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You are on page 1of 5

4.3.10 Find a basis for the null space of the following matrix: A =

_

_

1 0 5 1 4

2 1 6 2 2

0 2 8 1 9

_

_

.

We need to nd a basis for the solutions to the equation Ax = 0. To do this we

rst put A in row reduced echelon form. The result (according to the computer)

is:

_

_

1 0 5 0 7

0 1 4 0 6

0 0 0 1 3

_

_

.

From this we can read the general solution, x =

_

_

5x

3

7x

5

4x

3

6x

5

x

3

3x

5

x

5

_

_

. We can also

write this as x = x

3

_

_

5

4

1

0

0

_

_

+ x

5

_

_

7

6

0

3

1

_

_

, or Span

_

_

_

_

5

4

1

0

0

_

_

,

_

_

7

6

0

3

1

_

_

_

_

. Because these

two vectors are clearly not multiples of one another, they also give a basis. So

a basis for null(A) is

_

_

_

_

5

4

1

0

0

_

_

,

_

_

7

6

0

3

1

_

_

_

_

.

3.3.28 Let v

1

=

_

_

7

4

9

5

_

_

, v

2

=

_

_

4

7

2

5

_

_

, v

3

=

_

_

1

5

3

4

_

_

. It can be veried that v

1

3v

2

+

5v

3

= 0. Use this information to nd a basis for H = Span{v

1

, v

2

, v

3

}.

By the Spanning Set Theorem, some subset of the v

i

is a basis for H. In

class we showed how to nd this subset. We simply remove any of the vectors

involved in a non-trivial linear relation. So I choose to remove v

3

(I could have

1

removed any of the v

i

because they each occur with a non-zero coecient in

the dependency relation v

1

3v

2

+ 5v

3

= 0). The remaining vectors then give

a basis for H. We know they span by the Spanning Set Theorem. They are

also linearly independent, because they are not multiples of one another.

4.3.30 Let S = {v

1

, . . . , v

k

} be a set of k vectors in R

n

, with k > n. Use a theorem

from Chapter 1 to explain why S cannot be a basis for R

n

.

Theorem 8, page 69, claims that any set {v

1

, . . . , v

p

} in R

n

is linearly dependent

if p > n. That is exactly the situation we nd ourselves in (expect that we have

used the letter k instead of p). Thus {v

1

, . . . , v

k

} is linearly dependent, and

cannot be a basis.

4.3.32 Suppose that T is a one-to-one transformation. Show that if the set of images

{T(v

1

), . . . , T(v

p

)} is linearly dependent, then {v

1

, . . . , v

p

} is linearly depen-

dent.

This problem should say that T is a linear transformation (the book

has a typo).

If the set {T(v

1

), . . . , T(v

p

)} is linearly dependent, then there are c

1

, . . . , c

p

R

not all zero such that c

1

T(v

1

) + + c

p

T(v

p

) = 0. Because T is a linear

transformation, we can rewrite this as T(c

1

v

1

+ +c

p

v

p

) = 0. We know that

T(0) = 0, so because T is one-to-one it must be the case that c

1

v

1

+ +c

p

v

p

=

0. This gives a dependency relation on the v

i

(recall that not all the c

i

are zero),

and thus {v

1

, . . . , v

p

} is linearly dependent.

4.4.14 The set B = {1 t

2

, t t

2

, 2 2t + t

2

} is a basis for P

2

. Find the coordinate

vector of p(t) = 3 + t 6t

2

relative to B.

We need to write p in terms of the basis B, that is, nd x

1

, x

2

, x

3

R such that

x

1

(1 t

2

) + x

2

(t t

2

) + x

3

(2 2t + t

2

) = 3 + t 6t

2

. Multiplying things out,

we get (x

1

+2x

3

) +(x

2

2x

3

)t +(x

1

x

2

+x

3

)t

2

= 3 +t 6t

2

. Thus we have

to solve the three linear equations:

x

1

+ 2x

3

= 3

x

2

2x

3

= 1

x

1

x

2

+ x

3

= 6

We form the augmented matrix for this system,

_

_

1 0 2 3

0 1 2 1

1 1 1 6

_

_

.

2

In row reduced echelon form, this is the matrix

_

_

1 0 0 7

0 1 0 3

0 0 1 2

_

_

. So we see that

x

1

= 7, x

2

= 3, and x

3

= 2.

This implies that 7(1 t

2

) + (3)(t t

2

) + (2)(2 2t + t

2

) = 3 + t 6t

2

, so

[3 + t 6t

2

]

B

=

_

_

7

3

2

_

_

R

3

.

4.4.20 Suppose that {v

1

, . . . , v

4

} is a linearly dependent spanning set for a vector space

V . Show that each w in V can be expressed in more than one way as a linear

combination of v

1

, . . . , v

4

.

Because the v

i

are linearly dependent, there are c

1

, . . . , c

4

R not all zero

such that c

1

v

1

+ + c

4

v

4

= 0. Given w there are d

1

, . . . , d

4

R such that

d

1

v

1

+ + d

4

v

4

= w (because the v

i

are a spanning set). Consider the linear

combination (c

1

+d

1

)v

1

+ +(c

4

+d

4

)v

4

. We have that (c

1

+d

1

)v

1

+ +(c

4

+

d

4

)v

4

= (c

1

v

1

+ +c

4

v

4

) +(d

1

v

1

+ +d

4

v

4

) = 0+w = w. This constitutes

a dierent linear combination than d

1

v

1

+ + d

4

v

4

because not all of the c

i

are zero, and hence for some i between 1 and 4, we have that c

i

+ d

i

= d

i

.

4.4.32 Let p

1

(t) = 1 + t

2

, p

2

(t) = 2 t + 3t

2

, p

3

(t) = 1 + 2t 4t

2

.

(a) Use coordinate vectors to show that these polynomials form a basis for P

2

.

We know that a basis for P

2

is B = {1, t, t

2

}. It is not dicult to see

that if the p

i

are dependent, then so are the images [p

1

]

B

, [p

2

]

B

, [p

3

]

B

.

That is, if 0 = c

1

p

2

+ c

2

p

2

+ c

3

p

3

is a nontrivial dependency (i.e., not

all c

i

are zero), then taking the coordinate mapping of both sides of the

equation yields the dependency relation 0 = [0]

B

= [c

1

p

2

+c

2

p

2

+c

3

p

3

]

B

=

c

1

[p

2

]

B

+ c

2

[p

2

]

B

+ c

3

[p

3

]

B

.

We also know that if [p

1

]

B

, [p

2

]

B

, [p

3

]

B

spans R

3

, then the p

i

span P

2

.

That is, assuming the [p

i

]

B

span, we know that for each f P

2

there are

d

i

such that [f]

B

= d

1

[p

1

]

B

+ d

2

[p

2

]

B

+ d

3

[p

3

]

B

= [d

1

p

1

+ d

2

p

2

+ d

3

p

3

]

B

,

and because the coordinate mapping is one-to-one, this implies that f =

d

1

p

1

+ d

2

p

2

+ d

3

p

3

.

So to show the p

i

are a basis of P

2

, it is enough to show that the [p

i

]

B

are a basis of R

3

. By the Invertible Matrix Theorem, this set will be a

basis if and only if the matrix

_

[p

1

]

B

[p

2

]

B

[p

3

]

B

=

_

_

1 2 1

0 1 2

1 3 4

_

_

has a

pivot in every row (because then by IMT the columns will span and will

be linearly independent). So we put

_

_

1 2 1

0 1 2

1 3 4

_

_

in row reduced echelon

3

form and obtain:

_

_

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

_

. We conclude that the set {p

1

, p

2

, p

3

} does

form a basis of P

2

.

(b) Consider the basis B = {p

1

, p

2

, p

3

} for P

2

. Find q in P

2

given that [q]

B

=

_

_

3

1

2

_

_

.

Because [q]

B

=

_

_

3

1

2

_

_

, we know that

q = 3p

1

+p

2

+2p

3

= 3(1+t

2

)+(2t+3t

2

)+2(1+2t4t

2

) = 1+3t8t

2

.

4.5.12 Find the dimension of the vector space spanned by

_

_

1

2

0

_

_

,

_

_

3

4

1

_

_

,

_

_

8

6

5

_

_

, and

_

_

3

0

7

_

_

.

To nd the dimension, we need to nd the number of elements in a basis. So we

form the matrix

_

_

1 3 8 3

2 4 6 0

0 1 5 7

_

_

and count the number of pivot columns

(this because we know that dim(Col(A)) for a matrix A is precisely the number

of pivot columns of A). So we put

_

_

1 3 8 3

2 4 6 0

0 1 5 7

_

_

in row reduced echelon

form, obtaining the matrix:

_

_

1 0 7 0

0 1 5 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

. This has 3 pivot columns, so the

dimension of the subspace spanned by the vectors given is 3.

4.5.22 The rst four Laguerre polynomials are 1, 1t, 24t+t

2

, and 618t+9t

3

t

3

.

Show that these polynomials form a basis of P

3

.

Consider the basis B = {1, t, t

2

, t

3

} of P

3

. Utilizing the same arguments as we

did in question 4.4.32, we know that it is enough to show that the images of

these polynomials form a basis of R

4

under to coordinate mapping. Their images

under this mapping are: [1]

B

=

_

_

1

0

0

0

_

_

, [1 t]

B

=

_

_

1

1

0

0

_

_

, [2 4t + t

2

]

B

=

_

_

2

4

1

0

_

_

,

4

and [6 18t + 9t

3

t

3

]

B

=

_

_

6

18

9

1

_

_

.

By IMT, these will form a basis if and only if the matrix

_

_

1 1 2 6

0 1 4 18

0 0 1 9

0 0 0 1

_

_

is invertible. This matrix will be invertible if and only if its determinate is

non-zero (theorem 4 page 194). The computer tells me that the determinate of

this matrix is equal to 1. So we conclude that the given polynomials do form a

basis.

4.5.32 Let H be a nonzero subspace of V , and suppose T is a one-to-one (linear)

mapping of V into W. Prove that dim T(H) = dim H. If T happens to be

a one-to-one mapping of V onto W, then dim V = dim W. Isomorphic nite

dimensional vector spaces have the same dimension.

We know that if v

1

, . . . , v

p

is linearly independent, then because T is one-to-one,

T(v

1

), . . . , T(v

p

) is linearly independent (that was an earlier homework problem,

4.3.32). We showed in class that if v

1

, . . . , v

p

spans H, then T(v

1

), . . . , T(v

p

)

spans T(H). This means that because the v

1

, . . . , v

p

form a basis of H, the

T(v

1

), . . . , T(v

p

) give a basis of T(H). They both have the same size, so both

spaces have the same dimension.

When T is also onto, then taking H = V we have that T(V ) = W, and the

statement follows from what we have already done.

5

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