIPELINES


American Socict
ASAFI

ofI Agricultural Lnginccr


S376.1

Standard: ASA-

ASAE Standatrd: ASAE S376.1I

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND PERFORMANCE OF UNDERGROUND, THERMOPLASTIC IRRIGATION PIPELINES

Developed bv tie ASAE Irrigation Water Supply and Conveyance Committee; approved by the Soil and Water bivision Standards Contmittee; adopted b) ASA,\ April 1975; reconfirmed for one year December 1979. February, 1981: revised April 1982.

SECHION I-PURPOSE AND SCOPE 1.1 Purpose. Thermoplasic pipe is manufactured in several sz ize s classifications from different materials of various grades, types and formulations involving many different s'ecifications. It is used for/pplications other than irrigation where certain requirements often artIly to pipe used for a specific purpose, This Standard pertains to theimoplastic pipe used underground for irrigation and is intended to: 1.1.1 Provide minimum guidelines for engineers and others in planning, designing and specifying thermoplastic pipe commonly used for Irrigation. It is not Intended as a complete specification nor to replace the judgment of personnel familiar with site conditions or other controlling factors, 1.1.2 Consolidate applicable reference information and technical data in readily available form. 1.1.3 Establish uniform standards for materials used in the manufacture of thermoplastic irrigation pipe and to promote uniformity in classifying, pressure rating, testing and marking the pipe. 1.1.4 Establish minimum requirements for the design, installa. tion and testing of pipelines which are necessary for the satisfactory perfbrmance and safe operation of the irrigation system and to prevent damage to the system. tanard cop. qis pples to o uderroun, thermoplastic underground, termplatic applies Standard 1.2 Scope. I his 1.2 pipelines used in the conveyance of irrigation water to the point of diperibion uad in th maynot appltof rrigatin wtertotemp. distribution and may or may not apply to potable w .ter systems. 1.2.1 High pressure pipelines. This term applies to underground pip-lines constructed of thermoplastic pipe from 21 o710mm (1/2 to 27 in.) nominal diameter that are closed to the atmosphere, and subject to internal pressures, including surge pressures, from 550 to 2170 kPa (80 to 315 psi). N.:ijE: Nominal pipe size In millimeters isthe actual outside pipe diameter to the nearest milli:mcter fo OD controied pipe and the actual inside diameter to the nearest millimeter for ID controlled pipe, 1.2.2 Low pressure pipelines. This term applies to underground

2.6 Pressure rating ('R): The estimated maximum pressure that water in the pipe can exert continuously with a high degree of certainty that failure of lhe pipe will not occur. 2.7 Dimension ra~Io (DR)t The ratio of pipe diameter to wall thickness. 2.7.1 For outside diameter (OD) based pipe, which includes polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylonitrile.butadier.e-styrene: (ABS) pipe and some polyethylene (PE) pipe, the ratiu is calculated by dividing the pipe's average outside diameter by the pipe's minimum wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness shall not be less than 1.52 mm (0,060 in.). Certain DR values have been selected as standard and given the designation Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR). The SDR and DR values for PVC and ABS are rounded to the nearest 0.5. 2.7.2 For inside diameter (ID) based pipe, which includes some PE pipe, the ratio is calculated by dividing the average inside diameter of the pipe by the pipe's minimum wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness shall not be less than 1.52 mm (0.060 in.). The SDR values shall be rounded to the nearest 0.1. 2.8 Relation between standard dimension ratio, hydrostatic design stress and pressure rating: The following expression, commonly known as the ISO equation (from International Organization for Standardizathe Transport Pipes for Thermoplastic Standard ISO 161/1-1978, tion of Fluids-Nominal Outside Diameters and Nominal Pressures-Part o lisNmnlOtieDaeesadNmnlPesrsPr 1: Metric Series), is used to relate standard dimension ratio, hydro. static design stress, and pressure rating: 2.8.1 For OD based pipes 2 S/P or 2 S/P = (D./t) where S = hydrostatic design stress, kPa (psi)
-

R-

thermoplastic pipelines 114 to 630 mm (4to 24 in.) nominal


diameter that are used in systems subject to pressures of 545 kPa (79 psi) or less. SECTION 2-DEFINITIONS Design areas The specific land area in which pipelines are

P = pressure rating, kPa (psi)


D. = average outside diameter, mm (in.) t = minimum wall thickness, mm (in.)

R = dimension ratio, DR (equals D./t for PVC, ABS, and


21 2.8.2

planned and iocated to serve as integral parts of an irrigation water distribut'.in or conveyance system, designed to facilitate conservation, use and management of water and soil resources, and which the supplier or designer and purchaser mutually understand to be irrigated. 2.2 Irrigation systerm All equipment required to apply water to the design area. 2.3 Irrigation plpelinest Includes the underground, thermoplastic Pipelines and applirtenances installed in an irrigation system. 2.4 Outlets: Appurtenances required to deliver water from the pipe. line to an individual sprinkler or to a lateral of sprinklers, to surface

other OD based pipe) For ID based pipe:

2S/P = R + I or

where R = dimension ratio, DR (equals D,/t for III based pipe such as some PE pipe D, = avergo inside diameter, mm (in.)

Pipe located on the ground, to distribution pipe or laterals containing


surfa:e or subsurface emitters or tricklers. to surface valves, or to open, dlites. 2,5 Hydrostatic design stresst The estimated maximum tensile stress It the wall of the pipe in the circumferential orientation, due to internal h"drostatic water pressure, that can be applied continuously with a hgh degree if certainty that failure of the pipe will not occur, 3.1

SECTION 3-DESIGN CRITERIA


Working pressure 3.1.1 General. The pipeline shall have a pressure class rating tsee Table 1) greater titan the static or working pressure ptluk %urge it any point in the system. Surge pressures should not exceed 21 tr. cent of the pipe's pressure class rating; therefiore, ifsurge i. nl

~493
9 1 82- AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK

TAIlLI I-1P I

~PE;

t VCRATINGS IPlt' It FOIt NON C'ItiLEAULD TIIE IR Lt)PI.,A8TI. PIPk.t taterrIls (piprs made to btstfi D I PVC 2110 PE 3408 P. 406 Pt7 334.., PF12306 pQ s kPa IO0 'basis) PE 2305 AI AHS nS materialb tall Ilpes I) ba.ell J6 ABS 2112 AIIS1210

PVC ,1,aterials [II pipes il based) .still u1i


bated

pope

II) lte1dpilpe 0

PVC 1120 PVC 11220 PVC 2120 lost kPa

PVC 2116

PVC 2112

loPa

psi

kPa

psik

kP

psi 2110 160

sPa 1:180

psi

kPa 860 6100 125

ps

kPa

psi

IsPM w

kPa

110)5 125 KIM0 5.0 .1( :145 L75 215 100 63

1It 0 I1.5 17. 2I.O 26 0 22 5 II 0 51I 6 1.0! ; I)11l 93.5 1! it hraid

9.0 11 . 150

I1105 125 69O 5,50" .IV0 245 275

I 0

315 2.5)0 211) 160 125 100 ) 63

2170 723 1380 1105 i61) 6 6190 ,5;1 435 3,5 |13 295 150
hI,

2!0 70 ':A

172., 200 181 1 IO ;1115 MO5 125 . 125 h6o 100 U00 W710 80 I8 013 0 1 .3 1. 50 50 a .15 .10 30 10 27 5

1i 1600 1105 Ill 510 125 f k it 86)i) 1100 801 550 550 63 435 135 1110 :115 345 40 275 275 30 205 205 25 170

) 811 641 50 40

64 50 .10 31

250 1725 200 200 1:1811 1oil) 1 to, 1 25 160 125 860 11 () Ou l;0 NO 8(1 n 0 o 6.1 6 1 W ) 50 ,40 275 :Ill

1380 Illll 1 1100 55) 411o 315 205

1GO I 11W 12" 860 00 600 1 550 21 441) 50 345 .In. 275 25 170

22

'+-or r .11 at 23 C 173 4 'F) 'tl,.ssure rT.i11s ' 4 Iet m1i1d 1,5

1O equtillon a, SI,, .

In l

eraIllh 2,8 usIng

tile hvIlIruil-a

thesigl, Silesio4lUei il llsl In1l 'h1 c

5.

2 SIM)11 S1.l .gt,. I1111"1+11 wi l411 ia w delvitiiie|,I a, shl-iwt 11 k!-I . klillpIls.I, kN. t11

4at tltriph2 7. DIt (M)inensliutl Ititio)

/I*hr, himislliom ai o, 93.5(is imn

W wl|rd

ovd*t i 11l'lltt s

itas

TABLE 2-MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE PRESSURE FOR NONTI[READED) TIERMOPLASTIC PIPES WIIEN SURGE PRESSUItES ARE NUT KNOWN PVC materials (all pipes OD bued) PVC 1120 PVC 2116 PVC 2112 PVC 2110 PVC 1220 PVC 2120 psi kPa psi
"

SDR OD based pipe ID based pipe 5.3 7.0 9.0 11,5 15.0

PFE materials (pipes r'ade to both OD & ID basis) PE 3408 PE 3406 PE 2305 PE 3306 PE 2306

ADS materials (all pipes OD baled) ABS 1212 ABS 1210 ADS 1316

kPA

psi

kPa

psi

kP"

psi 180 144 115

kPs 1240 995 795 ,195 .100 110 250 200

pslikP
144 995 115 795 90 620 58 45 36 29 22 400 310 250 200 150

psi

kPa

psi

kPa

psi

kP&a

psi

kPa

11.0 13.5 17.0 21.0 26.0 32.5 41,0 51.0 64.0 91.0 93.5 50 ft head

115 795 90 620 72 .195 45 310 180 144 115 90 72 58 46 29 1240 995 795 620 495 400 315 200 144 115 90 72 58 46 36 995 795 620 495 ,100 315 250 115 90 72 S8 46 36 20 18 795 620 491 40C 315 250 200 125

227 1565 180 1240 144 1195 115 795 90 620 72 495 68 .00 45 310 36 250 31 215 21 145

180 144 115 90 72 58 .15 36 29

12.10 144 995 115 795 90 620 72 495 58 400 45 36 310 250 29 22 200

995 795 620 495 400 310 250 200 150

115 90 72 58 45 36 29 22 18

795 620 .195 400 310 250 200 150 125

7C 58 45 36 29

22 150

.;Maxitnumn allowable working pressure = pressure rating (PR) x 0.72 for SDR and Dit pipe. 5 IFor water at 23 C (73.40 F).

TABLE 3-MAXIMUM, Pipe SDR (or DR)

OR CRITICAL, SURGE PRESSURE FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPE Surge pressure* per ft/s (0.3 m/s) of sudden change in flow velocity

OD based

1D based

For pipe material of 400,000 psi (2800 MPaj modulus (includes most PVC) psi kPi. 195 175 155 140 125 110 100 90 80 70 65 55 50

For pipe material of 300,000 psi (2100 Mh') modulus (includes most ABS) psi 24.3 21.7 19.5 17.6 15.6 13.9 12.5 11.2 9.9 8.8 7.9 7.0 6.5 kPa 170 150 135 120 110 95 85 75 70 60 b56 50 45

For pipe material of 100000 psi (700 MPa) modulus (includes most Pr) psi 14.0 12.5 11.2 10.2 9.0 8.0 7.2 6.4 5.7 5.1 4.6 4.0 3.2 kPa 95 85 75 70 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 30 20

11.0 13.5 17.0 21.0 26,0 32.5 41.0 51.0 6.4.0 81.0 93.5 . pV (3960 Set ET

5.3 7.0 9.0 11.5 15.0

28.1 25.1 22.5 20.3 18.0 16,1 14.4 12.9 11.4 10.2 9.1 8.1 7.5

Vj

4. 300,000D

where I surge pressure, psi I V sudden change in velocity, ft,',ec E modulus of elasticity of pipe material, psi I pipe vwall thickness, inch D pipe Inside diameter (ID), inch See also: Selpt, W.R. 1974. Water hammer considerations for PVC pipeline in irrigation systems, TRANSACTIONS ol the ASAE 17(3): 417-423.

494 ,
++ ;++ + + +: + ++ +" '+ ++ .. + : . :' +'

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK-1982


* ('+++" . .. 1",L+ : ' + ... + < ' ' :: '+ + +++a

TAIIL.FI-PRESSURE RATNIG SERVICE.. FACTORS FOR TEMPERATURES FROMt


, 2a TO 60 C (73,4 TO 140 "F) FOR PVC AND PE PIPESt

3.7. .1

full pump discharge

Prossurerclic.alcvs shall bie large enough to pass the ith , pipeline Ipressre no greater than

50 p,'rcent above tie permisible ssorking head of the pipe.

r
Te C aturecF
S4 .....

3.1.1.2
PVC factor PE factor

Pressure relief valves sha'l be inarked with the

..

....... .

..

23 26.7

73.4 1.00 80 -. 0,88, . 190


1 0 110

1,00 0,92
0.70c

pressure rt whIlich the valc startslto open. Adjustable valves shall be installed in such a manner to prevent .. banging of the

.................

3.2

adjust'.ent marked on the valve. r 'ricratiol inlilepreure

32.2
48.9
54.4

37.8 43.3

0.75

0.62 0.50

0.81

relief vales to pipeline diameter'shall be no less lhai 0.25. Pressure


relief valves shall be set to opeln at a pressure no greater than

320
130

0.40
0.30

21,5 kPa (5 psi) above the pressure rating of the pipe or the lowest Air release and vacuum relief valves. Air release and vacuum relief valves shall be installed at all summits, at tl:e ends, and at the e.used.

60.0

140

0.22

3.8

pressure rated conportent in the system.

*To obtain tile pressure rating for a temperaTable 1 or Tablte 2 as appropriate by the corresponding service ft clor. For PE pipe

ture above 23 "C (73.4 F), multiply the pressure rating at 23 OC ("3.4 OF) as given in

tran-e offpipelines to provide for air escape and air entrance. Combination air-vacuum release valves which provide both functions may be
3.8.1 Air flow captiecly. Valves having large orifirwes to exhaust

having improver' strength ietention with an

increase in temperature, an.! PE pipe used

ht tempcrat~,res exceeding 39 "C (100 "F), the manofact irer should b,- consulted for recommer.ded service factors. tFor ABS olpe used at temperatures above 23 aC (73.4 "F) service factors recoinmended by the manufacturer should be

enter to prevent a vacuum when drainitig are required at the end and entrance of all pipelines. Valves intended to release entrapped air only may have snaller orifices and are required at all summits.

large quantities i'air from pipelines when filling atd to allow air to

used.

known, the working pressure shall not exceed the maximum allowable workiatg pressure as given in Table 2 for the particular pipe and SDR or DR used. Maximum or critical pressure as a function of pipe SDR or DR isshown in Table 3 for thermoplastic pipe haying different moduli of elasticity, 3.1.2 Service factor. All pressure ratings are determined in a water environment of 23 2 'C (73.4 3.6 "F), As the temera, ture of the environment or fluid increases, the pipe becomes more ductile. Therefore, the pressure rating must be decreased for use at higher temperatures to alow for safe operation of the pipe. The service factors for PVC and PE are shown in Table 4. For PE pipe having improved strength retention with an increase in temperature and PE pipe used at temperatures exceeding 38 "C (100 IF), the
mar.ufacturer should be consulted for recommended service factors. For ABS pipe, service factors recommended by the manufac. turer should be used.

the locations described in paragraph 4.5.3. 3..2.2 The size of valve outlet for ho-: pressure systems shall be as specified in paragraph 4.6.2. 3.11.3 High pressure systems. The ratio of air release valve diamneter to pipe diameter for valves intended to release air when filling he pipe should not be less than 0.1, However, smaller diameter valves may be used as a means of limiting water hammer pressures by controlling air rmlease where filling velocities cannot be controlled. Equivalent valve ousiet diameters of less than 0.1 are permitted for continuously acting air release valves. Adequate vacuum relief must still be provided. It isnot only ver important to select the correct air release or vacuum breaker valve, but also to select the right size and to locate valves properly at all places where needed. Air vacuum release valves shall be used as follows (all valve diameters refer to the total cross-sectional flow area of the vent or port outlet).
Pipe diameter MinIlmum air.vacuum release valve oud-

3.8.2 Low pressure systems (nor open to the atm'sspher',. 3.8.2.1 Air.vacuum release valves shall be provider, a' each of

3.2 System capacity. The design capacity of the pipeline shall be sufficient to provide an adequate flow of water for all methods of irrigation planned. 3.3 Friction losses. For design purposes, friction head losses shall be no less than those computed by the Hazen-Williams equation using a flow coefficient (C) equal to 150. 3.4 Flow velocity. The design water velocity in a pipeline when operating at system capacity should not exceed 1.5 m/s (5 ft/s) unless special considerations are given to the control of surge or water ham. mer and adequate protection from these pressures is provided (see paragraph 3.1.1 and Table 3). Adequate pressure and/or air relief valves shall be used with all velocities. 3.5 Outlets. Outlets shall have adequate capacity at the pipeline worKing pressure to deliver the design flow to the distribution system at the design operating pressure of the respective systems, i.e., sprinklers, surface pipe, ernitt-irs, tricklers, etc. 3.6 Check valves. A check salve shall be installed between the pump discharge and the Fipeline wnere detrimental back flow may occur. It shall be designed to close, without slamming shut, at the point of zero velocity before damaging reversal of flow can occur. 3.7 Pressure relief valves. These shall be installed between the pump discharge and the pipeline when excessive pressures can develop by operating with all valves closed. Pressure relief valves or surge chambers shall be installed on the discharge side o the check valve where back flow may occur and at the end of the pipeline when needed to relieve surge. 3.7.1 Low pressure systems. Pressure relief valves may be used as alternatives to serve the pressure relief functions of vents and stands open to the atmosphere. They do not function as air release valves and should not be substituted for such valves where release of entrapped air is required.
19

dameter mm lIn.) mm {In.) 102 (4)or less 13 (0.5) 127.203 (5-8) 25() 254.500 (1020) 51 (2) 530 (21)or larger 0.1 pipe diameter 3.9 Draining. Provisiotis shall be made for draining the pipeline campletely where a hazard Is imposed by freezing temperatures, drainage is recommended by the manufacturer of the pipe, or drainage of the line isspecified for any reason. Where provisions for drainage are required, drainage outlets shall be located at all low places in the line. The outlets may drain into dry wells or to points of low elevation. If drainage cannot be provided by gravity, provsilons shall be made to empty the line by pumping. 3.10 Flushlng. Where provision isneeded to flush the line free of-edi. ment, a suitable valve shall be installed at the distal end of the pipeline. 3.11 Gate stands and float valve stands. When these are used in low pressure pipelines not open to the atmosphere, refer to the criteria in paragraphs 4.4,1 and 4.4.2. 4-SPECIAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR 1.0W PRESSURE SECTION SE MS EN TOITEATO SpRE PIPELINE SYSTEMS OPEN TO THE ATMOSPHERE 4.1 Stands, gentral. Stands shnll be used wherever water enters the pipeline to avoid entrapment ofair, to prevent surge pressures, to a.old collapse due to negative pressures, and tu prevent pressure fron ct. ceeding the head class of the pipe. Stands shall be supported oin a Ilate adequate to support the stand and prevent novement untirs or undue on the pipeline. Stands shall be designed: 4.1.1 To allow at least 0.3 m (I fi) of freeboard ahne drsiln working head, The stand 1:ight above the centerlin of the livchne 495

82- AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK

lhatll e s tlch h neil :'r t!. slit' hc it,,r i. Je :, ni sl oiiing head plts freie'rd shall ,:C1ced ti e.le t %t ile ' hl lipe, 4,1.2 With the tor o cah stanl at least 1.2 t (4 11) ali.c ile

4.5.2 Vents shall have a cross-sectional area of at least One.hall the cross. sectional area of the pipeline (both inside mcasurtren is) for i disance of at least one p.ipcline diameter up from the center.

pto'..,l! tsit t.il:, csel'pt tor surt.t .smtras .itr crs. .'! pitpid att . tra h r er ieloiitt t's t i la %r,i 4.1.3 With d.imeter v: tlhe .. l} , .t I it SI I iide 11 :: :s:,!' mII.,melet of the pipeline 41.2 pump tianih. 5 lien il,! ,satr .etocni of

iilct'.

shich shall Ie

line if the pipeline. Aiove this elevation the veat may be reduced ti 51 mm (2 in.) in diameter.
4.5.3 Vents shall bc located as follows: At the downstrcantetid of eacti lateral. 4.5.3,1 4.5.3.2 At all summits of tile line.

stands not to e ceed stand shall 1tlt lie less

allinlet exceeds three

4.5.3.3

At point! where there are changes in grate of more

!::! t'ue 1%.ts, 'ilhe iotiot. the centrntie Iil the inlet shall have a int,l e centerline of the outlet at Iast equal nl;i!:intu nn e~rlil olt'el diameters ol itheinlet aid outlet pipes. "Fhe crosstt I he str

than 10 deg (18 percent) it a downward direction of flow.

mae reduced above a point 0.3 in(I ft) ol the stands may eimnitl areai at'.'se th top ohtle upper inlet. but it no case shall the reduced cross sectton ie sith t.at it ould produce anl average elocity of more than 3 rni.s ( I i s)if tilie cntire Ios was discharging through it. 4.2.1 T)pes. pump ;tands shall be one of the following iypes: 4.2.1.1 Steel cylinder stands. 4.2.1.2 Concrete box stands with sertical sides, suitahlt reinforced, 4.2.1,3 Nontapered stands of concrete pipe, suitably rein. forced, 4.2.1.4 Nontapered stand, of corcrete pipe, capped and has. irg a vent pipe of a height exceeding the hydraulic gradeline plus freeboard. 4.2.2 Vliratlon control. Construction shall insure that the vibration from tile ponp discharge is riot transn:itted to the stand. Vibration control also applies to low.hiead pipelines not opeta to the atmosphere when pump stands are used. 4.3 Sand traps. Sand traps, whltn combined with a stand, shall have a minimum inside dimension of 762 min (30 in.) and shall be constructed so that the bottom is at least 610 mm (24 iii.) below the invert of tie outlet pipeline. 'rhe downward velocity of flow of the water in a sano trap shall not exceed 0,08 m/s (0.25 ft/s). Suitable provision for clean, ing sand traps shall be provided. 4.4 Gate stands arid float vale stands 4.4.1 Gate stands. Gate stands shall be of sufficient dimension to accommodate the gate or gates, arid shall be large enough to make the gates accessible for repair. 4.4.2 Float valve etands. Float valve stands shall be large enough to provide accessibility for maintenance and to danipen surge. 4.5 Vent requlrements. VentF shall be designed into the system to provide for the removal of air and protection from surge. above 4.5.1 Vents shall have a mitintun freeboard of 0.3 m (I ft) the hydraulic gradeline. The maxinmum height of the vent above the celiterlinte of the pipeline must not exceed the working head class of the pipe.
TABLE 5 -MAXIMUM

the downward velocitv 4.5.3.4 1mmedialt~v below any stand if i tie stands exceeds 0.6 rns (2 ft/s). 4.6 Alr-kaeuum release '.ahes 4.6.1 Ait ai:,vacit i'elhase valve may he used in lieu of an open vt. hat either a *ent or an air--acutn release valve shall he pro. vided at each of the locations lsted ili p:aragraph 4,5.3. 4.6.2 Air-\acutnu release valse outlets shall have a 51 mm (2 ii.. miniuntm diameter. 'The i-alvtes shall be used as follows: Iipe diameter Minimum atr-saeuum relea, sale outlel diameter mm fin.) mm (in.) 152 (t) t,r 5t(2) less 17t.254 (7.10) 76 13) 315 112) or larger 102 (41 open %taritf re. not replace tle shiall NOT : Airvacuum release valves quircd in paragraph 4.1. SECTION S-PIPE MATERIALS 5.1 Conpounds. This Standard covers pipe made fron the com. poutlds that are listed anti identified in this wection by code classitica. tion aid that are further defined arid identified by hydrostatic design stress rating. 'The respective pipe compaund shall have an established long term hydrostatic design stress rating as given in '[able 5 when tested iii accordance with paragraph S.1.1. The compound shall meet tile short term test retquirettnent denoted by its code classification and defined in the relevant American Society for Testing and Materials Standards referenced inparagraph 5.2. 5.1.1 Sustained pressure. The pipe shall not fail. balloon, burst, or weep as detined in Section 4 of ASTM Standard D1598, 'rest tar 'Tirne-to-Failure of Plastic Pipe Under Long.Term Hydrostatic Pressure. The pipe shall be treated in accordance with tile following section of the applicable ASTM Standard: 5.1.1.1 PVC: Section 7.5 of ASTM Standard D2241, Spccilications tar PVC Plastic Pipe, at the appropriate test pressure given in "'ahle 3 of' that specification or Table b of this Standard.
Hydrostatic Standard code designation* design stresst psi 2000 2000 2000 1600 1250 1000 800 630 630 630 500 1600 1250 1000 MPa 13.8 13.8 13.8 11.0 8.0 6.9 5.5 4,3 4.3 4.3 3.A 11.0 8.6 6.9

HYDROSTATIC DESIGN STRESS FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPE

Compound PVC PVC PVC PVC PVC PVC PE PE PE PE PE ABS ABS ABS

ASTM code classification 1245.1-B 12454-C 14333-D 14333-D 14333-D 14333-D IVC-P34 IVC-P34 IIIC-P33 IIC-P23 IIC-P23 3-5-5 4-4-5 5-2-2

Type, grade

1, 1
1, II, 11, II, II, 2 1 1 1 1

PVC 1120
PVC PVC PVC PVC PVC PE PE PE PE PE 1220 2120 2116 2112 2110

Ill, 4 111 4 111,3 it, 3 11, 3 1,3 1:4 1 1,2

3408 3406 3306 2306 2305

ABS 1316 ABS 2112 ABS 1210

-Applies to compounds for pressure pipe

tllydrostatic design stress =ong-term hydrostatic strengtht


2.0

tLong-terni hydrostatic strength Is determined by ASTM Standard D1598, Test for Time-to-FaUure of Pla.tic Pipe Under Long-Term Htydrostatic Pressure, and ASTM Standard D2837, Obtaining Ilydrostatic Deaign Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe matertals. NOTE: Recommended design stress values are issued by the Plastics Pipe Institute, New York, NY and are reissued periodlcally. Design stress values were issued In Technical Report TR-.i, 1082.

496

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK-1982

TA I Q J - SU S l FAI N E'D PIt ESSU it E 'E S'r C O N )IT IO N S FO It PVC PI.ASTIC PIP+t' SOIt Pressure reijuired for test-.

':

AS S and a-d ,l) 1"Th'l - 1 (.123 C-12 ,1 GI 3. 5.~.M ILtanardI) ASNI ' I typeII. Grade C ) III C.1133 1T'spe III. Grade 3. Clasts C) IV C.l'.34 (Type Ill, Grade 4. Class C) ilSt)d g788.S-2-2 (i'oi l.Gpfde 2) 3.5.5 (Type I, Grade 3) 4-4.5 (Type II, Grade I)

PVC 1120 PVC 1220 PV 2120 psi kPa

PVC 2110 psi 135 105 85 kPa 930 125 585

PVC 2112 psi 115 90 70 kPa 795 620 485

PVC 2110 S.21Y AlISj psi 90 75 60 kPa 620 515 415

AST+NSiii

51
64 81 93.5

170 135 105 90

1170 930 725 620

5.3 Rework materials, Clean rework material generated from the mianufaclurer's own pipe production may lbeused Iy the same manu, tacturer. as lung as the pip: produced meets all the requirements oHItiis Standard. 5,4 PhslcaI requirements 5.4.1 Workmanship. The pipe shall be hotnogeneous throughout and tree from visible cracks, holes, foreign inclusions, or other defects. The pipe shall be as uniform as commercially practicable in color, opacity, density anti olher physical properties. 5.4.! Dimensions and tolerances 5.4.2.1 Wall thickness. The wall thickness arid tolerances shall be determined in accordance with the appropriate sections o ASTM S -ndard D2122, Dleermining Dimensions of iher. moplastic Pipe and Fitlings, and shall be as shown in Tables 7, 8 and 9 ot this Standard, 5.4.2.2 Diameters. The outside diameter or inside diameter of the pipe shall be deterniined in accordance with the appropriate sections oI'ASTM Standard D2122. Determining Dimensions of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings, and shall be as shown in Trables 10 and II of this Standard. 5.5 PVC pipe requlrements 5.5.1 Burst pressure. 'lhe minimum burst pressure shall be determined in accordance with Section 7,5 of ASTM Standard D2241, Specifications ror PVC Plastic Pipe, and as given in Trable 4 of' ASTM Standard D2241 or Table 12 of this Standard. 5.5.2 Flattenlng. There shall be no evidence ofsplitting, cracking, or breaking when the pipe is tested in accordance with Section 7.6 of ASTM Standard D2241, Specification for PVC Plastic Pipe.
rOR PVC AMUAIS4Pt[ 00 CONTROLLOD ,D A 2& FO - 47

50 ft head 83 570 1(teqclrenients in addition to those listed in ASTM Standard D2241. Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) and Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloric'e) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR), for SIJR rated PVC plastic pipe. t with water at 23 OC (73A4 F), The fiber stresses used to derive the test pressures are as feklows: PVC PVC PVC PVC 1120, PVC 1220. PVC 2120 2116 2112 2110 psi 4200 3360 2800 2300 MPa 29.0 23.2 19.3 15.9

5.1.l.L PE: Section 7.7 of ASTM Standard D2239. Specilica. pr'"Ior gventh te li as tic Pipe, at the appropriate test speci.caion. 5.1.1.3 ABS: Section 7.4 of ASTM Standard 1)2282, Spcciti. cations tor ABS Plastic Pipe, at the appropriate 'est pressures given in Table 3 of that specification. NOTE: ret% 1it pipe made 'oith different diameters and wall thickneses but 4ith the ,anie material ,hall not be required to reestablith long-term hndrosti'tic design rating since this is a com pun 11d qalilying lett. 5.2 Compound code classlflallon 5.2.1 PVC: AS1M Standard D1784.12454 B (Type I, Grade 1) 12454 C (Type I. Grade 2) 14333 D (Type I1. Grade I)

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1982-AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK

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m1O (1 21 I 0. . (I 211 ().:11. 03.7(1 0.7(6 (1.71 0.7(6 1.27 1 .27 1.27 1-7 1.7117 1,27 1 Xi1

ala.
008 1( 0.01i0 0.012 0.012 0.to12 5 1; (..1 o.015 0.0115 O)151 o(). 15 ((03) (}t.035 ().1.30 )0 11,5 ! U.0 () 050 0.150 0.060 01160 0.07(0 0.0175

mm 0.20 0.25 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.28 1.3b 7 ; ) 1 (189 0.76

11 . 11)
1. 5 1 .315 1"I6 Lot _1 1. h )111 3 1 4.000 I .( 1:1t) I((.1 1 2

3.1 ,2

If'
] S HI(I I'Il I,1 11,1 I'll, Ifs

0 1 (}2 S811008 1t (1 .1) 1 I1 ] 11 '51


,. 12l 119 ( 1"0.11, 26 '1-

5 6
8 10 12 14 15 16

156
219 207 271 259 3241 311 363 389 406 .166 475 518 560 G10

I6.1
6 11 i 1 il 10 I 1 1 I 2.750 12,2-10 I .I 2i 15.3010 16.000 18.3i60 18.7I11 0 70.-1 o 22.0417 2.1 (00 2.1.8032! 27.952

(i } , 1,007 1 (]off1K 0(,009 OJl4 1 1 () 1 .01111 1 II l 12 1)11l (I r2, 1.()15 1 0 015 111 0 02 1 1023 ".12.1 0.127 0.128 1) ()1o 0.033 0.03(1 0.037 0.017

1..1
1.07 1.27 1.27 1.52

I't
IP i P, IP I

1.71
I .0(I 1 .i0 1.9.0 1,90() 1 .901 1. 90 1.90 2.,1 2.50 2.5(0 2.50 2.50 2.5(0 2.50

.j 5 1 0SI

I'll, I'I
Ill' I' Il' Pill II'S

1 18
20 21 21 24 27

630
710

I'll'
Pill

110 .90I 7 1 3i 21f .6211 1 1.l1) .11; ,1 .17, 00 518 If; 5620.001 6 09 G1 (30 0)0 7 11.60

1.52
1.78 1.90

498

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK-1982

TAIII. II-INSIIV. Nominal pipe size


IU1. mil

I1IAXFTEIt

AN|D '10.IA\NCE'

FOR1t 11PHI
I)
1(1. 17tmi Ill.

TABLF" 12-l1.,'RST

I{ESSTTItF

ItI-."(4UIti;I.M-N'TS I-OR PVC ,',] r in0'e


11 SI)Mt

PI.ASI'IC I'tI'E"
Minimum burst l)r,ssur

1 1. 1

, 21 27

tt'1
1'.'

O 2 " 0.S24 1.0.4'.)

1.s 20 9.1 26,64

I'S IIPS
IPS

"0 310 ) -0 010 O.017 -. 3W13


0.020

( 25
0.25 0.38 0.2-5
0.51

DI PVC( PV( PVC


psi

I 11 1220 2 120

1)V
PVC' P\C

211(i 2112 2110

3'.
113

35
41

1.380
1.610

35.05
-0.H9

-0.01
0.021( -0.0101 -0.0231

0Si .2
0.5. 0.25 0.51 '1 64 81

ftP.,
1790 1380 1105 200 1610 125

kl
1381) 1 105 k60

2 212
3

2;) 200 1(3)

52 63
78

IPS IPS
IPS

2.067 2.469
3.068

52.50 62.71
77.93

-10.0 1 )
+0.015 -) )025
-0.015 --. 0, U

+0.01 l

0.51

0.38

93.5

1-10 127

965
87, l ,) ll'ted ill

0.38 0.6-1 0 :18


0.'76

5 head
'to

102 102

IPS PIP
IPS PiP

4.026 4.000
6.065 6.000

102.26 101.6
154.05K 152.4

+0.01 5 --0.0:15 -0.0:o


- 0.0:!0 +I 01 -- 0.0 5 (125

0.38 0.89 0.51


0.51 0.51 0.89 2 .. ;r

5T , 1)2 41 St ici III for ST. ( ''.II .,nd l,,C) Chti'rin1 (VI. [nihari ated 'olv(\'', I C>1erl) (CPVC) Plastic IPi (S'Dt-P I. fi,,r SDR rated PVC
plastic Ii;,' IWith ,t t'[hW f:),r st,..

154 152

7.1 -1 I. .- d to, (h rve the test lsi

8 0 12 15

203 25.-1

305
381

PIP Pil PIP PIP

8.000 10 000 12 000 1 o13 (

20.3.2 2f54.0
34.8

381 0

-0.125 -0.(740 :0.( .10 0.. ..;0 -O.GIO)

0.6. 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02


-

MPa .4.1
3.1.5

PVC 1120, PVC 12 2 0, PVC 2120 PVC 2116, PVC 2 112, PVC 2110

6400 5400

5.5.3 Extrusion qLUaIl . Ihe pip. , ,' not flake 'r disintegrate when tested in ian,.e whccr 711 AST[M Stardard 1.121 .2. Test tor Quality ci ExtruJed PVC P'ipe h* Acett,. IimniCrsi,3i. 5.5.4 Impact reslstance. I ne pipe shZl b0: tested in i.LIcr;lan ce wtth ASI M S,a:dard D2444. 'I .st tr hipact Rcsistance ('t Tolernioplastic Pipe ind Fittings hs M"Cat, (' .1 [Up I Falliig W :Wght), using a 89 N (20 lb). i "pe !1 ttup ulh a flat plait a! 23 .-. 2 -C f-3.4 - 3.J F) and shall inct..t the test lee.ls iwkrinm Tab!e 13 ot this Standard. The itpa i 7c%! shall 1, tade adc , , prfduc.tionipipe at the titte if manitiaclure.

5.6

PE pipe requlrements
5.6.1 Thickness of outer la~er. For p.pe produced by simultanehus multiple extrusion, ,hat ;s, pipe containing tao or rtire concen,-

point i -. , knife blade s) that the layers separate cleanly at any point. 5.6.3 Carbor, black. Th. pipe extrusion compound shall conlain at lea.st 2 percent ..: rhfn hlack %hen tested in accordance .ith Sec. tin .i ASIM t.ii;dard 12239. Specification, ir olcth.let,' PE) Plastic Pipe. :,r Pipe prdiced by ,itillitalVeLus Multiple Cxtrusin, this re.quir-eneiI shall apply to the outer laver. 5.6.4 Dens)t. The p,,sch'hlene base resin (uncll,)ref P1E1 in th , pipe c,'tpou d shah blase a den l "itin the range iron 0.926 t(, 0.940 Ag nlI' t or pipe niade, iro, Grad(. '23 and 0.941 o 0.9n5 Mg to' tor pipe made rv-in Grade P33 and Grade F34 of

tric layers, the


thick.

uter laser shall be at least 0.51 mm (0.020 in.)

5.6.2 Bond. For pipe produced by simultaneous multiple extrusion, the b-nd 1 et.,en the layers -,hall be slrong and uniform. It shall not be po ,ii'1.- r,, separate any t,.so layers with a pr,,e or a
TA1Ii.1 "-IIPACT It SDRI( 64 Iti iM Sm

ASTMI Standard D1248 Spe.o:icatios Or pillyethylvn_' Plastic Moldin and EltrusiorNI.,teriads. d1271 mnci ini ac..ordance ('tertl %%illSection -. 0, ,t ASTM Standard D2239, Spfccf1, ot'. Plv,r ethylee Plastic Pipe. 5.6.5 Burst pressure. Jhl : M iM urn b,rst pressure tlr I': plastic pipe sh,:I h determined in :c,,rdance .kilh Section 7.I1 and Table 4 )1 A%,'I . St, i d;, 1I)221'4. Specificatio)s iir t tlr e tte
Plastic Pipe.
ANtD ABS PIPE" Still 125 it'1W, N,, NoiIt 26 -13,1 1 N Ii SI 1 7It iI , Nl, 0 503 50 63 5P
.9

RNIFIMENTS kdl( PVC St1lt 51 t'lIb Nm -DI 41 tt bf Nm

N.Mmrn.J pipe sze


1. .

50 it ' f 1W ,t

h.ad N.

tIl 1i t

93 4 N- 3 i

Stilt At1 llb b NM

It IW Nn

it ;ib

StI( ft31,

13 75 N,M

11 1 1 . 42 ;8 1 I35 2. a 3', 1 5 r 8 73 102 114 105 141 I' 219 11, If'" Ps ; '63 , 1ii PS 30 IPS 1t' PI1 1IS I'll, pIll Pill I's Ii'S f, I P 1' ill[' tl.')i' IP PI[' i
73~ ...

,27 50 38 no ') 5, 70 7i itr. 13) 103, 1((3, 135 150 165 '75

" ,, 70 1(5 135 i 100 100 117 i1 I 171, 11 '


3

38 5o 7 5 13 75 7., 1( 0 ,

531 7

() 33 r7( 0

1',

50 -,o 70 7

710
15 1 lO)

lj 133 75 7,

5 l, I )(1 1 3'.

50 41o 30 40 60 30 30 *0 1 li .40 .10 80 35 tS'3 33) 30 60 111o lO' 110 11') 111 itO Ili) .1t I! tL 1. E . \.7;: 40 40 80 137 l3y ItM I5(i 1 1.1) 13,1 7. ,,'i?. ,i t E3 tt Y t 30 30 6 1O) li 40 70 40

70
70 80 10 95 90 120 135 90 11() I 110 123 120 110 80 ItO t5 70 95

7 131 110 9 1101 1100 110 100 175 1 11) 113 In 12113,5 120 120 120 120 1233 165 1(,7, 11, " 16" 153 12, " 1211 13 1sS 1., 20 o5 f)1 5 2137 , ' i" )3333 1;9 15 1"0

,A 61 7 75 100

1 ;5 3 35 1 63 3131 75 13(1) '5 13 , 100 11) 1231 130

135 1:37, t 7t

11 1 23) t30 I 10 i

1 it) l 1 , I 2 I , 1.13, 17,

1'if)t l 10 1 123 11,5 13( 175

I2 14 5 IS 21 24 7 1

59 3-" 1l 3 I 135, 0 1') 0 166.477 3.1 53,O .it0.,;:vl 7131 9

3's t 1l0 )M 134) 135 151 1 ,10 i

7. 1

2L:. 2(17,

15

207

tllO 1) o 1i') 17,0

1,50

20)5

1.50

2"7

fll0 170 1131 1503 113 7,1 1 l10 111 1S0 IlO 1121 4 17.3 '-.. I,, hiri3a, t

1 ,0 1 I"SO 233',

:7,0

21

I,3 "I 0 3 , 1 '1" I0 l7,13 2(1)' 11).13 l,0)21 , 33 2)II, '*'.1 ", t.. ,,')
.

l7.3, 3''. ,)

1-', v lt'.

,o,,

'3'

3, ..

of3 .1

Tui.

lll,'

55,1g.I.,ifl

8h . 2

0r ICUtRA.

1982--AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK

499

EnIronmental sire, p~e the pip,! ,kl-n t D'2,1,). ASI IMSaiard 5.6..
Plpe.

.! Ill

cracking. Ihicrt sh.ll lt. i liss ilo . rit iasiu S ,i: 1) of fic t~tiis fr I5

S1C I ION ,-.\ARKIN(; 6.1 General. Il' pptie shall be iarked at iterat of iot more 11,1t IkhuriC markig ,hall not be required until it becoe, !I I ; I. ( ]hi
.l StIdd -d. ~~~~~~1, lA Ili this N+ec'tionct l tom ar', Llil i s l'+,l i s

5.7

AS

pipe

leqlremcnt,

5.7.1 Burt pri sur. i s it numtir " C ju l Ihl ,liet). dter, ned In1 al+cordallc,LV. xlh Stct.l,,l h anldI Afle .1 of A'sI NI S, Iitii ., tr \i"1' ipe. ard [)"22 2, it cd l c :cId Il 5.7.2 Impct reIsta Tcc. I 1:L';upc h.i:Al! .Pc tm.acc ,t I hcr,itt \S IM S thtiai!.rd 1)2444. Ic,i tir Impti ,uit, !t Iu IIF.lll I , N c',srl 'i i d F ItMIl Pi' nlti)I ,Lic 11'at 21 ' 2 C 1-3 4 't i t. h a 1 N 201b)t )LcHIIt u',SIu a "latle 13 ofl 'iiw s , n Ih 3.t, F iCnd sh.6l mcel :iu ., (n",l, ,1,' 1 rodL.' , I pipc at Iii' c Ii 11ilt h lu - c nii Standard. I ie ot tt iC. thie itle 5.8 Joints 5.8.1 General. All jiwit'. shall 'c 111tItuLc Ici to ,ithstand tile tiitout hne itina i utm 'C rkinmg rcures tr tlih pip lt design Ieakage, att isthu' i uLrnil ,i'h tiictfi i hi,'h .ul,.l teduce its

Marking shall Include tile hshr-,ing: 6.1.I le riitial pipc sue, e.g. 4 in. 114 012' ,-Pp DwtgsIilhl plcbeUS 1,o l lk, pipe .r ()I ,iiii ,,Stt I shen appliable (11S, I) 6.12 gc..rd~inc natmtiot r sizing ',sten ,, n :, uic d ,ig, AS I M ;tand.irti 6.1.3 1"h-other than Pit' : Q. ASINl .tandard )22-11. ithtIL cltp of (LstIc pip- rm tccrial Ii acordance A' 1120 c',lu '.'.c. P% 0.1.5 Prtssure rilting re ratti4 t all lie OhLv I 1.,, pres pie. I ti ir,_",A 6,1.. 615 0.1.4 lhe
it i lei, t

iCC pst ald

'r

(IS.2 Iii Leel ofhead: e.;. 22 pi ( 152 kPat) 50 ft

nCi)

licad.
6.1.5.2 SI)R pipe. Ilh, presstre class rating itt psi tor, ater it 71 - :F(123 C; c.. 2(U psi I IV'i kPa) ' "1.,4 (23), , the

l';i 1it1 r,11t' as . cuh tcdi ini paragraph 2.; e.g, %tand rd kfilU capacits hLh, deicti rc ,;i.creits,,c tpt that uiscr,ttt'itt s for 73.4 (23) S R 21. ,I 1) *q (Ci SlIM 21. or twh. u.k. 201 P, jutfilli P15 pipe al t. p:rI:Itud' Mfirutacturer's rcritti en tittts llt j<uli i' c ,li l h c uhcai hc nl iti iotlict "sith rcquircictlts (. .6 lie W;;i :rt nTIatei Cr radciiark and Code. lfpar i tph 5 . 6.1.7 Pip itinddc f tl 'lhitit i,,tL, ic' e(fp tahle .atcr shal alsio 'ludc the W al or wti rk :it hlla li r r rmaking the cvaluatin or cCouI tit ral bell sr separ t.' 5.8.2 Socket.s and couplilngs. It pling shall mc t the s,t'', ,ircuigth rCtuc iirecnittn as the pip.. 'heng it11i1 iirpios,, s, l,. at iitcral', 'pc itd I' (in iah[ratf'. couplit such , tie '.o up n g L :(' usc ,I lit IstW ribl ruthil r s,, St:.CI ION -- INS AI.L-A IIN RE(QLIIFNII-N IS sun shl tielurilishcid ,.ii each length of Citl t ,tl sIntt' Cil .8.3 lt 7.1 General. ' lit: ihcrin,[plastic pipc "lhall he installcd in acrdar,:e fr CIS %%illh PVC 5.8.3 Solsent cteents. N'Soiit LemiiifltilS , are not available. tt r'ifaC r,-'i, li dti tlatitos. I ile,, ,kith t ft AST%1 pipe and fitti h_' + lci.tieict ,l AS.r, Standard Stattu2ard then ite shall arid'pt lie er tuiires uruirciti.eAits it1 AS I S tanidard D2774, then or ;'ipe 152 1i1ti (6 111.) iliar"iu'tt Ur for PVC Plastic Pipe tir Si t'nt (ciittm, [)2504, SptCltfiLalhlI Pr tcoucflr hj'tu utcround lnt.t:Jlaitio ofl hicrmoplastic iicii Pc only fr ABS pove alid titttgs shall iwcitults, ,'tu artd F:itir'. 5,' R cofiim eetdatiotns , all hc tlsa latd. ! [1indtr h ior isi ii, ipi t ,\ Ptcssi Specificatitns D2235. Standard NI M AS of nits uirec re tlhc icet FtcxibtehcrIIi , u'r ,nd t . V,232, dar Si A SP, ili p e th Fittuigs. and Pipc for Solsent Ce ntt ir AIlS Plastit. l 'Aed. bC tic i tiia iI;)ti tIt Sesmur Pij cenie t rccnt,is elic mtlltcd for tan ufacturer 'thiul le c "' 7.2 Tre'ich contrction ain tli. iuuctcr pilic. Sal' hldling ot sorl% t i hor joiilt nlen eti cntinviitis, '[tench btIton. Ili tit.cil 1ltttui ,httld ie t' 7.2.1 A.S \1 Siat,,tald F4(2. R citrljnttietdcl slhall cotl ttt larger iic c' i'r <,thur ia ru at ht Used for Jloiti,, Irti. rc'lutii'l, s tiiii Practice tor Sale ItandlinQ if So',ett ('Ciunti' L, Wh' .c led ,:r'uck. haid p lli or hii IIlnni M., li.) lin ,ic. Ihcriioplu tic Pipe and t'i:hto. he undercut and houiers are crimntuicd, die treni fottlii .all 5.8.4 Rubber Itatsket Jillts. Publiur yasret joints shall :ontrti to , Lusing _id or ctoumpatetttd l e-graied is tiot Joini for Pl~sftic filIcd %Oth hed i 1n1!.'tl, ASINM Standard 1331,10 SplcHit ii:, hctkun the pipe ,nd ruck s:ails :-i proid a niitinutiti depth ltied tast'tct:uiic Seats. Pressure Pipcs Uing Fleib'l n c",n0tiiltn art' tthi rutc tich b oil tOwrt 0 iii.i \'h,:rc uti.;atlc has. at leastthe same 5.8.5 PhLstIc risers. PLsti' t'iors shlai! e ai(t'ittaitt tk li prioli tt ril l Cu u''iiTct'[i . stabili iLu tici' ii k ailnd to s bisurliace li itid strength as the p'p .includitig risers i ht ,C and p tti Ctu'ltt Ulhptir: diall 1'c tis fd. attachmentt +kidth of the reltat al , point belim 7.... Trench vdhtlh. ITit: 5.9 I:litings

ceitctits

as cuIpling,, rediicers. bends, 5.9.1 General. V.! fitings, sUlCh ot nmatetial tlh,.t is ecommttetided for hl-- ai elu tees and crosses i'lll in ;,cc rdttii-c with tile ,ll bt hiittaled usu' kitlh the :aipc .nl ufactiuactuirur. VIerc fittitgs tiiadt ' o rcc nit'n t, iii, of tile , steel or other ,umattri.l sitkhj 'ct tocorro iti irc i editt th itle. thie' shall li e adequat,'yIv proitectud by wr iCk , Mitl ptlstic tape or by . W tierI i %rcs n pr:'. c at g Niih hig h q u ality co rro sio co atin tape Isused. all IIti.u i I '.i wra1 ped shall ti thilrriiu(( ltcleanletd the tap'! prior to ciiated Lwhh prilmet c nitpatitbe still arid theti ra )ppitg. tilect all the 5.9.2 Requirements. Fioituts fir IPS sictl pipe shall h:lulir g AS'TMNI dincttsional and qualitc rcqliutllc llus iutl iII tile Standards: lip,: Fittings, .CicketASTI Standard D2408. ABS Pla,,ti Type. Schedult 40 ASTNI Standard D24ti9 ABS Phsitic Pipe Fittinugs. SocketType, Schedule I0 ASTiM Standard D2ti09. PE Pla',tic Insert: Fittings ASTM Standard D3261, Butt Heat FLisii. tir PE Plastic Pipe and 'ubing SIM Standard -2t72 Bcll--nd PVC Plastic Pipe ASTM Standard D3036, PVC Plastic Line Couplings, Socket- Type AS'['M Standard D2466, PVC Plastic Pipe Fittings. SocketType, Schedule 40 ASTM Standard D2467, PVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, SocketType. Schedule 80

h int tc reuater thin nec'u'55sr,, to prouihc pipe ,,hl illng tlic pipue aili c(ICttpacting the initial it ji al ulitaite siti liiiuld i c ifjuu-tCt Il pr i.:I IIitkfill. I It( trutnc'i iltiu is et.,'sar lliig th pipc in il iornch. gttin iiiiit ir tInt opipe tutu -i lu' 1.ie'iii iit.ti tiuen nd Ciitt, ati thin pipe if w,.orinnedt I,' lie buittllt ili llluit i., tg iitC htd o f tie pip shtt'hlc Itlr tl ah o c t 't,,p renh %id t (2 t i d r ti'r the pipie di nt ltr, cv:cpt ttl I be gi eir ta cir' r Ll i ir Ciii; iii lill tiirtt'lnh t s Lertc Ni s uilts eS Ui llIC thi ill c tie il l l-., M oAm til rCeIiirCl lv recguttaiit ,si Iocal Cuidti l thlttI
Idt'

tti

l.titc loomitt

rIte pipe rua hu' ulipc. rii ,ittni trench iid 7.2.2.1 Low, presstre pipe. N silWLITiI ai l its Ct e tip ot) of the pipc tir t ic l Lre pipe %hal % idhhs te ti
AIpprisiniale 0th Ire liuh ., inhChtt.L.lC CinlfrniCntUCI
In.

Pipe %lie
hi.

mm

inl

In.

nun

. 6 S.2 10 12 14 15 18 20 24 27

102 ) 152 203 254 305 356 381 457.475 $08 tI0.t0 71 0(

I 1 20 22 24 26 27 30 312

1 tii 4t5u S 1i 510) 610 660l 1,9i 7io NI0 .It) ;c1 )2 0 '0

ft

30 1,i 0 30 .30

7t10 '60 7i) 7((I


7

(0
30 36 30 42 1

t0 thO

7t0 910 QtO 1070 170

500

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK-

1982

7'i:-

lt; -strength of at least 13.8 MPa (2000 psi). Fhe concrete mixture is lit *'reice'epth.I 'lic trenvih depft should Ie detcrnti ,-*7.2.3 one part cement, two parts washed sand and four parts gravel. torL joirenlents itnpoed by trench boiom. ion' iiserotim ,i Thrust blocks should be constructed so the bearing surface is in ts(c. paragraphs 7,21 and 7.7). The pipe si/c and cocr cotitiois direct line with the major force created by'the pipe or fitting (see depth shall lie sutficicni to csur.placement of the top ot' the pipe Table 14). The earth bearing surface should be undisturbed with rolinc unless the requirenrents o1f (1.2$imt10 in,) below the Irt only the simplest of forms required. are satisfied, paragraph 3.,9 7.5 Initial backfill 7.2.4 Safet'. Proisions shall he made to insure sN'le working con7.5.1 General. The pipe sihould be uniformly and continuously ditions %%hereunstable soil. trench depth or other conditions impose supported over its entire length on firm stable material. Blocking satctl haiard to personnel working in the trench. should not be used to change pipe grade or to intermittently support Placement 7.3 Ald-siti i. p)ipe- acf6oss awareness of temperature 7.3.1 General. Special hiaiidliiig and ani Special consideration must be given considerations. Special 7.5.2 pernient to present needed cltccis oo therioplastic pipe are to soils, backfilling, and bedding procedures for 457 mm (18 in.) distortion and pipe damage when handling during unusually sarnl diameter and larger low pressure pipe to ensure protection of the or cold iseaiher. Prior to any backlilling beyond light backfill for pipe under the maximum loading conditions to which it may be shading, and prior to connecting to other facilities, the pipe shall be subjected. Special engineering design and soils analysis may be allowed to come to within a few degrees of the temperature it will neceded to determine the supportive strength of the soils intended reach after complete covering. The pipeline shall be installed to use as backfill. fir tarnt. crossing, traffic by imposed hazards from provide protection 7.5.3 All low pressure pipelines shall be water-strutted or filled ing operations, freezing temperatures, or soil cracking. If the pipe with water prior to backfilling The backfill must be compacted to is assembled above ground, it should be lowered into the trench the required or on adequate density for all low pressure pipe. Either with care to prevent dropping or damaging the pipe or its joints,
reancnit such as dragging or excessive bending which could cause the water packing method or hand or mechanical backfilling

excessive joint stressing, displacement or pull-out should be avoided. 7.3.2 Deflection and bending. The pipe shall be installed in a
manner to ensure that excessive deflection in elastoneric seal joints

methods may be used for backfill consolidation. 7.5.3.1 Water packing. When water packing isused, the pipeline must first be filled with water, all air removed, and the pipe
kept full during the backfill operation. The initial backfill

specified in paragraph 7.5.3.2, The backfill, material shall be ,s and excessive bending of the pipe do not occur during installation. before wetting, shall be 300 to 450 mm (12 to 18 in.) deep over Bending stresses should be avoided and at no time should tle pipe the top of the pipe. Water packing is accomplished by adding be blocked or braced to hold a bend. The pipe manul'acturer should water in such quantity as to thoroughly saturate the initial backle consulted for maxinium permissible deflection limits and fill. While saturat J,rods, shovels, concrete vibrators or other minimin pipe hending radii, means may be usrd to help consolidate the backfill around the 7.3.3 Connection to a rigid structure. Where differential settlepipe, taking care not to float the pile After saturation, the e.t as joint, or a pipe on loading ment could create a concentrated pipeline shall remain full until after final backfill ismade. The stand, a the connection of a buried pipe to a rigid structure such as wetted fill shall be allowed to dry until firm enough to walk on extra care should be taken to compact the foundation and bedding before final backfill isbegun. joint the beneath structure supporting A adjoining the structure. 7.5.3.2 Hand or mechanical backfilling. The initial backfill in and the pipe or a flexible joint also may be used. contact with the pipe and immeimately surrounding it shall be of inbeing pipe the When 7.3.4 Bell holes for rubber gasket joints. Jine-grained materiul free from rocks, stones, or clods greater stalled isprovided with rubber gasket joints, bell holes shall be -xthan approximately 19 mm (0.75 in.) diameter and earth clods cavated in the bedding material to allow for the unobstructed than approximately 50 mm (2 in,) diameter. The backgreater no is hole bell the that taken be should assembly of the joint, Care fill shall be tamped in layers not to exceed 150 mm (6 in.) lift larger than necessary to accomp'ish proper joint assembly. When and compacted firnily around the pipe and up to at least the joint has been made, the bell hole should be carefull: filled with 152 mm (6 in.) above the top of the pipe. The backfill material pipe the of support adequate initial backfill material to provide shall be sufficiently damp to permit thorough compaction under throughout its entire length. and on each side of the pipe to provide support free from voids. 7.4 Thrust blocking taken to avoid Care should beuigti blocking Thrust fteoeain displacing, or damag. 7.4. hs deforming, igtepp 741 General. Thrust blocking prevents the line from moving and due forces Unequal joints. isrequired primarily with rubber gasket 7.6 Final backfill to water pressure at changes in pipeline alignment result in thrust 7.6.1 After pipeline testing, final backfill shall be placed and wider to a pipe the from load this transfers block loads, The thrust spread in approximately uniform layers in such a manner as to fill following load bearing surface. Thrust blocks are required at the the trench completely so that there will be no unfilled spaces under locations: or around rocks or limps of earth in the backfill. Final backfill water the of 7.4.1.1 Where the pipe changes the direction shall be free of large rocks, frozen clods and other debris greater (i.e., ties, elbows, crosses, wyes and tees). than 75 mm (3 in.) in diameter. reducing r educers, (iLe., 7.4.1.2 Where the pipe size changes 7.6.2 Rolling equipment or heavy tampers should not be used to tees and crosses). consolidate the final backfill until after the minimum depth of cover has been placed and then only with pipe having wall thicknesses 7.4.1.3 At the end of the pipeline (i.e., caps and plugs), greater than that of SDR.41. 7.4.1,4 Where there isan in.line valve, 7.7 Minimum depth of cover 7.4.2 Placement. The thrust block must be formed against a solid 7.7.1 General. At low places on tie ground surface, extra fill may trench wall that has been excavated by hand. Damage to the bearbe placed over the pipeline to provide the minimum depth of cover. ing surface of the trench wall may result from excavation by In such cases, the top width of the fill shall be no less than 3 m mechanical equipment. The size and type of thrust block depends (10 ft) and the side slope no steeper than 4 horizontal to I vertical. on pipe size, line pressure, type of fitting, degree of bend and type The minimum depth shall be as foilows: of soil, Thrust block size can be calculated by the procedures shown in Table 14. Minimum depth of cover Pipe size mm (in.) mm lin.l 7.4.3 Side thrust on curves. An outward pressure exists on all deflections from a straight line. Generally, good soil properly 460 (8) (0.52.5) 13.64 tamped in sufficient to hold side thrust. If the soil is unstable, 610(24) on(34) radius outside the on pipe the against placed blocking should be 760(30) >102 (>4) coupling the block thrust no* Do each side of a gasketed coupling. 7.7.2 Minimum cover for load applications. At least 760 mm Itself. (30 in.) cover over the top of the pipe shall be provided before the 7.4.4 Construction of thrust blocks, Thrust blocks arc anchors both low pressure and high pressure trench is wheel.loaded Ior The wall. trench solid the and fittings or pipe the placed between pipe. compressive a calculated recommended blocking is concrete having 1982-AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK 501

'AI.F

ll-lIItI'S

Itl I CK INi ANID ANCIHORiS IOR UNI)IIt(,RIU'NID IIGII;ATION I'Il'ILIN

'.

,'

'
i
x ,;,'I

"'

SI.'| 1. NIIlItpl the N.,rk it i Ipressure by do- jp)ro lriatit IIIu. QJomnI iii thii foiloli: table to obitain to~tal thrust Ili N (lI 1): INl" TIII.'T FA.CTORS:'*

~~l'III:l.
'le siue

A ..

2 Io. A 2' 3 31, 5 6 8 10 12 14 p a 15 16 18 20 21 2 27

fln G11t

lDead end or 4 . tee 6

90 FI'bow G;..|5

45 I:ilbow "3.50

Il. I./

73 89 102 11.1 1.I1 168 219 273 32.1 36.3 389 .10 6 *175 518 560
630

; 9.80 12,8 1G.2 2-1.7 318 59.0 91.5 12!9.)) 160.2 183.9 2011.1 27.1.7 3 2;.9 3181.8 .183.2 I'.1
])"I .r,, ,

9.40 13. 9 18.1 23 .0 35.0 .19.2 83.5 130.0 182.0 226.5 260.0 28-1.4 388.4 .462.2 539.9 683.2 867.8
{I'%]) r|

5.10) 7.51 9.81 12.4 18.9 2G.7 45.2 70.0 98.5 122.) 140.7 153.8 210.1 2 50.1 292.1 369.6 .1639.5 il
,0h

2.6O 3.82 ,1.99 (;.31 9G3 13.G 23.0 35.8 5J.3 32.6 71.9 78.3 107.4 127.8 1.19,3 188h.9 239.9

a w, , tb -

'

'1{,

~~ltiii

710
thrilA

'td IM

k1',.

11

1,Illockitig for

M Ni,

I, lie.

N'

ira Irich lilies.

Step 2. IPeterminei belowv:

thf. bearing strtngth of Ule soil from the table

BIIAIIN; .STRENGTHIlOfl SOILS Soils and safe beari"ii: loads "wnid %It, claoaoit.d r 'l'., l (I I, diffi I t I ,' k Coarse and fin ",n)o'. ,-uand .M'1diu cliCI n h,. p1,d.d Soft clay Muck lb/ft
2

kPa 500 200 150 100 50 0

I () 00)) 4 000

A.'T' a s

3 )000
2 000 1 000 0

x
7

,St,) 3. Divide the total thrust obtained in Step I by the bearing strength of the soil to get the area needed, m 2 (ft 2 ).

SIDE TIIItUST ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE Pipe si/e in. I/2 2 nun .18 60 lb Side thrust-per degreeN 5.1 7.9 22.7 35.1

,e

2/
3 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14

73
89 102 114 1-Il 168 219 273 324 363

11.6
17.1 22.4 28.3 43.1 60.8 103.0 160.0 225.0 278.2

51.6

76.1 99.6 125.9 191.7 270.5 458.2 711.7 1000.8 1237.4

15
16 18 20 21 24 27

389
406 475 518 560 630 710

319.6
349.3 477.3 568.0 663.6 839.6 1066.2

1421.G
1553.7 2123.0 2526.5 2951.7 3734.5 4742.5

"Based on side thrust per 689 kPa (100 psi) pressure per degree of deflection. NOTE: Multiply side thrust from table by degrees of deflection times kPa (psi) divided by 100 to obtain total side thrust in N (Ib).

502

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK-1982


/'

u for o%% 1. u OepMi l CLf'ter a\t111uilt 0l coer. Ile iig anitd ( -xtrusion lasii.t ,L% i id le :i I n hr PI, I . i' .it-l, AS I NI 1)124s. it) or other classes (i pipe, the pipe I 2 ,t-I Materials be coilihltud tr tia,,itium depths it' ciner Failure I Plastic Pipe Under Conslanl fir ittlet,, AS INIi)l'i6. lcit l, 1.2 ni(4 it) mt.i Ititcrni.il PrCssure PhI Vinyl (hloride) Ci poutilt, fid tor ti f,tin AN I NI lit h tINC; I ION S- I [EYI Sle,. and ( hiitlitvld Pli I %inil (irtJe) (ifiun1Otrld% ,.;iat,,,n ,r Rik:i ,d cr,1,twirile. iHtadierie-Sitreine (AIIS) AS I NI 1Ii', atid C0i1ur' e piplir es 0 all be ithoroulghl General. L,, p 8.1 I'iast pressure strcntlh and leakage befhre backfill operatpletels teed t,,r and Filtings lherti planfic ip"e l lsrin ,,I I clcr iluic Iiiir' AS I \1 D1 are underiaken. It it i fltcceN,;ars if parlially backtill Ile itle lions Aceont Irin ,tersion I lpe 1,', l-i did 1 .- I I l.t ,I tru 1c .I2 AS I 1)2 before tesltit., t,, ild the ine it place, tle partial backfill Shallte r L"rih,milr-lIt'l I, ne, A r I, ( .i S,,'irrn n ,,r N1,. 4 C A tI I I1)22 e 11' k f the pip e . . O nl ti i1 piat i l 1' i i C 1d undertaken i s 'I Alt PltIv cl P iPand IIiiiPls N i ,ill 1its jun1 and C.lflnectiilnsleft inciscref' lu icted ' sections shall .A', M I t, .i aiit i fir chefiricne (P-) l?) Plainc Pipe(S)H r (fitrd-'') IPV)( and (hlriated : f hd-" V'ri.l N' S;11 ' A'i I NI I. backfillflf for inspection Ifi l pressure lpuelifeN tian lie tested iltr II) -ti ) I 'N'*i I'liS 't' Thie %uloc itI( tt icucr Tt led v.l 8.2 Filling. The hinc hli 1e slit t c Plaso eni' ' rne IS, ii,,' li m r AriliriWe-lla Ntet ii ASN I% Ih ( I i. 0. A dcquate )r0i lt all nIlt ,NCee 02 tit al1tr itupis Ie v. 'HiPP ISNul IPipe bleed all enshall be made f,r air i'lease '. tile fillin . taking cTre til 7.8 Maximum depth be pressure pipe ,hall manufacturer should greater than appris,
I

) h Ihe lN bUill p 'li 1ressre ie sh)A. tie maxinui dsigi iurkitg pressure. tressuri.'m shioiuid lake it ca 102 tnf (4 fti. afild stifaller in diameter and fur pipelitnes ten niinuit,_s 105 ti 0 psi if .i test sc.titon i l 6 ll kPa1 0i hasiig a test pressire s. proI00( f! ) For larger Li,0iuietel0 . tiger lines ,fi hider prens',rc Cd. i s Shal li portionately lingler build-ui toll il w, enliret , ikliilv the 8.3 Inspe tlon. Ilie pipeline sh ii tit- espec ied rd i r nratitcim d. W h'iere c nmaxinfitti tiirkitt Irs rc .ir d i n i the tit e r e t td i' pt , re d . tl e u s h a l l ti e p r t rtIilt Itte ilesetiA'.~,.thrl 1 riI 1 flt! pipe,i .it iBS) 8.4 1I', c pa elt . I ,hill be kcrrtn nstrated 1, tesfn c.pacit.. At r beh , decsig n ite -Aill functiot pr irly at desci r.katcr tianlm er. there shall be not ri,.tionaMe sur v f cdpaClt's, trapped air it file process

hnt .lL. 'i [-]cxiuie It4 :i ,,plaisii, Neltur t erriii AN I )2 2 I herrtiiiplasfc Pipe am|f .. Ni I 2 14.l est fr I :ijaci IResixtanue ,,t A I \1D2c.14. W..n ,,.gil e Means , I UI tip iia Flm rus fi. l ride) (PVC) .:e- ,pe I'lr iVnl fim r S,-f AS I NI D2.1 , S;'ctuicatifl I Vi1. Chhi lde) (CPVC)Plastic Pipe Fittings, afi C hhlriate 'l,1. S t(u'l-' 40

for S cke rspe P.ly inf l ('llrtide)(PVC) I %I 1 24-, p:c tiati ,t ASN Pk,I V i ('lhelo ei lCP C) Plaslic Pipe :illirngs, I hllslnctftd ". s i c.l,,1 ,\ N 1 '-f'icat~oti iii N''ci I'ipe Acriitiii rileiiiiafielle-SlYtetit: NI 1124(1-5 40 S ce ule Ilw : ipe I ift,: ete-Slitrene i.'[,:Aurshiuirlr N'ck t ofiti,,t ,rNpc I i246L). t I.A Ppe F tres, Scieduie N) Pli',ti A\ , {Vilil ('hhlorlde) ' nent% 1,,r PokI t,,r S,4iet i specitlilcanon ASI M 13-5h-. V f an F'tte hu i (" PliastiIcatlt o,,n. A'N r tei gsti 8.5 Obje-cllonal flow conditions. f1ijectiti' , iafi' ut Plasic Ilsert ittirngs lir Itolelidene IT') iccil AS I M I 2t,0i. . I -titer. dart'.i:c iii il',t,,A. dch,,:t itfItiiiit di'ions shall in,.ude , PipI':,l ts ir ,,udden iir o%,' , i, 'etits -r file 1 ipelinre. de'tri rlcnt., ata', : Ir IHi') 1 IId ,i ,V i 'fI rld PV() Pipe .. -\ I NI )20 '2. N .i itcluditn o,,r'.ti;, )rO ;;I', it ,1h,r ' i,, rapid chinir c'. n fu i nit hi ralaliin it I'r. !1'm I r I ndetgroi 112 4. .,, S iI'A D'd \S'tIit 0. . r:,:r *:r, n i t ' w .1 lit"u' int . t,, er ergent' s ihut' 'i'ic t Pll i I hcriti,,iilC ll tt. I lt IDr 1 herntia11ir [)Ir [tm,,' ft \S I NI 1213". (iirtit:iI Pipe Naterils I \NCl FP'dip AIN OF . C I P )T SEClI PNdari I lii S kiti: khrtn ( oriented fror, lc,'iitetfif i AS I W2nsa. 9.1 Requirements. lii: aet ilt ,ii L. jr;uru shill lie dterJlI ',aith 'i l , ( ileiv Pipe ,inI ittings !tri P h i Nril " liride, iW'( i Plastl. !.I1ri ANI NI 1)30.tt. Sp u ifficat;,n s '., t all the it sh s I this r ,'hl .:ctt'ltiti mined (iv isucct, C tlpliits. Scket- lpe irld illtfe. T( the fie',!!1 illthe ie. th_ pip'e Standard sitlth rt.'0,:ct ID 134 Sp, lt lati',n for Jtint, 1 r Plastic Preture Pipes using Flexible ASIM ttiivttiitri inrsTllviii i req'uircu eirs. nanres u',ed, and ie, srme rlt Sea s }-Il AS, I NI 1)32ti) Buff Hleai Fusin fiot PE Plastic Fitr'.urPPatc Il Plastic F I g for F ull 1 ant 'ipe I- ER' IFICA'I IO N SF(1IION 0these t1ititt'urn re10.1 General. :\ll tiaterials shall c fifl,,rinti the tests prescribed in the appicable ASTM quirernents and to, Standards. pipe shall h- certilieil I va 10.2 Certification. W hen t-eequire.., tite ns %t ,.iilh the ':,.uire.el al qualifirdl tetiiL, latratir,, fur cuit:r at,Stalnd.ird. out in this SECIION I--PLANS AN) SPECIFICATIONS Celnent' Sate landling f Soilent ASTI% F402, Re,,nunerided Practice tor Ued fir Jiiniir, I herritplastc Pipe arJ Fiittngs 5 '.letits t,> Plastic Piping Dofirvito ,, lctnis IRe'atirgNeals F412, S ASSIM Plsic .Iin iin'fl (I G skein fir it,,r 't Ilantitieric F.'7". cii a ,i NNI NI. 1'iliel tile Iransprt if Fluidt --Numinal "'Ierni plastic Pipe for ISO l I 1-19". Out sle I) ia trs ani Niminal Ptsure%--Part I Metric Series

General. Platrs and specifications fur conslruction of underI1.1 be in keeping %kiththis ground tlherriplastic irrgation pipelines shall Standard and shall describe the requirements (or application of the practice to achiete its intended purp(,sc.

1982-AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS YEARBOOK

503