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The Bombay Tramway Company Limited was formally set up in 1873. The Mumbai Municipality was gi en the right to buy up the concern after the first !" years or after e ery period of 7 years thereafter. #fter this contract was entered into between the Bombay Tramway Company and the Municipality$ the %o ernment of Mumbai enacted the Bombay Tramways #ct$ 187&$ under which the Company was licensed to run a tramway ser ice in the city. The tram'cars were of two (inds'those drawn by one horse and those drawn by two. )n 1*+"$ a newly formed concern$ the Bombay ,lectric -upply . Tramways Company Limited bought the Bombay Tramway Company and the first electrically operated tram'car appeared on Mumbai roads in 1*+7. The passing years aggra ated the problem of rush'hour traffic and to ease the situation$ double dec(er trams were introduced in -eptember$ 1*!+. Mumbai saw its first bus run on 1"th /uly$ 1*!0. The people of Mumbai recei ed the bus with enthusiasm$ but it too( 1uite sometime before this means of con eyance really established itself. 2or se eral years$ it was loo(ed upon as transport for the upper middle classes. Those were the days when the tram was the poor man3s transport$ carried one all the way from -assoon 4oc( to 4adar for a mere #nna and a half$ that was nine paise. The bus fare for the same 5ourney was four #nnas that are !" paise.

)n response to the pleas made by the %o ernment and the Brihan Mumbai Mahanagarpali(a$ the Company e6tended its ser ices to the northern part of the city in

1*3&. 4ouble dec( buses were introduced in 1*37 in order to cope better with the growing traffic. The first Limited Bus ser ice in Mumbai$ and probably the first in the country as well$ started running in 1*&+ between Colaba and Mahim. 7ursuant to the option gi en to it under the 4eed of Concession granted to the Bombay ,lectric -upply and Tramways Co. Ltd$ the Brihan Mumbai Mahanagarpali(a ac1uired on 7th #ugust$ 1*&7$ the assets of the combined 8nderta(ing$ namely the operation of tramways and distribution of electricity in the city of Mumbai as a going concern. By mutual agreement$ the Corporation also too( o er the operation of the bus ser ices$ which was run by the B.,.- . T Company Ltd. Thus$ the Bombay ,lectric -upply and Transport Company was municipali9ed and came to be (nown as Bombay ,lectric -upply . Transport 8nderta(ing. The 8nderta(ing has completed "+ years of its municipali9ation on 7th #ugust$ 1**7. The intricacies of Mumbai transport system can easily baffle any new comer from the countryside. To use a figure of speech$ the city inhales and e6hales through the B,-T bus ser ices. The changeo er from horse'dri en trams to buses has been spectacular. :hen the Corporation too( o er the Company in 1*&7$ there were !&! buses in operation on !3 routes and these buses carried !.38 la(h passengers per day. #t present$ there are 338+ buses carrying &" la(hs passengers daily on 33" routes.


The political situation of any country strongly influences any industry that wishes to flourish in the framework of the country. The Heavy Motor Vehicle Industry is also affected strongly by the action and decisions taken by the men with authority. The government is instrumental in the passing of the various laws and acts, which govern the working of the industry and has a very strong bearing on the success of the industry. The clause of disallowing the use of old vehicles would have led to an increased demand for the Heavy Motor Vehicles. For e.g. it has been estimated that the recent upreme !ourt verdict to pull off any vehicle more than "# years from the road is e$pected to increase the demand by about "#%%% units. &uses for tate Transport 'ndertakings( the buses used by the T')s account for almost *%+ of the bus sales. The budget of how many buses are to be ordered is dependent on each state government. If the government is hard pressed for funds the number of replacement units for buses ordered will be low. This will have a great influence in the demand and the profitability of companies in the manufacture of buses. ,-.MIT ( There are basically three types of permits that are re/uired to be taken by any transporter. They are( 0ational permit( This is the permit issued by the transporter, permitting him to move in minimum # states. If more states are to be covered than respectively the permit fees has to be paid. Hence the government takes a consolidated ta$ payment at the time of issue of permits and thereafter the transporter does not re/uire paying ta$ at each and every permitted state. It is renewed every si$ months. tate permit( This is a permit allowing the transporter to move freely within a particular state. The ta$ payments and the privileges en1oyed are same as 0ational ,ermit but the only distinguishing factor is that it can move only within one particular state. It is renewed every si$ months.

Temporary permit( This is similar to 0ational ,ermit but instead of the period of 2 months it is allowed only for "# days for all the states but the transporter here has to pay individual ta$es for each state unlike !onsolidated in 0ational ,ermit. 3epreciation policy( The government decides the amount of depreciation that can be charged on the use of Heavy Motor Vehicles. ince corporate and institutional customers normally purchase the Heavy Motor Vehicles, they rely heavily on the depreciation that can be provided for ta$ shelters since it helps show a lower net profit and higher notional e$penses. The increase in depreciation rates therefore can help push the sales since it will spur more Heavy Motor Vehicle buying on account of the ta$ shelters received. In the past, the 45I changed the depreciation norms to control the ta$ collection from corporation. For e$ample( the decrease in depreciation rates from 66+ in "*7*8*% to 9%+ in "**%8*" led to drop in Heavy Motor Vehicles. Infrastructure development( :ll the vehicles according to their weight have to pay a fi$ed amount of ta$ known as toll ta$. The government uses this money for the development of roads, maintenance etc.

ECONOMIC It is a known parado$ that the economic condition really affects the economic condition. This is shown by the fact that all the industries in any economy are interconnected and an increase or decrease in the activity of any one industry has a direct or indirect bearing on the activity of the other industries.

Trade cycles( Trade cycles such as recession or prosperity have a direct impact on road transport services. ;hen there is recession or slowdown in the economy and other industries such as travel and tourism, e$ports8imports, the level of economic activities are low as a result there is low demand for transportation services such as passenger transport. This has a direct impact on the operations and profitability of this industry. It is during this time that the transporters need to effectively manage demand and supply and market their services to retain their customers. ,ricing( The fair prices for passenger transport is directly regulated by government incase of public transport like &- T and indirectly incase of private such as cargo or private bus contractors. In case of private transporters the government fi$es the minimum and ma$imum limits for the prices. transport. Fuel prices( -arlier government regulated and directly controlled the prices of the fuel8 diesel and petrol8 and thereby had a direct impact on the fuel prices which determined the cost. Thus the price offered by the road transporters was directly influenced by the government pricing policy. 3ue to this involvement private transporters were aloof from the fluctuations in International fuel prices as the prices were highly subsidi<ed before supplying to the pumps. For e.g. recently there was a hike in the prices of fuels and accordingly the fares of &- T were increased by .e." on all the routes. o it has a direct impact on the price mi$ of road

SOCIAL trikes=war=communal riots( These incidents directly affect the service delivery process. This may result in low demand, loss of property and many cases in1ury to the people > customers and employees.

Festivals( In case of festivals like 4anesh !haturthi, Holi, 3iwali etc the demand for road transport goes down and there can be damage to the vehicle. Holidays=vacations( This is another time of the year when the road transporter can face low or high demand depending on the sector he is catering to. -ven, some companies have purchase buses for picking up the employees and dropping them back home e.g. ?arsen and Tubro Fiat, 'TI etc. :=! lu$ury buses( In an honest effort to attract the private vehicle owners to &- T buses and thereby reduce the congestion to some e$tent on Mumbai city roads which affect the mobility of vehicles, &- T has introduced #" air conditioned buses. These buses have( ?u$ury seats with soft fabric, carpeted flooring 1ack8knife doors at entrance and e$it, wide corridor for easy movement, etc. ?ow floor buses( &- T has received demands from various sections of the society who are working for the welfare of the physically handicapped, regarding need for introducing low floor buses in the city. In response to these demands and suggestions, &- T has launched the trial run of low floor buses provided by T-?!5 and :shok ?eyland. This trial is for 2 months.

pecial transport arrangements are made and e$tra buses under various :ction ,lans are operated during the year on various social= religious occasions. The 'ndertakings also pays special attention to operate e$tra buses to clear the stranded passenger traffic on account of dislocation of .ailways, heavy rains and similar such events. The 'ndertaking also operates e$tra buses on aturdays, undays and

Holidays to clear the e$cursion traffic at various picnic points. The undertaking has been endeavoring to ease the 1ourney of lady passengers, particularly working women by introducing ladies First buses at various points where the ladies are given priority while boarding the bus at the starting point.

There are special buses started for ladies and disabled persons. -ven students up to "9th standard get concessions on the fares known as student concession. The 'ndertaking has a well8e/uipped Training !enter for the traffic staff and designed program to re8educate them on such relevant topics as fuel conservation, safety measures, behaviour with the public etc. Training is also imparted in .efresher !ourses to improve driving habits of the drivers under which officers check the habits of drivers constantly and as a result of which there is a great reduction in accidents. In the .efresher !ourses, the stress is on an image revamp from a mere &- T employee to a concerned individual who cares for passenger comfort. The accident8prevention wing of the &- T has an accident prevention van with safety slogans and e/uipped with instructive audio8visual programs.

TECHNOLOGICAL :ge of the vehicle( ,.'.!. under the .T5 regulations all vehicles over "# years of age are to stop running on road, taking into consideration the environmental

and pollution factors. The emission of gases from these vehicles is ha<ardous to the environment. However it has been noticed that the emission factors not only depends on the age but also the distance traveled by the buses and the maintenance of such vehicles over their life. This aspect is completely ignored by the .T5 authorities. IT( @ust as integration of IT in all business activities, transportation sector has not been an e$ception to it. More and more logistical software are being used for 1obs like keeping track of the vehicles on the move, organi<ing database of the customers, maintaining relations with the customers etc. !04 0atural 4as &us :rticulated ingle 3eck &us AVestibule &usB :utomated Fare !ollection ystem ystem !oncept

& )3s are distincti e characteristics of ser ices which create special mar(eting challenges and opportunities.

)ntangibility is a characteristic of a ser ice indicating that it has no physical attributes and as a result$ impossible for a customer to taste$ feel$ hear or smell before they buy it. Therefore the customers for many$ ser ices$ has to buy them ;on trust; since they cannot be inspected before use. <owe er$ before purchasing a traditional product$ a consumer can touch$ taste and sample the product. -ince ser ices are intangibles arious tangible clues are re1uired to be pro ided in order to ma(e customers feel that some (ind of ser ice has being pro ided and there has been increase in the alue. Bus -er ices= Better boo(ing or tic(eting arrangements. Better lightings on bus stops also inside the busses. Clean and well built bus stop. 7roper urinal facilities at the bus depots. Cushioned seats inside the buses. 7roper display of reser ation charts in case of trains or time schedule of buses. 4rin(ing water facilities at bus stops. :ell'trained personnel for complaint handling or grie ances

)nconsistency is also referred to as ariability or heterogeneity. The inconsistency occurs largely because of= 4ifferent ser ice pro iders perform a gi en ser ice on different occasions. The ser ice performed by an indi idual pro ider may differ o er a time. )nteraction between customer and pro ider may ary by customer. , ery time a ser ice is performed$ the process and the customer e6perience is different. -er ices that are pro ided by indi iduals >rather than machines? will ary$

depending upon which indi idual performs the ser ice$ and these will e en ary with the same ser ice pro ider from one 5ob to the ne6t. The ser ice will also ary according to the degree to which customers or clients are in ol ed in the production of the ser ice. @ne can always e6pect inconsistency in the ser ice deli ery$ as customer himself is in ol ed in the ser ice production. #lso arious other factors lead to inconsistency. Bus -er ices= Better'trained and moti ated employees >both frontline and bac('office?. Maintenance of e1uipments$ i.e.$ busses and trains. 7lanning and organi9ing the procedures. 4ecreasing the use of manpower or using more of automated procedure.

)nseparability is a characteristic of a ser ice indicating that it cannot be separated from the creator'seller of the product. Many ser ices are created$ deli ered and consumed simultaneously through interaction between customers and ser ice producers. :hereas goods generally$ are produced first and consumed later on. 2or e6ample , a dentist creates$ deli ers all his ser ices simultaneously and the presence of the consumer is re1uired during the performance of the ser ice. This means that in most of cases$ people are in ol ed concurrently in the production and mar(eting efforts of ser ice organi9ations. )n most of the cases the consumer recei es and consumes the ser ices at the ser ice producers3 premises ;so called ser ice factory;. -ince inseparability characteristic generally means the direct interaction between the creator'sellers$ it re1uires shortest channel of distribution i.e. direct selling. -er ice cannot be stoc(ed by distribution chain. This concept has a ma5or limitation. 2or e6ample$ one'person say one auto mechanic can only repair so many ehicles in a day. Thus indi idual ser ice seller;s ser ices cannot be sold in ery many mar(ets. This characteristic limits the scale of operation of a ser ice organi9ation.

There arc some ser ices$ which can be sold by a representati e of the main ser ice producer e.g.$ tra el agent$ insurance$ bro(er$ but at the final point of ser ice deli ery the creator'seller presence is una oidable. )nstitutions producing them generally sell such ser ices. )n ser ice deli ery$ both the producer and the consumer are inseparable$ i.e.$ both are re1uired to be together at the same time. Bus -er ices= 4ecreasing the interactions between the producer and consumers 7roper training of the employees. 7roper maintenance of ser ice factory. Trying to segment the consumers.

The in entory relates to perish'ability characteristic in ser ices mar(eting. The ser ices cannot be easily sa ed$ stored or in entoried. )n entory problem e6ists with ser ices because of its perishable nature -er ices cannot be o erproduced and stored so as to deli er at a future date both production and consumption at the same time. Bus -er ices= 7rediction of fluctuation in demand. Balancing demand and supply using modern techni1ues to do so 8nderstanding the consumer beha ior.


PRODUCT LEVELS: Core Bene !": )t is the main or core reason why the customer will buy the ser ice of the ser ice pro ider. More li(e the basic purpose or necessity.

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B#s!$ Pro%&$": The core benefit is con erted into a basic product. That is the ser ice that can use by the customer in order to fulfill hisAher needs. E'(e$"e% Pro%&$": )t refers to the set of attributes and conditions e6pected by the customers when they purchase the ser ice. A&)*en"e% Pro%&$":

)t is the additional features that the ban( pro ides which e6ceeds the customer3s e6pectations. Po"en"!#+ Pro%&$": )nno ations and product differential is the bases of a 7otential 7roduct. )f the buses and railways alter their ser ices according to the re1uirements of the indi idual customers they reach this le el.

The product'ser ice is the bus transportation ser ice. The ser ice is the same whether you tra el by B,-T or by a pri ate transporter. Thus B,-T has a well' recogni9ed brand name. )ts 1uality in pro iding the ser ice is legendary. The three product le els in B,-T are= ' The ,#s!$ (ro%&$": of the bus industry is transportation of the people from one place to another. The e'(e$"e% Pro%&$": 1. Timeliness !. -afety of passengers 3. Brand name of pro ider &. 7roper tic(et dispensation and chec(ing ". 7roper planning of structure of bus for easy entry and e6it. 0. Cleanliness The A&)*en"e% Pro%&$": 1. Beser ation of tic(et !. -ofter seats and air condition bus 3. Concessions for certain sector of society li(e freedom fighters$ military men. &. 7ermanent Beser ed seat for ladies$ old people and handicapped people ". #utomatic tic(et fare collection The (o"en"!#+ (ro%&$" :

1. 7ro iding separate line to B,-T bus on ma6imum number of route !. Less waiting plan 3. 4isaster management &. !& hour ser ice on ma6imum route

C7lace$D means not 5ust the locations of producer facilities$ but the locations of all points of sale at which customers may ha e access to the product or ser ice. 7lace refers to the contact point between the ser ice pro ider and the customer. Two main issues considered regarding the decision of the place are accessibility and a ailability of the ser ice to the customer.

The buses tra el the re1uired destinations as per the scheduled timetable. The buses are able to reach the remote areas. )E the case of B,-T it has a wide networ( of buses that help to transport the commuters from one place to another. The B,-T try co er almost each place in the city. B,-T has bus stop after e ery "++ F*++metres. #s B,-T is public utility it is also operated in remote area in spite of loss on that particular route due fewer commuters. The aim of B,-T is to pro ide ser ice to each and e ery person city in spite of loss.

7rice is one element in the mar(eting mi6 that produces re enueG all the other elements produce costs. 7rices are easiest mar(eting mi6 elements to ad5ustG product features$ channels and e en promotion ta(e more time. 7rice also communicates to the mar(et the company3s intended alue positioning of its product or brand.

7ricing decisions occupy a place of outstanding significance$ especially in a utility underta(ing. Ma(ing a ailable the public transportation facilities to the masses and strengthening the infrastructure base for an all'round de elopment of the country can3t be possible unless public transport contribute substantially to the de elopment process. This necessitates due attention on the financial health of )ndian railways and B,-T for this$ one cant underestimate the pricing decisions.

2or tic(ets of B,-T$ the pricing model used is the cost oriented method$ where all direct costs >dri ers3 charges$ conductors3 charges? and indirect charges >maintenance of busses$ depreciation on busses etc? are added up with the profit margin to arri e at a price. 7rice of normally depends upon ". Fi$ed cost( it refers to the interest on capital, depreciation costs, registration and insurance e$pense, ta$es to be paid, e$penses on general upkeep of vehicles, administrative e$penses 9. emi fi$ed costsD it refers to the salaries of drivers, cleaners, and conductor, miscellaneous e$penses that vary with the running of the vehicles. 6. Variable cost( this includes cost of fuel, oil, which are incurred when the vehicles are on the move and maintenance costs that are directly attractable to a particular 1ourney. The variable costs are generally directly proportional to the distance moved. E. Vehicle utili<ation( &- T would be interested in getting ma$imum mileage out of his vehicle. The &- T prefer to move it at the ma$imum possible and permissible speed so that transit time would be less and he can have a better utili<ation of bus ". %o ernment policy= apart from abo e cost go ernment can issue legislation$ frame guideline$ issue directi es regarding price.

The pricing of tic(ets of B,-T are 1uiet fle6ible$ they rise with any ma5or rise in the cost of diesel or oil. They also ha e different price le els for the same ser ice.

-tudents below 1!th standard$ freedom fighters and military men are offered concessions in all B,-T buses.

7romotion is nothing but ma(ing the customer more and more aware of the ser ices and benefits pro ided H7romotion3 is a descripti e term for the mi6 of communication acti ities$ which a ser ice organi9ation carries out in order to influence the public on whom their sales depend. )t is an element in an organi9ation3s mar(eting mi6 that ser es to inform$ persuade$ orA and remind people about an organi9ation or indi idual goods$ ser ice$ image$ ideas$ community in ol ement or impact on the society. Mar(eting is the result of all acti ities aimed at enhancing customer awareness of$ and stimulating demand for$ products or ser ices. Typically$ these acti ities include= ad ertising in all of its forms >point'of'sale$ direct mailing$ print media and broadcast media?G sales force representationG and 7B >public relations?. B,-T do not normally underta(e aggressi e promotion. Beason for not underta(ing aggressi e transport= 1. Monopoly= B,-T being public utility en5oy monopoly in public transport. -o they do not ha e any competition from other ser ice pro ider

!. 7rices= B,-T ha e cost oriented pricing method .due to this they (eep ery nominal price for ser ice. 4ue to this reason B,-T ha e ad antage o er other ser ice pro ider li(e ric(shaw and ta6i. 3. 7lace= commuter can access bus stop ery easily because after e ery "++'*++ meters there is one bus stop.

B,-T also started promoting its ser ice as en ironment friendly. )n order to decrease pollution in Mumbai$ go ernment insists that people use public transport

system. -o B,-T is now focusing on this issue to encourage more and more people to tra el by its bus. #lso the B,-T is planning to increase the strength of CE% buses in its fleet. CE% is a clear burning fuel$ with no blac( smo(e and This will add to passenger comfort. ery low particulate emissions. Thus CE% engine is en ironmental friendly. Low noise le el of the engine.

7hysical , idence is the en ironment in which the ser ice is deli ered with physical or tangible commodities and where the ser ice pro ider and the customer interact. 7hysical e idence ma(es a huge impact on the customer. 7hysical e idence pro ides customers means of e aluating the ser ice.

The Bus -tops and Bus 4epots play a ital role in enhancing 7hysical , idence of the -er ice. They are usually (ept neat and clean. #gain the fle6es on the bus stops$ which are put up for ad ertisements play a role. Eow$ more and more bus stops are ha ing seating facilities or a rooftop. #gain the interiors of the buses are (ept simple and user'friendlyG seats are in good conditions$ which all add up to ma(e the 5ourney of the customer a happy 5ourney. Buses are always clean. There is only one bac(drop in case of B,-T is that appearance of tic(et is not good and it is ery difficult to understand for commuter as it does not show place$ date$ time$ etc. tic(et 5ust show the price. -o there is great chance of cheating from both parties.

The process mi6 constitutes the o erall procedure in ol ed in using the ser ices offered. )t is ery necessary that the process is ery customer friendly. )n other words a process should be such that the customer is easily able to understand and easy to follow.

B,-T has been successful in de eloping a process of boarding the buses and alighting the buses. 7eople generally get down from the front gate and board the bus from the rear gate. :hen the commuters get in from the rear gate and there is nobody else left to board$ the conductor will send an alarm bell to the dri er$ which is audible. 4ri er will dri e only when all the passengers who want to get down will do so$ irrespecti e of the bell. #nd if all the passengers get down and the conductor hasn3t rung the bell he will not dri e unless the bell is rung.

,eople play a ma1or role in service organi<ations. It is their responsibility to see that the customers) needs and wants are satisfied. This re/uires the employees to be well motivated F focused about their 1ob. The providers have to be in the highest state of readiness and also in the highest level of skill. ,-5,?- 8 in service marketing includes

,M7L@I,,@T<,B C8-T@M,B-

,M7L@I,,- F They are the representati es of the company. Their performance can create a positi e as well as negati e impact of the ser ice process and the image of the company. Jeeping Hpeople3 factor healthy is one of the prime concerns of the company.

)n case bus transport$ dri er$ conductor$ cleaner$ mechanical engineer$ wor(er at depot are part of people mi6. 4ri er and conductor ha e to be polite and commuter friendly. They are actually come into contact with people so they ha e ta(e care of need of people for e6 dri e bus safely$ allow passenger to board and get down safely$ etc. on other hand cleaner$ engineer$ and wor(er of depot should also be accurate as condition of bus and safety of passenger depend upon them.

2lower of -er ices has been greatly di ided into se en petals of a flower. )t broadly consists of= 1. )nformation !. Consultancy 3. @rder'ta(ing &. <ospitality ". -afe'Jeeping 0. ,6ceptions 7. Billing . 7ayments

Eow all these petals will be e6plained in details with the help of ser ices pro ided related to each petal.

)n today3s world$ public relation de elopment or information dissemination system plays a ery crucial role in any (ind of organi9ation. 7roper information pro ided to the people can turn them to be your customer. )f not proper$ then the ice' ersa case can also happen. -ometimes a well made plan fails due to lac( of proper information flow. But now'a'days$ the attitude of many people towards collecting and pro iding proper information has changed. )t has turn out to be an information era. Therefore$ it has become ery important for any industry to pro ide satisfactory information to their customers. These are the following ways in which B,-T Buses lend up the re1uired information= The main Bus 4epot in Mumbai is at :adala. There are also !" Bus 4epots in all o er Mumbai. -o any information can be pro ided from these depots. There are also internet ser ices pro ided. 7eople can isit at www.bestunderta( This site pro ides detail information such as bus schedules$ bus routes$ bus fares$ concessions pro ided to old age or students etc. )n addition$ The Tata )ndicom B,-T route mobile ser ice will pro ide e6tensi e information to Tata )ndicom customers. #lso$ the Beliance customers can recei e the information through HB world3 .i.e. Beliance world. )t acts as an internet in such cellular phones. %7- system is e6pected to launch in few years. This technology helps the customers to (now where is the bus$ which bus$ what time is going to reach at the bus stop. This will help in lending proper information.

Consultancy is a (ind of suggestions pro ided to the people when he is interested in gaining more information about a product or a ser ice of a particular industry. This

method has become an attracti e tool for the industries as it helps in turning people into your customers. Therefore$ many industries started adopting this strategy of gaining more and more people. <owe er$ in case of B,-T Buses$ there are as such no special consultancy firms. )f a bus tra eler has some doubt then the bus conductor helps in clearing those doubts. )f a customer is new to some area then the bus conductor can help in suggesting where to get down i.e. which bus stop >especially when customer doesn3t (now where e6actly he has to get down?.

@rder ta(ing refers to the procedure of order gi en by the customer to the industry for the re1uired ser ices. 2ollowing are the ways of order ta(ing in B,-T Buses= The most common method used for order ta(ing is directly purchasing tic(ets. The customer can buy tic(ets directly from the conductor. There is no means of intermediaries. -tudents and old aged people can get concessions which are issued in the bus depots. This concession helps in getting fifty to se enty fi e percent discount of the total cost of tic(ets. Minimum amount for the minimum distance is Bs. 3."+A'. The rate (eeps on increasing as the distance gap (eeps on increasing. The B,-T has reser ed 3 seats for handicapped person $ ! seats for -enior Citi9ens and 0 seats for lady passengers in the -ingle 4ec(er buses. )n the 4ouble 4ec(er buses it has reser ed 3 seats each for lady passengers and handicapped persons and ! seats for -enior Citi9ens.

<ospitality pre iews the performance of the ser ices pro ided or the beha ior in which the ser ice pro ider reacts to their customers. )t has always been a (ind of ritual in )ndia for offering a warm welcome to their guest. That is$ it is basically a ser ice performance. )t includes arious aspects such as the surrounding$ infrastructure$ appearance$ spea(ing tone etc. )t can either clic( the customer or flip the customer.

:ell hospitality in the case of B,-T Buses is pro ided only through Bus dri ers and Bus Conductors. These are the front line people or employees whom the customers meet. There are no such proper training programs conducted for this staff. There is some orientation programs specially conducted for them. )t all depends upon person to person for their speech$ their attitude$ their beha ior etc. There are some seats specially boo(ed for ladies in Buses$ and if in case any male sit on that seat with the female standing in the same bus$ then that female has a full right to lodge a complain$ and the conductor will ma(e sure that the female gets the seat.

-afe F (eeping basically$ refers to how much the customer feels safe when he is using the ser ices pro ided to him. )t can also be considered as a (ind pf protection gi en to the customers$ their belongings$ and any other things related to them. )n the case of B,-T Buses F lost property$ the conductor deposits the articles left in the bus inad ertently$ by the passengers. The articles are then (ept in the Centrali9ed Lost 7roperty -ection at :adala. )n case the articles bear the name and address of the rightful owner$ then intimation is sent informing that the article is stored in the lost property section. #rticles are handed o er to the rightful owners after proper identification and reco ery of the rele ant fees. )n the case of space in Buses$ # double'dec(er bus was more suitable than a single'dec(er one$ for occupying no more road space than the latter and with only one dri erG it carried one and a half times as many passengers.

These are certain (ind of situations where it cannot be a oided. B8-,- F there are some different (ind of buses a ailable. The Hstandee3 bus system introduced in 1*"" was one attempt in that direction. )t was restricted in the beginning to ehicles of a particular type. )n these buses$ ten standees were allowed in the city$ and se en in the suburbs. )n 1*"8$ the permission was e6tended to some double' dec(er busesG these were allowed to ta(e eight standees.

#LL -T#E4,,- B8#nother inno ation came in 1*07= the Kall standeeK bus. )t has only a few seats$ the rest of the space being for strap hanging passengers. These buses were put on short routes. )t was hoped that they would reduce the period of waiting in the 1ueue for the passengers. But the passengers were not impressed. 2inally$ in 1*7+$ the buses had to be withdrawn. #BT)C8L#T,4 B81*07 saw yet another type of bus put on the roads= the articulated bus. There were ten of them. The 8nderta(ing was the first transport organi9ation in the country to use such a bus. The engine was separate from the bus in this ehicle$ and the two were 5oined together. The ehicle was of entirely )ndian ma(e$ with the #sho( Leyland of Madras manufacturing the tractor'engine$ and Mahindra @wen of 7oona building the Hbus3 part of it. C@#C< -,BL)C, The underta(ing had eight lu6ury coaches$ and they were open to hire at three rupees per mile$ but the demand for them was ery limited. Therefore$ to put them to profitable use$ the 8nderta(ing started a HCoach -er ice3 in 1*00. The ser ice operated e ery day between ,lectric <ouse and -ion$ and between 4adar and /uhu on -undays and holidays. There was a special fare for this ser ice= 8 paise per (ilometer. @nce the no elty of riding in a lu6ury coach wore out$ the higher fares tended to discourage passengers from using it$ unless they had no time to wait for the regular ser ice bus. The ser ice lasted for hardly a year. :ith more Hlimited3 ser ices introduced on the -ion'2ort route$ the Coach -er ice was patroni9ed e en less. The income from the ser ice started dwindling$ while the operating costs (ept rising. 2inally$ in /une 1*07$ it was discontinued.

This part refers to the financial aspect of the customer i.e. the customer is willing to pay the amount for the ser ices pro ided. )t also depends upon the (ind of payment he ma(es. Eow in the case of B,-T Buses$ e en after the B.,.-.T. Company was ta(en o er by the Municipal Corporation$ the bus fares continued unchanged till 31st March$ 1*"1. 2or the city the fares were telescopic$ that is$ as the distance increased the fare per mile came down. 2or the suburbs$ the fare was Hflat3$ that is$ it remained the same whate er the distance. 2or one #nna you could go a mile and a half in the city$ but only one mile in the suburbs. Then came the changes in the fare'structures. 2rom #pril 1*"1$ bus tra el in the city became e en cheaper$ with the basic fare of one #nna ta(ing you a mile and three 1uarters. <owe er$ the fractional fares$ li(e 1.1A! #nna or !.1A! #nnas and 3.1A! #nnas$ for the fare Hstages3 were rounded off to the full #nna. )n the suburbs too the fare was brought down from one #nna per mile to nine pies that is three 1uarters of #nna. The disparity in the fares for the city and the suburbs was brought to an end in @ctober 1*"". The suburbs naturally profited from this. 2or an #nna you could now tra el a mile and three 1uarters$ instead of a mile and a 1uarter. But the fractional fares were restored. )n 1*"*$ with decimal coinage coming into force$ e6cept for the 7 paise fare for the first stage$ all the fares were multiples of fi e that is$ 1+$ 1"$ !+ and so on. These came into effect from 1"th /anuary 1*"*. 2rom !1st #pril 1*03$ the minimum fare was raised from 7 paise to 1+ paise. The 8nderta(ing re ised its bus fares from time to time strictly according to the pro ision made under %o t. notification

Beplies to the ComplaintsA-uggestions= ComplaintsAsuggestions recei ed directly by the department or appeared in the news papers are promptly replied after getting the 5ustification from the concerned department. The department has issued 73+ clarifications in the current year to the complaints$ suggestions$ criticism appeared in the news papers and recei ed directly. :here can suggestionsAcomplaints be lodgedM They are launched at bus stations and bus chow(ies$ where the -uggestionAComplaint boo( is pro ided. -uggestionsAComplaints can also be lodged with the inspecting staff or by writing letter to B,-T @fficials. <ow are complaints redressedM They conduct a departmental en1uiry against defaulting staff$ in which case the complainant is called and necessary legal procedures are adopted. 4oes B,-T pro ide any assistance A help in case of accidents in ol ing busesM They gi e hospitali9ation$ monetary assistance and inform close relati es and friends. The whole structure is a clean and neat presentation of #BT enriched with 1uality and commitment of pri ate ehicles by means of implementation measures mentioned abo e. Traffic management schemes would help in sol ing to a great e6tent the problems faced today. These schemes will also re1uire creating public support and strict enforcement.


)ntranet will be used to connect all the depots and ma5or bus stations. )nteracti e oice response systems will be installed at the ma5or bus stations. ,lectronic display systems will be installed at ma5or bus stops.