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At time we put the statement of a speaker without any changes. This is called Direct Speech.

But, at times we put the statement of a speaker with some changes. This is called Indirect Speech. In Direct Speech we keep the statement within inverted ( !"#, $ut inverted commas are not used in Indirect Speech. %&ample' Direct' Nagina said, I will read the book. Indirect' Nagina said that she would read the book. Notice the change in language and structure of the sentence in Indirect Speech. Now, the question arises-how these changes are made. There are certain rules for making these changes. or !our con"eniences, I will di"ide these rules into #eneral and Special rules. $ut before understanding these rules, !ou need to know certain terms related to %irect and Indirect speech. (eporting )er$s And )er$ *f The (eported Speech &ou ha"e noticed abo"e that there is a sentence outside the in"erted commas. The "erb of that sentenced is called reported speech and the "erb of that sentence is called verb of the reported speech. '(ample) Seema said to me, I will help !ou. *+eporting ,erbs*+eporting Speech+inds *f Sentences There are fi"e kinds of sentences) *I- .sserti"e, *II- Imperati"e, *IIIInterrogati"e, *I,- /perati"e and *,- '(clamator!. &ou need to keep at the back of !our mind these kinds of sentences, because !ou ha"e to change the sentence, which is within in"erted commas, from direct to indirect according to rules. I will discuss it later on. ,%-%(A. (/.%S' %i"ide these rules into three categories) 0. 1hange of personal pronoun. 2. 1hange of tense. 3. 4iscellaneous changes. 0hange of 1ersonal 1ronoun 1hange of 5ersonal 5ronoun in %ifferent 1ases) 1erso n -ominate case *$2ective case 1ossessive case

Singular irst Secon d Third 99 I Thou9

5lura l 6e &ou9 9 The!

Singular 5lur al 4e 7s Thee9

&ou 99 :e8she :im8he The Their8 8it r8 it m theirs 9 These terms are now seldom used. These terms are used while speaking to one person or more than one person. 5ersons *first8second8third- of pronoun in the in"erted commas are changed according to certain rules while changing %irect Speech into Indirect Speech. &ou remember the word S*-. Su$2ect *$2ect -o 0hange S / N 0 2 3 irst 5erson (ule 3. Second 5erson Third 5erson

Singula r 4!, mine The!9 thine9 :is8he r8 its

5lural /ur8 ours !our99

irst person *I, m!, me, we, our, us- used in the reported speech should be changed according to the sub;ect of the reporting "erb. '(ample) 0. Direct' Seema sa!s,I will read the book. Indirect' Seema sa!s that she will read the book. %&planation) first person *I- of the reported speech is changed according to the sub;ect *Seema- of the reporting "erb. < Sub;ect is in the third person, singular number and nominati"e case, hence she. 2. Direct' &ou sa!, I am in the right. Indirect) &ou sa! that !ou are in the right. (ule 4. Second person *!ou, !our, etc.- used in the reported speech should be changed according to the ob;ect of the reporting "erb. '(ample) 0. Direct' Na=ia told me, !ou should read !our book. Indirect' Na=ia told me that I should read m! book. %&planation' Second person *!ou, !our- used in the reported speech is changed according to the ob;ect *me- of the reporting "erb. < 4e is in ob;ecti"e case. < &ou is in nominate case. < Nominati"e case of me is I, hence I. < &our is in possessi"e case. 5ossessi"e case of me is m!, hence m!. Direct' Swapna sa!s to Seema, !ou ha"e done !our dut!.

Indirect' Swapna tells Seema that she has done her dut!. (ule 5' Third person used in the reported speech is not changed at all. '(ample) 0. Direct' .lia sa!s, he will read his book. Indirect) .lia sa!s that he will read book. rd %&planation' 3 person *he, she- is not changed. :ence !ou find that the! ha"e been not changed while changing %irect Speech into Indirect Speech. 2. Direct) atima sa!s, she does not like old films. Indirect' atima sa!s that she does not like old films. 3. Direct' .shraf sa!s. The! ha"e cheated us. Indirect) .shraf sa!s that the! ha"e cheated them. 06A-,% *7 T%-S% It is "er! important to know how to change the tense of the reported speech. >et us know the rules. (ule 3. If the reporting "erb is in preset or future tense, !ou need not change tense of the "erb of the reported speech. '(ample) 0. Direct' Swaira sa!s, she reads a book. Indirect' Swaira sa!s that she reads a book. %&planation' as reporting "erb *sa!s- is in the present tense, tense of the reported speech has not been changed. 2. Direct' Swaira has said. She read a book. Indirect' Swaira has said that she read a book. 3. Direct' Swaira will sa!, she wrote the book. Indirect' Swaira will sa! that she wrote the book. %&planation) reporting "erb *will- is in future tense, hence tense of the reported speech has not been changed. (ule 4. If the reporting "erb is in past tense and the "erb of the reported speech is present or future tense, "erb of the present or future tense in the reported speech is changed into corresponding past tense. 0. 5resent Indefinite *go--5ast Indefinite *went-. 2. 5resent Imperfect *is, am, are--5ast Imperfect *was, were-. 3. 5resent 5erfect *has, ha"e-- 5ast 5erfect 1ontinues *had been-. ?. 5resent 5erfect continues *has8ha"e been-- 5ast 5erfect 1ontinues *had been-. @. 1an, will, ma!- could would should might. %&ample' Direct' .rshid said. I will pla!. Indirect) .rshad said that he would pla!. %&planation' reporting "erb *said- is in past tense, hence will in the reported speech has been changed into would. 0.

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3. ?.

Direct) .rshad said, I am pla!ing. Indirect) .rshad said that he was pla!ing. Direct' .rshad said, I ha"e pla!ed. Indirect' .rshad said that he had pla!ed. Direct' .rshad, I ma! pla!. Indirect' .rshad said that he might pla!. Direct' .rshid said,AI ma! pla!.A Indirect) .rshid said that he might pla!.

(ule 5' This rule is the most important one and students generall! commit mistakes due to not understanding this rule clearl!. >et me tr! to make it simple to help !ou in making !our conception clear. If both reporting verb and reported speech are in 5ast Tense, change should be made as follows) 0. If the reporting "erb is in past tense and reported speech is in past indefinite, it *reposted speech- should be changed into past perfect. '(ample) Direct' Na"eed said, AI committed a mistake.A Indirect' Na"eed said that he had committed a mistake. 2. If the reporting "erb is in past tense and reported speech is not past imperfect, it should be changed into past perfect continuous. '(ample) Direct' Na"eed said, I was committing a mistake.A Indirect' Na"eed said that he had been committing a mistake. 3. If the reporting "erb is in past tense and reported speech is in past perfect or past perfect continuous, no change is to be made in the tense of the reported speech. '(amples) Direct' Na"eed said, I had committed a mistake.A Indirect' Na"eed that he had committed a mistake. %&ception' 0. If a uni"ersal truth or habitual fact or a pro"erb is stated in the reported speech, it *reported speech- shall not be changed e"en if the reporting "erb is in past tense. '(ample) *a- Direct' .n old man said, Bthe earth re"ol"es round the sun.A *7ni"ersal truthIndirect' .n old man said that the earth re"ol"es round the sun. *b- Direct' +ahim said to me, BI write with m! left hand.A *:abitual factIndirect' +ahim told me that he writes his left hand. *c- Direct' ather said, B. bad carpented quarrels with his tools.A *5ro"erbIndirect' ather said that the sun rises in the east. *d# Direct' The teacher said,A The sun rises in the east.A *7ni"ersal truthIndirect' The teacher said that the sun rises in the east. *e- Direct' ather said, BTruth triumphs at the end.A *5ro"erbIndirect' ather said that truth triumphs at the end. 3. If to *infiniti"e-, would, could, should, must, might, ought to are used in the reported speech, the! are not changed. '(ample)

Direct' Indirect'

:e said, Students must obe! their teachers.A :e said that students must obe! their teachers.

8IS0%..A-%*/S 06-A,%S This C That Thus C So These C Those 1ome C #o Now C Then &esterda! C 5re"ious da! :ere C There Tomorrow C Ne(t da! Toda! C That da! Ne(t week C ollowing week Tonight C That night >ast week C 5re"ious week This week C That week S1%0IA. (/.%S Now, I will discuss special rules. %ifferent rules are applicable for different sentences for changing them from direct to indirect speech. I will take up each sentence one b! one. ASS%(TI)% S%-T%-0% 0. If there is an ob;ect after reporting "erb, change sa! to int tell, sa!s to into tell, said to into told. If there is no ob;ect after the reporting "erb, do not change the "erb. +emember to is not used after tell*s- or told. 2. +emo"e comma and in"erted commas, and use that in place of the opening quote. 3. If ob;ect of the reporting "erb is found in reported speech instead of reporting "erb itself, make it ob;ect of the reporting "erb. '(ample) Direct' +ahim said, ather, I am pleased with !ouA. Indirect' +ahim told father that he was pleased with him. ?. Change pronouns and tense of the "erb of reported speech according to the rules discussed pre"iousl!. Solved e&amples' 0. Direct' +ahim said, BI hae done m! workA. Indirect' +ahim said that he had done his work. +ahim said to me, BI cannot help !ou in !our work.A +ahim told me that he could not help me in m! work. 3. Direct' The thief said, I am innocent.A Indirect' The thief said that he was innocent. +ahim said to me, I shall help !ou in !our work.A +ahim told me that he would help me in m! work. @. Direct' 4! father said, I am going to >ahore.A Indirect' 4! father said that he was going to >ahore. D. Direct' 4! father sa!s, BI will go to >ahore.A Indirect' 4! father sa!s that he will go to >ahore. I-T%((*,ATI)% S%-T%-0% 1hange the reporting "erb sa!*s- to or said to into asks or asked.

Direct' Indirect' Direct' Indirect'

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If the reported speech begins with helping "erb *is, am, are, was, were, do, does, did, has, ha"e, had, will, would, can, could, shall, should, ma!, might, must-, remo"e the in"erted commas and use if or whether to ;oin the reporting "erb and reported speech. 3. If the reported speech begins with w-famil! words, i.e. who, whose, whom, when, where, which, what, wh!, how, remo"e the in"erted commas but do not use the con;unction if or whether. ?. :elping "erb should be put after the sub;ect of the reported speech. @. +emo"e the question mark and put full stop in its place. Solved e&amples' 0. Direct' 4ohsin said to +ahim, B6ill !ou help meE Indirect) 4ohsin asked +ahim if he would help him. 2. Direct) +ahim said to ara=, B6ho teaches !ou 'nglishEA Indirect' +ahim asked ara= who taught him 'nglishE 3. Direct' Saira said to .lia, BIs coffee read! for meEA Indirect' Saira asked .lia if coffee was read! for her. ?. Direct' +ahim said to .bdul, B:a"e !ou finished !our workEA Indirect' +ahim asked .bdul if he had finished his work. I81%(ATI)% S%-T%-0% 0. 1hange reporting "erb into order, ad"ise, request, warn, forbid, prohibit according to the meaning of the reported speech. 2. +emo"e the in"erted commas and use to to ;oin the reporting "erb and reported speech. 3. In case of negati"e imperati"e replace do with not to and said to with forbade, lea"ing not. Solved e&amples' 3. Direct' ai=a said to ar=ana, %o not speak a lie. Indirect' ai=a ad"ised ar=ana not to speak a lie. 2. Direct' ather said o me, %o not go to the cinema.A Indirect' ather forbade me to go to the cinema. 3. Direct' +ani said to her friend, >at me go home earl!. Indirect' +ani requested her friend to let her go home earl!. ?. Direct' The teacher told us, %ont cr!. Indirect' The teacher forbade us to cr!. /r The teacher ordered us not to cr!. *1TATI)% S%-T%-0%' 0. 1hange the reporting "erb into curse8bless8pra!8wish according of the reported speech. 2. In the reported speech, keep the sub;ects before its "erb. 3. Sign of e(clamation should be changed into full stop. Solved e&amples 0. Direct' The beggar said to me, B4a! !ou li"e longFA. Indirect' The beggar pra!ed that I might li"e long. 2. Direct' :e told me, B4a! !ou dieFA Indirect' :e cursed that I might die.

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%90.A8AT*(: S%-T%-0%' 0. +eporting "erb should be changed in the following manner) Said C e(claimed with sorrow *.hF .lasC e(claimed with Go! *.haF :aF :urrahFC e(claimed with regret *Sorr!C e(claimed with surprise */hF 6hatF :owFC e(claimed with contempt *5oohFC applauded *$ra"oF3. In"erted commas should be replaced b! that. ?. Sign of e(clamation should be changed into full stop. @. 6hat and :ow used in the reported speech should be replaced with "er! or great. Solved e&amples' 0. Direct' Ga"aid said , what a fine place it isF Indirect' Ga"aid e(claimed with ;o! that it was a fine place. 2. Direct' Shabbir said, :urrahF 6e ha"e won the match. Indirect' Shabbir e(claimed with ;o! that the! had won the match. 3. Direct' .sif said, .lasF 6e ha"e lost the match.A Indirect' .sif e(claimed with sorrow that the! had lost the match.

In this section, We are going to see How the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech andIndirect to Direct Speech is done? We may report the words of a speaker in two ways. 1. Direct Speech We may quote the actua words of the speaker. !his method is ca ed Direct Speech. ". Indirect Speech We may report what he said without quoting his e#act words. !his method is ca edIndirect Speech or $eported Speech. Example: % Direct& ' inton said, (I am very )usy now.* % Indirect& ' inton said that he was very )usy then. % Direct & He said, ( my mother is writing etter.* % Indirect& He said that his mother was writing etter. How to change Direct to Indirect Speech? It wi )e noticed that in Direct Speech, we use inverted commas to mark off the e#act words of the speaker. In Indirect Speech we do not use the inverted commas. It wi )e further noticed that in changing the a)ove Direct Speech into Indirect speech, certain changes have )een made. !hus& i. We have used the con+unction ,that- )efore the Indirect Statement. ii. !he pronoun (I* is changed to (H.*. /!he 0ronoun is changed in 0erson1 iii. !he ver) (am* is changed to (was*. iv. !he adver) (now* is changed to (then*. $u es for changing Direct into Indirect Speech& 2. When the reporting or principa ver) is in the 0ast !ense, a the 0resent !enses in the Direct Speech are changed into 0ast !ense.

a. 2 simp e present tense )ecomes simp e past tense. Example: % Direct & He said, (I am unwe .* % Indirect& He said that he was unwe . ). 2 present continuous tense )ecomes a past continuous. Example: % Direct & He said, ( my mother is writing etter.* % Indirect& He said that his mother was writing etter. c. 2 present perfect )ecomes a past perfect& 2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? Example: % Direct& He said, (I have passed the e#amination.* % Indirect& he said that he had passed the e#amination. d. 2s a ru e the simp e past tense in the Direct Speech )ecomes the past perfect tense inIndirect Speech. Example: % Direct& He said, (His horse died in the night.* % Indirect& he said that his horse had died in the night. 34!.& !he sha of the future is changed into shou d. !he wi of the future is changed into wou d. !he can and may of the future are changed into cou d and might respective y. 2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech?

5. !he tenses wi not change if the statement is sti re evant or if it is a universa truth. We can often choose whether to keep !he origina tenses or change them. Examples: % Direct& (I know her address*, said 6ohn. % Indirect& 6ohn said that he knows7knew her address. In this Indirect Speech, )oth the past tense and the present tense make the sentence a correct one.

% Direct& !he teacher said, (!he earth goes round the sun.* % Indirect& !he teacher said that the earth goes7went round the sun. % Direct& She said, (8erman is easy to earn.* % Indirect& She said that 8erman was7is easy to earn. !he past tense is often used when it is uncertain if the statement is true or when we arereporting o)+ective y. 2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? '. If the reporting ver) is in present tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change. 9or e#amp e, we may rewrite the a)ove e#amp es, putting the reporting ver) in the present tense. Examples: % Direct & He says, (I am unwe .* % Indirect& He says that he is unwe . % Direct & He says, ( my mother is writing etter.* % Indirect& He says that his mother is writing etter. % Direct& He says, (I have passed the e#amination.* % Indirect& he says that he has passed the e#amination. % Direct& He says, (His horse died in the night.* % Indirect& he says that his horse died in the night. 2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? D. !he pronouns of the Direct Speech are changed where necessary, so that their re ations with the reporter and his hearer, $ather than with the origina speaker are indicated. Examples: % Direct& He said to me, (I do not )e ieve you.* % Indirect& He said that he did not )e ieve me. % Direct& She said to him, (I do not )e ieve you.* % Indirect& She said to him that she did not )e ieve him. % Direct& I said to him, (I did not )e ieve you.* % Indirect& I said to him that I did not )e ieve him. % Direct& I said to you, (I do not )e ieve you.* % Indirect& I said to you that I do not )e ieve you. 2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? .. Words e#pressing nearness in time or p aces are genera y changed into words

e#pressing distance. Examples: % Direct& He said, (I am g ad to )e here this evening.* % Indirect& he said that he was g ad to )e there that evening. % Direct& He said, (I was here yesterday.* % Indirect& He said that he was there the day )efore. 2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? 3ow, et us see the words which get changed when the Direct Speech is changed intoIndirect Speech. % % % % % % % % % % 3ow )ecomes then Here )ecomes there 2go )ecomes )efore !hus )ecomes so !oday )ecomes that day !omorrow )ecomes the ne#t day :esterday )ecomes the day )efore ;ast night )ecomes the night )efore !his )ecomes that !hese )ecomes those

2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? 9. How the questions used in the Direct Speech are changed into Indirect Speech? In reporting questions, the indirect Speech is introduced )y such ver)s as asked, inquired etc< Examples: % Direct& He said to me, (What are you doing?* % Indirect& He asked me what I was doing. % Direct& 2 stranger asked me, (Where do you ive?* % Indirect& 2 stranger enquired where I ived. % Direct& !he 0o icemen said to us, (Where are you going?* % Indirect& !he 0o icemen asked us where we were going. % Direct& He said, (Wi you isten to such a man?* % Indirect& He asked them whether they wou d isten to such a man. % Indirect& Wou d they, he asked, isten to such a man. % Direct& His angry mother +eered, (Do you suppose you know )etter than your father?* % Indirect& His angry mother +eered and asked whether he supposed that he knew )etter than his father.

2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech?

8. How the 'ommands and the $equests in the Direct Speeches are changed when the Direct Speeches are changed into indirect Speeches? In reporting commands and requests, the indirect speech is introduced )y some ver) e#pressing commands and requests, and the Imperative =ood is changed into Infinitive =ood. Examples: % Direct& $a+a said to 6ohn, (8o away.* % Indirect& $a+a ordered 6ohn to go away. % Direct& He said to =ary, (0 ease wait here ti I return.* % Indirect& he requested =ary to wait there ti he returned. 2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? % Direct& ('a the first witness*, said the 6udge. % Indirect& !he 6udge commanded them to ca the first witness. % Direct& He shouted, (;et me go.* % Indirect& he shouted to them to et him go. % Direct& He said, (5e quite and isten to my words*. % Indirect& He urged them to )e quite and isten to his words. 2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech? H. How the .#c amation and the Wishes in the Direct Speeches are changed when the Direct Speeches are changed into Indirect Speeches? In reporting e#c amation and wishes, the Indirect Speech is introduced )y some ver) e#pressing .#c amation and Wishes. Examples: % Direct& He said, (2 as> I am undone*. % Indirect& He e#c aimed sad y that he was undone. % Direct& 2 ice said, (How c ever I am?* % Indirect& 2 ice e#c aimed that he was very c ever. % Direct& He said, (5ravo> :ou have done we .* % Indirect& he app auded him, saying that he had done we . % Direct& (So he p me, Heaven>* he cried, (I wi never stea again*. % Indirect& He ca ed upon Heaven to witness his reso ve never to reso ve.

2re you c ear a)out the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech?